Abstract

Visible light optical coherence tomography (vis-OCT) has demonstrated its capability of measuring vascular oxygen saturation (sO2) in vivo. Enhanced by OCT angiography, the signal from microvasculature can be further isolated and directly used for sO2 extraction. In this work, we extended the theoretical formulation for OCT angiography-based oximetry by incorporating the contribution from motion contrast enhancement. We presented a new method to eliminate the associated confounding variables due to blood flow. First, we performed in vitro experiments to verify our theory, showing a stable spectral derivative within the selected wavelength bands for sO2 extraction. Then, we tested our method in vivo to measure retinal sO2 in rats inhaling different gas mixtures: normal air, 5% CO2, pure O2, and 10% O2. Absolute sO2 values in major arterioles and venules in the retinal circulation can be accurately measured. In addition, we demonstrated the relative changes of sO2 can be measured non-invasively from choriocapillaris immediately underneath the retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) in rodents.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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2015 (1)

2014 (5)

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, O. Tan, M. L. Klein, C. J. Flaxel, B. Potsaid, J. J. Liu, C. D. Lu, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of Choroidal Neovascularization in Age-Related Macular Degeneration,” Ophthalmology 121(7), 1435–1444 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Srinivas, O. Tan, S. Wu, M. G. Nittala, D. Huang, R. Varma, and S. R. Sadda, “Doppler Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography measured Retinal blood flow in Chinese American adults: The Chinese American Eye Study,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 55(5), 214 (2014).

W. Song, Q. Wei, W. Liu, T. Liu, J. Yi, N. Sheibani, A. A. Fawzi, R. A. Linsenmeier, S. Jiao, and H. F. Zhang, “A combined method to quantify the retinal metabolic rate of oxygen using photoacoustic ophthalmoscopy and optical coherence tomography,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6525 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Bosschaart, G. J. Edelman, M. C. Aalders, T. G. van Leeuwen, and D. J. Faber, “A literature review and novel theoretical approach on the optical properties of whole blood,” Lasers Med. Sci. 29(2), 453–479 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yi, S. Chen, V. Backman, and H. F. Zhang, “In vivo functional microangiography by visible-light optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(10), 3603–3612 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (4)

J. Yi, Q. Wei, W. Liu, V. Backman, and H. F. Zhang, “Visible-light optical coherence tomography for retinal oximetry,” Opt. Lett. 38(11), 1796–1798 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Dai, X. Liu, H. F. Zhang, C. A. Puliafito, and S. Jiao, “Absolute Retinal Blood Flow Measurement With a Dual-Beam Doppler Optical Coherence Tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(13), 7998–8003 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Y. Kim, J. Fingler, R. J. Zawadzki, S. S. Park, L. S. Morse, D. M. Schwartz, S. E. Fraser, and J. S. Werner, “Optical imaging of the chorioretinal vasculature in the living human eye,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110(35), 14354–14359 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. D. Rogers, A. J. Radosevich, J. Yi, and V. Backman, “Modeling Light Scattering in Tissue as Continuous Random Media Using a Versatile Refractive Index Correlation Function,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(2), 173–186 (2013).
[PubMed]

2012 (4)

2011 (6)

Z. Zhi, W. Cepurna, E. Johnson, T. Shen, J. Morrison, and R. K. Wang, “Volumetric and quantitative imaging of retinal blood flow in rats with optical microangiography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(3), 579–591 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Baumann, B. Potsaid, M. F. Kraus, J. J. Liu, D. Huang, J. Hornegger, A. E. Cable, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Total retinal blood flow measurement with ultrahigh speed swept source/Fourier domain OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(6), 1539–1552 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Lee, V. Srinivasan, H. Radhakrishnan, and D. A. Boas, “Motion correction for phase-resolved dynamic optical coherence tomography imaging of rodent cerebral cortex,” Opt. Express 19(22), 21258–21270 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yao, K. I. Maslov, Y. Zhang, Y. Xia, and L. V. Wang, “Label-free oxygen-metabolic photoacoustic microscopy in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(7), 076003 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. E. Robles, C. Wilson, G. Grant, and A. Wax, “Molecular imaging true-colour spectroscopic optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 744–747 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, A. A. Fawzi, R. Varma, A. A. Sadun, X. Zhang, O. Tan, J. A. Izatt, and D. Huang, “Pilot Study of Optical Coherence Tomography Measurement of Retinal Blood Flow in Retinal and Optic Nerve Diseases,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(2), 840–845 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

2008 (2)

2007 (3)

L. Kagemann, G. Wollstein, M. Wojtkowski, H. Ishikawa, K. A. Townsend, M. L. Gabriele, V. J. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Schuman, “Spectral oximetry assessed with high-speed ultra-high-resolution optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041212 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. M. Zysk, F. T. Nguyen, A. L. Oldenburg, D. L. Marks, and S. A. Boppart, “Optical coherence tomography: a review of clinical development from bench to bedside,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 051403 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, O. Tan, and D. Huang, “In vivo total retinal blood flow measurement by Fourier domain Doppler optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041215 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

D. J. Faber, M. C. G. Aalders, E. G. Mik, B. A. Hooper, M. J. C. van Gemert, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “Oxygen Saturation-Dependent Absorption and Scattering of Blood,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(2), 028102 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (4)

2002 (2)

O. Akça, A. G. Doufas, N. Morioka, S. Iscoe, J. Fisher, and D. I. Sessler, “Hypercapnia improves tissue oxygenation,” Anesthesiology 97(4), 801–806 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. T. Dorner, G. Garhoefer, C. Zawinka, B. Kiss, and L. Schmetterer, “Response of retinal blood flow to CO2-breathing in humans,” Eur. J. Ophthalmol. 12(6), 459–466 (2002).
[PubMed]

1997 (1)

L. Wang, P. Törnquist, and A. Bill, “Glucose metabolism in pig outer retina in light and darkness,” Acta Physiol. Scand. 160(1), 75–81 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

M. Hammer, A. Roggan, D. Schweitzer, and G. Müller, “Optical properties of ocular fundus tissues-an in vitro study using the double-integrating-sphere technique and inverse Monte Carlo simulation,” Phys. Med. Biol. 40(6), 963–978 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1970 (1)

A. Alm and A. Bill, “Blood flow and oxygen extraction in the cat uvea at normal and high intraocular pressures,” Acta Physiol. Scand. 80(1), 19–28 (1970).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aalders, M. C.

