Abstract

Clinical monitoring of shock mainly depends on blood-oxygen-indices obtained from invasive blood sample tests. The central internal jugular central vein oxygenation level (ScvO2) has been considered as a gold standard indicator for shock prediction. We developed a noninvasive spatially-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy (SR-NIRS) to measure tissue blood oxygen saturation (StO2) surrounding the region of taking blood sample for the ScvO2 test in 25 patients with shock. StO2 values were found to be highly correlated (r = 0.84, p < 0.001) with ScvO2 levels and the concordance coefficient of 0.80 is high. The results suggest the potential of noninvasive SR-NIRS for bedside shock monitoring.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M. C. Houston, “Pathophysiology of shock,” Crit. Care Nurs. Clin. North Am. 2(2), 143–149 (1990).
    [PubMed]
  2. A. B. Peitzman, T. R. Billiar, B. G. Harbrecht, E. Kelly, A. O. Udekwu, and R. L. Simmons, “Hemorrhagic shock,” Curr. Probl. Surg. 32(11), 925–1002 (1995).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. R. A. Pedowitz and S. R. Shackford, “Non-cavitary hemorrhage producing shock in trauma patients: incidence and severity,” J. Trauma 29(2), 219–222 (1989).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. D. C. Elliott, “An evaluation of the end points of resuscitation,” J. Am. Coll. Surg. 187(5), 536–547 (1998).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. D. De Backer, G. Ospina-Tascon, D. Salgado, R. Favory, J. Creteur, and J. L. Vincent, “Monitoring the microcirculation in the critically ill patient: current methods and future approaches,” Intensive Care Med. 36(11), 1813–1825 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. R. M. Durham, K. Neunaber, J. E. Mazuski, M. J. Shapiro, and A. E. Baue, “The Use of Oxygen Consumption and Delivery as Endpoints for Resuscitation in Critically III Patients,” J. Trauma 41(1), 32–40 (1996).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. S. M. Cohn, A. B. Nathens, F. A. Moore, P. Rhee, J. C. Puyana, E. E. Moore, G. J. Beilman, and StO2 in Trauma Patients Trial Investigators, “Tissue oxygen saturation predicts the development of organ dysfunction during traumatic shock resuscitation,” J. Trauma 62(1), 44–55 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. R. P. Dellinger, M. M. Levy, A. Rhodes, D. Annane, H. Gerlach, S. M. Opal, J. E. Sevransky, C. L. Sprung, I. S. Douglas, R. Jaeschke, T. M. Osborn, M. E. Nunnally, S. R. Townsend, K. Reinhart, R. M. Kleinpell, D. C. Angus, C. S. Deutschman, F. R. Machado, G. D. Rubenfeld, S. Webb, R. J. Beale, J. L. Vincent, R. Moreno, and Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines Committee including The Pediatric Subgroup, “Surviving Sepsis Campaign: international guidelines for management of severe sepsis and septic shock, 2012,” Intensive Care Med. 39(2), 165–228 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. B. A. Crookes, S. M. Cohan, J. Amotegui, R. Manning, P. Li, M. S. Proctor, A. Hallal, R. Blackbourne, D. Benjamin, F. Soffer, C. I. Habib, R. Schulman, Duncan, and K. G. Proctor, “Can near-infrared spectroscopy identify the severity of shock in trauma patients?” J. Trauma Acute Care Surg. 58(4), 806–816 (2005).
  10. F. Torella, R. D. Cowley, M. S. Thorniley, and C. N. McCollum, “Regional tissue oxygenation during hemorrhage: can near infrared spectroscopy be used to monitor blood loss?” Shock 18(5), 440–444 (2002).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. B. A. McKinley, R. G. Marvin, C. S. Cocanour, and F. A. Moore, “Tissue hemoglobin O2 saturation during resuscitation of traumatic shock monitored using near infrared spectrometry,” J. Trauma 48(4), 637–642 (2000).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. M. M. Knudson, K. M. Bermudez, C. A. Doyle, R. C. Mackersie, H. W. Hopf, and D. Morabito, “Use of tissue oxygen tension measurements during resuscitation from hemorrhagic shock,” J. Trauma 42(4), 608–616 (1997).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. G. J. Beilman, K. E. Groehler, V. Lazaron, and J. P. Ortner, “Near-infrared spectroscopy measurement of regional tissue oxyhemoglobin saturation during hemorrhagic shock,” Shock 12(3), 196–200 (1999).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. M. Lipcsey, N. C. Z. Woinarski, and R. Bellomo, “Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) of the thenar eminence in anesthesia and intensive care,” Ann. Intensive Care 2(1), 11 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. K. Waxman, C. Annas, K. Daughters, G. T. Tominaga, and G. Scannell, “A method to determine the adequacy of resuscitation using tissue oxygen monitoring,” J. Trauma 36(6), 852–858 (1994).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. T. Li, Y. Zhao, K. Li, Z. Ruan, M. Duan, and Y. Sun, “Study on shock monitoring using a space-resolved NIRS,” PIBM 2014, Proc. SPIE. in press.
  17. S. Hyttel-Sorensen, L. C. Sorensen, J. Riera, and G. Greisen, “Tissue oximetry: a comparison of mean values of regional tissue saturation, reproducibility and dynamic range of four NIRS-instruments on the human forearm,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(11), 3047–3057 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. C. Jenny, M. Biallas, I. Trajkovic, J. C. Fauchère, H. U. Bucher, and M. Wolf, “Reproducibility of cerebral tissue oxygen saturation measurements by near-infrared spectroscopy in newborn infants,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(9), 097004 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. T. Li, H. Gong, and Q. Luo, “MCVM: Monte Carlo modeling of photon migration in voxelized media,” J. Innov. Opt. Health Sci. 3(2), 91–102 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  20. T. Li, H. Gong, and Q. Luo, “Visualization of light propagation in visible Chinese human head for functional near-infrared spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(4), 045001 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. D. Boas, J. Culver, J. Stott, and A. Dunn, “Three dimensional Monte Carlo code for photon migration through complex heterogeneous media including the adult human head,” Opt. Express 10(3), 159–170 (2002).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. S. Fantini, D. Hueber, M. A. Franceschini, E. Gratton, W. Rosenfeld, P. G. Stubblefield, D. Maulik, and M. R. Stankovic, “Non-invasive optical monitoring of the newborn piglet brain using continuous-wave and frequency-domain spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 44(6), 1543–1563 (1999).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. H. Liu, D. A. Boas, Y. Zhang, A. G. Yodh, and B. Chance, “Determination of optical properties and blood oxygenation in tissue using continuous NIR light,” Phys. Med. Biol. 40(11), 1983–1993 (1995).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. L. I. Lin, “A concordance correlation coefficient to evaluate reproducibility,” Biometrics 45(1), 255–268 (1989).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (1)

R. P. Dellinger, M. M. Levy, A. Rhodes, D. Annane, H. Gerlach, S. M. Opal, J. E. Sevransky, C. L. Sprung, I. S. Douglas, R. Jaeschke, T. M. Osborn, M. E. Nunnally, S. R. Townsend, K. Reinhart, R. M. Kleinpell, D. C. Angus, C. S. Deutschman, F. R. Machado, G. D. Rubenfeld, S. Webb, R. J. Beale, J. L. Vincent, R. Moreno, and Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines Committee including The Pediatric Subgroup, “Surviving Sepsis Campaign: international guidelines for management of severe sepsis and septic shock, 2012,” Intensive Care Med. 39(2), 165–228 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

M. Lipcsey, N. C. Z. Woinarski, and R. Bellomo, “Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) of the thenar eminence in anesthesia and intensive care,” Ann. Intensive Care 2(1), 11 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

S. Hyttel-Sorensen, L. C. Sorensen, J. Riera, and G. Greisen, “Tissue oximetry: a comparison of mean values of regional tissue saturation, reproducibility and dynamic range of four NIRS-instruments on the human forearm,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(11), 3047–3057 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Jenny, M. Biallas, I. Trajkovic, J. C. Fauchère, H. U. Bucher, and M. Wolf, “Reproducibility of cerebral tissue oxygen saturation measurements by near-infrared spectroscopy in newborn infants,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(9), 097004 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Li, H. Gong, and Q. Luo, “Visualization of light propagation in visible Chinese human head for functional near-infrared spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(4), 045001 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

