Abstract

The lipid content in plaques is an important marker for identifying atherosclerotic lesions and disease states. Intravascular photoacoustic (IVPA) imaging can be used to visualize lipids in the artery. In this study, we further investigated lipid detection in the 1.7-µm spectral range. By exploiting the relative difference between the IVPA signal strengths at 1718 and 1734 nm, we could successfully detect and differentiate between the plaque lipids and peri-adventitial fat in human coronary arteries ex vivo. Our study demonstrates that IVPA imaging can positively identify atherosclerotic plaques using only two wavelengths, which could enable rapid data acquisition in vivo.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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2015 (1)

Y. Li, X. Gong, C. Liu, R. Lin, W. Hau, X. Bai, and L. Song, “High-speed intravascular spectroscopic photoacoustic imaging at 1000 A-lines per second with a 0.9-mm diameter catheter,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(6), 065006 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (3)

P. Wang, T. Ma, M. N. Slipchenko, S. Liang, J. Hui, K. K. Shung, S. Roy, M. Sturek, Q. Zhou, Z. Chen, and J.-X. Cheng, “High-speed intravascular photoacoustic imaging of lipid-laden atherosclerotic plaque enabled by a 2-kHz Barium Nitrite Raman Laser,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6889 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Jansen, M. Wu, A. F. van der Steen, and G. van Soest, “Photoacoustic imaging of human coronary atherosclerosis in two spectral bands,” Photoacoustics 2(1), 12–20 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Wu, K. Jansen, G. Springeling, A. F. van der Steen, and G. van Soest, “Impact of device geometry on the imaging characteristics of an intravascular photoacoustic catheter,” Appl. Opt. 53(34), 8131–8139 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (3)

C. P. Fleming, J. Eckert, E. F. Halpern, J. A. Gardecki, and G. J. Tearney, “Depth resolved detection of lipid using spectroscopic optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(8), 1269–1284 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. D. Madder, J. A. Goldstein, S. P. Madden, R. Puri, K. Wolski, M. Hendricks, S. T. Sum, A. Kini, S. Sharma, D. Rizik, E. S. Brilakis, K. A. Shunk, J. Petersen, G. Weisz, R. Virmani, S. J. Nicholls, A. Maehara, G. S. Mintz, G. W. Stone, and J. E. Muller, “Detection by Near-Infrared Spectroscopy of Large Lipid Core Plaques at Culprit Sites in Patients With Acute ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction,” JACC Cardiovasc. Interv. 6(8), 838–846 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Jansen, M. Wu, A. F. van der Steen, and G. van Soest, “Lipid detection in atherosclerotic human coronaries by spectroscopic intravascular photoacoustic imaging,” Opt. Express 21(18), 21472–21484 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (5)

T. J. Allen, A. Hall, A. P. Dhillon, J. S. Owen, and P. C. Beard, “Spectroscopic photoacoustic imaging of lipid-rich plaques in the human aorta in the 740 to 1400 nm wavelength range,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(6), 061209 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Wang, A. Karpiouk, D. Yeager, J. Amirian, S. Litovsky, R. Smalling, and S. Emelianov, “In vivo intravascular ultrasound-guided photoacoustic imaging of lipid in plaques using an animal model of atherosclerosis,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 38(12), 2098–2103 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Wang, H. W. Wang, M. Sturek, and J. X. Cheng, “Bond-selective imaging of deep tissue through the optical window between 1600 and 1850 nm,” J. Biophotonics 5(1), 25–32 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Wang, A. Karpiouk, D. Yeager, J. Amirian, S. Litovsky, R. Smalling, and S. Emelianov, “Intravascular photoacoustic imaging of lipid in atherosclerotic plaques in the presence of luminal blood,” Opt. Lett. 37(7), 1244–1246 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. D. Madder, J. L. Smith, S. R. Dixon, and J. A. Goldstein, “Composition of Target Lesions by Near-Infrared Spectroscopy in Patients With Acute Coronary Syndrome Versus Stable Angina,” Circ. Cardiovasc. Interv. 5(1), 55–61 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (4)

H. W. Wang, N. Chai, P. Wang, S. Hu, W. Dou, D. Umulis, L. V. Wang, M. Sturek, R. Lucht, and J. X. Cheng, “Label-free bond-selective imaging by listening to vibrationally excited molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(23), 238106 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Stegemann, I. Drozdov, J. Shalhoub, J. Humphries, C. Ladroue, A. Didangelos, M. Baumert, M. Allen, A. H. Davies, C. Monaco, A. Smith, Q. Xu, and M. Mayr, “Comparative lipidomics profiling of human atherosclerotic plaques,” Circ Cardiovasc Genet 4(3), 232–242 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Stegemann, I. Drozdov, J. Shalhoub, J. Humphries, C. Ladroue, A. Didangelos, M. Baumert, M. Allen, A. H. Davies, C. Monaco, A. Smith, Q. Xu, and M. Mayr, “Comparative lipidomics profiling of human atherosclerotic plaques,” Circ. Cardiovasc. Genet. 4(3), 232–242 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Jansen, A. F. W. van der Steen, H. M. M. van Beusekom, J. W. Oosterhuis, and G. van Soest, “Intravascular photoacoustic imaging of human coronary atherosclerosis,” Opt. Lett. 36(5), 597–599 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

2009 (2)

S. Waxman, S. R. Dixon, P. L’Allier, J. W. Moses, J. L. Petersen, D. Cutlip, J.-C. Tardif, R. W. Nesto, J. E. Muller, M. J. Hendricks, S. T. Sum, C. M. Gardner, J. A. Goldstein, G. W. Stone, and M. W. Krucoff, “In vivo validation of a catheter-based near-infrared spectroscopy system for detection of lipid core coronary plaques: initial results of the SPECTACL study,” JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging 2(7), 858–868 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Takaoka, D. Nagata, S. Kihara, I. Shimomura, Y. Kimura, Y. Tabata, Y. Saito, R. Nagai, and M. Sata, “Periadventitial adipose tissue plays a critical role in vascular remodeling,” Circ. Res. 105(9), 906–911 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

C. M. Gardner, H. Tan, E. L. Hull, J. B. Lisauskas, S. T. Sum, T. M. Meese, C. Jiang, S. P. Madden, J. D. Caplan, A. P. Burke, R. Virmani, J. Goldstein, and J. E. Muller, “Detection of lipid core coronary plaques in autopsy specimens with a novel catheter-based near-infrared spectroscopy system,” JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging 1(5), 638–648 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (4)

S. Sethuraman, S. R. Aglyamov, J. H. Amirian, R. W. Smalling, and S. Y. Emelianov, “Intravascular photoacoustic imaging using an IVUS imaging catheter,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 54(5), 978–986 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Sethuraman, J. H. Amirian, S. H. Litovsky, R. W. Smalling, and S. Y. Emelianov, “Ex vivo Characterization of Atherosclerosis using Intravascular Photoacoustic Imaging,” Opt. Express 15(25), 16657–16666 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Zhou, X. Xu, E. J. Gottlieb, L. Sun, J. M. Cannata, H. Ameri, M. S. Humayun, P. Han, and K. K. Shung, “PMN-PT single crystal, high-frequency ultrasonic needle transducers for pulsed-wave Doppler application,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 54(3), 668–675 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Sivaramakrishnan, K. Maslov, H. F. Zhang, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Limitations of quantitative photoacoustic measurements of blood oxygenation in small vessels,” Phys. Med. Biol. 52(5), 1349–1361 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

R. R. Anderson, W. Farinelli, H. Laubach, D. Manstein, A. N. Yaroslavsky, J. Gubeli, K. Jordan, G. R. Neil, M. Shinn, W. Chandler, G. P. Williams, S. V. Benson, D. R. Douglas, and H. F. Dylla, “Selective photothermolysis of lipid-rich tissues: A free electron laser study,” Lasers Surg. Med. 38(10), 913–919 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. D. Caplan, S. Waxman, R. W. Nesto, and J. E. Muller, “Near-infrared spectroscopy for the detection of vulnerable coronary artery plaques,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 47(8Suppl), C92–C96 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Virmani, A. P. Burke, A. Farb, and F. D. Kolodgie, “Pathology of the vulnerable plaque,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 47(8Suppl), C13–C18 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

J. Laufer, C. Elwell, D. Delpy, and P. Beard, “In vitro measurements of absolute blood oxygen saturation using pulsed near-infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy: accuracy and resolution,” Phys. Med. Biol. 50(18), 4409–4428 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

J. A. Schaar, J. E. Muller, E. Falk, R. Virmani, V. Fuster, P. W. Serruys, A. Colombo, C. Stefanadis, S. Ward Casscells, P. R. Moreno, A. Maseri, and A. F. W. van der Steen, “Terminology for high-risk and vulnerable coronary artery plaques. Report of a meeting on the vulnerable plaque,” Eur. Heart J. 25(12), 1077–1082 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

C. L. Tsai, J. C. Chen, and W. J. Wang, “Near-infrared absorption property of biological soft tissue constituents,” J. Med. Biol. Eng. 21, 7–14 (2001).