N. Bosschaart, G. J. Edelman, M. C. Aalders, T. G. van Leeuwen, and D. J. Faber, “A literature review and novel theoretical approach on the optical properties of whole blood,” Lasers Med. Sci. 29(2), 453–479 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aalders, M. C. G.

Akça, O.

O. Akça, A. G. Doufas, N. Morioka, S. Iscoe, J. Fisher, and D. I. Sessler, “Hypercapnia improves tissue oxygenation,” Anesthesiology 97(4), 801–806 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alm, A.

A. Alm and A. Bill, “Blood flow and oxygen extraction in the cat uvea at normal and high intraocular pressures,” Acta Physiol. Scand. 80(1), 19–28 (1970).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alpers, C. E.

An, L.

Backman, V.

J. Yi, S. Chen, V. Backman, and H. F. Zhang, “In vivo functional microangiography by visible-light optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(10), 3603–3612 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. D. Rogers, A. J. Radosevich, J. Yi, and V. Backman, “Modeling Light Scattering in Tissue as Continuous Random Media Using a Versatile Refractive Index Correlation Function,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(2), 173–186 (2013).
[PubMed]

J. Yi, Q. Wei, W. Liu, V. Backman, and H. F. Zhang, “Visible-light optical coherence tomography for retinal oximetry,” Opt. Lett. 38(11), 1796–1798 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yi and V. Backman, “Imaging a full set of optical scattering properties of biological tissue by inverse spectroscopic optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 37(21), 4443–4445 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Chen, J. Yi, W. Liu, V. Backman, and H. Zhang, “Monte Carlo Investigation of Optical Coherence Tomography Retinal Oximetry,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. (Accepted).
[PubMed]

Bailey, S. T.

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, O. Tan, M. L. Klein, C. J. Flaxel, B. Potsaid, J. J. Liu, C. D. Lu, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of Choroidal Neovascularization in Age-Related Macular Degeneration,” Ophthalmology 121(7), 1435–1444 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barry, S.

Baumann, B.

Bill, A.

L. Wang, P. Törnquist, and A. Bill, “Glucose metabolism in pig outer retina in light and darkness,” Acta Physiol. Scand. 160(1), 75–81 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Alm and A. Bill, “Blood flow and oxygen extraction in the cat uvea at normal and high intraocular pressures,” Acta Physiol. Scand. 80(1), 19–28 (1970).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boas, D. A.

Boltz, A.

R. M. Werkmeister, N. Dragostinoff, S. Palkovits, R. Told, A. Boltz, R. A. Leitgeb, M. Gröschl, G. Garhöfer, and L. Schmetterer, “Measurement of Absolute Blood Flow Velocity and Blood Flow in the Human Retina by Dual-Beam Bidirectional Doppler Fourier-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53(10), 6062–6071 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boppart, S. A.

A. M. Zysk, F. T. Nguyen, A. L. Oldenburg, D. L. Marks, and S. A. Boppart, “Optical coherence tomography: a review of clinical development from bench to bedside,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 051403 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bosschaart, N.

N. Bosschaart, G. J. Edelman, M. C. Aalders, T. G. van Leeuwen, and D. J. Faber, “A literature review and novel theoretical approach on the optical properties of whole blood,” Lasers Med. Sci. 29(2), 453–479 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bouma, B.

Bower, B. A.

Y. Wang, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, O. Tan, and D. Huang, “In vivo total retinal blood flow measurement by Fourier domain Doppler optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041215 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cable, A. E.

Cense, B.

Cepurna, W.

Chen, S.

J. Yi, S. Chen, V. Backman, and H. F. Zhang, “In vivo functional microangiography by visible-light optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(10), 3603–3612 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Chen, J. Yi, W. Liu, V. Backman, and H. Zhang, “Monte Carlo Investigation of Optical Coherence Tomography Retinal Oximetry,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. (Accepted).
[PubMed]

Chen, T.

Chong, S. P.

Chowdhury, S.

Dai, C.

C. Dai, X. Liu, H. F. Zhang, C. A. Puliafito, and S. Jiao, “Absolute Retinal Blood Flow Measurement With a Dual-Beam Doppler Optical Coherence Tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(13), 7998–8003 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

de Boer, J.

Dorner, G. T.

G. T. Dorner, G. Garhoefer, C. Zawinka, B. Kiss, and L. Schmetterer, “Response of retinal blood flow to CO2-breathing in humans,” Eur. J. Ophthalmol. 12(6), 459–466 (2002).
[PubMed]

Doufas, A. G.

O. Akça, A. G. Doufas, N. Morioka, S. Iscoe, J. Fisher, and D. I. Sessler, “Hypercapnia improves tissue oxygenation,” Anesthesiology 97(4), 801–806 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dragostinoff, N.

R. M. Werkmeister, N. Dragostinoff, S. Palkovits, R. Told, A. Boltz, R. A. Leitgeb, M. Gröschl, G. Garhöfer, and L. Schmetterer, “Measurement of Absolute Blood Flow Velocity and Blood Flow in the Human Retina by Dual-Beam Bidirectional Doppler Fourier-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53(10), 6062–6071 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Duker, J. S.

