Abstract

A novel radiofrequency ablation catheter has been developed with integrated custom designed optics, enabling real-time monitoring of radiofrequency ablation procedures through polarization-sensitive optical coherence reflectometry. The optics allow for proper tissue illumination through a view-port machined in the catheter tip, thus providing lesion depth control over the RF ablation treatment. The system was verified in an in-vitro model of swine myocardium. Optical performance and thermal stability was confirmed after more than 25 procedures, without any damage to the optical assembly induced by thermal stress or material degradation. The use of this catheter in RF ablation treatments may make possible to assess lesion depth during therapy, thus translating into a reduction of potential complications on the procedure.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
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2014 (1)

2013 (1)

J. M. Guerra, E. Jorge, S. Raga, C. Gálvez-Montón, C. Alonso-Martín, E. Rodríguez-Font, J. Cinca, and X. Vinolas, “Effects of open-irrigated radiofrequency ablation catheter design on lesion formation and complications: in vitro comparison of 6 different devices,” J. Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 24(10), 1157–1162 (2013).
[PubMed]

2012 (1)

A. Oron, N. Reshef, Y. Beer, T. Brosh, and G. Agar, “The influence of radiofrequency ablation patterns on length, histological and mechanical properties of tendons,” Muscles, Ligaments and Tendons Journal 2(2), 85–90 (2012).
[PubMed]

2011 (5)

F. Perna, E. KevinHeist, S. B. Danik, C. D. Barrett, J. N. Ruskin, and M. Mansour, “Assessment of catheter tip contact force resulting in cardiac perforation in swine atria using force sensing technology,” Circ. Arrhythm Electrophysiol 4, 218–224 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. D’Silva and M. Wright, “Advances in Imaging for Atrial Fibrillation Ablation,” Radiol. Res. Pract. 2011, 714864 (2011).

M. A. Wood, “Exposing gaps in linear radiofrequency lesions: form before function,” Circ. Arrhythm Electrophysiol 4, 257–259 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Wang, W. Kang, T. Carrigan, A. Bishop, N. Rosenthal, M. Arruda, and A. M. Rollins, “In vivo intracardiac optical coherence tomography imaging through percutaneous access: toward image-guided radio-frequency ablation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(11), 110505 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Wright, E. Harks, S. Deladi, F. Suijver, M. Barley, A. van Dusschoten, S. Fokkenrood, F. Zuo, F. Sacher, M. Hocini, M. Haissaguerre, and P. Jais, “Real-time lesion assessment using a novel combined ultrasound and radiofrequency ablation catheter,” Heart Rhythm 8, 304–312 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

D. C. Adler, C. Zhou, T. H. Tsai, H. C. Lee, L. Becker, J. M. Schmitt, Q. Huang, J. G. Fujimoto, and H. Mashimo, “Three-dimensional optical coherence tomography of Barrett’s esophagus and buried glands beneath neo-squamous epithelium following radiofrequency ablation,” Endoscopy 41(9), 773–776 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. J. Camm, P. Kirchhof, G. Y. Lip, U. Schotten, I. Savelieva, S. Ernst, I. C. Van Gelder, N. Al-Attar, G. Hindricks, B. Prendergast, H. Heidbuchel, O. Alfieri, A. Angelini, D. Atar, P. Colonna, R. De Caterina, J. De Sutter, A. Goette, B. Gorenek, M. Heldal, S. H. Hohloser, P. Kolh, J. Y. Le Heuzey, P. Ponikowski, and F. H. Rutten, “Guidelines for the management of atrial fibrillation: the Task Force for the Management of Atrial Fibrillation of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC),” Eur. Heart J. 31(19), 2369–2429 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

C. K. Hitzenberger, E. Götzinger, M. Sticker, M. Pircher, and A. F. Fercher, “Measurement and imaging of birefringence and optic axis orientation by phase resolved polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 9, 13 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

F. E. Marchlinski, D. J. Callans, C. D. Gottlieb, and E. Zado, “Linear ablation lesions for control of unmappable ventricular tachycardia in patients with ischemic and nonischemic cardiomyopathy,” Circulation 101, 1288–1296 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

H. Nakagawa, F. H.M. Wittkampf, W. S. Yamanashi, J. V. Pitha, S. Imai, B. Campbell, M. Arruda, R. Lazzara, and W. M. Jackman, “Inverse relationship between electrode size and lesion size during radiofrequency ablation with active electrode cooling,” Circulation 98, 458–465 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1992 (2)

L. S. Klein, H. Shih, F. K. Hackett, D. P. Zipes, and W. M. Miles, “Radiofrequency catheter ablation of ventricular tachycardia in patients without structural heart disease,” Circulation 85, 1666–1674 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. J. Langberg, H. Calkins, R. El-Atassi, M. Borganelli, A. Leon, S. J. Kalbfleisch, and F. Morady, “Temperature monitoring during radiofrequency catheter ablation of accessory pathways,” Circulation 86, 5 (1992).
[Crossref]

Adler, D. C.

D. C. Adler, C. Zhou, T. H. Tsai, H. C. Lee, L. Becker, J. M. Schmitt, Q. Huang, J. G. Fujimoto, and H. Mashimo, “Three-dimensional optical coherence tomography of Barrett’s esophagus and buried glands beneath neo-squamous epithelium following radiofrequency ablation,” Endoscopy 41(9), 773–776 (2010).
[Crossref]

Agar, G.

A. Oron, N. Reshef, Y. Beer, T. Brosh, and G. Agar, “The influence of radiofrequency ablation patterns on length, histological and mechanical properties of tendons,” Muscles, Ligaments and Tendons Journal 2(2), 85–90 (2012).
[PubMed]

Al-Attar, N.

A. J. Camm, P. Kirchhof, G. Y. Lip, U. Schotten, I. Savelieva, S. Ernst, I. C. Van Gelder, N. Al-Attar, G. Hindricks, B. Prendergast, H. Heidbuchel, O. Alfieri, A. Angelini, D. Atar, P. Colonna, R. De Caterina, J. De Sutter, A. Goette, B. Gorenek, M. Heldal, S. H. Hohloser, P. Kolh, J. Y. Le Heuzey, P. Ponikowski, and F. H. Rutten, “Guidelines for the management of atrial fibrillation: the Task Force for the Management of Atrial Fibrillation of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC),” Eur. Heart J. 31(19), 2369–2429 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alfieri, O.

A. J. Camm, P. Kirchhof, G. Y. Lip, U. Schotten, I. Savelieva, S. Ernst, I. C. Van Gelder, N. Al-Attar, G. Hindricks, B. Prendergast, H. Heidbuchel, O. Alfieri, A. Angelini, D. Atar, P. Colonna, R. De Caterina, J. De Sutter, A. Goette, B. Gorenek, M. Heldal, S. H. Hohloser, P. Kolh, J. Y. Le Heuzey, P. Ponikowski, and F. H. Rutten, “Guidelines for the management of atrial fibrillation: the Task Force for the Management of Atrial Fibrillation of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC),” Eur. Heart J. 31(19), 2369–2429 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alonso-Martín, C.