T. Li, H. Gong, and Q. Luo, “MCVM: Monte Carlo modeling of photon migration in voxelized media,” J. Innov. Opt. Health Sci. 3(2), 91–102 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. De Backer, G. Ospina-Tascon, D. Salgado, R. Favory, J. Creteur, and J. L. Vincent, “Monitoring the microcirculation in the critically ill patient: current methods and future approaches,” Intensive Care Med. 36(11), 1813–1825 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

S. M. Cohn, A. B. Nathens, F. A. Moore, P. Rhee, J. C. Puyana, E. E. Moore, G. J. Beilman, and StO2 in Trauma Patients Trial Investigators, “Tissue oxygen saturation predicts the development of organ dysfunction during traumatic shock resuscitation,” J. Trauma 62(1), 44–55 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

B. A. Crookes, S. M. Cohan, J. Amotegui, R. Manning, P. Li, M. S. Proctor, A. Hallal, R. Blackbourne, D. Benjamin, F. Soffer, C. I. Habib, R. Schulman, Duncan, and K. G. Proctor, “Can near-infrared spectroscopy identify the severity of shock in trauma patients?” J. Trauma Acute Care Surg. 58(4), 806–816 (2005).

2002 (2)

F. Torella, R. D. Cowley, M. S. Thorniley, and C. N. McCollum, “Regional tissue oxygenation during hemorrhage: can near infrared spectroscopy be used to monitor blood loss?” Shock 18(5), 440–444 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Boas, J. Culver, J. Stott, and A. Dunn, “Three dimensional Monte Carlo code for photon migration through complex heterogeneous media including the adult human head,” Opt. Express 10(3), 159–170 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

B. A. McKinley, R. G. Marvin, C. S. Cocanour, and F. A. Moore, “Tissue hemoglobin O2 saturation during resuscitation of traumatic shock monitored using near infrared spectrometry,” J. Trauma 48(4), 637–642 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (2)

G. J. Beilman, K. E. Groehler, V. Lazaron, and J. P. Ortner, “Near-infrared spectroscopy measurement of regional tissue oxyhemoglobin saturation during hemorrhagic shock,” Shock 12(3), 196–200 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Fantini, D. Hueber, M. A. Franceschini, E. Gratton, W. Rosenfeld, P. G. Stubblefield, D. Maulik, and M. R. Stankovic, “Non-invasive optical monitoring of the newborn piglet brain using continuous-wave and frequency-domain spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 44(6), 1543–1563 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

D. C. Elliott, “An evaluation of the end points of resuscitation,” J. Am. Coll. Surg. 187(5), 536–547 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

M. M. Knudson, K. M. Bermudez, C. A. Doyle, R. C. Mackersie, H. W. Hopf, and D. Morabito, “Use of tissue oxygen tension measurements during resuscitation from hemorrhagic shock,” J. Trauma 42(4), 608–616 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

R. M. Durham, K. Neunaber, J. E. Mazuski, M. J. Shapiro, and A. E. Baue, “The Use of Oxygen Consumption and Delivery as Endpoints for Resuscitation in Critically III Patients,” J. Trauma 41(1), 32–40 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1995 (2)

A. B. Peitzman, T. R. Billiar, B. G. Harbrecht, E. Kelly, A. O. Udekwu, and R. L. Simmons, “Hemorrhagic shock,” Curr. Probl. Surg. 32(11), 925–1002 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Liu, D. A. Boas, Y. Zhang, A. G. Yodh, and B. Chance, “Determination of optical properties and blood oxygenation in tissue using continuous NIR light,” Phys. Med. Biol. 40(11), 1983–1993 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

K. Waxman, C. Annas, K. Daughters, G. T. Tominaga, and G. Scannell, “A method to determine the adequacy of resuscitation using tissue oxygen monitoring,” J. Trauma 36(6), 852–858 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

M. C. Houston, “Pathophysiology of shock,” Crit. Care Nurs. Clin. North Am. 2(2), 143–149 (1990).
[PubMed]

1989 (2)

R. A. Pedowitz and S. R. Shackford, “Non-cavitary hemorrhage producing shock in trauma patients: incidence and severity,” J. Trauma 29(2), 219–222 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. I. Lin, “A concordance correlation coefficient to evaluate reproducibility,” Biometrics 45(1), 255–268 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Amotegui, J.

B. A. Crookes, S. M. Cohan, J. Amotegui, R. Manning, P. Li, M. S. Proctor, A. Hallal, R. Blackbourne, D. Benjamin, F. Soffer, C. I. Habib, R. Schulman, Duncan, and K. G. Proctor, “Can near-infrared spectroscopy identify the severity of shock in trauma patients?” J. Trauma Acute Care Surg. 58(4), 806–816 (2005).

Angus, D. C.

R. P. Dellinger, M. M. Levy, A. Rhodes, D. Annane, H. Gerlach, S. M. Opal, J. E. Sevransky, C. L. Sprung, I. S. Douglas, R. Jaeschke, T. M. Osborn, M. E. Nunnally, S. R. Townsend, K. Reinhart, R. M. Kleinpell, D. C. Angus, C. S. Deutschman, F. R. Machado, G. D. Rubenfeld, S. Webb, R. J. Beale, J. L. Vincent, R. Moreno, and Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines Committee including The Pediatric Subgroup, “Surviving Sepsis Campaign: international guidelines for management of severe sepsis and septic shock, 2012,” Intensive Care Med. 39(2), 165–228 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Annane, D.

R. P. Dellinger, M. M. Levy, A. Rhodes, D. Annane, H. Gerlach, S. M. Opal, J. E. Sevransky, C. L. Sprung, I. S. Douglas, R. Jaeschke, T. M. Osborn, M. E. Nunnally, S. R. Townsend, K. Reinhart, R. M. Kleinpell, D. C. Angus, C. S. Deutschman, F. R. Machado, G. D. Rubenfeld, S. Webb, R. J. Beale, J. L. Vincent, R. Moreno, and Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines Committee including The Pediatric Subgroup, “Surviving Sepsis Campaign: international guidelines for management of severe sepsis and septic shock, 2012,” Intensive Care Med. 39(2), 165–228 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Annas, C.

K. Waxman, C. Annas, K. Daughters, G. T. Tominaga, and G. Scannell, “A method to determine the adequacy of resuscitation using tissue oxygen monitoring,” J. Trauma 36(6), 852–858 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baue, A. E.

R. M. Durham, K. Neunaber, J. E. Mazuski, M. J. Shapiro, and A. E. Baue, “The Use of Oxygen Consumption and Delivery as Endpoints for Resuscitation in Critically III Patients,” J. Trauma 41(1), 32–40 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beale, R. J.

R. P. Dellinger, M. M. Levy, A. Rhodes, D. Annane, H. Gerlach, S. M. Opal, J. E. Sevransky, C. L. Sprung, I. S. Douglas, R. Jaeschke, T. M. Osborn, M. E. Nunnally, S. R. Townsend, K. Reinhart, R. M. Kleinpell, D. C. Angus, C. S. Deutschman, F. R. Machado, G. D. Rubenfeld, S. Webb, R. J. Beale, J. L. Vincent, R. Moreno, and Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines Committee including The Pediatric Subgroup, “Surviving Sepsis Campaign: international guidelines for management of severe sepsis and septic shock, 2012,” Intensive Care Med. 39(2), 165–228 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beilman, G. J.

S. M. Cohn, A. B. Nathens, F. A. Moore, P. Rhee, J. C. Puyana, E. E. Moore, G. J. Beilman, and StO2 in Trauma Patients Trial Investigators, “Tissue oxygen saturation predicts the development of organ dysfunction during traumatic shock resuscitation,” J. Trauma 62(1), 44–55 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. J. Beilman, K. E. Groehler, V. Lazaron, and J. P. Ortner, “Near-infrared spectroscopy measurement of regional tissue oxyhemoglobin saturation during hemorrhagic shock,” Shock 12(3), 196–200 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bellomo, R.

M. Lipcsey, N. C. Z. Woinarski, and R. Bellomo, “Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) of the thenar eminence in anesthesia and intensive care,” Ann. Intensive Care 2(1), 11 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Benjamin, D.