Dziennis, S.

Edelman, G. J.

N. Bosschaart, G. J. Edelman, M. C. Aalders, T. G. van Leeuwen, and D. J. Faber, “A literature review and novel theoretical approach on the optical properties of whole blood,” Lasers Med. Sci. 29(2), 453–479 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Faber, D. J.

N. Bosschaart, G. J. Edelman, M. C. Aalders, T. G. van Leeuwen, and D. J. Faber, “A literature review and novel theoretical approach on the optical properties of whole blood,” Lasers Med. Sci. 29(2), 453–479 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Faber, E. G. Mik, M. C. G. Aalders, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “Toward assessment of blood oxygen saturation by spectroscopic optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 30(9), 1015–1017 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Faber, M. C. G. Aalders, E. G. Mik, B. A. Hooper, M. J. C. van Gemert, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “Oxygen Saturation-Dependent Absorption and Scattering of Blood,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(2), 028102 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Faber, E. G. Mik, M. C. G. Aalders, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “Light absorption of (oxy-)hemoglobin assessed by spectroscopic optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 28(16), 1436–1438 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fawzi, A. A.

W. Song, Q. Wei, W. Liu, T. Liu, J. Yi, N. Sheibani, A. A. Fawzi, R. A. Linsenmeier, S. Jiao, and H. F. Zhang, “A combined method to quantify the retinal metabolic rate of oxygen using photoacoustic ophthalmoscopy and optical coherence tomography,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6525 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, A. A. Fawzi, R. Varma, A. A. Sadun, X. Zhang, O. Tan, J. A. Izatt, and D. Huang, “Pilot Study of Optical Coherence Tomography Measurement of Retinal Blood Flow in Retinal and Optic Nerve Diseases,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(2), 840–845 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fingler, J.

D. Y. Kim, J. Fingler, R. J. Zawadzki, S. S. Park, L. S. Morse, D. M. Schwartz, S. E. Fraser, and J. S. Werner, “Optical imaging of the chorioretinal vasculature in the living human eye,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110(35), 14354–14359 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fisher, J.

O. Akça, A. G. Doufas, N. Morioka, S. Iscoe, J. Fisher, and D. I. Sessler, “Hypercapnia improves tissue oxygenation,” Anesthesiology 97(4), 801–806 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Flaxel, C. J.

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, O. Tan, M. L. Klein, C. J. Flaxel, B. Potsaid, J. J. Liu, C. D. Lu, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of Choroidal Neovascularization in Age-Related Macular Degeneration,” Ophthalmology 121(7), 1435–1444 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fraser, S. E.

D. Y. Kim, J. Fingler, R. J. Zawadzki, S. S. Park, L. S. Morse, D. M. Schwartz, S. E. Fraser, and J. S. Werner, “Optical imaging of the chorioretinal vasculature in the living human eye,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110(35), 14354–14359 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, O. Tan, M. L. Klein, C. J. Flaxel, B. Potsaid, J. J. Liu, C. D. Lu, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of Choroidal Neovascularization in Age-Related Macular Degeneration,” Ophthalmology 121(7), 1435–1444 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, O. Tan, J. Tokayer, B. Potsaid, Y. Wang, J. J. Liu, M. F. Kraus, H. Subhash, J. G. Fujimoto, J. Hornegger, and D. Huang, “Split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography with optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 20(4), 4710–4725 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Baumann, B. Potsaid, M. F. Kraus, J. J. Liu, D. Huang, J. Hornegger, A. E. Cable, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Total retinal blood flow measurement with ultrahigh speed swept source/Fourier domain OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(6), 1539–1552 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Kagemann, G. Wollstein, M. Wojtkowski, H. Ishikawa, K. A. Townsend, M. L. Gabriele, V. J. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Schuman, “Spectral oximetry assessed with high-speed ultra-high-resolution optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041212 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography for ultrahigh resolution in vivo imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21(11), 1361–1367 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gabriele, M. L.

L. Kagemann, G. Wollstein, M. Wojtkowski, H. Ishikawa, K. A. Townsend, M. L. Gabriele, V. J. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Schuman, “Spectral oximetry assessed with high-speed ultra-high-resolution optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041212 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Garhoefer, G.

G. T. Dorner, G. Garhoefer, C. Zawinka, B. Kiss, and L. Schmetterer, “Response of retinal blood flow to CO2-breathing in humans,” Eur. J. Ophthalmol. 12(6), 459–466 (2002).
[PubMed]

Garhöfer, G.

R. M. Werkmeister, N. Dragostinoff, S. Palkovits, R. Told, A. Boltz, R. A. Leitgeb, M. Gröschl, G. Garhöfer, and L. Schmetterer, “Measurement of Absolute Blood Flow Velocity and Blood Flow in the Human Retina by Dual-Beam Bidirectional Doppler Fourier-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53(10), 6062–6071 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grant, G.

F. E. Robles, C. Wilson, G. Grant, and A. Wax, “Molecular imaging true-colour spectroscopic optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 744–747 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gröschl, M.

R. M. Werkmeister, N. Dragostinoff, S. Palkovits, R. Told, A. Boltz, R. A. Leitgeb, M. Gröschl, G. Garhöfer, and L. Schmetterer, “Measurement of Absolute Blood Flow Velocity and Blood Flow in the Human Retina by Dual-Beam Bidirectional Doppler Fourier-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53(10), 6062–6071 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hammer, M.

M. Hammer, A. Roggan, D. Schweitzer, and G. Müller, “Optical properties of ocular fundus tissues-an in vitro study using the double-integrating-sphere technique and inverse Monte Carlo simulation,” Phys. Med. Biol. 40(6), 963–978 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hooper, B. A.