1997 (1)

A. M. K. Nilsson, D. Heinrich, J. Olajos, and S. Andersson-Engels, “Near infrared diffuse reflection and laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy for myocardial tissue characterisation,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 53(11), 1901–1912 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

E. Falk, P. K. Shah, and V. Fuster, “Coronary Plaque Disruption,” Circulation 92(3), 657–671 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

1985 (1)

B. Lundberg, “Chemical Composition and Physical State of Lipid Deposits in Atherosclerosis,” Atherosclerosis 56(1), 93–110 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aglyamov, S. R.

S. Sethuraman, S. R. Aglyamov, J. H. Amirian, R. W. Smalling, and S. Y. Emelianov, “Intravascular photoacoustic imaging using an IVUS imaging catheter,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 54(5), 978–986 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Allen, M.

C. Stegemann, I. Drozdov, J. Shalhoub, J. Humphries, C. Ladroue, A. Didangelos, M. Baumert, M. Allen, A. H. Davies, C. Monaco, A. Smith, Q. Xu, and M. Mayr, “Comparative lipidomics profiling of human atherosclerotic plaques,” Circ. Cardiovasc. Genet. 4(3), 232–242 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Stegemann, I. Drozdov, J. Shalhoub, J. Humphries, C. Ladroue, A. Didangelos, M. Baumert, M. Allen, A. H. Davies, C. Monaco, A. Smith, Q. Xu, and M. Mayr, “Comparative lipidomics profiling of human atherosclerotic plaques,” Circ Cardiovasc Genet 4(3), 232–242 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Allen, T. J.

T. J. Allen, A. Hall, A. P. Dhillon, J. S. Owen, and P. C. Beard, “Spectroscopic photoacoustic imaging of lipid-rich plaques in the human aorta in the 740 to 1400 nm wavelength range,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(6), 061209 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ameri, H.

Q. Zhou, X. Xu, E. J. Gottlieb, L. Sun, J. M. Cannata, H. Ameri, M. S. Humayun, P. Han, and K. K. Shung, “PMN-PT single crystal, high-frequency ultrasonic needle transducers for pulsed-wave Doppler application,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 54(3), 668–675 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Amirian, J.

Amirian, J. H.

S. Sethuraman, J. H. Amirian, S. H. Litovsky, R. W. Smalling, and S. Y. Emelianov, “Ex vivo Characterization of Atherosclerosis using Intravascular Photoacoustic Imaging,” Opt. Express 15(25), 16657–16666 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Sethuraman, S. R. Aglyamov, J. H. Amirian, R. W. Smalling, and S. Y. Emelianov, “Intravascular photoacoustic imaging using an IVUS imaging catheter,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 54(5), 978–986 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anderson, R. R.

R. R. Anderson, W. Farinelli, H. Laubach, D. Manstein, A. N. Yaroslavsky, J. Gubeli, K. Jordan, G. R. Neil, M. Shinn, W. Chandler, G. P. Williams, S. V. Benson, D. R. Douglas, and H. F. Dylla, “Selective photothermolysis of lipid-rich tissues: A free electron laser study,” Lasers Surg. Med. 38(10), 913–919 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Andersson-Engels, S.

A. M. K. Nilsson, D. Heinrich, J. Olajos, and S. Andersson-Engels, “Near infrared diffuse reflection and laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy for myocardial tissue characterisation,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 53(11), 1901–1912 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bai, X.

Y. Li, X. Gong, C. Liu, R. Lin, W. Hau, X. Bai, and L. Song, “High-speed intravascular spectroscopic photoacoustic imaging at 1000 A-lines per second with a 0.9-mm diameter catheter,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(6), 065006 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baumert, M.

C. Stegemann, I. Drozdov, J. Shalhoub, J. Humphries, C. Ladroue, A. Didangelos, M. Baumert, M. Allen, A. H. Davies, C. Monaco, A. Smith, Q. Xu, and M. Mayr, “Comparative lipidomics profiling of human atherosclerotic plaques,” Circ Cardiovasc Genet 4(3), 232–242 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Stegemann, I. Drozdov, J. Shalhoub, J. Humphries, C. Ladroue, A. Didangelos, M. Baumert, M. Allen, A. H. Davies, C. Monaco, A. Smith, Q. Xu, and M. Mayr, “Comparative lipidomics profiling of human atherosclerotic plaques,” Circ. Cardiovasc. Genet. 4(3), 232–242 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beard, P.

J. Laufer, C. Elwell, D. Delpy, and P. Beard, “In vitro measurements of absolute blood oxygen saturation using pulsed near-infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy: accuracy and resolution,” Phys. Med. Biol. 50(18), 4409–4428 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beard, P. C.

T. J. Allen, A. Hall, A. P. Dhillon, J. S. Owen, and P. C. Beard, “Spectroscopic photoacoustic imaging of lipid-rich plaques in the human aorta in the 740 to 1400 nm wavelength range,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(6), 061209 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Benson, S. V.

R. R. Anderson, W. Farinelli, H. Laubach, D. Manstein, A. N. Yaroslavsky, J. Gubeli, K. Jordan, G. R. Neil, M. Shinn, W. Chandler, G. P. Williams, S. V. Benson, D. R. Douglas, and H. F. Dylla, “Selective photothermolysis of lipid-rich tissues: A free electron laser study,” Lasers Surg. Med. 38(10), 913–919 (2006).
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Brilakis, E. S.

R. D. Madder, J. A. Goldstein, S. P. Madden, R. Puri, K. Wolski, M. Hendricks, S. T. Sum, A. Kini, S. Sharma, D. Rizik, E. S. Brilakis, K. A. Shunk, J. Petersen, G. Weisz, R. Virmani, S. J. Nicholls, A. Maehara, G. S. Mintz, G. W. Stone, and J. E. Muller, “Detection by Near-Infrared Spectroscopy of Large Lipid Core Plaques at Culprit Sites in Patients With Acute ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction,” JACC Cardiovasc. Interv. 6(8), 838–846 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Burke, A. P.

C. M. Gardner, H. Tan, E. L. Hull, J. B. Lisauskas, S. T. Sum, T. M. Meese, C. Jiang, S. P. Madden, J. D. Caplan, A. P. Burke, R. Virmani, J. Goldstein, and J. E. Muller, “Detection of lipid core coronary plaques in autopsy specimens with a novel catheter-based near-infrared spectroscopy system,” JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging 1(5), 638–648 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Virmani, A. P. Burke, A. Farb, and F. D. Kolodgie, “Pathology of the vulnerable plaque,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 47(8Suppl), C13–C18 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cannata, J. M.

Q. Zhou, X. Xu, E. J. Gottlieb, L. Sun, J. M. Cannata, H. Ameri, M. S. Humayun, P. Han, and K. K. Shung, “PMN-PT single crystal, high-frequency ultrasonic needle transducers for pulsed-wave Doppler application,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 54(3), 668–675 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Caplan, J. D.