J. M. Guerra, E. Jorge, S. Raga, C. Gálvez-Montón, C. Alonso-Martín, E. Rodríguez-Font, J. Cinca, and X. Vinolas, “Effects of open-irrigated radiofrequency ablation catheter design on lesion formation and complications: in vitro comparison of 6 different devices,” J. Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 24(10), 1157–1162 (2013).
[PubMed]

Ames, A.

A. Ames and W. G. Stevenson, “Catheter Ablation of Atrial Fibrillation,” Cardiology Patient Page (2006).

Angelini, A.

A. J. Camm, P. Kirchhof, G. Y. Lip, U. Schotten, I. Savelieva, S. Ernst, I. C. Van Gelder, N. Al-Attar, G. Hindricks, B. Prendergast, H. Heidbuchel, O. Alfieri, A. Angelini, D. Atar, P. Colonna, R. De Caterina, J. De Sutter, A. Goette, B. Gorenek, M. Heldal, S. H. Hohloser, P. Kolh, J. Y. Le Heuzey, P. Ponikowski, and F. H. Rutten, “Guidelines for the management of atrial fibrillation: the Task Force for the Management of Atrial Fibrillation of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC),” Eur. Heart J. 31(19), 2369–2429 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arruda, M.

H. Wang, W. Kang, T. Carrigan, A. Bishop, N. Rosenthal, M. Arruda, and A. M. Rollins, “In vivo intracardiac optical coherence tomography imaging through percutaneous access: toward image-guided radio-frequency ablation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(11), 110505 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. Nakagawa, F. H.M. Wittkampf, W. S. Yamanashi, J. V. Pitha, S. Imai, B. Campbell, M. Arruda, R. Lazzara, and W. M. Jackman, “Inverse relationship between electrode size and lesion size during radiofrequency ablation with active electrode cooling,” Circulation 98, 458–465 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Atar, D.

A. J. Camm, P. Kirchhof, G. Y. Lip, U. Schotten, I. Savelieva, S. Ernst, I. C. Van Gelder, N. Al-Attar, G. Hindricks, B. Prendergast, H. Heidbuchel, O. Alfieri, A. Angelini, D. Atar, P. Colonna, R. De Caterina, J. De Sutter, A. Goette, B. Gorenek, M. Heldal, S. H. Hohloser, P. Kolh, J. Y. Le Heuzey, P. Ponikowski, and F. H. Rutten, “Guidelines for the management of atrial fibrillation: the Task Force for the Management of Atrial Fibrillation of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC),” Eur. Heart J. 31(19), 2369–2429 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barley, M.

M. Wright, E. Harks, S. Deladi, F. Suijver, M. Barley, A. van Dusschoten, S. Fokkenrood, F. Zuo, F. Sacher, M. Hocini, M. Haissaguerre, and P. Jais, “Real-time lesion assessment using a novel combined ultrasound and radiofrequency ablation catheter,” Heart Rhythm 8, 304–312 (2011).
[Crossref]

Barrett, C. D.

F. Perna, E. KevinHeist, S. B. Danik, C. D. Barrett, J. N. Ruskin, and M. Mansour, “Assessment of catheter tip contact force resulting in cardiac perforation in swine atria using force sensing technology,” Circ. Arrhythm Electrophysiol 4, 218–224 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Becker, L.

D. C. Adler, C. Zhou, T. H. Tsai, H. C. Lee, L. Becker, J. M. Schmitt, Q. Huang, J. G. Fujimoto, and H. Mashimo, “Three-dimensional optical coherence tomography of Barrett’s esophagus and buried glands beneath neo-squamous epithelium following radiofrequency ablation,” Endoscopy 41(9), 773–776 (2010).
[Crossref]

Beer, Y.

A. Oron, N. Reshef, Y. Beer, T. Brosh, and G. Agar, “The influence of radiofrequency ablation patterns on length, histological and mechanical properties of tendons,” Muscles, Ligaments and Tendons Journal 2(2), 85–90 (2012).
[PubMed]

Bishop, A.

H. Wang, W. Kang, T. Carrigan, A. Bishop, N. Rosenthal, M. Arruda, and A. M. Rollins, “In vivo intracardiac optical coherence tomography imaging through percutaneous access: toward image-guided radio-frequency ablation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(11), 110505 (2011).
[Crossref]

Borganelli, M.

J. J. Langberg, H. Calkins, R. El-Atassi, M. Borganelli, A. Leon, S. J. Kalbfleisch, and F. Morady, “Temperature monitoring during radiofrequency catheter ablation of accessory pathways,” Circulation 86, 5 (1992).
[Crossref]

Brosh, T.

A. Oron, N. Reshef, Y. Beer, T. Brosh, and G. Agar, “The influence of radiofrequency ablation patterns on length, histological and mechanical properties of tendons,” Muscles, Ligaments and Tendons Journal 2(2), 85–90 (2012).
[PubMed]

Calkins, H.

J. J. Langberg, H. Calkins, R. El-Atassi, M. Borganelli, A. Leon, S. J. Kalbfleisch, and F. Morady, “Temperature monitoring during radiofrequency catheter ablation of accessory pathways,” Circulation 86, 5 (1992).
[Crossref]

Callans, D. J.

F. E. Marchlinski, D. J. Callans, C. D. Gottlieb, and E. Zado, “Linear ablation lesions for control of unmappable ventricular tachycardia in patients with ischemic and nonischemic cardiomyopathy,” Circulation 101, 1288–1296 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Camm, A. J.

A. J. Camm, P. Kirchhof, G. Y. Lip, U. Schotten, I. Savelieva, S. Ernst, I. C. Van Gelder, N. Al-Attar, G. Hindricks, B. Prendergast, H. Heidbuchel, O. Alfieri, A. Angelini, D. Atar, P. Colonna, R. De Caterina, J. De Sutter, A. Goette, B. Gorenek, M. Heldal, S. H. Hohloser, P. Kolh, J. Y. Le Heuzey, P. Ponikowski, and F. H. Rutten, “Guidelines for the management of atrial fibrillation: the Task Force for the Management of Atrial Fibrillation of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC),” Eur. Heart J. 31(19), 2369–2429 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Campbell, B.

H. Nakagawa, F. H.M. Wittkampf, W. S. Yamanashi, J. V. Pitha, S. Imai, B. Campbell, M. Arruda, R. Lazzara, and W. M. Jackman, “Inverse relationship between electrode size and lesion size during radiofrequency ablation with active electrode cooling,” Circulation 98, 458–465 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Carrigan, T.

H. Wang, W. Kang, T. Carrigan, A. Bishop, N. Rosenthal, M. Arruda, and A. M. Rollins, “In vivo intracardiac optical coherence tomography imaging through percutaneous access: toward image-guided radio-frequency ablation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(11), 110505 (2011).
[Crossref]

Cinca, J.

J. M. Guerra, E. Jorge, S. Raga, C. Gálvez-Montón, C. Alonso-Martín, E. Rodríguez-Font, J. Cinca, and X. Vinolas, “Effects of open-irrigated radiofrequency ablation catheter design on lesion formation and complications: in vitro comparison of 6 different devices,” J. Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 24(10), 1157–1162 (2013).
[PubMed]

Colonna, P.