D. J. Faber, M. C. G. Aalders, E. G. Mik, B. A. Hooper, M. J. C. van Gemert, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “Oxygen Saturation-Dependent Absorption and Scattering of Blood,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(2), 028102 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hornegger, J.

Huang, D.

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, O. Tan, M. L. Klein, C. J. Flaxel, B. Potsaid, J. J. Liu, C. D. Lu, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of Choroidal Neovascularization in Age-Related Macular Degeneration,” Ophthalmology 121(7), 1435–1444 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Srinivas, O. Tan, S. Wu, M. G. Nittala, D. Huang, R. Varma, and S. R. Sadda, “Doppler Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography measured Retinal blood flow in Chinese American adults: The Chinese American Eye Study,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 55(5), 214 (2014).

Y. Jia, O. Tan, J. Tokayer, B. Potsaid, Y. Wang, J. J. Liu, M. F. Kraus, H. Subhash, J. G. Fujimoto, J. Hornegger, and D. Huang, “Split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography with optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 20(4), 4710–4725 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Baumann, B. Potsaid, M. F. Kraus, J. J. Liu, D. Huang, J. Hornegger, A. E. Cable, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Total retinal blood flow measurement with ultrahigh speed swept source/Fourier domain OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(6), 1539–1552 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, A. A. Fawzi, R. Varma, A. A. Sadun, X. Zhang, O. Tan, J. A. Izatt, and D. Huang, “Pilot Study of Optical Coherence Tomography Measurement of Retinal Blood Flow in Retinal and Optic Nerve Diseases,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(2), 840–845 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, O. Tan, and D. Huang, “In vivo total retinal blood flow measurement by Fourier domain Doppler optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041215 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hudkins, K. L.

Iscoe, S.

O. Akça, A. G. Doufas, N. Morioka, S. Iscoe, J. Fisher, and D. I. Sessler, “Hypercapnia improves tissue oxygenation,” Anesthesiology 97(4), 801–806 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ishikawa, H.

L. Kagemann, G. Wollstein, M. Wojtkowski, H. Ishikawa, K. A. Townsend, M. L. Gabriele, V. J. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Schuman, “Spectral oximetry assessed with high-speed ultra-high-resolution optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041212 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Izatt, J. A.

Y. Wang, A. A. Fawzi, R. Varma, A. A. Sadun, X. Zhang, O. Tan, J. A. Izatt, and D. Huang, “Pilot Study of Optical Coherence Tomography Measurement of Retinal Blood Flow in Retinal and Optic Nerve Diseases,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(2), 840–845 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, O. Tan, and D. Huang, “In vivo total retinal blood flow measurement by Fourier domain Doppler optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041215 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jia, Y.

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, O. Tan, M. L. Klein, C. J. Flaxel, B. Potsaid, J. J. Liu, C. D. Lu, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of Choroidal Neovascularization in Age-Related Macular Degeneration,” Ophthalmology 121(7), 1435–1444 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, O. Tan, J. Tokayer, B. Potsaid, Y. Wang, J. J. Liu, M. F. Kraus, H. Subhash, J. G. Fujimoto, J. Hornegger, and D. Huang, “Split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography with optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 20(4), 4710–4725 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jiang, J. Y.

Jiao, S.

W. Song, Q. Wei, W. Liu, T. Liu, J. Yi, N. Sheibani, A. A. Fawzi, R. A. Linsenmeier, S. Jiao, and H. F. Zhang, “A combined method to quantify the retinal metabolic rate of oxygen using photoacoustic ophthalmoscopy and optical coherence tomography,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6525 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Dai, X. Liu, H. F. Zhang, C. A. Puliafito, and S. Jiao, “Absolute Retinal Blood Flow Measurement With a Dual-Beam Doppler Optical Coherence Tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(13), 7998–8003 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Johnson, E.

Kagemann, L.

L. Kagemann, G. Wollstein, M. Wojtkowski, H. Ishikawa, K. A. Townsend, M. L. Gabriele, V. J. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Schuman, “Spectral oximetry assessed with high-speed ultra-high-resolution optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041212 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, D. Y.

D. Y. Kim, J. Fingler, R. J. Zawadzki, S. S. Park, L. S. Morse, D. M. Schwartz, S. E. Fraser, and J. S. Werner, “Optical imaging of the chorioretinal vasculature in the living human eye,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110(35), 14354–14359 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kiss, B.

G. T. Dorner, G. Garhoefer, C. Zawinka, B. Kiss, and L. Schmetterer, “Response of retinal blood flow to CO2-breathing in humans,” Eur. J. Ophthalmol. 12(6), 459–466 (2002).
[PubMed]

Klein, M. L.

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, O. Tan, M. L. Klein, C. J. Flaxel, B. Potsaid, J. J. Liu, C. D. Lu, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of Choroidal Neovascularization in Age-Related Macular Degeneration,” Ophthalmology 121(7), 1435–1444 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kraus, M. F.

Leahy, C.

Lee, C.-K.

Lee, J.

Leitgeb, R. A.

R. M. Werkmeister, N. Dragostinoff, S. Palkovits, R. Told, A. Boltz, R. A. Leitgeb, M. Gröschl, G. Garhöfer, and L. Schmetterer, “Measurement of Absolute Blood Flow Velocity and Blood Flow in the Human Retina by Dual-Beam Bidirectional Doppler Fourier-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53(10), 6062–6071 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, X.

Linsenmeier, R. A.

W. Song, Q. Wei, W. Liu, T. Liu, J. Yi, N. Sheibani, A. A. Fawzi, R. A. Linsenmeier, S. Jiao, and H. F. Zhang, “A combined method to quantify the retinal metabolic rate of oxygen using photoacoustic ophthalmoscopy and optical coherence tomography,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6525 (2014).
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N. D. Wangsa-Wirawan and R. A. Linsenmeier, “Retinal oxygen: Fundamental and clinical aspects,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 121(4), 547–557 (2003).
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Liu, J. J.