C. M. Gardner, H. Tan, E. L. Hull, J. B. Lisauskas, S. T. Sum, T. M. Meese, C. Jiang, S. P. Madden, J. D. Caplan, A. P. Burke, R. Virmani, J. Goldstein, and J. E. Muller, “Detection of lipid core coronary plaques in autopsy specimens with a novel catheter-based near-infrared spectroscopy system,” JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging 1(5), 638–648 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. D. Caplan, S. Waxman, R. W. Nesto, and J. E. Muller, “Near-infrared spectroscopy for the detection of vulnerable coronary artery plaques,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 47(8Suppl), C92–C96 (2006).
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Chai, N.

H. W. Wang, N. Chai, P. Wang, S. Hu, W. Dou, D. Umulis, L. V. Wang, M. Sturek, R. Lucht, and J. X. Cheng, “Label-free bond-selective imaging by listening to vibrationally excited molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(23), 238106 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chandler, W.

R. R. Anderson, W. Farinelli, H. Laubach, D. Manstein, A. N. Yaroslavsky, J. Gubeli, K. Jordan, G. R. Neil, M. Shinn, W. Chandler, G. P. Williams, S. V. Benson, D. R. Douglas, and H. F. Dylla, “Selective photothermolysis of lipid-rich tissues: A free electron laser study,” Lasers Surg. Med. 38(10), 913–919 (2006).
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Chen, J. C.

C. L. Tsai, J. C. Chen, and W. J. Wang, “Near-infrared absorption property of biological soft tissue constituents,” J. Med. Biol. Eng. 21, 7–14 (2001).

Chen, Z.

P. Wang, T. Ma, M. N. Slipchenko, S. Liang, J. Hui, K. K. Shung, S. Roy, M. Sturek, Q. Zhou, Z. Chen, and J.-X. Cheng, “High-speed intravascular photoacoustic imaging of lipid-laden atherosclerotic plaque enabled by a 2-kHz Barium Nitrite Raman Laser,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6889 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheng, J. X.

P. Wang, H. W. Wang, M. Sturek, and J. X. Cheng, “Bond-selective imaging of deep tissue through the optical window between 1600 and 1850 nm,” J. Biophotonics 5(1), 25–32 (2012).
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H. W. Wang, N. Chai, P. Wang, S. Hu, W. Dou, D. Umulis, L. V. Wang, M. Sturek, R. Lucht, and J. X. Cheng, “Label-free bond-selective imaging by listening to vibrationally excited molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(23), 238106 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheng, J.-X.

P. Wang, T. Ma, M. N. Slipchenko, S. Liang, J. Hui, K. K. Shung, S. Roy, M. Sturek, Q. Zhou, Z. Chen, and J.-X. Cheng, “High-speed intravascular photoacoustic imaging of lipid-laden atherosclerotic plaque enabled by a 2-kHz Barium Nitrite Raman Laser,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6889 (2014).
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Colombo, A.

J. A. Schaar, J. E. Muller, E. Falk, R. Virmani, V. Fuster, P. W. Serruys, A. Colombo, C. Stefanadis, S. Ward Casscells, P. R. Moreno, A. Maseri, and A. F. W. van der Steen, “Terminology for high-risk and vulnerable coronary artery plaques. Report of a meeting on the vulnerable plaque,” Eur. Heart J. 25(12), 1077–1082 (2004).
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Cutlip, D.

S. Waxman, S. R. Dixon, P. L’Allier, J. W. Moses, J. L. Petersen, D. Cutlip, J.-C. Tardif, R. W. Nesto, J. E. Muller, M. J. Hendricks, S. T. Sum, C. M. Gardner, J. A. Goldstein, G. W. Stone, and M. W. Krucoff, “In vivo validation of a catheter-based near-infrared spectroscopy system for detection of lipid core coronary plaques: initial results of the SPECTACL study,” JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging 2(7), 858–868 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Davies, A. H.

C. Stegemann, I. Drozdov, J. Shalhoub, J. Humphries, C. Ladroue, A. Didangelos, M. Baumert, M. Allen, A. H. Davies, C. Monaco, A. Smith, Q. Xu, and M. Mayr, “Comparative lipidomics profiling of human atherosclerotic plaques,” Circ. Cardiovasc. Genet. 4(3), 232–242 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Stegemann, I. Drozdov, J. Shalhoub, J. Humphries, C. Ladroue, A. Didangelos, M. Baumert, M. Allen, A. H. Davies, C. Monaco, A. Smith, Q. Xu, and M. Mayr, “Comparative lipidomics profiling of human atherosclerotic plaques,” Circ Cardiovasc Genet 4(3), 232–242 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Delpy, D.

J. Laufer, C. Elwell, D. Delpy, and P. Beard, “In vitro measurements of absolute blood oxygen saturation using pulsed near-infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy: accuracy and resolution,” Phys. Med. Biol. 50(18), 4409–4428 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dhillon, A. P.

T. J. Allen, A. Hall, A. P. Dhillon, J. S. Owen, and P. C. Beard, “Spectroscopic photoacoustic imaging of lipid-rich plaques in the human aorta in the 740 to 1400 nm wavelength range,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(6), 061209 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Didangelos, A.

C. Stegemann, I. Drozdov, J. Shalhoub, J. Humphries, C. Ladroue, A. Didangelos, M. Baumert, M. Allen, A. H. Davies, C. Monaco, A. Smith, Q. Xu, and M. Mayr, “Comparative lipidomics profiling of human atherosclerotic plaques,” Circ. Cardiovasc. Genet. 4(3), 232–242 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Stegemann, I. Drozdov, J. Shalhoub, J. Humphries, C. Ladroue, A. Didangelos, M. Baumert, M. Allen, A. H. Davies, C. Monaco, A. Smith, Q. Xu, and M. Mayr, “Comparative lipidomics profiling of human atherosclerotic plaques,” Circ Cardiovasc Genet 4(3), 232–242 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dixon, S. R.

R. D. Madder, J. L. Smith, S. R. Dixon, and J. A. Goldstein, “Composition of Target Lesions by Near-Infrared Spectroscopy in Patients With Acute Coronary Syndrome Versus Stable Angina,” Circ. Cardiovasc. Interv. 5(1), 55–61 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Waxman, S. R. Dixon, P. L’Allier, J. W. Moses, J. L. Petersen, D. Cutlip, J.-C. Tardif, R. W. Nesto, J. E. Muller, M. J. Hendricks, S. T. Sum, C. M. Gardner, J. A. Goldstein, G. W. Stone, and M. W. Krucoff, “In vivo validation of a catheter-based near-infrared spectroscopy system for detection of lipid core coronary plaques: initial results of the SPECTACL study,” JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging 2(7), 858–868 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dou, W.

H. W. Wang, N. Chai, P. Wang, S. Hu, W. Dou, D. Umulis, L. V. Wang, M. Sturek, R. Lucht, and J. X. Cheng, “Label-free bond-selective imaging by listening to vibrationally excited molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(23), 238106 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Douglas, D. R.

R. R. Anderson, W. Farinelli, H. Laubach, D. Manstein, A. N. Yaroslavsky, J. Gubeli, K. Jordan, G. R. Neil, M. Shinn, W. Chandler, G. P. Williams, S. V. Benson, D. R. Douglas, and H. F. Dylla, “Selective photothermolysis of lipid-rich tissues: A free electron laser study,” Lasers Surg. Med. 38(10), 913–919 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Drozdov, I.

C. Stegemann, I. Drozdov, J. Shalhoub, J. Humphries, C. Ladroue, A. Didangelos, M. Baumert, M. Allen, A. H. Davies, C. Monaco, A. Smith, Q. Xu, and M. Mayr, “Comparative lipidomics profiling of human atherosclerotic plaques,” Circ Cardiovasc Genet 4(3), 232–242 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Stegemann, I. Drozdov, J. Shalhoub, J. Humphries, C. Ladroue, A. Didangelos, M. Baumert, M. Allen, A. H. Davies, C. Monaco, A. Smith, Q. Xu, and M. Mayr, “Comparative lipidomics profiling of human atherosclerotic plaques,” Circ. Cardiovasc. Genet. 4(3), 232–242 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dylla, H. F.