B. A. Crookes, S. M. Cohan, J. Amotegui, R. Manning, P. Li, M. S. Proctor, A. Hallal, R. Blackbourne, D. Benjamin, F. Soffer, C. I. Habib, R. Schulman, Duncan, and K. G. Proctor, “Can near-infrared spectroscopy identify the severity of shock in trauma patients?” J. Trauma Acute Care Surg. 58(4), 806–816 (2005).

Bermudez, K. M.

M. M. Knudson, K. M. Bermudez, C. A. Doyle, R. C. Mackersie, H. W. Hopf, and D. Morabito, “Use of tissue oxygen tension measurements during resuscitation from hemorrhagic shock,” J. Trauma 42(4), 608–616 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biallas, M.

C. Jenny, M. Biallas, I. Trajkovic, J. C. Fauchère, H. U. Bucher, and M. Wolf, “Reproducibility of cerebral tissue oxygen saturation measurements by near-infrared spectroscopy in newborn infants,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(9), 097004 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Billiar, T. R.

A. B. Peitzman, T. R. Billiar, B. G. Harbrecht, E. Kelly, A. O. Udekwu, and R. L. Simmons, “Hemorrhagic shock,” Curr. Probl. Surg. 32(11), 925–1002 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Blackbourne, R.

B. A. Crookes, S. M. Cohan, J. Amotegui, R. Manning, P. Li, M. S. Proctor, A. Hallal, R. Blackbourne, D. Benjamin, F. Soffer, C. I. Habib, R. Schulman, Duncan, and K. G. Proctor, “Can near-infrared spectroscopy identify the severity of shock in trauma patients?” J. Trauma Acute Care Surg. 58(4), 806–816 (2005).

Boas, D.

Boas, D. A.

H. Liu, D. A. Boas, Y. Zhang, A. G. Yodh, and B. Chance, “Determination of optical properties and blood oxygenation in tissue using continuous NIR light,” Phys. Med. Biol. 40(11), 1983–1993 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bucher, H. U.

C. Jenny, M. Biallas, I. Trajkovic, J. C. Fauchère, H. U. Bucher, and M. Wolf, “Reproducibility of cerebral tissue oxygen saturation measurements by near-infrared spectroscopy in newborn infants,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(9), 097004 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chance, B.

H. Liu, D. A. Boas, Y. Zhang, A. G. Yodh, and B. Chance, “Determination of optical properties and blood oxygenation in tissue using continuous NIR light,” Phys. Med. Biol. 40(11), 1983–1993 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cocanour, C. S.

B. A. McKinley, R. G. Marvin, C. S. Cocanour, and F. A. Moore, “Tissue hemoglobin O2 saturation during resuscitation of traumatic shock monitored using near infrared spectrometry,” J. Trauma 48(4), 637–642 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cohan, S. M.

B. A. Crookes, S. M. Cohan, J. Amotegui, R. Manning, P. Li, M. S. Proctor, A. Hallal, R. Blackbourne, D. Benjamin, F. Soffer, C. I. Habib, R. Schulman, Duncan, and K. G. Proctor, “Can near-infrared spectroscopy identify the severity of shock in trauma patients?” J. Trauma Acute Care Surg. 58(4), 806–816 (2005).

Cohn, S. M.

S. M. Cohn, A. B. Nathens, F. A. Moore, P. Rhee, J. C. Puyana, E. E. Moore, G. J. Beilman, and StO2 in Trauma Patients Trial Investigators, “Tissue oxygen saturation predicts the development of organ dysfunction during traumatic shock resuscitation,” J. Trauma 62(1), 44–55 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cowley, R. D.

F. Torella, R. D. Cowley, M. S. Thorniley, and C. N. McCollum, “Regional tissue oxygenation during hemorrhage: can near infrared spectroscopy be used to monitor blood loss?” Shock 18(5), 440–444 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Creteur, J.

D. De Backer, G. Ospina-Tascon, D. Salgado, R. Favory, J. Creteur, and J. L. Vincent, “Monitoring the microcirculation in the critically ill patient: current methods and future approaches,” Intensive Care Med. 36(11), 1813–1825 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Crookes, B. A.

B. A. Crookes, S. M. Cohan, J. Amotegui, R. Manning, P. Li, M. S. Proctor, A. Hallal, R. Blackbourne, D. Benjamin, F. Soffer, C. I. Habib, R. Schulman, Duncan, and K. G. Proctor, “Can near-infrared spectroscopy identify the severity of shock in trauma patients?” J. Trauma Acute Care Surg. 58(4), 806–816 (2005).

Culver, J.

Daughters, K.

K. Waxman, C. Annas, K. Daughters, G. T. Tominaga, and G. Scannell, “A method to determine the adequacy of resuscitation using tissue oxygen monitoring,” J. Trauma 36(6), 852–858 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

De Backer, D.

D. De Backer, G. Ospina-Tascon, D. Salgado, R. Favory, J. Creteur, and J. L. Vincent, “Monitoring the microcirculation in the critically ill patient: current methods and future approaches,” Intensive Care Med. 36(11), 1813–1825 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dellinger, R. P.

R. P. Dellinger, M. M. Levy, A. Rhodes, D. Annane, H. Gerlach, S. M. Opal, J. E. Sevransky, C. L. Sprung, I. S. Douglas, R. Jaeschke, T. M. Osborn, M. E. Nunnally, S. R. Townsend, K. Reinhart, R. M. Kleinpell, D. C. Angus, C. S. Deutschman, F. R. Machado, G. D. Rubenfeld, S. Webb, R. J. Beale, J. L. Vincent, R. Moreno, and Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines Committee including The Pediatric Subgroup, “Surviving Sepsis Campaign: international guidelines for management of severe sepsis and septic shock, 2012,” Intensive Care Med. 39(2), 165–228 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Deutschman, C. S.

R. P. Dellinger, M. M. Levy, A. Rhodes, D. Annane, H. Gerlach, S. M. Opal, J. E. Sevransky, C. L. Sprung, I. S. Douglas, R. Jaeschke, T. M. Osborn, M. E. Nunnally, S. R. Townsend, K. Reinhart, R. M. Kleinpell, D. C. Angus, C. S. Deutschman, F. R. Machado, G. D. Rubenfeld, S. Webb, R. J. Beale, J. L. Vincent, R. Moreno, and Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines Committee including The Pediatric Subgroup, “Surviving Sepsis Campaign: international guidelines for management of severe sepsis and septic shock, 2012,” Intensive Care Med. 39(2), 165–228 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Douglas, I. S.

R. P. Dellinger, M. M. Levy, A. Rhodes, D. Annane, H. Gerlach, S. M. Opal, J. E. Sevransky, C. L. Sprung, I. S. Douglas, R. Jaeschke, T. M. Osborn, M. E. Nunnally, S. R. Townsend, K. Reinhart, R. M. Kleinpell, D. C. Angus, C. S. Deutschman, F. R. Machado, G. D. Rubenfeld, S. Webb, R. J. Beale, J. L. Vincent, R. Moreno, and Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines Committee including The Pediatric Subgroup, “Surviving Sepsis Campaign: international guidelines for management of severe sepsis and septic shock, 2012,” Intensive Care Med. 39(2), 165–228 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Doyle, C. A.

M. M. Knudson, K. M. Bermudez, C. A. Doyle, R. C. Mackersie, H. W. Hopf, and D. Morabito, “Use of tissue oxygen tension measurements during resuscitation from hemorrhagic shock,” J. Trauma 42(4), 608–616 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Duan, M.

T. Li, Y. Zhao, K. Li, Z. Ruan, M. Duan, and Y. Sun, “Study on shock monitoring using a space-resolved NIRS,” PIBM 2014, Proc. SPIE. in press.

Duncan,

B. A. Crookes, S. M. Cohan, J. Amotegui, R. Manning, P. Li, M. S. Proctor, A. Hallal, R. Blackbourne, D. Benjamin, F. Soffer, C. I. Habib, R. Schulman, Duncan, and K. G. Proctor, “Can near-infrared spectroscopy identify the severity of shock in trauma patients?” J. Trauma Acute Care Surg. 58(4), 806–816 (2005).

Dunn, A.

Durham, R. M.