Liu, T.

W. Song, Q. Wei, W. Liu, T. Liu, J. Yi, N. Sheibani, A. A. Fawzi, R. A. Linsenmeier, S. Jiao, and H. F. Zhang, “A combined method to quantify the retinal metabolic rate of oxygen using photoacoustic ophthalmoscopy and optical coherence tomography,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6525 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, W.

W. Song, Q. Wei, W. Liu, T. Liu, J. Yi, N. Sheibani, A. A. Fawzi, R. A. Linsenmeier, S. Jiao, and H. F. Zhang, “A combined method to quantify the retinal metabolic rate of oxygen using photoacoustic ophthalmoscopy and optical coherence tomography,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6525 (2014).
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J. Yi, Q. Wei, W. Liu, V. Backman, and H. F. Zhang, “Visible-light optical coherence tomography for retinal oximetry,” Opt. Lett. 38(11), 1796–1798 (2013).
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S. Chen, J. Yi, W. Liu, V. Backman, and H. Zhang, “Monte Carlo Investigation of Optical Coherence Tomography Retinal Oximetry,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. (Accepted).
[PubMed]

Liu, X.

C. Dai, X. Liu, H. F. Zhang, C. A. Puliafito, and S. Jiao, “Absolute Retinal Blood Flow Measurement With a Dual-Beam Doppler Optical Coherence Tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(13), 7998–8003 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lu, C. D.

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, O. Tan, M. L. Klein, C. J. Flaxel, B. Potsaid, J. J. Liu, C. D. Lu, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of Choroidal Neovascularization in Age-Related Macular Degeneration,” Ophthalmology 121(7), 1435–1444 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lu, C.-W.

Marks, D. L.

A. M. Zysk, F. T. Nguyen, A. L. Oldenburg, D. L. Marks, and S. A. Boppart, “Optical coherence tomography: a review of clinical development from bench to bedside,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 051403 (2007).
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Maslov, K. I.

J. Yao, K. I. Maslov, Y. Zhang, Y. Xia, and L. V. Wang, “Label-free oxygen-metabolic photoacoustic microscopy in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(7), 076003 (2011).
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Merkle, C. W.

Mik, E. G.

Morioka, N.

O. Akça, A. G. Doufas, N. Morioka, S. Iscoe, J. Fisher, and D. I. Sessler, “Hypercapnia improves tissue oxygenation,” Anesthesiology 97(4), 801–806 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Morrison, J.

Morse, L. S.

D. Y. Kim, J. Fingler, R. J. Zawadzki, S. S. Park, L. S. Morse, D. M. Schwartz, S. E. Fraser, and J. S. Werner, “Optical imaging of the chorioretinal vasculature in the living human eye,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110(35), 14354–14359 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Müller, G.

M. Hammer, A. Roggan, D. Schweitzer, and G. Müller, “Optical properties of ocular fundus tissues-an in vitro study using the double-integrating-sphere technique and inverse Monte Carlo simulation,” Phys. Med. Biol. 40(6), 963–978 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nassif, N.

Nguyen, F. T.

A. M. Zysk, F. T. Nguyen, A. L. Oldenburg, D. L. Marks, and S. A. Boppart, “Optical coherence tomography: a review of clinical development from bench to bedside,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 051403 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nittala, M. G.

S. Srinivas, O. Tan, S. Wu, M. G. Nittala, D. Huang, R. Varma, and S. R. Sadda, “Doppler Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography measured Retinal blood flow in Chinese American adults: The Chinese American Eye Study,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 55(5), 214 (2014).

Oldenburg, A. L.

A. M. Zysk, F. T. Nguyen, A. L. Oldenburg, D. L. Marks, and S. A. Boppart, “Optical coherence tomography: a review of clinical development from bench to bedside,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 051403 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Palkovits, S.

R. M. Werkmeister, N. Dragostinoff, S. Palkovits, R. Told, A. Boltz, R. A. Leitgeb, M. Gröschl, G. Garhöfer, and L. Schmetterer, “Measurement of Absolute Blood Flow Velocity and Blood Flow in the Human Retina by Dual-Beam Bidirectional Doppler Fourier-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53(10), 6062–6071 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, B.

Park, S. S.

D. Y. Kim, J. Fingler, R. J. Zawadzki, S. S. Park, L. S. Morse, D. M. Schwartz, S. E. Fraser, and J. S. Werner, “Optical imaging of the chorioretinal vasculature in the living human eye,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110(35), 14354–14359 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pierce, M.

Potsaid, B.

Puliafito, C. A.

C. Dai, X. Liu, H. F. Zhang, C. A. Puliafito, and S. Jiao, “Absolute Retinal Blood Flow Measurement With a Dual-Beam Doppler Optical Coherence Tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(13), 7998–8003 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Radhakrishnan, H.

Radosevich, A. J.

J. D. Rogers, A. J. Radosevich, J. Yi, and V. Backman, “Modeling Light Scattering in Tissue as Continuous Random Media Using a Versatile Refractive Index Correlation Function,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(2), 173–186 (2013).
[PubMed]

Robles, F. E.

F. E. Robles, C. Wilson, G. Grant, and A. Wax, “Molecular imaging true-colour spectroscopic optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 744–747 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. E. Robles, S. Chowdhury, and A. Wax, “Assessing hemoglobin concentration using spectroscopic optical coherence tomography for feasibility of tissue diagnostics,” Biomed. Opt. Express 1(1), 310–317 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rogers, J. D.