R. R. Anderson, W. Farinelli, H. Laubach, D. Manstein, A. N. Yaroslavsky, J. Gubeli, K. Jordan, G. R. Neil, M. Shinn, W. Chandler, G. P. Williams, S. V. Benson, D. R. Douglas, and H. F. Dylla, “Selective photothermolysis of lipid-rich tissues: A free electron laser study,” Lasers Surg. Med. 38(10), 913–919 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eckert, J.

Elwell, C.

J. Laufer, C. Elwell, D. Delpy, and P. Beard, “In vitro measurements of absolute blood oxygen saturation using pulsed near-infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy: accuracy and resolution,” Phys. Med. Biol. 50(18), 4409–4428 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Emelianov, S.

Emelianov, S. Y.

S. Sethuraman, J. H. Amirian, S. H. Litovsky, R. W. Smalling, and S. Y. Emelianov, “Ex vivo Characterization of Atherosclerosis using Intravascular Photoacoustic Imaging,” Opt. Express 15(25), 16657–16666 (2007).
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S. Sethuraman, S. R. Aglyamov, J. H. Amirian, R. W. Smalling, and S. Y. Emelianov, “Intravascular photoacoustic imaging using an IVUS imaging catheter,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 54(5), 978–986 (2007).
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Falk, E.

J. A. Schaar, J. E. Muller, E. Falk, R. Virmani, V. Fuster, P. W. Serruys, A. Colombo, C. Stefanadis, S. Ward Casscells, P. R. Moreno, A. Maseri, and A. F. W. van der Steen, “Terminology for high-risk and vulnerable coronary artery plaques. Report of a meeting on the vulnerable plaque,” Eur. Heart J. 25(12), 1077–1082 (2004).
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E. Falk, P. K. Shah, and V. Fuster, “Coronary Plaque Disruption,” Circulation 92(3), 657–671 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Farb, A.

R. Virmani, A. P. Burke, A. Farb, and F. D. Kolodgie, “Pathology of the vulnerable plaque,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 47(8Suppl), C13–C18 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Farinelli, W.

R. R. Anderson, W. Farinelli, H. Laubach, D. Manstein, A. N. Yaroslavsky, J. Gubeli, K. Jordan, G. R. Neil, M. Shinn, W. Chandler, G. P. Williams, S. V. Benson, D. R. Douglas, and H. F. Dylla, “Selective photothermolysis of lipid-rich tissues: A free electron laser study,” Lasers Surg. Med. 38(10), 913–919 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fleming, C. P.

Fuster, V.

J. A. Schaar, J. E. Muller, E. Falk, R. Virmani, V. Fuster, P. W. Serruys, A. Colombo, C. Stefanadis, S. Ward Casscells, P. R. Moreno, A. Maseri, and A. F. W. van der Steen, “Terminology for high-risk and vulnerable coronary artery plaques. Report of a meeting on the vulnerable plaque,” Eur. Heart J. 25(12), 1077–1082 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Falk, P. K. Shah, and V. Fuster, “Coronary Plaque Disruption,” Circulation 92(3), 657–671 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gardecki, J. A.

Gardner, C. M.

S. Waxman, S. R. Dixon, P. L’Allier, J. W. Moses, J. L. Petersen, D. Cutlip, J.-C. Tardif, R. W. Nesto, J. E. Muller, M. J. Hendricks, S. T. Sum, C. M. Gardner, J. A. Goldstein, G. W. Stone, and M. W. Krucoff, “In vivo validation of a catheter-based near-infrared spectroscopy system for detection of lipid core coronary plaques: initial results of the SPECTACL study,” JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging 2(7), 858–868 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. M. Gardner, H. Tan, E. L. Hull, J. B. Lisauskas, S. T. Sum, T. M. Meese, C. Jiang, S. P. Madden, J. D. Caplan, A. P. Burke, R. Virmani, J. Goldstein, and J. E. Muller, “Detection of lipid core coronary plaques in autopsy specimens with a novel catheter-based near-infrared spectroscopy system,” JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging 1(5), 638–648 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Goldstein, J.

C. M. Gardner, H. Tan, E. L. Hull, J. B. Lisauskas, S. T. Sum, T. M. Meese, C. Jiang, S. P. Madden, J. D. Caplan, A. P. Burke, R. Virmani, J. Goldstein, and J. E. Muller, “Detection of lipid core coronary plaques in autopsy specimens with a novel catheter-based near-infrared spectroscopy system,” JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging 1(5), 638–648 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Goldstein, J. A.

R. D. Madder, J. A. Goldstein, S. P. Madden, R. Puri, K. Wolski, M. Hendricks, S. T. Sum, A. Kini, S. Sharma, D. Rizik, E. S. Brilakis, K. A. Shunk, J. Petersen, G. Weisz, R. Virmani, S. J. Nicholls, A. Maehara, G. S. Mintz, G. W. Stone, and J. E. Muller, “Detection by Near-Infrared Spectroscopy of Large Lipid Core Plaques at Culprit Sites in Patients With Acute ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction,” JACC Cardiovasc. Interv. 6(8), 838–846 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. D. Madder, J. L. Smith, S. R. Dixon, and J. A. Goldstein, “Composition of Target Lesions by Near-Infrared Spectroscopy in Patients With Acute Coronary Syndrome Versus Stable Angina,” Circ. Cardiovasc. Interv. 5(1), 55–61 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Waxman, S. R. Dixon, P. L’Allier, J. W. Moses, J. L. Petersen, D. Cutlip, J.-C. Tardif, R. W. Nesto, J. E. Muller, M. J. Hendricks, S. T. Sum, C. M. Gardner, J. A. Goldstein, G. W. Stone, and M. W. Krucoff, “In vivo validation of a catheter-based near-infrared spectroscopy system for detection of lipid core coronary plaques: initial results of the SPECTACL study,” JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging 2(7), 858–868 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gong, X.

Y. Li, X. Gong, C. Liu, R. Lin, W. Hau, X. Bai, and L. Song, “High-speed intravascular spectroscopic photoacoustic imaging at 1000 A-lines per second with a 0.9-mm diameter catheter,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(6), 065006 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gottlieb, E. J.

Q. Zhou, X. Xu, E. J. Gottlieb, L. Sun, J. M. Cannata, H. Ameri, M. S. Humayun, P. Han, and K. K. Shung, “PMN-PT single crystal, high-frequency ultrasonic needle transducers for pulsed-wave Doppler application,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 54(3), 668–675 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gubeli, J.

R. R. Anderson, W. Farinelli, H. Laubach, D. Manstein, A. N. Yaroslavsky, J. Gubeli, K. Jordan, G. R. Neil, M. Shinn, W. Chandler, G. P. Williams, S. V. Benson, D. R. Douglas, and H. F. Dylla, “Selective photothermolysis of lipid-rich tissues: A free electron laser study,” Lasers Surg. Med. 38(10), 913–919 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hall, A.

T. J. Allen, A. Hall, A. P. Dhillon, J. S. Owen, and P. C. Beard, “Spectroscopic photoacoustic imaging of lipid-rich plaques in the human aorta in the 740 to 1400 nm wavelength range,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(6), 061209 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Halpern, E. F.

Han, P.

Q. Zhou, X. Xu, E. J. Gottlieb, L. Sun, J. M. Cannata, H. Ameri, M. S. Humayun, P. Han, and K. K. Shung, “PMN-PT single crystal, high-frequency ultrasonic needle transducers for pulsed-wave Doppler application,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 54(3), 668–675 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hau, W.