A. J. Camm, P. Kirchhof, G. Y. Lip, U. Schotten, I. Savelieva, S. Ernst, I. C. Van Gelder, N. Al-Attar, G. Hindricks, B. Prendergast, H. Heidbuchel, O. Alfieri, A. Angelini, D. Atar, P. Colonna, R. De Caterina, J. De Sutter, A. Goette, B. Gorenek, M. Heldal, S. H. Hohloser, P. Kolh, J. Y. Le Heuzey, P. Ponikowski, and F. H. Rutten, “Guidelines for the management of atrial fibrillation: the Task Force for the Management of Atrial Fibrillation of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC),” Eur. Heart J. 31(19), 2369–2429 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D’Silva, A.

A. D’Silva and M. Wright, “Advances in Imaging for Atrial Fibrillation Ablation,” Radiol. Res. Pract. 2011, 714864 (2011).

Danik, S. B.

F. Perna, E. KevinHeist, S. B. Danik, C. D. Barrett, J. N. Ruskin, and M. Mansour, “Assessment of catheter tip contact force resulting in cardiac perforation in swine atria using force sensing technology,” Circ. Arrhythm Electrophysiol 4, 218–224 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

De Caterina, R.

A. J. Camm, P. Kirchhof, G. Y. Lip, U. Schotten, I. Savelieva, S. Ernst, I. C. Van Gelder, N. Al-Attar, G. Hindricks, B. Prendergast, H. Heidbuchel, O. Alfieri, A. Angelini, D. Atar, P. Colonna, R. De Caterina, J. De Sutter, A. Goette, B. Gorenek, M. Heldal, S. H. Hohloser, P. Kolh, J. Y. Le Heuzey, P. Ponikowski, and F. H. Rutten, “Guidelines for the management of atrial fibrillation: the Task Force for the Management of Atrial Fibrillation of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC),” Eur. Heart J. 31(19), 2369–2429 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

De Sutter, J.

A. J. Camm, P. Kirchhof, G. Y. Lip, U. Schotten, I. Savelieva, S. Ernst, I. C. Van Gelder, N. Al-Attar, G. Hindricks, B. Prendergast, H. Heidbuchel, O. Alfieri, A. Angelini, D. Atar, P. Colonna, R. De Caterina, J. De Sutter, A. Goette, B. Gorenek, M. Heldal, S. H. Hohloser, P. Kolh, J. Y. Le Heuzey, P. Ponikowski, and F. H. Rutten, “Guidelines for the management of atrial fibrillation: the Task Force for the Management of Atrial Fibrillation of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC),” Eur. Heart J. 31(19), 2369–2429 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Deladi, S.

M. Wright, E. Harks, S. Deladi, F. Suijver, M. Barley, A. van Dusschoten, S. Fokkenrood, F. Zuo, F. Sacher, M. Hocini, M. Haissaguerre, and P. Jais, “Real-time lesion assessment using a novel combined ultrasound and radiofrequency ablation catheter,” Heart Rhythm 8, 304–312 (2011).
[Crossref]

El-Atassi, R.

J. J. Langberg, H. Calkins, R. El-Atassi, M. Borganelli, A. Leon, S. J. Kalbfleisch, and F. Morady, “Temperature monitoring during radiofrequency catheter ablation of accessory pathways,” Circulation 86, 5 (1992).
[Crossref]

Ernst, S.

A. J. Camm, P. Kirchhof, G. Y. Lip, U. Schotten, I. Savelieva, S. Ernst, I. C. Van Gelder, N. Al-Attar, G. Hindricks, B. Prendergast, H. Heidbuchel, O. Alfieri, A. Angelini, D. Atar, P. Colonna, R. De Caterina, J. De Sutter, A. Goette, B. Gorenek, M. Heldal, S. H. Hohloser, P. Kolh, J. Y. Le Heuzey, P. Ponikowski, and F. H. Rutten, “Guidelines for the management of atrial fibrillation: the Task Force for the Management of Atrial Fibrillation of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC),” Eur. Heart J. 31(19), 2369–2429 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fercher, A. F.

C. K. Hitzenberger, E. Götzinger, M. Sticker, M. Pircher, and A. F. Fercher, “Measurement and imaging of birefringence and optic axis orientation by phase resolved polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 9, 13 (2001).
[Crossref]

Fokkenrood, S.

M. Wright, E. Harks, S. Deladi, F. Suijver, M. Barley, A. van Dusschoten, S. Fokkenrood, F. Zuo, F. Sacher, M. Hocini, M. Haissaguerre, and P. Jais, “Real-time lesion assessment using a novel combined ultrasound and radiofrequency ablation catheter,” Heart Rhythm 8, 304–312 (2011).
[Crossref]

Foppen, S.

S. Foppen, “Experimental and numerical analysis of lesion growth during cardiac radiofrequency ablation,” BMTE (2009).

Fu, X.

Fujimoto, J. G.

D. C. Adler, C. Zhou, T. H. Tsai, H. C. Lee, L. Becker, J. M. Schmitt, Q. Huang, J. G. Fujimoto, and H. Mashimo, “Three-dimensional optical coherence tomography of Barrett’s esophagus and buried glands beneath neo-squamous epithelium following radiofrequency ablation,” Endoscopy 41(9), 773–776 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gálvez-Montón, C.

J. M. Guerra, E. Jorge, S. Raga, C. Gálvez-Montón, C. Alonso-Martín, E. Rodríguez-Font, J. Cinca, and X. Vinolas, “Effects of open-irrigated radiofrequency ablation catheter design on lesion formation and complications: in vitro comparison of 6 different devices,” J. Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 24(10), 1157–1162 (2013).
[PubMed]

Goette, A.

A. J. Camm, P. Kirchhof, G. Y. Lip, U. Schotten, I. Savelieva, S. Ernst, I. C. Van Gelder, N. Al-Attar, G. Hindricks, B. Prendergast, H. Heidbuchel, O. Alfieri, A. Angelini, D. Atar, P. Colonna, R. De Caterina, J. De Sutter, A. Goette, B. Gorenek, M. Heldal, S. H. Hohloser, P. Kolh, J. Y. Le Heuzey, P. Ponikowski, and F. H. Rutten, “Guidelines for the management of atrial fibrillation: the Task Force for the Management of Atrial Fibrillation of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC),” Eur. Heart J. 31(19), 2369–2429 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gorenek, B.

A. J. Camm, P. Kirchhof, G. Y. Lip, U. Schotten, I. Savelieva, S. Ernst, I. C. Van Gelder, N. Al-Attar, G. Hindricks, B. Prendergast, H. Heidbuchel, O. Alfieri, A. Angelini, D. Atar, P. Colonna, R. De Caterina, J. De Sutter, A. Goette, B. Gorenek, M. Heldal, S. H. Hohloser, P. Kolh, J. Y. Le Heuzey, P. Ponikowski, and F. H. Rutten, “Guidelines for the management of atrial fibrillation: the Task Force for the Management of Atrial Fibrillation of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC),” Eur. Heart J. 31(19), 2369–2429 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gottlieb, C. D.