J. D. Rogers, A. J. Radosevich, J. Yi, and V. Backman, “Modeling Light Scattering in Tissue as Continuous Random Media Using a Versatile Refractive Index Correlation Function,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(2), 173–186 (2013).
[PubMed]

Roggan, A.

M. Hammer, A. Roggan, D. Schweitzer, and G. Müller, “Optical properties of ocular fundus tissues-an in vitro study using the double-integrating-sphere technique and inverse Monte Carlo simulation,” Phys. Med. Biol. 40(6), 963–978 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sadda, S. R.

S. Srinivas, O. Tan, S. Wu, M. G. Nittala, D. Huang, R. Varma, and S. R. Sadda, “Doppler Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography measured Retinal blood flow in Chinese American adults: The Chinese American Eye Study,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 55(5), 214 (2014).

Sadun, A. A.

Y. Wang, A. A. Fawzi, R. Varma, A. A. Sadun, X. Zhang, O. Tan, J. A. Izatt, and D. Huang, “Pilot Study of Optical Coherence Tomography Measurement of Retinal Blood Flow in Retinal and Optic Nerve Diseases,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(2), 840–845 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schmetterer, L.

R. M. Werkmeister, N. Dragostinoff, S. Palkovits, R. Told, A. Boltz, R. A. Leitgeb, M. Gröschl, G. Garhöfer, and L. Schmetterer, “Measurement of Absolute Blood Flow Velocity and Blood Flow in the Human Retina by Dual-Beam Bidirectional Doppler Fourier-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53(10), 6062–6071 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. T. Dorner, G. Garhoefer, C. Zawinka, B. Kiss, and L. Schmetterer, “Response of retinal blood flow to CO2-breathing in humans,” Eur. J. Ophthalmol. 12(6), 459–466 (2002).
[PubMed]

Schuman, J. S.

L. Kagemann, G. Wollstein, M. Wojtkowski, H. Ishikawa, K. A. Townsend, M. L. Gabriele, V. J. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Schuman, “Spectral oximetry assessed with high-speed ultra-high-resolution optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041212 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schwartz, D. M.

D. Y. Kim, J. Fingler, R. J. Zawadzki, S. S. Park, L. S. Morse, D. M. Schwartz, S. E. Fraser, and J. S. Werner, “Optical imaging of the chorioretinal vasculature in the living human eye,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110(35), 14354–14359 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schweitzer, D.

M. Hammer, A. Roggan, D. Schweitzer, and G. Müller, “Optical properties of ocular fundus tissues-an in vitro study using the double-integrating-sphere technique and inverse Monte Carlo simulation,” Phys. Med. Biol. 40(6), 963–978 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sessler, D. I.

O. Akça, A. G. Doufas, N. Morioka, S. Iscoe, J. Fisher, and D. I. Sessler, “Hypercapnia improves tissue oxygenation,” Anesthesiology 97(4), 801–806 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sheibani, N.

W. Song, Q. Wei, W. Liu, T. Liu, J. Yi, N. Sheibani, A. A. Fawzi, R. A. Linsenmeier, S. Jiao, and H. F. Zhang, “A combined method to quantify the retinal metabolic rate of oxygen using photoacoustic ophthalmoscopy and optical coherence tomography,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6525 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shen, T.

Song, W.

W. Song, Q. Wei, W. Liu, T. Liu, J. Yi, N. Sheibani, A. A. Fawzi, R. A. Linsenmeier, S. Jiao, and H. F. Zhang, “A combined method to quantify the retinal metabolic rate of oxygen using photoacoustic ophthalmoscopy and optical coherence tomography,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6525 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Srinivas, S.

S. Srinivas, O. Tan, S. Wu, M. G. Nittala, D. Huang, R. Varma, and S. R. Sadda, “Doppler Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography measured Retinal blood flow in Chinese American adults: The Chinese American Eye Study,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 55(5), 214 (2014).

Srinivasan, V.

Srinivasan, V. J.

Subhash, H.

Tan, O.

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, O. Tan, M. L. Klein, C. J. Flaxel, B. Potsaid, J. J. Liu, C. D. Lu, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of Choroidal Neovascularization in Age-Related Macular Degeneration,” Ophthalmology 121(7), 1435–1444 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Srinivas, O. Tan, S. Wu, M. G. Nittala, D. Huang, R. Varma, and S. R. Sadda, “Doppler Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography measured Retinal blood flow in Chinese American adults: The Chinese American Eye Study,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 55(5), 214 (2014).

Y. Jia, O. Tan, J. Tokayer, B. Potsaid, Y. Wang, J. J. Liu, M. F. Kraus, H. Subhash, J. G. Fujimoto, J. Hornegger, and D. Huang, “Split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography with optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 20(4), 4710–4725 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, A. A. Fawzi, R. Varma, A. A. Sadun, X. Zhang, O. Tan, J. A. Izatt, and D. Huang, “Pilot Study of Optical Coherence Tomography Measurement of Retinal Blood Flow in Retinal and Optic Nerve Diseases,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(2), 840–845 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, O. Tan, and D. Huang, “In vivo total retinal blood flow measurement by Fourier domain Doppler optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041215 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tearney, G.

Tokayer, J.

Told, R.

R. M. Werkmeister, N. Dragostinoff, S. Palkovits, R. Told, A. Boltz, R. A. Leitgeb, M. Gröschl, G. Garhöfer, and L. Schmetterer, “Measurement of Absolute Blood Flow Velocity and Blood Flow in the Human Retina by Dual-Beam Bidirectional Doppler Fourier-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53(10), 6062–6071 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Törnquist, P.

L. Wang, P. Törnquist, and A. Bill, “Glucose metabolism in pig outer retina in light and darkness,” Acta Physiol. Scand. 160(1), 75–81 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Townsend, K. A.