R. M. Durham, K. Neunaber, J. E. Mazuski, M. J. Shapiro, and A. E. Baue, “The Use of Oxygen Consumption and Delivery as Endpoints for Resuscitation in Critically III Patients,” J. Trauma 41(1), 32–40 (1996).
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S. Fantini, D. Hueber, M. A. Franceschini, E. Gratton, W. Rosenfeld, P. G. Stubblefield, D. Maulik, and M. R. Stankovic, “Non-invasive optical monitoring of the newborn piglet brain using continuous-wave and frequency-domain spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 44(6), 1543–1563 (1999).
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Fauchère, J. C.

C. Jenny, M. Biallas, I. Trajkovic, J. C. Fauchère, H. U. Bucher, and M. Wolf, “Reproducibility of cerebral tissue oxygen saturation measurements by near-infrared spectroscopy in newborn infants,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(9), 097004 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Favory, R.

D. De Backer, G. Ospina-Tascon, D. Salgado, R. Favory, J. Creteur, and J. L. Vincent, “Monitoring the microcirculation in the critically ill patient: current methods and future approaches,” Intensive Care Med. 36(11), 1813–1825 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Franceschini, M. A.

S. Fantini, D. Hueber, M. A. Franceschini, E. Gratton, W. Rosenfeld, P. G. Stubblefield, D. Maulik, and M. R. Stankovic, “Non-invasive optical monitoring of the newborn piglet brain using continuous-wave and frequency-domain spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 44(6), 1543–1563 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gerlach, H.

R. P. Dellinger, M. M. Levy, A. Rhodes, D. Annane, H. Gerlach, S. M. Opal, J. E. Sevransky, C. L. Sprung, I. S. Douglas, R. Jaeschke, T. M. Osborn, M. E. Nunnally, S. R. Townsend, K. Reinhart, R. M. Kleinpell, D. C. Angus, C. S. Deutschman, F. R. Machado, G. D. Rubenfeld, S. Webb, R. J. Beale, J. L. Vincent, R. Moreno, and Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines Committee including The Pediatric Subgroup, “Surviving Sepsis Campaign: international guidelines for management of severe sepsis and septic shock, 2012,” Intensive Care Med. 39(2), 165–228 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gong, H.

T. Li, H. Gong, and Q. Luo, “Visualization of light propagation in visible Chinese human head for functional near-infrared spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(4), 045001 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Li, H. Gong, and Q. Luo, “MCVM: Monte Carlo modeling of photon migration in voxelized media,” J. Innov. Opt. Health Sci. 3(2), 91–102 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gratton, E.

S. Fantini, D. Hueber, M. A. Franceschini, E. Gratton, W. Rosenfeld, P. G. Stubblefield, D. Maulik, and M. R. Stankovic, “Non-invasive optical monitoring of the newborn piglet brain using continuous-wave and frequency-domain spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 44(6), 1543–1563 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Greisen, G.

Groehler, K. E.

G. J. Beilman, K. E. Groehler, V. Lazaron, and J. P. Ortner, “Near-infrared spectroscopy measurement of regional tissue oxyhemoglobin saturation during hemorrhagic shock,” Shock 12(3), 196–200 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Habib, C. I.

B. A. Crookes, S. M. Cohan, J. Amotegui, R. Manning, P. Li, M. S. Proctor, A. Hallal, R. Blackbourne, D. Benjamin, F. Soffer, C. I. Habib, R. Schulman, Duncan, and K. G. Proctor, “Can near-infrared spectroscopy identify the severity of shock in trauma patients?” J. Trauma Acute Care Surg. 58(4), 806–816 (2005).

Hallal, A.

B. A. Crookes, S. M. Cohan, J. Amotegui, R. Manning, P. Li, M. S. Proctor, A. Hallal, R. Blackbourne, D. Benjamin, F. Soffer, C. I. Habib, R. Schulman, Duncan, and K. G. Proctor, “Can near-infrared spectroscopy identify the severity of shock in trauma patients?” J. Trauma Acute Care Surg. 58(4), 806–816 (2005).

Harbrecht, B. G.

A. B. Peitzman, T. R. Billiar, B. G. Harbrecht, E. Kelly, A. O. Udekwu, and R. L. Simmons, “Hemorrhagic shock,” Curr. Probl. Surg. 32(11), 925–1002 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hopf, H. W.

M. M. Knudson, K. M. Bermudez, C. A. Doyle, R. C. Mackersie, H. W. Hopf, and D. Morabito, “Use of tissue oxygen tension measurements during resuscitation from hemorrhagic shock,” J. Trauma 42(4), 608–616 (1997).
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M. C. Houston, “Pathophysiology of shock,” Crit. Care Nurs. Clin. North Am. 2(2), 143–149 (1990).
[PubMed]

Hueber, D.

S. Fantini, D. Hueber, M. A. Franceschini, E. Gratton, W. Rosenfeld, P. G. Stubblefield, D. Maulik, and M. R. Stankovic, “Non-invasive optical monitoring of the newborn piglet brain using continuous-wave and frequency-domain spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 44(6), 1543–1563 (1999).
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Hyttel-Sorensen, S.

Jaeschke, R.

R. P. Dellinger, M. M. Levy, A. Rhodes, D. Annane, H. Gerlach, S. M. Opal, J. E. Sevransky, C. L. Sprung, I. S. Douglas, R. Jaeschke, T. M. Osborn, M. E. Nunnally, S. R. Townsend, K. Reinhart, R. M. Kleinpell, D. C. Angus, C. S. Deutschman, F. R. Machado, G. D. Rubenfeld, S. Webb, R. J. Beale, J. L. Vincent, R. Moreno, and Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines Committee including The Pediatric Subgroup, “Surviving Sepsis Campaign: international guidelines for management of severe sepsis and septic shock, 2012,” Intensive Care Med. 39(2), 165–228 (2013).
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Jenny, C.

C. Jenny, M. Biallas, I. Trajkovic, J. C. Fauchère, H. U. Bucher, and M. Wolf, “Reproducibility of cerebral tissue oxygen saturation measurements by near-infrared spectroscopy in newborn infants,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(9), 097004 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kelly, E.

A. B. Peitzman, T. R. Billiar, B. G. Harbrecht, E. Kelly, A. O. Udekwu, and R. L. Simmons, “Hemorrhagic shock,” Curr. Probl. Surg. 32(11), 925–1002 (1995).
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Kleinpell, R. M.

R. P. Dellinger, M. M. Levy, A. Rhodes, D. Annane, H. Gerlach, S. M. Opal, J. E. Sevransky, C. L. Sprung, I. S. Douglas, R. Jaeschke, T. M. Osborn, M. E. Nunnally, S. R. Townsend, K. Reinhart, R. M. Kleinpell, D. C. Angus, C. S. Deutschman, F. R. Machado, G. D. Rubenfeld, S. Webb, R. J. Beale, J. L. Vincent, R. Moreno, and Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines Committee including The Pediatric Subgroup, “Surviving Sepsis Campaign: international guidelines for management of severe sepsis and septic shock, 2012,” Intensive Care Med. 39(2), 165–228 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Knudson, M. M.

M. M. Knudson, K. M. Bermudez, C. A. Doyle, R. C. Mackersie, H. W. Hopf, and D. Morabito, “Use of tissue oxygen tension measurements during resuscitation from hemorrhagic shock,” J. Trauma 42(4), 608–616 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lazaron, V.

G. J. Beilman, K. E. Groehler, V. Lazaron, and J. P. Ortner, “Near-infrared spectroscopy measurement of regional tissue oxyhemoglobin saturation during hemorrhagic shock,” Shock 12(3), 196–200 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Levy, M. M.

R. P. Dellinger, M. M. Levy, A. Rhodes, D. Annane, H. Gerlach, S. M. Opal, J. E. Sevransky, C. L. Sprung, I. S. Douglas, R. Jaeschke, T. M. Osborn, M. E. Nunnally, S. R. Townsend, K. Reinhart, R. M. Kleinpell, D. C. Angus, C. S. Deutschman, F. R. Machado, G. D. Rubenfeld, S. Webb, R. J. Beale, J. L. Vincent, R. Moreno, and Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines Committee including The Pediatric Subgroup, “Surviving Sepsis Campaign: international guidelines for management of severe sepsis and septic shock, 2012,” Intensive Care Med. 39(2), 165–228 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, K.