Y. Li, X. Gong, C. Liu, R. Lin, W. Hau, X. Bai, and L. Song, “High-speed intravascular spectroscopic photoacoustic imaging at 1000 A-lines per second with a 0.9-mm diameter catheter,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(6), 065006 (2015).
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A. M. K. Nilsson, D. Heinrich, J. Olajos, and S. Andersson-Engels, “Near infrared diffuse reflection and laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy for myocardial tissue characterisation,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 53(11), 1901–1912 (1997).
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Hendricks, M.

R. D. Madder, J. A. Goldstein, S. P. Madden, R. Puri, K. Wolski, M. Hendricks, S. T. Sum, A. Kini, S. Sharma, D. Rizik, E. S. Brilakis, K. A. Shunk, J. Petersen, G. Weisz, R. Virmani, S. J. Nicholls, A. Maehara, G. S. Mintz, G. W. Stone, and J. E. Muller, “Detection by Near-Infrared Spectroscopy of Large Lipid Core Plaques at Culprit Sites in Patients With Acute ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction,” JACC Cardiovasc. Interv. 6(8), 838–846 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hendricks, M. J.

S. Waxman, S. R. Dixon, P. L’Allier, J. W. Moses, J. L. Petersen, D. Cutlip, J.-C. Tardif, R. W. Nesto, J. E. Muller, M. J. Hendricks, S. T. Sum, C. M. Gardner, J. A. Goldstein, G. W. Stone, and M. W. Krucoff, “In vivo validation of a catheter-based near-infrared spectroscopy system for detection of lipid core coronary plaques: initial results of the SPECTACL study,” JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging 2(7), 858–868 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hu, S.

H. W. Wang, N. Chai, P. Wang, S. Hu, W. Dou, D. Umulis, L. V. Wang, M. Sturek, R. Lucht, and J. X. Cheng, “Label-free bond-selective imaging by listening to vibrationally excited molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(23), 238106 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hui, J.

P. Wang, T. Ma, M. N. Slipchenko, S. Liang, J. Hui, K. K. Shung, S. Roy, M. Sturek, Q. Zhou, Z. Chen, and J.-X. Cheng, “High-speed intravascular photoacoustic imaging of lipid-laden atherosclerotic plaque enabled by a 2-kHz Barium Nitrite Raman Laser,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6889 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hull, E. L.

C. M. Gardner, H. Tan, E. L. Hull, J. B. Lisauskas, S. T. Sum, T. M. Meese, C. Jiang, S. P. Madden, J. D. Caplan, A. P. Burke, R. Virmani, J. Goldstein, and J. E. Muller, “Detection of lipid core coronary plaques in autopsy specimens with a novel catheter-based near-infrared spectroscopy system,” JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging 1(5), 638–648 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Humayun, M. S.

Q. Zhou, X. Xu, E. J. Gottlieb, L. Sun, J. M. Cannata, H. Ameri, M. S. Humayun, P. Han, and K. K. Shung, “PMN-PT single crystal, high-frequency ultrasonic needle transducers for pulsed-wave Doppler application,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 54(3), 668–675 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Humphries, J.

C. Stegemann, I. Drozdov, J. Shalhoub, J. Humphries, C. Ladroue, A. Didangelos, M. Baumert, M. Allen, A. H. Davies, C. Monaco, A. Smith, Q. Xu, and M. Mayr, “Comparative lipidomics profiling of human atherosclerotic plaques,” Circ Cardiovasc Genet 4(3), 232–242 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Stegemann, I. Drozdov, J. Shalhoub, J. Humphries, C. Ladroue, A. Didangelos, M. Baumert, M. Allen, A. H. Davies, C. Monaco, A. Smith, Q. Xu, and M. Mayr, “Comparative lipidomics profiling of human atherosclerotic plaques,” Circ. Cardiovasc. Genet. 4(3), 232–242 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jansen, K.

Jiang, C.

C. M. Gardner, H. Tan, E. L. Hull, J. B. Lisauskas, S. T. Sum, T. M. Meese, C. Jiang, S. P. Madden, J. D. Caplan, A. P. Burke, R. Virmani, J. Goldstein, and J. E. Muller, “Detection of lipid core coronary plaques in autopsy specimens with a novel catheter-based near-infrared spectroscopy system,” JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging 1(5), 638–648 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jordan, K.

R. R. Anderson, W. Farinelli, H. Laubach, D. Manstein, A. N. Yaroslavsky, J. Gubeli, K. Jordan, G. R. Neil, M. Shinn, W. Chandler, G. P. Williams, S. V. Benson, D. R. Douglas, and H. F. Dylla, “Selective photothermolysis of lipid-rich tissues: A free electron laser study,” Lasers Surg. Med. 38(10), 913–919 (2006).
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B. Wang, A. Karpiouk, D. Yeager, J. Amirian, S. Litovsky, R. Smalling, and S. Emelianov, “In vivo intravascular ultrasound-guided photoacoustic imaging of lipid in plaques using an animal model of atherosclerosis,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 38(12), 2098–2103 (2012).
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B. Wang, A. Karpiouk, D. Yeager, J. Amirian, S. Litovsky, R. Smalling, and S. Emelianov, “Intravascular photoacoustic imaging of lipid in atherosclerotic plaques in the presence of luminal blood,” Opt. Lett. 37(7), 1244–1246 (2012).
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J. D. Caplan, S. Waxman, R. W. Nesto, and J. E. Muller, “Near-infrared spectroscopy for the detection of vulnerable coronary artery plaques,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 47(8Suppl), C92–C96 (2006).
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Shalhoub, J.

C. Stegemann, I. Drozdov, J. Shalhoub, J. Humphries, C. Ladroue, A. Didangelos, M. Baumert, M. Allen, A. H. Davies, C. Monaco, A. Smith, Q. Xu, and M. Mayr, “Comparative lipidomics profiling of human atherosclerotic plaques,” Circ. Cardiovasc. Genet. 4(3), 232–242 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Stegemann, I. Drozdov, J. Shalhoub, J. Humphries, C. Ladroue, A. Didangelos, M. Baumert, M. Allen, A. H. Davies, C. Monaco, A. Smith, Q. Xu, and M. Mayr, “Comparative lipidomics profiling of human atherosclerotic plaques,” Circ Cardiovasc Genet 4(3), 232–242 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sharma, S.

R. D. Madder, J. A. Goldstein, S. P. Madden, R. Puri, K. Wolski, M. Hendricks, S. T. Sum, A. Kini, S. Sharma, D. Rizik, E. S. Brilakis, K. A. Shunk, J. Petersen, G. Weisz, R. Virmani, S. J. Nicholls, A. Maehara, G. S. Mintz, G. W. Stone, and J. E. Muller, “Detection by Near-Infrared Spectroscopy of Large Lipid Core Plaques at Culprit Sites in Patients With Acute ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction,” JACC Cardiovasc. Interv. 6(8), 838–846 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shimomura, I.

M. Takaoka, D. Nagata, S. Kihara, I. Shimomura, Y. Kimura, Y. Tabata, Y. Saito, R. Nagai, and M. Sata, “Periadventitial adipose tissue plays a critical role in vascular remodeling,” Circ. Res. 105(9), 906–911 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shinn, M.

R. R. Anderson, W. Farinelli, H. Laubach, D. Manstein, A. N. Yaroslavsky, J. Gubeli, K. Jordan, G. R. Neil, M. Shinn, W. Chandler, G. P. Williams, S. V. Benson, D. R. Douglas, and H. F. Dylla, “Selective photothermolysis of lipid-rich tissues: A free electron laser study,” Lasers Surg. Med. 38(10), 913–919 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shung, K. K.

P. Wang, T. Ma, M. N. Slipchenko, S. Liang, J. Hui, K. K. Shung, S. Roy, M. Sturek, Q. Zhou, Z. Chen, and J.-X. Cheng, “High-speed intravascular photoacoustic imaging of lipid-laden atherosclerotic plaque enabled by a 2-kHz Barium Nitrite Raman Laser,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6889 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Zhou, X. Xu, E. J. Gottlieb, L. Sun, J. M. Cannata, H. Ameri, M. S. Humayun, P. Han, and K. K. Shung, “PMN-PT single crystal, high-frequency ultrasonic needle transducers for pulsed-wave Doppler application,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 54(3), 668–675 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shunk, K. A.