F. E. Marchlinski, D. J. Callans, C. D. Gottlieb, and E. Zado, “Linear ablation lesions for control of unmappable ventricular tachycardia in patients with ischemic and nonischemic cardiomyopathy,” Circulation 101, 1288–1296 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Götzinger, E.

C. K. Hitzenberger, E. Götzinger, M. Sticker, M. Pircher, and A. F. Fercher, “Measurement and imaging of birefringence and optic axis orientation by phase resolved polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 9, 13 (2001).
[Crossref]

Guerra, J. M.

J. M. Guerra, E. Jorge, S. Raga, C. Gálvez-Montón, C. Alonso-Martín, E. Rodríguez-Font, J. Cinca, and X. Vinolas, “Effects of open-irrigated radiofrequency ablation catheter design on lesion formation and complications: in vitro comparison of 6 different devices,” J. Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 24(10), 1157–1162 (2013).
[PubMed]

Hackett, F. K.

L. S. Klein, H. Shih, F. K. Hackett, D. P. Zipes, and W. M. Miles, “Radiofrequency catheter ablation of ventricular tachycardia in patients without structural heart disease,” Circulation 85, 1666–1674 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Haissaguerre, M.

M. Wright, E. Harks, S. Deladi, F. Suijver, M. Barley, A. van Dusschoten, S. Fokkenrood, F. Zuo, F. Sacher, M. Hocini, M. Haissaguerre, and P. Jais, “Real-time lesion assessment using a novel combined ultrasound and radiofrequency ablation catheter,” Heart Rhythm 8, 304–312 (2011).
[Crossref]

Harks, E.

M. Wright, E. Harks, S. Deladi, F. Suijver, M. Barley, A. van Dusschoten, S. Fokkenrood, F. Zuo, F. Sacher, M. Hocini, M. Haissaguerre, and P. Jais, “Real-time lesion assessment using a novel combined ultrasound and radiofrequency ablation catheter,” Heart Rhythm 8, 304–312 (2011).
[Crossref]

Heidbuchel, H.

A. J. Camm, P. Kirchhof, G. Y. Lip, U. Schotten, I. Savelieva, S. Ernst, I. C. Van Gelder, N. Al-Attar, G. Hindricks, B. Prendergast, H. Heidbuchel, O. Alfieri, A. Angelini, D. Atar, P. Colonna, R. De Caterina, J. De Sutter, A. Goette, B. Gorenek, M. Heldal, S. H. Hohloser, P. Kolh, J. Y. Le Heuzey, P. Ponikowski, and F. H. Rutten, “Guidelines for the management of atrial fibrillation: the Task Force for the Management of Atrial Fibrillation of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC),” Eur. Heart J. 31(19), 2369–2429 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Heldal, M.

A. J. Camm, P. Kirchhof, G. Y. Lip, U. Schotten, I. Savelieva, S. Ernst, I. C. Van Gelder, N. Al-Attar, G. Hindricks, B. Prendergast, H. Heidbuchel, O. Alfieri, A. Angelini, D. Atar, P. Colonna, R. De Caterina, J. De Sutter, A. Goette, B. Gorenek, M. Heldal, S. H. Hohloser, P. Kolh, J. Y. Le Heuzey, P. Ponikowski, and F. H. Rutten, “Guidelines for the management of atrial fibrillation: the Task Force for the Management of Atrial Fibrillation of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC),” Eur. Heart J. 31(19), 2369–2429 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hindricks, G.

A. J. Camm, P. Kirchhof, G. Y. Lip, U. Schotten, I. Savelieva, S. Ernst, I. C. Van Gelder, N. Al-Attar, G. Hindricks, B. Prendergast, H. Heidbuchel, O. Alfieri, A. Angelini, D. Atar, P. Colonna, R. De Caterina, J. De Sutter, A. Goette, B. Gorenek, M. Heldal, S. H. Hohloser, P. Kolh, J. Y. Le Heuzey, P. Ponikowski, and F. H. Rutten, “Guidelines for the management of atrial fibrillation: the Task Force for the Management of Atrial Fibrillation of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC),” Eur. Heart J. 31(19), 2369–2429 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hitzenberger, C. K.

C. K. Hitzenberger, E. Götzinger, M. Sticker, M. Pircher, and A. F. Fercher, “Measurement and imaging of birefringence and optic axis orientation by phase resolved polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 9, 13 (2001).
[Crossref]

Hocini, M.

M. Wright, E. Harks, S. Deladi, F. Suijver, M. Barley, A. van Dusschoten, S. Fokkenrood, F. Zuo, F. Sacher, M. Hocini, M. Haissaguerre, and P. Jais, “Real-time lesion assessment using a novel combined ultrasound and radiofrequency ablation catheter,” Heart Rhythm 8, 304–312 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hohloser, S. H.

A. J. Camm, P. Kirchhof, G. Y. Lip, U. Schotten, I. Savelieva, S. Ernst, I. C. Van Gelder, N. Al-Attar, G. Hindricks, B. Prendergast, H. Heidbuchel, O. Alfieri, A. Angelini, D. Atar, P. Colonna, R. De Caterina, J. De Sutter, A. Goette, B. Gorenek, M. Heldal, S. H. Hohloser, P. Kolh, J. Y. Le Heuzey, P. Ponikowski, and F. H. Rutten, “Guidelines for the management of atrial fibrillation: the Task Force for the Management of Atrial Fibrillation of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC),” Eur. Heart J. 31(19), 2369–2429 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, Q.

D. C. Adler, C. Zhou, T. H. Tsai, H. C. Lee, L. Becker, J. M. Schmitt, Q. Huang, J. G. Fujimoto, and H. Mashimo, “Three-dimensional optical coherence tomography of Barrett’s esophagus and buried glands beneath neo-squamous epithelium following radiofrequency ablation,” Endoscopy 41(9), 773–776 (2010).
[Crossref]

Imai, S.

H. Nakagawa, F. H.M. Wittkampf, W. S. Yamanashi, J. V. Pitha, S. Imai, B. Campbell, M. Arruda, R. Lazzara, and W. M. Jackman, “Inverse relationship between electrode size and lesion size during radiofrequency ablation with active electrode cooling,” Circulation 98, 458–465 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jackman, W. M.

H. Nakagawa, F. H.M. Wittkampf, W. S. Yamanashi, J. V. Pitha, S. Imai, B. Campbell, M. Arruda, R. Lazzara, and W. M. Jackman, “Inverse relationship between electrode size and lesion size during radiofrequency ablation with active electrode cooling,” Circulation 98, 458–465 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jais, P.

M. Wright, E. Harks, S. Deladi, F. Suijver, M. Barley, A. van Dusschoten, S. Fokkenrood, F. Zuo, F. Sacher, M. Hocini, M. Haissaguerre, and P. Jais, “Real-time lesion assessment using a novel combined ultrasound and radiofrequency ablation catheter,” Heart Rhythm 8, 304–312 (2011).
[Crossref]

Jenkins, M. W.

Jorge, E.