T. Li, Y. Zhao, K. Li, Z. Ruan, M. Duan, and Y. Sun, “Study on shock monitoring using a space-resolved NIRS,” PIBM 2014, Proc. SPIE. in press.

Li, P.

B. A. Crookes, S. M. Cohan, J. Amotegui, R. Manning, P. Li, M. S. Proctor, A. Hallal, R. Blackbourne, D. Benjamin, F. Soffer, C. I. Habib, R. Schulman, Duncan, and K. G. Proctor, “Can near-infrared spectroscopy identify the severity of shock in trauma patients?” J. Trauma Acute Care Surg. 58(4), 806–816 (2005).

Li, T.

T. Li, H. Gong, and Q. Luo, “Visualization of light propagation in visible Chinese human head for functional near-infrared spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(4), 045001 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Li, H. Gong, and Q. Luo, “MCVM: Monte Carlo modeling of photon migration in voxelized media,” J. Innov. Opt. Health Sci. 3(2), 91–102 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. Li, Y. Zhao, K. Li, Z. Ruan, M. Duan, and Y. Sun, “Study on shock monitoring using a space-resolved NIRS,” PIBM 2014, Proc. SPIE. in press.

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L. I. Lin, “A concordance correlation coefficient to evaluate reproducibility,” Biometrics 45(1), 255–268 (1989).
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Lipcsey, M.

M. Lipcsey, N. C. Z. Woinarski, and R. Bellomo, “Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) of the thenar eminence in anesthesia and intensive care,” Ann. Intensive Care 2(1), 11 (2012).
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Liu, H.

H. Liu, D. A. Boas, Y. Zhang, A. G. Yodh, and B. Chance, “Determination of optical properties and blood oxygenation in tissue using continuous NIR light,” Phys. Med. Biol. 40(11), 1983–1993 (1995).
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Luo, Q.

T. Li, H. Gong, and Q. Luo, “Visualization of light propagation in visible Chinese human head for functional near-infrared spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(4), 045001 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Li, H. Gong, and Q. Luo, “MCVM: Monte Carlo modeling of photon migration in voxelized media,” J. Innov. Opt. Health Sci. 3(2), 91–102 (2010).
[Crossref]

Machado, F. R.

R. P. Dellinger, M. M. Levy, A. Rhodes, D. Annane, H. Gerlach, S. M. Opal, J. E. Sevransky, C. L. Sprung, I. S. Douglas, R. Jaeschke, T. M. Osborn, M. E. Nunnally, S. R. Townsend, K. Reinhart, R. M. Kleinpell, D. C. Angus, C. S. Deutschman, F. R. Machado, G. D. Rubenfeld, S. Webb, R. J. Beale, J. L. Vincent, R. Moreno, and Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines Committee including The Pediatric Subgroup, “Surviving Sepsis Campaign: international guidelines for management of severe sepsis and septic shock, 2012,” Intensive Care Med. 39(2), 165–228 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mackersie, R. C.

M. M. Knudson, K. M. Bermudez, C. A. Doyle, R. C. Mackersie, H. W. Hopf, and D. Morabito, “Use of tissue oxygen tension measurements during resuscitation from hemorrhagic shock,” J. Trauma 42(4), 608–616 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Manning, R.

B. A. Crookes, S. M. Cohan, J. Amotegui, R. Manning, P. Li, M. S. Proctor, A. Hallal, R. Blackbourne, D. Benjamin, F. Soffer, C. I. Habib, R. Schulman, Duncan, and K. G. Proctor, “Can near-infrared spectroscopy identify the severity of shock in trauma patients?” J. Trauma Acute Care Surg. 58(4), 806–816 (2005).

Marvin, R. G.

B. A. McKinley, R. G. Marvin, C. S. Cocanour, and F. A. Moore, “Tissue hemoglobin O2 saturation during resuscitation of traumatic shock monitored using near infrared spectrometry,” J. Trauma 48(4), 637–642 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maulik, D.

S. Fantini, D. Hueber, M. A. Franceschini, E. Gratton, W. Rosenfeld, P. G. Stubblefield, D. Maulik, and M. R. Stankovic, “Non-invasive optical monitoring of the newborn piglet brain using continuous-wave and frequency-domain spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 44(6), 1543–1563 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mazuski, J. E.

R. M. Durham, K. Neunaber, J. E. Mazuski, M. J. Shapiro, and A. E. Baue, “The Use of Oxygen Consumption and Delivery as Endpoints for Resuscitation in Critically III Patients,” J. Trauma 41(1), 32–40 (1996).
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McCollum, C. N.

F. Torella, R. D. Cowley, M. S. Thorniley, and C. N. McCollum, “Regional tissue oxygenation during hemorrhage: can near infrared spectroscopy be used to monitor blood loss?” Shock 18(5), 440–444 (2002).
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McKinley, B. A.

B. A. McKinley, R. G. Marvin, C. S. Cocanour, and F. A. Moore, “Tissue hemoglobin O2 saturation during resuscitation of traumatic shock monitored using near infrared spectrometry,” J. Trauma 48(4), 637–642 (2000).
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Moore, E. E.

S. M. Cohn, A. B. Nathens, F. A. Moore, P. Rhee, J. C. Puyana, E. E. Moore, G. J. Beilman, and StO2 in Trauma Patients Trial Investigators, “Tissue oxygen saturation predicts the development of organ dysfunction during traumatic shock resuscitation,” J. Trauma 62(1), 44–55 (2007).
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Moore, F. A.

S. M. Cohn, A. B. Nathens, F. A. Moore, P. Rhee, J. C. Puyana, E. E. Moore, G. J. Beilman, and StO2 in Trauma Patients Trial Investigators, “Tissue oxygen saturation predicts the development of organ dysfunction during traumatic shock resuscitation,” J. Trauma 62(1), 44–55 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. A. McKinley, R. G. Marvin, C. S. Cocanour, and F. A. Moore, “Tissue hemoglobin O2 saturation during resuscitation of traumatic shock monitored using near infrared spectrometry,” J. Trauma 48(4), 637–642 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Morabito, D.

M. M. Knudson, K. M. Bermudez, C. A. Doyle, R. C. Mackersie, H. W. Hopf, and D. Morabito, “Use of tissue oxygen tension measurements during resuscitation from hemorrhagic shock,” J. Trauma 42(4), 608–616 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moreno, R.

R. P. Dellinger, M. M. Levy, A. Rhodes, D. Annane, H. Gerlach, S. M. Opal, J. E. Sevransky, C. L. Sprung, I. S. Douglas, R. Jaeschke, T. M. Osborn, M. E. Nunnally, S. R. Townsend, K. Reinhart, R. M. Kleinpell, D. C. Angus, C. S. Deutschman, F. R. Machado, G. D. Rubenfeld, S. Webb, R. J. Beale, J. L. Vincent, R. Moreno, and Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines Committee including The Pediatric Subgroup, “Surviving Sepsis Campaign: international guidelines for management of severe sepsis and septic shock, 2012,” Intensive Care Med. 39(2), 165–228 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nathens, A. B.

S. M. Cohn, A. B. Nathens, F. A. Moore, P. Rhee, J. C. Puyana, E. E. Moore, G. J. Beilman, and StO2 in Trauma Patients Trial Investigators, “Tissue oxygen saturation predicts the development of organ dysfunction during traumatic shock resuscitation,” J. Trauma 62(1), 44–55 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Neunaber, K.

R. M. Durham, K. Neunaber, J. E. Mazuski, M. J. Shapiro, and A. E. Baue, “The Use of Oxygen Consumption and Delivery as Endpoints for Resuscitation in Critically III Patients,” J. Trauma 41(1), 32–40 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nunnally, M. E.

R. P. Dellinger, M. M. Levy, A. Rhodes, D. Annane, H. Gerlach, S. M. Opal, J. E. Sevransky, C. L. Sprung, I. S. Douglas, R. Jaeschke, T. M. Osborn, M. E. Nunnally, S. R. Townsend, K. Reinhart, R. M. Kleinpell, D. C. Angus, C. S. Deutschman, F. R. Machado, G. D. Rubenfeld, S. Webb, R. J. Beale, J. L. Vincent, R. Moreno, and Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines Committee including The Pediatric Subgroup, “Surviving Sepsis Campaign: international guidelines for management of severe sepsis and septic shock, 2012,” Intensive Care Med. 39(2), 165–228 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opal, S. M.