R. D. Madder, J. A. Goldstein, S. P. Madden, R. Puri, K. Wolski, M. Hendricks, S. T. Sum, A. Kini, S. Sharma, D. Rizik, E. S. Brilakis, K. A. Shunk, J. Petersen, G. Weisz, R. Virmani, S. J. Nicholls, A. Maehara, G. S. Mintz, G. W. Stone, and J. E. Muller, “Detection by Near-Infrared Spectroscopy of Large Lipid Core Plaques at Culprit Sites in Patients With Acute ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction,” JACC Cardiovasc. Interv. 6(8), 838–846 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sivaramakrishnan, M.

M. Sivaramakrishnan, K. Maslov, H. F. Zhang, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Limitations of quantitative photoacoustic measurements of blood oxygenation in small vessels,” Phys. Med. Biol. 52(5), 1349–1361 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Slipchenko, M. N.

P. Wang, T. Ma, M. N. Slipchenko, S. Liang, J. Hui, K. K. Shung, S. Roy, M. Sturek, Q. Zhou, Z. Chen, and J.-X. Cheng, “High-speed intravascular photoacoustic imaging of lipid-laden atherosclerotic plaque enabled by a 2-kHz Barium Nitrite Raman Laser,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6889 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Smalling, R.

Smalling, R. W.

S. Sethuraman, J. H. Amirian, S. H. Litovsky, R. W. Smalling, and S. Y. Emelianov, “Ex vivo Characterization of Atherosclerosis using Intravascular Photoacoustic Imaging,” Opt. Express 15(25), 16657–16666 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Sethuraman, S. R. Aglyamov, J. H. Amirian, R. W. Smalling, and S. Y. Emelianov, “Intravascular photoacoustic imaging using an IVUS imaging catheter,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 54(5), 978–986 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Smith, A.

C. Stegemann, I. Drozdov, J. Shalhoub, J. Humphries, C. Ladroue, A. Didangelos, M. Baumert, M. Allen, A. H. Davies, C. Monaco, A. Smith, Q. Xu, and M. Mayr, “Comparative lipidomics profiling of human atherosclerotic plaques,” Circ. Cardiovasc. Genet. 4(3), 232–242 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Stegemann, I. Drozdov, J. Shalhoub, J. Humphries, C. Ladroue, A. Didangelos, M. Baumert, M. Allen, A. H. Davies, C. Monaco, A. Smith, Q. Xu, and M. Mayr, “Comparative lipidomics profiling of human atherosclerotic plaques,” Circ Cardiovasc Genet 4(3), 232–242 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Smith, J. L.

R. D. Madder, J. L. Smith, S. R. Dixon, and J. A. Goldstein, “Composition of Target Lesions by Near-Infrared Spectroscopy in Patients With Acute Coronary Syndrome Versus Stable Angina,” Circ. Cardiovasc. Interv. 5(1), 55–61 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Song, L.

Y. Li, X. Gong, C. Liu, R. Lin, W. Hau, X. Bai, and L. Song, “High-speed intravascular spectroscopic photoacoustic imaging at 1000 A-lines per second with a 0.9-mm diameter catheter,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(6), 065006 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Springeling, G.

Stefanadis, C.

J. A. Schaar, J. E. Muller, E. Falk, R. Virmani, V. Fuster, P. W. Serruys, A. Colombo, C. Stefanadis, S. Ward Casscells, P. R. Moreno, A. Maseri, and A. F. W. van der Steen, “Terminology for high-risk and vulnerable coronary artery plaques. Report of a meeting on the vulnerable plaque,” Eur. Heart J. 25(12), 1077–1082 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stegemann, C.

C. Stegemann, I. Drozdov, J. Shalhoub, J. Humphries, C. Ladroue, A. Didangelos, M. Baumert, M. Allen, A. H. Davies, C. Monaco, A. Smith, Q. Xu, and M. Mayr, “Comparative lipidomics profiling of human atherosclerotic plaques,” Circ Cardiovasc Genet 4(3), 232–242 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Stegemann, I. Drozdov, J. Shalhoub, J. Humphries, C. Ladroue, A. Didangelos, M. Baumert, M. Allen, A. H. Davies, C. Monaco, A. Smith, Q. Xu, and M. Mayr, “Comparative lipidomics profiling of human atherosclerotic plaques,” Circ. Cardiovasc. Genet. 4(3), 232–242 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stoica, G.

M. Sivaramakrishnan, K. Maslov, H. F. Zhang, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Limitations of quantitative photoacoustic measurements of blood oxygenation in small vessels,” Phys. Med. Biol. 52(5), 1349–1361 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stone, G. W.

R. D. Madder, J. A. Goldstein, S. P. Madden, R. Puri, K. Wolski, M. Hendricks, S. T. Sum, A. Kini, S. Sharma, D. Rizik, E. S. Brilakis, K. A. Shunk, J. Petersen, G. Weisz, R. Virmani, S. J. Nicholls, A. Maehara, G. S. Mintz, G. W. Stone, and J. E. Muller, “Detection by Near-Infrared Spectroscopy of Large Lipid Core Plaques at Culprit Sites in Patients With Acute ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction,” JACC Cardiovasc. Interv. 6(8), 838–846 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Waxman, S. R. Dixon, P. L’Allier, J. W. Moses, J. L. Petersen, D. Cutlip, J.-C. Tardif, R. W. Nesto, J. E. Muller, M. J. Hendricks, S. T. Sum, C. M. Gardner, J. A. Goldstein, G. W. Stone, and M. W. Krucoff, “In vivo validation of a catheter-based near-infrared spectroscopy system for detection of lipid core coronary plaques: initial results of the SPECTACL study,” JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging 2(7), 858–868 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sturek, M.

P. Wang, T. Ma, M. N. Slipchenko, S. Liang, J. Hui, K. K. Shung, S. Roy, M. Sturek, Q. Zhou, Z. Chen, and J.-X. Cheng, “High-speed intravascular photoacoustic imaging of lipid-laden atherosclerotic plaque enabled by a 2-kHz Barium Nitrite Raman Laser,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6889 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Wang, H. W. Wang, M. Sturek, and J. X. Cheng, “Bond-selective imaging of deep tissue through the optical window between 1600 and 1850 nm,” J. Biophotonics 5(1), 25–32 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. W. Wang, N. Chai, P. Wang, S. Hu, W. Dou, D. Umulis, L. V. Wang, M. Sturek, R. Lucht, and J. X. Cheng, “Label-free bond-selective imaging by listening to vibrationally excited molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(23), 238106 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Su, J. L.

Sum, S. T.

R. D. Madder, J. A. Goldstein, S. P. Madden, R. Puri, K. Wolski, M. Hendricks, S. T. Sum, A. Kini, S. Sharma, D. Rizik, E. S. Brilakis, K. A. Shunk, J. Petersen, G. Weisz, R. Virmani, S. J. Nicholls, A. Maehara, G. S. Mintz, G. W. Stone, and J. E. Muller, “Detection by Near-Infrared Spectroscopy of Large Lipid Core Plaques at Culprit Sites in Patients With Acute ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction,” JACC Cardiovasc. Interv. 6(8), 838–846 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Waxman, S. R. Dixon, P. L’Allier, J. W. Moses, J. L. Petersen, D. Cutlip, J.-C. Tardif, R. W. Nesto, J. E. Muller, M. J. Hendricks, S. T. Sum, C. M. Gardner, J. A. Goldstein, G. W. Stone, and M. W. Krucoff, “In vivo validation of a catheter-based near-infrared spectroscopy system for detection of lipid core coronary plaques: initial results of the SPECTACL study,” JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging 2(7), 858–868 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. M. Gardner, H. Tan, E. L. Hull, J. B. Lisauskas, S. T. Sum, T. M. Meese, C. Jiang, S. P. Madden, J. D. Caplan, A. P. Burke, R. Virmani, J. Goldstein, and J. E. Muller, “Detection of lipid core coronary plaques in autopsy specimens with a novel catheter-based near-infrared spectroscopy system,” JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging 1(5), 638–648 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sun, L.