L. Kagemann, G. Wollstein, M. Wojtkowski, H. Ishikawa, K. A. Townsend, M. L. Gabriele, V. J. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Schuman, “Spectral oximetry assessed with high-speed ultra-high-resolution optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041212 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tsai, M.-T.

van Gemert, M. J. C.

D. J. Faber, M. C. G. Aalders, E. G. Mik, B. A. Hooper, M. J. C. van Gemert, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “Oxygen Saturation-Dependent Absorption and Scattering of Blood,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(2), 028102 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

van Leeuwen, T. G.

N. Bosschaart, G. J. Edelman, M. C. Aalders, T. G. van Leeuwen, and D. J. Faber, “A literature review and novel theoretical approach on the optical properties of whole blood,” Lasers Med. Sci. 29(2), 453–479 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Faber, E. G. Mik, M. C. G. Aalders, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “Toward assessment of blood oxygen saturation by spectroscopic optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 30(9), 1015–1017 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Faber, M. C. G. Aalders, E. G. Mik, B. A. Hooper, M. J. C. van Gemert, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “Oxygen Saturation-Dependent Absorption and Scattering of Blood,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(2), 028102 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Faber, E. G. Mik, M. C. G. Aalders, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “Light absorption of (oxy-)hemoglobin assessed by spectroscopic optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 28(16), 1436–1438 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Varma, R.

S. Srinivas, O. Tan, S. Wu, M. G. Nittala, D. Huang, R. Varma, and S. R. Sadda, “Doppler Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography measured Retinal blood flow in Chinese American adults: The Chinese American Eye Study,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 55(5), 214 (2014).

Y. Wang, A. A. Fawzi, R. Varma, A. A. Sadun, X. Zhang, O. Tan, J. A. Izatt, and D. Huang, “Pilot Study of Optical Coherence Tomography Measurement of Retinal Blood Flow in Retinal and Optic Nerve Diseases,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(2), 840–845 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, L.

L. Wang, P. Törnquist, and A. Bill, “Glucose metabolism in pig outer retina in light and darkness,” Acta Physiol. Scand. 160(1), 75–81 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, L. V.

J. Yao, K. I. Maslov, Y. Zhang, Y. Xia, and L. V. Wang, “Label-free oxygen-metabolic photoacoustic microscopy in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(7), 076003 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, R. K.

Wang, Y.

Y. Jia, O. Tan, J. Tokayer, B. Potsaid, Y. Wang, J. J. Liu, M. F. Kraus, H. Subhash, J. G. Fujimoto, J. Hornegger, and D. Huang, “Split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography with optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 20(4), 4710–4725 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, A. A. Fawzi, R. Varma, A. A. Sadun, X. Zhang, O. Tan, J. A. Izatt, and D. Huang, “Pilot Study of Optical Coherence Tomography Measurement of Retinal Blood Flow in Retinal and Optic Nerve Diseases,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(2), 840–845 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, O. Tan, and D. Huang, “In vivo total retinal blood flow measurement by Fourier domain Doppler optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041215 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.-M.

Wangsa-Wirawan, N. D.

N. D. Wangsa-Wirawan and R. A. Linsenmeier, “Retinal oxygen: Fundamental and clinical aspects,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 121(4), 547–557 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wax, A.

F. E. Robles, C. Wilson, G. Grant, and A. Wax, “Molecular imaging true-colour spectroscopic optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 744–747 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. E. Robles, S. Chowdhury, and A. Wax, “Assessing hemoglobin concentration using spectroscopic optical coherence tomography for feasibility of tissue diagnostics,” Biomed. Opt. Express 1(1), 310–317 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wei, Q.

W. Song, Q. Wei, W. Liu, T. Liu, J. Yi, N. Sheibani, A. A. Fawzi, R. A. Linsenmeier, S. Jiao, and H. F. Zhang, “A combined method to quantify the retinal metabolic rate of oxygen using photoacoustic ophthalmoscopy and optical coherence tomography,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6525 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yi, Q. Wei, W. Liu, V. Backman, and H. F. Zhang, “Visible-light optical coherence tomography for retinal oximetry,” Opt. Lett. 38(11), 1796–1798 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Werkmeister, R. M.

R. M. Werkmeister, N. Dragostinoff, S. Palkovits, R. Told, A. Boltz, R. A. Leitgeb, M. Gröschl, G. Garhöfer, and L. Schmetterer, “Measurement of Absolute Blood Flow Velocity and Blood Flow in the Human Retina by Dual-Beam Bidirectional Doppler Fourier-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53(10), 6062–6071 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Werner, J. S.

D. Y. Kim, J. Fingler, R. J. Zawadzki, S. S. Park, L. S. Morse, D. M. Schwartz, S. E. Fraser, and J. S. Werner, “Optical imaging of the chorioretinal vasculature in the living human eye,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110(35), 14354–14359 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

White, B.

Wietecha, T.

Wilson, C.

F. E. Robles, C. Wilson, G. Grant, and A. Wax, “Molecular imaging true-colour spectroscopic optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 744–747 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wilson, D. J.

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, O. Tan, M. L. Klein, C. J. Flaxel, B. Potsaid, J. J. Liu, C. D. Lu, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of Choroidal Neovascularization in Age-Related Macular Degeneration,” Ophthalmology 121(7), 1435–1444 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wojtkowski, M.

L. Kagemann, G. Wollstein, M. Wojtkowski, H. Ishikawa, K. A. Townsend, M. L. Gabriele, V. J. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Schuman, “Spectral oximetry assessed with high-speed ultra-high-resolution optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041212 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wollstein, G.

L. Kagemann, G. Wollstein, M. Wojtkowski, H. Ishikawa, K. A. Townsend, M. L. Gabriele, V. J. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Schuman, “Spectral oximetry assessed with high-speed ultra-high-resolution optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041212 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, S.