R. P. Dellinger, M. M. Levy, A. Rhodes, D. Annane, H. Gerlach, S. M. Opal, J. E. Sevransky, C. L. Sprung, I. S. Douglas, R. Jaeschke, T. M. Osborn, M. E. Nunnally, S. R. Townsend, K. Reinhart, R. M. Kleinpell, D. C. Angus, C. S. Deutschman, F. R. Machado, G. D. Rubenfeld, S. Webb, R. J. Beale, J. L. Vincent, R. Moreno, and Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines Committee including The Pediatric Subgroup, “Surviving Sepsis Campaign: international guidelines for management of severe sepsis and septic shock, 2012,” Intensive Care Med. 39(2), 165–228 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ortner, J. P.

G. J. Beilman, K. E. Groehler, V. Lazaron, and J. P. Ortner, “Near-infrared spectroscopy measurement of regional tissue oxyhemoglobin saturation during hemorrhagic shock,” Shock 12(3), 196–200 (1999).
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Osborn, T. M.

R. P. Dellinger, M. M. Levy, A. Rhodes, D. Annane, H. Gerlach, S. M. Opal, J. E. Sevransky, C. L. Sprung, I. S. Douglas, R. Jaeschke, T. M. Osborn, M. E. Nunnally, S. R. Townsend, K. Reinhart, R. M. Kleinpell, D. C. Angus, C. S. Deutschman, F. R. Machado, G. D. Rubenfeld, S. Webb, R. J. Beale, J. L. Vincent, R. Moreno, and Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines Committee including The Pediatric Subgroup, “Surviving Sepsis Campaign: international guidelines for management of severe sepsis and septic shock, 2012,” Intensive Care Med. 39(2), 165–228 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ospina-Tascon, G.

D. De Backer, G. Ospina-Tascon, D. Salgado, R. Favory, J. Creteur, and J. L. Vincent, “Monitoring the microcirculation in the critically ill patient: current methods and future approaches,” Intensive Care Med. 36(11), 1813–1825 (2010).
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Pedowitz, R. A.

R. A. Pedowitz and S. R. Shackford, “Non-cavitary hemorrhage producing shock in trauma patients: incidence and severity,” J. Trauma 29(2), 219–222 (1989).
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Peitzman, A. B.

A. B. Peitzman, T. R. Billiar, B. G. Harbrecht, E. Kelly, A. O. Udekwu, and R. L. Simmons, “Hemorrhagic shock,” Curr. Probl. Surg. 32(11), 925–1002 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Proctor, K. G.

B. A. Crookes, S. M. Cohan, J. Amotegui, R. Manning, P. Li, M. S. Proctor, A. Hallal, R. Blackbourne, D. Benjamin, F. Soffer, C. I. Habib, R. Schulman, Duncan, and K. G. Proctor, “Can near-infrared spectroscopy identify the severity of shock in trauma patients?” J. Trauma Acute Care Surg. 58(4), 806–816 (2005).

Proctor, M. S.

B. A. Crookes, S. M. Cohan, J. Amotegui, R. Manning, P. Li, M. S. Proctor, A. Hallal, R. Blackbourne, D. Benjamin, F. Soffer, C. I. Habib, R. Schulman, Duncan, and K. G. Proctor, “Can near-infrared spectroscopy identify the severity of shock in trauma patients?” J. Trauma Acute Care Surg. 58(4), 806–816 (2005).

Puyana, J. C.

S. M. Cohn, A. B. Nathens, F. A. Moore, P. Rhee, J. C. Puyana, E. E. Moore, G. J. Beilman, and StO2 in Trauma Patients Trial Investigators, “Tissue oxygen saturation predicts the development of organ dysfunction during traumatic shock resuscitation,” J. Trauma 62(1), 44–55 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reinhart, K.

R. P. Dellinger, M. M. Levy, A. Rhodes, D. Annane, H. Gerlach, S. M. Opal, J. E. Sevransky, C. L. Sprung, I. S. Douglas, R. Jaeschke, T. M. Osborn, M. E. Nunnally, S. R. Townsend, K. Reinhart, R. M. Kleinpell, D. C. Angus, C. S. Deutschman, F. R. Machado, G. D. Rubenfeld, S. Webb, R. J. Beale, J. L. Vincent, R. Moreno, and Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines Committee including The Pediatric Subgroup, “Surviving Sepsis Campaign: international guidelines for management of severe sepsis and septic shock, 2012,” Intensive Care Med. 39(2), 165–228 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rhee, P.

S. M. Cohn, A. B. Nathens, F. A. Moore, P. Rhee, J. C. Puyana, E. E. Moore, G. J. Beilman, and StO2 in Trauma Patients Trial Investigators, “Tissue oxygen saturation predicts the development of organ dysfunction during traumatic shock resuscitation,” J. Trauma 62(1), 44–55 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rhodes, A.

R. P. Dellinger, M. M. Levy, A. Rhodes, D. Annane, H. Gerlach, S. M. Opal, J. E. Sevransky, C. L. Sprung, I. S. Douglas, R. Jaeschke, T. M. Osborn, M. E. Nunnally, S. R. Townsend, K. Reinhart, R. M. Kleinpell, D. C. Angus, C. S. Deutschman, F. R. Machado, G. D. Rubenfeld, S. Webb, R. J. Beale, J. L. Vincent, R. Moreno, and Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines Committee including The Pediatric Subgroup, “Surviving Sepsis Campaign: international guidelines for management of severe sepsis and septic shock, 2012,” Intensive Care Med. 39(2), 165–228 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Riera, J.

Rosenfeld, W.

S. Fantini, D. Hueber, M. A. Franceschini, E. Gratton, W. Rosenfeld, P. G. Stubblefield, D. Maulik, and M. R. Stankovic, “Non-invasive optical monitoring of the newborn piglet brain using continuous-wave and frequency-domain spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 44(6), 1543–1563 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ruan, Z.

T. Li, Y. Zhao, K. Li, Z. Ruan, M. Duan, and Y. Sun, “Study on shock monitoring using a space-resolved NIRS,” PIBM 2014, Proc. SPIE. in press.

Rubenfeld, G. D.

R. P. Dellinger, M. M. Levy, A. Rhodes, D. Annane, H. Gerlach, S. M. Opal, J. E. Sevransky, C. L. Sprung, I. S. Douglas, R. Jaeschke, T. M. Osborn, M. E. Nunnally, S. R. Townsend, K. Reinhart, R. M. Kleinpell, D. C. Angus, C. S. Deutschman, F. R. Machado, G. D. Rubenfeld, S. Webb, R. J. Beale, J. L. Vincent, R. Moreno, and Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines Committee including The Pediatric Subgroup, “Surviving Sepsis Campaign: international guidelines for management of severe sepsis and septic shock, 2012,” Intensive Care Med. 39(2), 165–228 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Salgado, D.

D. De Backer, G. Ospina-Tascon, D. Salgado, R. Favory, J. Creteur, and J. L. Vincent, “Monitoring the microcirculation in the critically ill patient: current methods and future approaches,” Intensive Care Med. 36(11), 1813–1825 (2010).
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Scannell, G.

K. Waxman, C. Annas, K. Daughters, G. T. Tominaga, and G. Scannell, “A method to determine the adequacy of resuscitation using tissue oxygen monitoring,” J. Trauma 36(6), 852–858 (1994).
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Schulman, R.

B. A. Crookes, S. M. Cohan, J. Amotegui, R. Manning, P. Li, M. S. Proctor, A. Hallal, R. Blackbourne, D. Benjamin, F. Soffer, C. I. Habib, R. Schulman, Duncan, and K. G. Proctor, “Can near-infrared spectroscopy identify the severity of shock in trauma patients?” J. Trauma Acute Care Surg. 58(4), 806–816 (2005).

Sevransky, J. E.