J. M. Guerra, E. Jorge, S. Raga, C. Gálvez-Montón, C. Alonso-Martín, E. Rodríguez-Font, J. Cinca, and X. Vinolas, “Effects of open-irrigated radiofrequency ablation catheter design on lesion formation and complications: in vitro comparison of 6 different devices,” J. Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 24(10), 1157–1162 (2013).
[PubMed]

Kalbfleisch, S. J.

J. J. Langberg, H. Calkins, R. El-Atassi, M. Borganelli, A. Leon, S. J. Kalbfleisch, and F. Morady, “Temperature monitoring during radiofrequency catheter ablation of accessory pathways,” Circulation 86, 5 (1992).
[Crossref]

Kang, W.

H. Wang, W. Kang, T. Carrigan, A. Bishop, N. Rosenthal, M. Arruda, and A. M. Rollins, “In vivo intracardiac optical coherence tomography imaging through percutaneous access: toward image-guided radio-frequency ablation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(11), 110505 (2011).
[Crossref]

KevinHeist, E.

F. Perna, E. KevinHeist, S. B. Danik, C. D. Barrett, J. N. Ruskin, and M. Mansour, “Assessment of catheter tip contact force resulting in cardiac perforation in swine atria using force sensing technology,” Circ. Arrhythm Electrophysiol 4, 218–224 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kirchhof, P.

A. J. Camm, P. Kirchhof, G. Y. Lip, U. Schotten, I. Savelieva, S. Ernst, I. C. Van Gelder, N. Al-Attar, G. Hindricks, B. Prendergast, H. Heidbuchel, O. Alfieri, A. Angelini, D. Atar, P. Colonna, R. De Caterina, J. De Sutter, A. Goette, B. Gorenek, M. Heldal, S. H. Hohloser, P. Kolh, J. Y. Le Heuzey, P. Ponikowski, and F. H. Rutten, “Guidelines for the management of atrial fibrillation: the Task Force for the Management of Atrial Fibrillation of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC),” Eur. Heart J. 31(19), 2369–2429 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Klein, L. S.

L. S. Klein, H. Shih, F. K. Hackett, D. P. Zipes, and W. M. Miles, “Radiofrequency catheter ablation of ventricular tachycardia in patients without structural heart disease,” Circulation 85, 1666–1674 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kolh, P.

A. J. Camm, P. Kirchhof, G. Y. Lip, U. Schotten, I. Savelieva, S. Ernst, I. C. Van Gelder, N. Al-Attar, G. Hindricks, B. Prendergast, H. Heidbuchel, O. Alfieri, A. Angelini, D. Atar, P. Colonna, R. De Caterina, J. De Sutter, A. Goette, B. Gorenek, M. Heldal, S. H. Hohloser, P. Kolh, J. Y. Le Heuzey, P. Ponikowski, and F. H. Rutten, “Guidelines for the management of atrial fibrillation: the Task Force for the Management of Atrial Fibrillation of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC),” Eur. Heart J. 31(19), 2369–2429 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Langberg, J. J.

J. J. Langberg, H. Calkins, R. El-Atassi, M. Borganelli, A. Leon, S. J. Kalbfleisch, and F. Morady, “Temperature monitoring during radiofrequency catheter ablation of accessory pathways,” Circulation 86, 5 (1992).
[Crossref]

Lazzara, R.

H. Nakagawa, F. H.M. Wittkampf, W. S. Yamanashi, J. V. Pitha, S. Imai, B. Campbell, M. Arruda, R. Lazzara, and W. M. Jackman, “Inverse relationship between electrode size and lesion size during radiofrequency ablation with active electrode cooling,” Circulation 98, 458–465 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Le Heuzey, J. Y.

A. J. Camm, P. Kirchhof, G. Y. Lip, U. Schotten, I. Savelieva, S. Ernst, I. C. Van Gelder, N. Al-Attar, G. Hindricks, B. Prendergast, H. Heidbuchel, O. Alfieri, A. Angelini, D. Atar, P. Colonna, R. De Caterina, J. De Sutter, A. Goette, B. Gorenek, M. Heldal, S. H. Hohloser, P. Kolh, J. Y. Le Heuzey, P. Ponikowski, and F. H. Rutten, “Guidelines for the management of atrial fibrillation: the Task Force for the Management of Atrial Fibrillation of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC),” Eur. Heart J. 31(19), 2369–2429 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, H. C.

D. C. Adler, C. Zhou, T. H. Tsai, H. C. Lee, L. Becker, J. M. Schmitt, Q. Huang, J. G. Fujimoto, and H. Mashimo, “Three-dimensional optical coherence tomography of Barrett’s esophagus and buried glands beneath neo-squamous epithelium following radiofrequency ablation,” Endoscopy 41(9), 773–776 (2010).
[Crossref]

Leon, A.

J. J. Langberg, H. Calkins, R. El-Atassi, M. Borganelli, A. Leon, S. J. Kalbfleisch, and F. Morady, “Temperature monitoring during radiofrequency catheter ablation of accessory pathways,” Circulation 86, 5 (1992).
[Crossref]

Lip, G. Y.

A. J. Camm, P. Kirchhof, G. Y. Lip, U. Schotten, I. Savelieva, S. Ernst, I. C. Van Gelder, N. Al-Attar, G. Hindricks, B. Prendergast, H. Heidbuchel, O. Alfieri, A. Angelini, D. Atar, P. Colonna, R. De Caterina, J. De Sutter, A. Goette, B. Gorenek, M. Heldal, S. H. Hohloser, P. Kolh, J. Y. Le Heuzey, P. Ponikowski, and F. H. Rutten, “Guidelines for the management of atrial fibrillation: the Task Force for the Management of Atrial Fibrillation of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC),” Eur. Heart J. 31(19), 2369–2429 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mansour, M.

F. Perna, E. KevinHeist, S. B. Danik, C. D. Barrett, J. N. Ruskin, and M. Mansour, “Assessment of catheter tip contact force resulting in cardiac perforation in swine atria using force sensing technology,” Circ. Arrhythm Electrophysiol 4, 218–224 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Marchlinski, F. E.

F. E. Marchlinski, D. J. Callans, C. D. Gottlieb, and E. Zado, “Linear ablation lesions for control of unmappable ventricular tachycardia in patients with ischemic and nonischemic cardiomyopathy,” Circulation 101, 1288–1296 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mashimo, H.

D. C. Adler, C. Zhou, T. H. Tsai, H. C. Lee, L. Becker, J. M. Schmitt, Q. Huang, J. G. Fujimoto, and H. Mashimo, “Three-dimensional optical coherence tomography of Barrett’s esophagus and buried glands beneath neo-squamous epithelium following radiofrequency ablation,” Endoscopy 41(9), 773–776 (2010).
[Crossref]

Miles, W. M.

L. S. Klein, H. Shih, F. K. Hackett, D. P. Zipes, and W. M. Miles, “Radiofrequency catheter ablation of ventricular tachycardia in patients without structural heart disease,” Circulation 85, 1666–1674 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Morady, F.

J. J. Langberg, H. Calkins, R. El-Atassi, M. Borganelli, A. Leon, S. J. Kalbfleisch, and F. Morady, “Temperature monitoring during radiofrequency catheter ablation of accessory pathways,” Circulation 86, 5 (1992).
[Crossref]

Nakagawa, H.