Q. Zhou, X. Xu, E. J. Gottlieb, L. Sun, J. M. Cannata, H. Ameri, M. S. Humayun, P. Han, and K. K. Shung, “PMN-PT single crystal, high-frequency ultrasonic needle transducers for pulsed-wave Doppler application,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 54(3), 668–675 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tabata, Y.

M. Takaoka, D. Nagata, S. Kihara, I. Shimomura, Y. Kimura, Y. Tabata, Y. Saito, R. Nagai, and M. Sata, “Periadventitial adipose tissue plays a critical role in vascular remodeling,” Circ. Res. 105(9), 906–911 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Takaoka, M.

M. Takaoka, D. Nagata, S. Kihara, I. Shimomura, Y. Kimura, Y. Tabata, Y. Saito, R. Nagai, and M. Sata, “Periadventitial adipose tissue plays a critical role in vascular remodeling,” Circ. Res. 105(9), 906–911 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tan, H.

C. M. Gardner, H. Tan, E. L. Hull, J. B. Lisauskas, S. T. Sum, T. M. Meese, C. Jiang, S. P. Madden, J. D. Caplan, A. P. Burke, R. Virmani, J. Goldstein, and J. E. Muller, “Detection of lipid core coronary plaques in autopsy specimens with a novel catheter-based near-infrared spectroscopy system,” JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging 1(5), 638–648 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tardif, J.-C.

S. Waxman, S. R. Dixon, P. L’Allier, J. W. Moses, J. L. Petersen, D. Cutlip, J.-C. Tardif, R. W. Nesto, J. E. Muller, M. J. Hendricks, S. T. Sum, C. M. Gardner, J. A. Goldstein, G. W. Stone, and M. W. Krucoff, “In vivo validation of a catheter-based near-infrared spectroscopy system for detection of lipid core coronary plaques: initial results of the SPECTACL study,” JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging 2(7), 858–868 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tearney, G. J.

Tsai, C. L.

C. L. Tsai, J. C. Chen, and W. J. Wang, “Near-infrared absorption property of biological soft tissue constituents,” J. Med. Biol. Eng. 21, 7–14 (2001).

Umulis, D.

H. W. Wang, N. Chai, P. Wang, S. Hu, W. Dou, D. Umulis, L. V. Wang, M. Sturek, R. Lucht, and J. X. Cheng, “Label-free bond-selective imaging by listening to vibrationally excited molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(23), 238106 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

van Beusekom, H. M. M.

van der Steen, A. F.

van der Steen, A. F. W.

K. Jansen, A. F. W. van der Steen, H. M. M. van Beusekom, J. W. Oosterhuis, and G. van Soest, “Intravascular photoacoustic imaging of human coronary atherosclerosis,” Opt. Lett. 36(5), 597–599 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. Schaar, J. E. Muller, E. Falk, R. Virmani, V. Fuster, P. W. Serruys, A. Colombo, C. Stefanadis, S. Ward Casscells, P. R. Moreno, A. Maseri, and A. F. W. van der Steen, “Terminology for high-risk and vulnerable coronary artery plaques. Report of a meeting on the vulnerable plaque,” Eur. Heart J. 25(12), 1077–1082 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

van Soest, G.

Virmani, R.

R. D. Madder, J. A. Goldstein, S. P. Madden, R. Puri, K. Wolski, M. Hendricks, S. T. Sum, A. Kini, S. Sharma, D. Rizik, E. S. Brilakis, K. A. Shunk, J. Petersen, G. Weisz, R. Virmani, S. J. Nicholls, A. Maehara, G. S. Mintz, G. W. Stone, and J. E. Muller, “Detection by Near-Infrared Spectroscopy of Large Lipid Core Plaques at Culprit Sites in Patients With Acute ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction,” JACC Cardiovasc. Interv. 6(8), 838–846 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. M. Gardner, H. Tan, E. L. Hull, J. B. Lisauskas, S. T. Sum, T. M. Meese, C. Jiang, S. P. Madden, J. D. Caplan, A. P. Burke, R. Virmani, J. Goldstein, and J. E. Muller, “Detection of lipid core coronary plaques in autopsy specimens with a novel catheter-based near-infrared spectroscopy system,” JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging 1(5), 638–648 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Virmani, A. P. Burke, A. Farb, and F. D. Kolodgie, “Pathology of the vulnerable plaque,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 47(8Suppl), C13–C18 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. Schaar, J. E. Muller, E. Falk, R. Virmani, V. Fuster, P. W. Serruys, A. Colombo, C. Stefanadis, S. Ward Casscells, P. R. Moreno, A. Maseri, and A. F. W. van der Steen, “Terminology for high-risk and vulnerable coronary artery plaques. Report of a meeting on the vulnerable plaque,” Eur. Heart J. 25(12), 1077–1082 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, B.

Wang, H. W.

P. Wang, H. W. Wang, M. Sturek, and J. X. Cheng, “Bond-selective imaging of deep tissue through the optical window between 1600 and 1850 nm,” J. Biophotonics 5(1), 25–32 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. W. Wang, N. Chai, P. Wang, S. Hu, W. Dou, D. Umulis, L. V. Wang, M. Sturek, R. Lucht, and J. X. Cheng, “Label-free bond-selective imaging by listening to vibrationally excited molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(23), 238106 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, L. V.

H. W. Wang, N. Chai, P. Wang, S. Hu, W. Dou, D. Umulis, L. V. Wang, M. Sturek, R. Lucht, and J. X. Cheng, “Label-free bond-selective imaging by listening to vibrationally excited molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(23), 238106 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Sivaramakrishnan, K. Maslov, H. F. Zhang, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Limitations of quantitative photoacoustic measurements of blood oxygenation in small vessels,” Phys. Med. Biol. 52(5), 1349–1361 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, P.

P. Wang, T. Ma, M. N. Slipchenko, S. Liang, J. Hui, K. K. Shung, S. Roy, M. Sturek, Q. Zhou, Z. Chen, and J.-X. Cheng, “High-speed intravascular photoacoustic imaging of lipid-laden atherosclerotic plaque enabled by a 2-kHz Barium Nitrite Raman Laser,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6889 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Wang, H. W. Wang, M. Sturek, and J. X. Cheng, “Bond-selective imaging of deep tissue through the optical window between 1600 and 1850 nm,” J. Biophotonics 5(1), 25–32 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. W. Wang, N. Chai, P. Wang, S. Hu, W. Dou, D. Umulis, L. V. Wang, M. Sturek, R. Lucht, and J. X. Cheng, “Label-free bond-selective imaging by listening to vibrationally excited molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(23), 238106 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, W. J.

C. L. Tsai, J. C. Chen, and W. J. Wang, “Near-infrared absorption property of biological soft tissue constituents,” J. Med. Biol. Eng. 21, 7–14 (2001).

Ward Casscells, S.

J. A. Schaar, J. E. Muller, E. Falk, R. Virmani, V. Fuster, P. W. Serruys, A. Colombo, C. Stefanadis, S. Ward Casscells, P. R. Moreno, A. Maseri, and A. F. W. van der Steen, “Terminology for high-risk and vulnerable coronary artery plaques. Report of a meeting on the vulnerable plaque,” Eur. Heart J. 25(12), 1077–1082 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Waxman, S.

S. Waxman, S. R. Dixon, P. L’Allier, J. W. Moses, J. L. Petersen, D. Cutlip, J.-C. Tardif, R. W. Nesto, J. E. Muller, M. J. Hendricks, S. T. Sum, C. M. Gardner, J. A. Goldstein, G. W. Stone, and M. W. Krucoff, “In vivo validation of a catheter-based near-infrared spectroscopy system for detection of lipid core coronary plaques: initial results of the SPECTACL study,” JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging 2(7), 858–868 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. D. Caplan, S. Waxman, R. W. Nesto, and J. E. Muller, “Near-infrared spectroscopy for the detection of vulnerable coronary artery plaques,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 47(8Suppl), C92–C96 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weisz, G.