R. P. Dellinger, M. M. Levy, A. Rhodes, D. Annane, H. Gerlach, S. M. Opal, J. E. Sevransky, C. L. Sprung, I. S. Douglas, R. Jaeschke, T. M. Osborn, M. E. Nunnally, S. R. Townsend, K. Reinhart, R. M. Kleinpell, D. C. Angus, C. S. Deutschman, F. R. Machado, G. D. Rubenfeld, S. Webb, R. J. Beale, J. L. Vincent, R. Moreno, and Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines Committee including The Pediatric Subgroup, “Surviving Sepsis Campaign: international guidelines for management of severe sepsis and septic shock, 2012,” Intensive Care Med. 39(2), 165–228 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shackford, S. R.

R. A. Pedowitz and S. R. Shackford, “Non-cavitary hemorrhage producing shock in trauma patients: incidence and severity,” J. Trauma 29(2), 219–222 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shapiro, M. J.

R. M. Durham, K. Neunaber, J. E. Mazuski, M. J. Shapiro, and A. E. Baue, “The Use of Oxygen Consumption and Delivery as Endpoints for Resuscitation in Critically III Patients,” J. Trauma 41(1), 32–40 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Simmons, R. L.

A. B. Peitzman, T. R. Billiar, B. G. Harbrecht, E. Kelly, A. O. Udekwu, and R. L. Simmons, “Hemorrhagic shock,” Curr. Probl. Surg. 32(11), 925–1002 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Soffer, F.

B. A. Crookes, S. M. Cohan, J. Amotegui, R. Manning, P. Li, M. S. Proctor, A. Hallal, R. Blackbourne, D. Benjamin, F. Soffer, C. I. Habib, R. Schulman, Duncan, and K. G. Proctor, “Can near-infrared spectroscopy identify the severity of shock in trauma patients?” J. Trauma Acute Care Surg. 58(4), 806–816 (2005).

Sorensen, L. C.

Sprung, C. L.

R. P. Dellinger, M. M. Levy, A. Rhodes, D. Annane, H. Gerlach, S. M. Opal, J. E. Sevransky, C. L. Sprung, I. S. Douglas, R. Jaeschke, T. M. Osborn, M. E. Nunnally, S. R. Townsend, K. Reinhart, R. M. Kleinpell, D. C. Angus, C. S. Deutschman, F. R. Machado, G. D. Rubenfeld, S. Webb, R. J. Beale, J. L. Vincent, R. Moreno, and Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines Committee including The Pediatric Subgroup, “Surviving Sepsis Campaign: international guidelines for management of severe sepsis and septic shock, 2012,” Intensive Care Med. 39(2), 165–228 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stankovic, M. R.

S. Fantini, D. Hueber, M. A. Franceschini, E. Gratton, W. Rosenfeld, P. G. Stubblefield, D. Maulik, and M. R. Stankovic, “Non-invasive optical monitoring of the newborn piglet brain using continuous-wave and frequency-domain spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 44(6), 1543–1563 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stott, J.

Stubblefield, P. G.

S. Fantini, D. Hueber, M. A. Franceschini, E. Gratton, W. Rosenfeld, P. G. Stubblefield, D. Maulik, and M. R. Stankovic, “Non-invasive optical monitoring of the newborn piglet brain using continuous-wave and frequency-domain spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 44(6), 1543–1563 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sun, Y.

T. Li, Y. Zhao, K. Li, Z. Ruan, M. Duan, and Y. Sun, “Study on shock monitoring using a space-resolved NIRS,” PIBM 2014, Proc. SPIE. in press.

Thorniley, M. S.

F. Torella, R. D. Cowley, M. S. Thorniley, and C. N. McCollum, “Regional tissue oxygenation during hemorrhage: can near infrared spectroscopy be used to monitor blood loss?” Shock 18(5), 440–444 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tominaga, G. T.

K. Waxman, C. Annas, K. Daughters, G. T. Tominaga, and G. Scannell, “A method to determine the adequacy of resuscitation using tissue oxygen monitoring,” J. Trauma 36(6), 852–858 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Torella, F.

F. Torella, R. D. Cowley, M. S. Thorniley, and C. N. McCollum, “Regional tissue oxygenation during hemorrhage: can near infrared spectroscopy be used to monitor blood loss?” Shock 18(5), 440–444 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Townsend, S. R.

R. P. Dellinger, M. M. Levy, A. Rhodes, D. Annane, H. Gerlach, S. M. Opal, J. E. Sevransky, C. L. Sprung, I. S. Douglas, R. Jaeschke, T. M. Osborn, M. E. Nunnally, S. R. Townsend, K. Reinhart, R. M. Kleinpell, D. C. Angus, C. S. Deutschman, F. R. Machado, G. D. Rubenfeld, S. Webb, R. J. Beale, J. L. Vincent, R. Moreno, and Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines Committee including The Pediatric Subgroup, “Surviving Sepsis Campaign: international guidelines for management of severe sepsis and septic shock, 2012,” Intensive Care Med. 39(2), 165–228 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Trajkovic, I.

C. Jenny, M. Biallas, I. Trajkovic, J. C. Fauchère, H. U. Bucher, and M. Wolf, “Reproducibility of cerebral tissue oxygen saturation measurements by near-infrared spectroscopy in newborn infants,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(9), 097004 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Udekwu, A. O.

A. B. Peitzman, T. R. Billiar, B. G. Harbrecht, E. Kelly, A. O. Udekwu, and R. L. Simmons, “Hemorrhagic shock,” Curr. Probl. Surg. 32(11), 925–1002 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vincent, J. L.

R. P. Dellinger, M. M. Levy, A. Rhodes, D. Annane, H. Gerlach, S. M. Opal, J. E. Sevransky, C. L. Sprung, I. S. Douglas, R. Jaeschke, T. M. Osborn, M. E. Nunnally, S. R. Townsend, K. Reinhart, R. M. Kleinpell, D. C. Angus, C. S. Deutschman, F. R. Machado, G. D. Rubenfeld, S. Webb, R. J. Beale, J. L. Vincent, R. Moreno, and Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines Committee including The Pediatric Subgroup, “Surviving Sepsis Campaign: international guidelines for management of severe sepsis and septic shock, 2012,” Intensive Care Med. 39(2), 165–228 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. De Backer, G. Ospina-Tascon, D. Salgado, R. Favory, J. Creteur, and J. L. Vincent, “Monitoring the microcirculation in the critically ill patient: current methods and future approaches,” Intensive Care Med. 36(11), 1813–1825 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Waxman, K.

K. Waxman, C. Annas, K. Daughters, G. T. Tominaga, and G. Scannell, “A method to determine the adequacy of resuscitation using tissue oxygen monitoring,” J. Trauma 36(6), 852–858 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Webb, S.

R. P. Dellinger, M. M. Levy, A. Rhodes, D. Annane, H. Gerlach, S. M. Opal, J. E. Sevransky, C. L. Sprung, I. S. Douglas, R. Jaeschke, T. M. Osborn, M. E. Nunnally, S. R. Townsend, K. Reinhart, R. M. Kleinpell, D. C. Angus, C. S. Deutschman, F. R. Machado, G. D. Rubenfeld, S. Webb, R. J. Beale, J. L. Vincent, R. Moreno, and Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines Committee including The Pediatric Subgroup, “Surviving Sepsis Campaign: international guidelines for management of severe sepsis and septic shock, 2012,” Intensive Care Med. 39(2), 165–228 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Woinarski, N. C. Z.

M. Lipcsey, N. C. Z. Woinarski, and R. Bellomo, “Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) of the thenar eminence in anesthesia and intensive care,” Ann. Intensive Care 2(1), 11 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wolf, M.

C. Jenny, M. Biallas, I. Trajkovic, J. C. Fauchère, H. U. Bucher, and M. Wolf, “Reproducibility of cerebral tissue oxygen saturation measurements by near-infrared spectroscopy in newborn infants,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(9), 097004 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yodh, A. G.

H. Liu, D. A. Boas, Y. Zhang, A. G. Yodh, and B. Chance, “Determination of optical properties and blood oxygenation in tissue using continuous NIR light,” Phys. Med. Biol. 40(11), 1983–1993 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y.

H. Liu, D. A. Boas, Y. Zhang, A. G. Yodh, and B. Chance, “Determination of optical properties and blood oxygenation in tissue using continuous NIR light,” Phys. Med. Biol. 40(11), 1983–1993 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, Y.