H. Nakagawa, F. H.M. Wittkampf, W. S. Yamanashi, J. V. Pitha, S. Imai, B. Campbell, M. Arruda, R. Lazzara, and W. M. Jackman, “Inverse relationship between electrode size and lesion size during radiofrequency ablation with active electrode cooling,” Circulation 98, 458–465 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nardella, P. C.

P. C. Nardella, “Radio frequency energy and impedance feedback,” Proc. SPIE1068 (1989).
[Crossref]

Oron, A.

A. Oron, N. Reshef, Y. Beer, T. Brosh, and G. Agar, “The influence of radiofrequency ablation patterns on length, histological and mechanical properties of tendons,” Muscles, Ligaments and Tendons Journal 2(2), 85–90 (2012).
[PubMed]

Perna, F.

F. Perna, E. KevinHeist, S. B. Danik, C. D. Barrett, J. N. Ruskin, and M. Mansour, “Assessment of catheter tip contact force resulting in cardiac perforation in swine atria using force sensing technology,” Circ. Arrhythm Electrophysiol 4, 218–224 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pircher, M.

C. K. Hitzenberger, E. Götzinger, M. Sticker, M. Pircher, and A. F. Fercher, “Measurement and imaging of birefringence and optic axis orientation by phase resolved polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 9, 13 (2001).
[Crossref]

Pitha, J. V.

H. Nakagawa, F. H.M. Wittkampf, W. S. Yamanashi, J. V. Pitha, S. Imai, B. Campbell, M. Arruda, R. Lazzara, and W. M. Jackman, “Inverse relationship between electrode size and lesion size during radiofrequency ablation with active electrode cooling,” Circulation 98, 458–465 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ponikowski, P.

A. J. Camm, P. Kirchhof, G. Y. Lip, U. Schotten, I. Savelieva, S. Ernst, I. C. Van Gelder, N. Al-Attar, G. Hindricks, B. Prendergast, H. Heidbuchel, O. Alfieri, A. Angelini, D. Atar, P. Colonna, R. De Caterina, J. De Sutter, A. Goette, B. Gorenek, M. Heldal, S. H. Hohloser, P. Kolh, J. Y. Le Heuzey, P. Ponikowski, and F. H. Rutten, “Guidelines for the management of atrial fibrillation: the Task Force for the Management of Atrial Fibrillation of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC),” Eur. Heart J. 31(19), 2369–2429 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Prendergast, B.

A. J. Camm, P. Kirchhof, G. Y. Lip, U. Schotten, I. Savelieva, S. Ernst, I. C. Van Gelder, N. Al-Attar, G. Hindricks, B. Prendergast, H. Heidbuchel, O. Alfieri, A. Angelini, D. Atar, P. Colonna, R. De Caterina, J. De Sutter, A. Goette, B. Gorenek, M. Heldal, S. H. Hohloser, P. Kolh, J. Y. Le Heuzey, P. Ponikowski, and F. H. Rutten, “Guidelines for the management of atrial fibrillation: the Task Force for the Management of Atrial Fibrillation of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC),” Eur. Heart J. 31(19), 2369–2429 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Raga, S.

J. M. Guerra, E. Jorge, S. Raga, C. Gálvez-Montón, C. Alonso-Martín, E. Rodríguez-Font, J. Cinca, and X. Vinolas, “Effects of open-irrigated radiofrequency ablation catheter design on lesion formation and complications: in vitro comparison of 6 different devices,” J. Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 24(10), 1157–1162 (2013).
[PubMed]

Reshef, N.

A. Oron, N. Reshef, Y. Beer, T. Brosh, and G. Agar, “The influence of radiofrequency ablation patterns on length, histological and mechanical properties of tendons,” Muscles, Ligaments and Tendons Journal 2(2), 85–90 (2012).
[PubMed]

Rodríguez-Font, E.

J. M. Guerra, E. Jorge, S. Raga, C. Gálvez-Montón, C. Alonso-Martín, E. Rodríguez-Font, J. Cinca, and X. Vinolas, “Effects of open-irrigated radiofrequency ablation catheter design on lesion formation and complications: in vitro comparison of 6 different devices,” J. Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 24(10), 1157–1162 (2013).
[PubMed]

Rollins, A. M.

X. Fu, Z. Wang, H. Wang, Y. T. Wang, M. W. Jenkins, and A. M. Rollins, “Fiber-optic catheter-based polarization-sensitive OCT for radio-frequency ablation monitoring,” Opt. Lett. 39, 17 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Wang, W. Kang, T. Carrigan, A. Bishop, N. Rosenthal, M. Arruda, and A. M. Rollins, “In vivo intracardiac optical coherence tomography imaging through percutaneous access: toward image-guided radio-frequency ablation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(11), 110505 (2011).
[Crossref]

Rosenthal, N.

H. Wang, W. Kang, T. Carrigan, A. Bishop, N. Rosenthal, M. Arruda, and A. M. Rollins, “In vivo intracardiac optical coherence tomography imaging through percutaneous access: toward image-guided radio-frequency ablation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(11), 110505 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ruskin, J. N.

F. Perna, E. KevinHeist, S. B. Danik, C. D. Barrett, J. N. Ruskin, and M. Mansour, “Assessment of catheter tip contact force resulting in cardiac perforation in swine atria using force sensing technology,” Circ. Arrhythm Electrophysiol 4, 218–224 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rutten, F. H.

A. J. Camm, P. Kirchhof, G. Y. Lip, U. Schotten, I. Savelieva, S. Ernst, I. C. Van Gelder, N. Al-Attar, G. Hindricks, B. Prendergast, H. Heidbuchel, O. Alfieri, A. Angelini, D. Atar, P. Colonna, R. De Caterina, J. De Sutter, A. Goette, B. Gorenek, M. Heldal, S. H. Hohloser, P. Kolh, J. Y. Le Heuzey, P. Ponikowski, and F. H. Rutten, “Guidelines for the management of atrial fibrillation: the Task Force for the Management of Atrial Fibrillation of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC),” Eur. Heart J. 31(19), 2369–2429 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sacher, F.

M. Wright, E. Harks, S. Deladi, F. Suijver, M. Barley, A. van Dusschoten, S. Fokkenrood, F. Zuo, F. Sacher, M. Hocini, M. Haissaguerre, and P. Jais, “Real-time lesion assessment using a novel combined ultrasound and radiofrequency ablation catheter,” Heart Rhythm 8, 304–312 (2011).
[Crossref]

Savelieva, I.

A. J. Camm, P. Kirchhof, G. Y. Lip, U. Schotten, I. Savelieva, S. Ernst, I. C. Van Gelder, N. Al-Attar, G. Hindricks, B. Prendergast, H. Heidbuchel, O. Alfieri, A. Angelini, D. Atar, P. Colonna, R. De Caterina, J. De Sutter, A. Goette, B. Gorenek, M. Heldal, S. H. Hohloser, P. Kolh, J. Y. Le Heuzey, P. Ponikowski, and F. H. Rutten, “Guidelines for the management of atrial fibrillation: the Task Force for the Management of Atrial Fibrillation of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC),” Eur. Heart J. 31(19), 2369–2429 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schmitt, J. M.