R. D. Madder, J. A. Goldstein, S. P. Madden, R. Puri, K. Wolski, M. Hendricks, S. T. Sum, A. Kini, S. Sharma, D. Rizik, E. S. Brilakis, K. A. Shunk, J. Petersen, G. Weisz, R. Virmani, S. J. Nicholls, A. Maehara, G. S. Mintz, G. W. Stone, and J. E. Muller, “Detection by Near-Infrared Spectroscopy of Large Lipid Core Plaques at Culprit Sites in Patients With Acute ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction,” JACC Cardiovasc. Interv. 6(8), 838–846 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weng, S.

Wieliczka, D. M.

Williams, G. P.

R. R. Anderson, W. Farinelli, H. Laubach, D. Manstein, A. N. Yaroslavsky, J. Gubeli, K. Jordan, G. R. Neil, M. Shinn, W. Chandler, G. P. Williams, S. V. Benson, D. R. Douglas, and H. F. Dylla, “Selective photothermolysis of lipid-rich tissues: A free electron laser study,” Lasers Surg. Med. 38(10), 913–919 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wolski, K.

R. D. Madder, J. A. Goldstein, S. P. Madden, R. Puri, K. Wolski, M. Hendricks, S. T. Sum, A. Kini, S. Sharma, D. Rizik, E. S. Brilakis, K. A. Shunk, J. Petersen, G. Weisz, R. Virmani, S. J. Nicholls, A. Maehara, G. S. Mintz, G. W. Stone, and J. E. Muller, “Detection by Near-Infrared Spectroscopy of Large Lipid Core Plaques at Culprit Sites in Patients With Acute ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction,” JACC Cardiovasc. Interv. 6(8), 838–846 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, M.

Xu, Q.

C. Stegemann, I. Drozdov, J. Shalhoub, J. Humphries, C. Ladroue, A. Didangelos, M. Baumert, M. Allen, A. H. Davies, C. Monaco, A. Smith, Q. Xu, and M. Mayr, “Comparative lipidomics profiling of human atherosclerotic plaques,” Circ Cardiovasc Genet 4(3), 232–242 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Stegemann, I. Drozdov, J. Shalhoub, J. Humphries, C. Ladroue, A. Didangelos, M. Baumert, M. Allen, A. H. Davies, C. Monaco, A. Smith, Q. Xu, and M. Mayr, “Comparative lipidomics profiling of human atherosclerotic plaques,” Circ. Cardiovasc. Genet. 4(3), 232–242 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, X.

Q. Zhou, X. Xu, E. J. Gottlieb, L. Sun, J. M. Cannata, H. Ameri, M. S. Humayun, P. Han, and K. K. Shung, “PMN-PT single crystal, high-frequency ultrasonic needle transducers for pulsed-wave Doppler application,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 54(3), 668–675 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yaroslavsky, A. N.

R. R. Anderson, W. Farinelli, H. Laubach, D. Manstein, A. N. Yaroslavsky, J. Gubeli, K. Jordan, G. R. Neil, M. Shinn, W. Chandler, G. P. Williams, S. V. Benson, D. R. Douglas, and H. F. Dylla, “Selective photothermolysis of lipid-rich tissues: A free electron laser study,” Lasers Surg. Med. 38(10), 913–919 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yeager, D.

B. Wang, A. Karpiouk, D. Yeager, J. Amirian, S. Litovsky, R. Smalling, and S. Emelianov, “In vivo intravascular ultrasound-guided photoacoustic imaging of lipid in plaques using an animal model of atherosclerosis,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 38(12), 2098–2103 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Wang, A. Karpiouk, D. Yeager, J. Amirian, S. Litovsky, R. Smalling, and S. Emelianov, “Intravascular photoacoustic imaging of lipid in atherosclerotic plaques in the presence of luminal blood,” Opt. Lett. 37(7), 1244–1246 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, H. F.

M. Sivaramakrishnan, K. Maslov, H. F. Zhang, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Limitations of quantitative photoacoustic measurements of blood oxygenation in small vessels,” Phys. Med. Biol. 52(5), 1349–1361 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, Q.

P. Wang, T. Ma, M. N. Slipchenko, S. Liang, J. Hui, K. K. Shung, S. Roy, M. Sturek, Q. Zhou, Z. Chen, and J.-X. Cheng, “High-speed intravascular photoacoustic imaging of lipid-laden atherosclerotic plaque enabled by a 2-kHz Barium Nitrite Raman Laser,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6889 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Zhou, X. Xu, E. J. Gottlieb, L. Sun, J. M. Cannata, H. Ameri, M. S. Humayun, P. Han, and K. K. Shung, “PMN-PT single crystal, high-frequency ultrasonic needle transducers for pulsed-wave Doppler application,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 54(3), 668–675 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Atherosclerosis (1)

B. Lundberg, “Chemical Composition and Physical State of Lipid Deposits in Atherosclerosis,” Atherosclerosis 56(1), 93–110 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

Circ Cardiovasc Genet (1)

C. Stegemann, I. Drozdov, J. Shalhoub, J. Humphries, C. Ladroue, A. Didangelos, M. Baumert, M. Allen, A. H. Davies, C. Monaco, A. Smith, Q. Xu, and M. Mayr, “Comparative lipidomics profiling of human atherosclerotic plaques,” Circ Cardiovasc Genet 4(3), 232–242 (2011).
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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Ex vivo IVPA/IVUS image of a human coronary artery. (a) Histology: Oil Red O staining of the imaging cross session.(b) 3 x magnification of a part of vessel wall (area outlined in green in (a)). (c) 10 x magnification of a part of vessel wall (area outlined in light blue in (a)). (d) 1710 nm combined IVPA/IVUS images of the same cross session shown in (a). The image also shows a strong signal from the adipose tissue surrounding the vessel from 9 o’clock to 3 o’clock. The dynamic range is 55 dB in the US image and 22 dB in the PA image.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 The spectra of different tissue types in 1.7µm spectral range. (a) The normalized PA spectra of different lipid samples. (b) The spectra of elastin, collagen water, and calcium obtained from refs [25–27, 29]. All spectra are normalized to their respective maxima.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Difference in PA normalized spectra between cholesterol and peri-adventitial fat. Four wavelengths produce a large enough difference to be useful for distinguishing the two.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 The relative difference between different tissue types at the wavelength of 1718 and 1734 nm plotted as average
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Lipid detection and differentiation result of the PVA vessel mimicking phantom. (a) The photo of the PVA vessel phantom with filled different lipid samples. (b) Lipid differentiation map fused with US image of the PVA vessel phantom. The lipids in plaques are in yellow and lipids in peri-adventitial tissue are in red. The dynamic range of the US image is 40 dB.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Ex vivo lipid differentiation result of an atherosclerotic human coronary artery (LAD, male, 80 years old). (a) Histology: Oil Red O staining of the IVPA/IVUS imaging cross section (lipids are in red). (b) Lipid differentiation map overlaid on the co-registered US image of the coronary artery. The lipids in plaques are in light blue and lipids in peri-adventitial tissue are in red. The dynamic range of the US image is 45 dB.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Ex vivo lipid identification result of a human coronary artery (LAD, male, 54 years old). (a) Histology: Oil Red O staining of the IVPA/IVUS imaging cross section (lipids are in red). (b) Lipid differentiation map overlaid on the co-registered US image of the coronary artery. The lipids in plaques are in light blue and lipids in peri-adventitial tissue are in red. The dynamic range of the US image is 45 dB.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Ex-vivo plaque lipid detection results (Phantom case in Fig. 5; artery case 1 in Fig. 6; artery case 2 in Fig. 7)

Equations (1)

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ΔPA= P A λ 1 P A λ 2 P A λ 1

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