T. Li, Y. Zhao, K. Li, Z. Ruan, M. Duan, and Y. Sun, “Study on shock monitoring using a space-resolved NIRS,” PIBM 2014, Proc. SPIE. in press.

Ann. Intensive Care (1)

M. Lipcsey, N. C. Z. Woinarski, and R. Bellomo, “Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) of the thenar eminence in anesthesia and intensive care,” Ann. Intensive Care 2(1), 11 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

Biometrics (1)

L. I. Lin, “A concordance correlation coefficient to evaluate reproducibility,” Biometrics 45(1), 255–268 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Crit. Care Nurs. Clin. North Am. (1)

M. C. Houston, “Pathophysiology of shock,” Crit. Care Nurs. Clin. North Am. 2(2), 143–149 (1990).
[PubMed]

Curr. Probl. Surg. (1)

A. B. Peitzman, T. R. Billiar, B. G. Harbrecht, E. Kelly, A. O. Udekwu, and R. L. Simmons, “Hemorrhagic shock,” Curr. Probl. Surg. 32(11), 925–1002 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Intensive Care Med. (2)

D. De Backer, G. Ospina-Tascon, D. Salgado, R. Favory, J. Creteur, and J. L. Vincent, “Monitoring the microcirculation in the critically ill patient: current methods and future approaches,” Intensive Care Med. 36(11), 1813–1825 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. P. Dellinger, M. M. Levy, A. Rhodes, D. Annane, H. Gerlach, S. M. Opal, J. E. Sevransky, C. L. Sprung, I. S. Douglas, R. Jaeschke, T. M. Osborn, M. E. Nunnally, S. R. Townsend, K. Reinhart, R. M. Kleinpell, D. C. Angus, C. S. Deutschman, F. R. Machado, G. D. Rubenfeld, S. Webb, R. J. Beale, J. L. Vincent, R. Moreno, and Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines Committee including The Pediatric Subgroup, “Surviving Sepsis Campaign: international guidelines for management of severe sepsis and septic shock, 2012,” Intensive Care Med. 39(2), 165–228 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Am. Coll. Surg. (1)

D. C. Elliott, “An evaluation of the end points of resuscitation,” J. Am. Coll. Surg. 187(5), 536–547 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (2)

C. Jenny, M. Biallas, I. Trajkovic, J. C. Fauchère, H. U. Bucher, and M. Wolf, “Reproducibility of cerebral tissue oxygen saturation measurements by near-infrared spectroscopy in newborn infants,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(9), 097004 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Li, H. Gong, and Q. Luo, “Visualization of light propagation in visible Chinese human head for functional near-infrared spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(4), 045001 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Innov. Opt. Health Sci. (1)

T. Li, H. Gong, and Q. Luo, “MCVM: Monte Carlo modeling of photon migration in voxelized media,” J. Innov. Opt. Health Sci. 3(2), 91–102 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Trauma (6)

K. Waxman, C. Annas, K. Daughters, G. T. Tominaga, and G. Scannell, “A method to determine the adequacy of resuscitation using tissue oxygen monitoring,” J. Trauma 36(6), 852–858 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. A. McKinley, R. G. Marvin, C. S. Cocanour, and F. A. Moore, “Tissue hemoglobin O2 saturation during resuscitation of traumatic shock monitored using near infrared spectrometry,” J. Trauma 48(4), 637–642 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. M. Knudson, K. M. Bermudez, C. A. Doyle, R. C. Mackersie, H. W. Hopf, and D. Morabito, “Use of tissue oxygen tension measurements during resuscitation from hemorrhagic shock,” J. Trauma 42(4), 608–616 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. M. Durham, K. Neunaber, J. E. Mazuski, M. J. Shapiro, and A. E. Baue, “The Use of Oxygen Consumption and Delivery as Endpoints for Resuscitation in Critically III Patients,” J. Trauma 41(1), 32–40 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. M. Cohn, A. B. Nathens, F. A. Moore, P. Rhee, J. C. Puyana, E. E. Moore, G. J. Beilman, and StO2 in Trauma Patients Trial Investigators, “Tissue oxygen saturation predicts the development of organ dysfunction during traumatic shock resuscitation,” J. Trauma 62(1), 44–55 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. A. Pedowitz and S. R. Shackford, “Non-cavitary hemorrhage producing shock in trauma patients: incidence and severity,” J. Trauma 29(2), 219–222 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Trauma Acute Care Surg. (1)

B. A. Crookes, S. M. Cohan, J. Amotegui, R. Manning, P. Li, M. S. Proctor, A. Hallal, R. Blackbourne, D. Benjamin, F. Soffer, C. I. Habib, R. Schulman, Duncan, and K. G. Proctor, “Can near-infrared spectroscopy identify the severity of shock in trauma patients?” J. Trauma Acute Care Surg. 58(4), 806–816 (2005).

Opt. Express (1)

Phys. Med. Biol. (2)

S. Fantini, D. Hueber, M. A. Franceschini, E. Gratton, W. Rosenfeld, P. G. Stubblefield, D. Maulik, and M. R. Stankovic, “Non-invasive optical monitoring of the newborn piglet brain using continuous-wave and frequency-domain spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 44(6), 1543–1563 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Liu, D. A. Boas, Y. Zhang, A. G. Yodh, and B. Chance, “Determination of optical properties and blood oxygenation in tissue using continuous NIR light,” Phys. Med. Biol. 40(11), 1983–1993 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shock (2)

F. Torella, R. D. Cowley, M. S. Thorniley, and C. N. McCollum, “Regional tissue oxygenation during hemorrhage: can near infrared spectroscopy be used to monitor blood loss?” Shock 18(5), 440–444 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. J. Beilman, K. E. Groehler, V. Lazaron, and J. P. Ortner, “Near-infrared spectroscopy measurement of regional tissue oxyhemoglobin saturation during hemorrhagic shock,” Shock 12(3), 196–200 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (1)

T. Li, Y. Zhao, K. Li, Z. Ruan, M. Duan, and Y. Sun, “Study on shock monitoring using a space-resolved NIRS,” PIBM 2014, Proc. SPIE. in press.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Portable spatially-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy (SR-NIRS) device for bedside shock monitoring. (a) SR-NIRS probe placement; (b) SR-NIRS shock monitor device; (c) Bedside shock monitoring.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Ultrasonograph of internal jugular central vein and (b) Monte Carlo simulation of photon paths within the tissues surrounding the veins.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The correlations between StO2 and conventional blood oxygen indices, represented by scatter plot with least-squares fitted lines added.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 NIRS-measured StO2 compared to the gold standard ScvO2 from the blood sample test. (a) The solid line represents the best fit to the data; the dashed line indicates the perfect equivalent; and the dot line denotes the 95% confidence interval for StO2. (b) Bland-Altman plot of the deference between the StO2 and ScvO2 as well as the mean difference (solid horizontal line) between these two parameters. The dash lines indicate the 95% limits of an agreement.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Multiple linear regression analysis (MLR) of StO2 with conventional blood oxygen indices

Equations (5)

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OD=log[ R app0 ( ρ, ρ 0 ) R app ( ρ, ρ 0 ) ]= μ eff μ eff ( cal ) 2.3 ρ+log[ μ t ' μ t ' ( cal ) ]+log[ μ eff ( cal )+( 1/ ρ 0 ) μ eff +( 1/ ρ 0 ) ]
slop e λ 1 slop e λ 2 = μ eff λ 1 μ eff λ 2 = 3 μ a λ 1 ( μ a λ 1 + μ s λ 1 (1g)) 3 μ a λ 2 μ s λ 1 (1g) μ a λ 1 μ a λ 2
{ μ a λ 1 = ε Hb λ 1 [Hb]+ ε Hb O 2 λ 1 [Hb O 2 ] μ a λ 2 = ε Hb λ 2 [Hb]+ ε Hb O 2 λ 2 [Hb O 2 ]
StO 2 = [Hb O 2 ] [Hb O 2 +Hb] ×100%
StO 2 = ε Hb λ 2 slop e λ 1 2 ε Hb λ 1 slop e λ 2 2 ε Hb λ 2 slop e λ 1 2 ε Hb λ 1 slop e λ 2 2 + ε Hb O 2 λ 1 slop e λ 2 2 ε Hb O 2 λ 2 slop e λ 1 2 ×100%

Metrics