D. C. Adler, C. Zhou, T. H. Tsai, H. C. Lee, L. Becker, J. M. Schmitt, Q. Huang, J. G. Fujimoto, and H. Mashimo, “Three-dimensional optical coherence tomography of Barrett’s esophagus and buried glands beneath neo-squamous epithelium following radiofrequency ablation,” Endoscopy 41(9), 773–776 (2010).
[Crossref]

Schotten, U.

A. J. Camm, P. Kirchhof, G. Y. Lip, U. Schotten, I. Savelieva, S. Ernst, I. C. Van Gelder, N. Al-Attar, G. Hindricks, B. Prendergast, H. Heidbuchel, O. Alfieri, A. Angelini, D. Atar, P. Colonna, R. De Caterina, J. De Sutter, A. Goette, B. Gorenek, M. Heldal, S. H. Hohloser, P. Kolh, J. Y. Le Heuzey, P. Ponikowski, and F. H. Rutten, “Guidelines for the management of atrial fibrillation: the Task Force for the Management of Atrial Fibrillation of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC),” Eur. Heart J. 31(19), 2369–2429 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shih, H.

L. S. Klein, H. Shih, F. K. Hackett, D. P. Zipes, and W. M. Miles, “Radiofrequency catheter ablation of ventricular tachycardia in patients without structural heart disease,” Circulation 85, 1666–1674 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stevenson, W. G.

A. Ames and W. G. Stevenson, “Catheter Ablation of Atrial Fibrillation,” Cardiology Patient Page (2006).

Sticker, M.

C. K. Hitzenberger, E. Götzinger, M. Sticker, M. Pircher, and A. F. Fercher, “Measurement and imaging of birefringence and optic axis orientation by phase resolved polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 9, 13 (2001).
[Crossref]

Suijver, F.

M. Wright, E. Harks, S. Deladi, F. Suijver, M. Barley, A. van Dusschoten, S. Fokkenrood, F. Zuo, F. Sacher, M. Hocini, M. Haissaguerre, and P. Jais, “Real-time lesion assessment using a novel combined ultrasound and radiofrequency ablation catheter,” Heart Rhythm 8, 304–312 (2011).
[Crossref]

Tsai, T. H.

D. C. Adler, C. Zhou, T. H. Tsai, H. C. Lee, L. Becker, J. M. Schmitt, Q. Huang, J. G. Fujimoto, and H. Mashimo, “Three-dimensional optical coherence tomography of Barrett’s esophagus and buried glands beneath neo-squamous epithelium following radiofrequency ablation,” Endoscopy 41(9), 773–776 (2010).
[Crossref]

van Dusschoten, A.

M. Wright, E. Harks, S. Deladi, F. Suijver, M. Barley, A. van Dusschoten, S. Fokkenrood, F. Zuo, F. Sacher, M. Hocini, M. Haissaguerre, and P. Jais, “Real-time lesion assessment using a novel combined ultrasound and radiofrequency ablation catheter,” Heart Rhythm 8, 304–312 (2011).
[Crossref]

Van Gelder, I. C.

A. J. Camm, P. Kirchhof, G. Y. Lip, U. Schotten, I. Savelieva, S. Ernst, I. C. Van Gelder, N. Al-Attar, G. Hindricks, B. Prendergast, H. Heidbuchel, O. Alfieri, A. Angelini, D. Atar, P. Colonna, R. De Caterina, J. De Sutter, A. Goette, B. Gorenek, M. Heldal, S. H. Hohloser, P. Kolh, J. Y. Le Heuzey, P. Ponikowski, and F. H. Rutten, “Guidelines for the management of atrial fibrillation: the Task Force for the Management of Atrial Fibrillation of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC),” Eur. Heart J. 31(19), 2369–2429 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vinolas, X.

J. M. Guerra, E. Jorge, S. Raga, C. Gálvez-Montón, C. Alonso-Martín, E. Rodríguez-Font, J. Cinca, and X. Vinolas, “Effects of open-irrigated radiofrequency ablation catheter design on lesion formation and complications: in vitro comparison of 6 different devices,” J. Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 24(10), 1157–1162 (2013).
[PubMed]

Wang, H.

X. Fu, Z. Wang, H. Wang, Y. T. Wang, M. W. Jenkins, and A. M. Rollins, “Fiber-optic catheter-based polarization-sensitive OCT for radio-frequency ablation monitoring,” Opt. Lett. 39, 17 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Wang, W. Kang, T. Carrigan, A. Bishop, N. Rosenthal, M. Arruda, and A. M. Rollins, “In vivo intracardiac optical coherence tomography imaging through percutaneous access: toward image-guided radio-frequency ablation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(11), 110505 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y. T.

Wang, Z.

Wittkampf, F. H.M.

H. Nakagawa, F. H.M. Wittkampf, W. S. Yamanashi, J. V. Pitha, S. Imai, B. Campbell, M. Arruda, R. Lazzara, and W. M. Jackman, “Inverse relationship between electrode size and lesion size during radiofrequency ablation with active electrode cooling,” Circulation 98, 458–465 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wood, M. A.

M. A. Wood, “Exposing gaps in linear radiofrequency lesions: form before function,” Circ. Arrhythm Electrophysiol 4, 257–259 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wright, M.

M. Wright, E. Harks, S. Deladi, F. Suijver, M. Barley, A. van Dusschoten, S. Fokkenrood, F. Zuo, F. Sacher, M. Hocini, M. Haissaguerre, and P. Jais, “Real-time lesion assessment using a novel combined ultrasound and radiofrequency ablation catheter,” Heart Rhythm 8, 304–312 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. D’Silva and M. Wright, “Advances in Imaging for Atrial Fibrillation Ablation,” Radiol. Res. Pract. 2011, 714864 (2011).

Yamanashi, W. S.

H. Nakagawa, F. H.M. Wittkampf, W. S. Yamanashi, J. V. Pitha, S. Imai, B. Campbell, M. Arruda, R. Lazzara, and W. M. Jackman, “Inverse relationship between electrode size and lesion size during radiofrequency ablation with active electrode cooling,” Circulation 98, 458–465 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zado, E.

F. E. Marchlinski, D. J. Callans, C. D. Gottlieb, and E. Zado, “Linear ablation lesions for control of unmappable ventricular tachycardia in patients with ischemic and nonischemic cardiomyopathy,” Circulation 101, 1288–1296 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, C.

D. C. Adler, C. Zhou, T. H. Tsai, H. C. Lee, L. Becker, J. M. Schmitt, Q. Huang, J. G. Fujimoto, and H. Mashimo, “Three-dimensional optical coherence tomography of Barrett’s esophagus and buried glands beneath neo-squamous epithelium following radiofrequency ablation,” Endoscopy 41(9), 773–776 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zipes, D. P.

L. S. Klein, H. Shih, F. K. Hackett, D. P. Zipes, and W. M. Miles, “Radiofrequency catheter ablation of ventricular tachycardia in patients without structural heart disease,” Circulation 85, 1666–1674 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zuo, F.

M. Wright, E. Harks, S. Deladi, F. Suijver, M. Barley, A. van Dusschoten, S. Fokkenrood, F. Zuo, F. Sacher, M. Hocini, M. Haissaguerre, and P. Jais, “Real-time lesion assessment using a novel combined ultrasound and radiofrequency ablation catheter,” Heart Rhythm 8, 304–312 (2011).
[Crossref]

Circ. Arrhythm Electrophysiol (2)

F. Perna, E. KevinHeist, S. B. Danik, C. D. Barrett, J. N. Ruskin, and M. Mansour, “Assessment of catheter tip contact force resulting in cardiac perforation in swine atria using force sensing technology,” Circ. Arrhythm Electrophysiol 4, 218–224 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Wood, “Exposing gaps in linear radiofrequency lesions: form before function,” Circ. Arrhythm Electrophysiol 4, 257–259 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Circulation (4)

J. J. Langberg, H. Calkins, R. El-Atassi, M. Borganelli, A. Leon, S. J. Kalbfleisch, and F. Morady, “Temperature monitoring during radiofrequency catheter ablation of accessory pathways,” Circulation 86, 5 (1992).
[Crossref]

F. E. Marchlinski, D. J. Callans, C. D. Gottlieb, and E. Zado, “Linear ablation lesions for control of unmappable ventricular tachycardia in patients with ischemic and nonischemic cardiomyopathy,” Circulation 101, 1288–1296 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. S. Klein, H. Shih, F. K. Hackett, D. P. Zipes, and W. M. Miles, “Radiofrequency catheter ablation of ventricular tachycardia in patients without structural heart disease,” Circulation 85, 1666–1674 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Nakagawa, F. H.M. Wittkampf, W. S. Yamanashi, J. V. Pitha, S. Imai, B. Campbell, M. Arruda, R. Lazzara, and W. M. Jackman, “Inverse relationship between electrode size and lesion size during radiofrequency ablation with active electrode cooling,” Circulation 98, 458–465 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Endoscopy (1)

D. C. Adler, C. Zhou, T. H. Tsai, H. C. Lee, L. Becker, J. M. Schmitt, Q. Huang, J. G. Fujimoto, and H. Mashimo, “Three-dimensional optical coherence tomography of Barrett’s esophagus and buried glands beneath neo-squamous epithelium following radiofrequency ablation,” Endoscopy 41(9), 773–776 (2010).
[Crossref]

Eur. Heart J. (1)

A. J. Camm, P. Kirchhof, G. Y. Lip, U. Schotten, I. Savelieva, S. Ernst, I. C. Van Gelder, N. Al-Attar, G. Hindricks, B. Prendergast, H. Heidbuchel, O. Alfieri, A. Angelini, D. Atar, P. Colonna, R. De Caterina, J. De Sutter, A. Goette, B. Gorenek, M. Heldal, S. H. Hohloser, P. Kolh, J. Y. Le Heuzey, P. Ponikowski, and F. H. Rutten, “Guidelines for the management of atrial fibrillation: the Task Force for the Management of Atrial Fibrillation of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC),” Eur. Heart J. 31(19), 2369–2429 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Heart Rhythm (1)

M. Wright, E. Harks, S. Deladi, F. Suijver, M. Barley, A. van Dusschoten, S. Fokkenrood, F. Zuo, F. Sacher, M. Hocini, M. Haissaguerre, and P. Jais, “Real-time lesion assessment using a novel combined ultrasound and radiofrequency ablation catheter,” Heart Rhythm 8, 304–312 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

H. Wang, W. Kang, T. Carrigan, A. Bishop, N. Rosenthal, M. Arruda, and A. M. Rollins, “In vivo intracardiac optical coherence tomography imaging through percutaneous access: toward image-guided radio-frequency ablation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(11), 110505 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Cardiovasc Electrophysiol (1)

J. M. Guerra, E. Jorge, S. Raga, C. Gálvez-Montón, C. Alonso-Martín, E. Rodríguez-Font, J. Cinca, and X. Vinolas, “Effects of open-irrigated radiofrequency ablation catheter design on lesion formation and complications: in vitro comparison of 6 different devices,” J. Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 24(10), 1157–1162 (2013).
[PubMed]

Muscles, Ligaments and Tendons Journal (1)

A. Oron, N. Reshef, Y. Beer, T. Brosh, and G. Agar, “The influence of radiofrequency ablation patterns on length, histological and mechanical properties of tendons,” Muscles, Ligaments and Tendons Journal 2(2), 85–90 (2012).
[PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

C. K. Hitzenberger, E. Götzinger, M. Sticker, M. Pircher, and A. F. Fercher, “Measurement and imaging of birefringence and optic axis orientation by phase resolved polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 9, 13 (2001).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Radiol. Res. Pract. (1)

A. D’Silva and M. Wright, “Advances in Imaging for Atrial Fibrillation Ablation,” Radiol. Res. Pract. 2011, 714864 (2011).

Other (3)

P. C. Nardella, “Radio frequency energy and impedance feedback,” Proc. SPIE1068 (1989).
[Crossref]

A. Ames and W. G. Stevenson, “Catheter Ablation of Atrial Fibrillation,” Cardiology Patient Page (2006).

S. Foppen, “Experimental and numerical analysis of lesion growth during cardiac radiofrequency ablation,” BMTE (2009).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Sketch-based modeling used for the focal length calculations.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Optical simulations using Zemax. (b) and (c) depict the optical assembly by optical microscope featuring 5x magnification (optical fiber with corresponding ferrule, GRIN lens and glass spacer).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Sketch of the experimental setup. The system consists of a swept laser source (SS), polarizer (P), polarized beam splitter (PBS), fiber coupler (FC), circulator (CIR), collimator (C), variable attenuator (VA) and mirror (M). (b) and (c) show a picture of the in-vitro chamber. and catheter contact with the cardiac swine tissue, respectively.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Accumulated phase retardation and temperature evolution in time of an in-vitro swine myocardium at tissue surface. (b) A characteristic histology sample collected from ablated tissue, where complete or partial loss of membrane borders is shown. Coagulative necrosis has been denoted by cn.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Representative OCR images of an in-vitro swine myocardium with the forward imaging catheter probe: (a) and (b) show the structural and accumulated phase retardation evolution in time (M-scan), respectively. The measurement was done applying 40W and the arrow represents the time instant when the RF power start to be applied. (c) and (d) show the recorded structural and polarization sensitive signal for RFA treatment when the tip moves, respectively. Region 1 represents the RFA time interval, in 2 slippage appears and in 3 the contact is lost.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Figure represents the time dependence of the ablation process at 1 mm below the surface. The insets show the criteria for analyze the time dependence.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Typical L value for 5 different integrated catheter. The L has been measured as a function of the deflection angle (θ). The table represents when the catheter is maximally deflected (i.e. minimum radius of curvature (ROC) and maximum optical losses (L)) and when it is straightened.

Equations (3)

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w s = D o F × λ 2 π = 17.752 μ m
m = w s w 0 = 3.989
L = 10 log 10 ( P P r e f )

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