S. Srinivas, O. Tan, S. Wu, M. G. Nittala, D. Huang, R. Varma, and S. R. Sadda, “Doppler Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography measured Retinal blood flow in Chinese American adults: The Chinese American Eye Study,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 55(5), 214 (2014).

Wu, W.

Xia, Y.

J. Yao, K. I. Maslov, Y. Zhang, Y. Xia, and L. V. Wang, “Label-free oxygen-metabolic photoacoustic microscopy in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(7), 076003 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, C. C.

Yao, J.

J. Yao, K. I. Maslov, Y. Zhang, Y. Xia, and L. V. Wang, “Label-free oxygen-metabolic photoacoustic microscopy in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(7), 076003 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yaseen, M. A.

Yi, J.

J. Yi, S. Chen, V. Backman, and H. F. Zhang, “In vivo functional microangiography by visible-light optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(10), 3603–3612 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Song, Q. Wei, W. Liu, T. Liu, J. Yi, N. Sheibani, A. A. Fawzi, R. A. Linsenmeier, S. Jiao, and H. F. Zhang, “A combined method to quantify the retinal metabolic rate of oxygen using photoacoustic ophthalmoscopy and optical coherence tomography,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6525 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. D. Rogers, A. J. Radosevich, J. Yi, and V. Backman, “Modeling Light Scattering in Tissue as Continuous Random Media Using a Versatile Refractive Index Correlation Function,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(2), 173–186 (2013).
[PubMed]

J. Yi, Q. Wei, W. Liu, V. Backman, and H. F. Zhang, “Visible-light optical coherence tomography for retinal oximetry,” Opt. Lett. 38(11), 1796–1798 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yi and V. Backman, “Imaging a full set of optical scattering properties of biological tissue by inverse spectroscopic optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 37(21), 4443–4445 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yi and X. Li, “Estimation of oxygen saturation from erythrocytes by high-resolution spectroscopic optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 35(12), 2094–2096 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Chen, J. Yi, W. Liu, V. Backman, and H. Zhang, “Monte Carlo Investigation of Optical Coherence Tomography Retinal Oximetry,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. (Accepted).
[PubMed]

Yin, X.

Zawadzki, R. J.

D. Y. Kim, J. Fingler, R. J. Zawadzki, S. S. Park, L. S. Morse, D. M. Schwartz, S. E. Fraser, and J. S. Werner, “Optical imaging of the chorioretinal vasculature in the living human eye,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110(35), 14354–14359 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zawinka, C.

G. T. Dorner, G. Garhoefer, C. Zawinka, B. Kiss, and L. Schmetterer, “Response of retinal blood flow to CO2-breathing in humans,” Eur. J. Ophthalmol. 12(6), 459–466 (2002).
[PubMed]

Zhang, H.

S. Chen, J. Yi, W. Liu, V. Backman, and H. Zhang, “Monte Carlo Investigation of Optical Coherence Tomography Retinal Oximetry,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. (Accepted).
[PubMed]

Zhang, H. F.

W. Song, Q. Wei, W. Liu, T. Liu, J. Yi, N. Sheibani, A. A. Fawzi, R. A. Linsenmeier, S. Jiao, and H. F. Zhang, “A combined method to quantify the retinal metabolic rate of oxygen using photoacoustic ophthalmoscopy and optical coherence tomography,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6525 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yi, S. Chen, V. Backman, and H. F. Zhang, “In vivo functional microangiography by visible-light optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(10), 3603–3612 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Dai, X. Liu, H. F. Zhang, C. A. Puliafito, and S. Jiao, “Absolute Retinal Blood Flow Measurement With a Dual-Beam Doppler Optical Coherence Tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(13), 7998–8003 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yi, Q. Wei, W. Liu, V. Backman, and H. F. Zhang, “Visible-light optical coherence tomography for retinal oximetry,” Opt. Lett. 38(11), 1796–1798 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

Y. Wang, A. A. Fawzi, R. Varma, A. A. Sadun, X. Zhang, O. Tan, J. A. Izatt, and D. Huang, “Pilot Study of Optical Coherence Tomography Measurement of Retinal Blood Flow in Retinal and Optic Nerve Diseases,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(2), 840–845 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y.

J. Yao, K. I. Maslov, Y. Zhang, Y. Xia, and L. V. Wang, “Label-free oxygen-metabolic photoacoustic microscopy in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(7), 076003 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhi, Z.

Zysk, A. M.

A. M. Zysk, F. T. Nguyen, A. L. Oldenburg, D. L. Marks, and S. A. Boppart, “Optical coherence tomography: a review of clinical development from bench to bedside,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 051403 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Acta Physiol. Scand. (2)

A. Alm and A. Bill, “Blood flow and oxygen extraction in the cat uvea at normal and high intraocular pressures,” Acta Physiol. Scand. 80(1), 19–28 (1970).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Wang, P. Törnquist, and A. Bill, “Glucose metabolism in pig outer retina in light and darkness,” Acta Physiol. Scand. 160(1), 75–81 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anesthesiology (1)

O. Akça, A. G. Doufas, N. Morioka, S. Iscoe, J. Fisher, and D. I. Sessler, “Hypercapnia improves tissue oxygenation,” Anesthesiology 97(4), 801–806 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arch. Ophthalmol. (1)

N. D. Wangsa-Wirawan and R. A. Linsenmeier, “Retinal oxygen: Fundamental and clinical aspects,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 121(4), 547–557 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biomed. Opt. Express (6)

Eur. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

G. T. Dorner, G. Garhoefer, C. Zawinka, B. Kiss, and L. Schmetterer, “Response of retinal blood flow to CO2-breathing in humans,” Eur. J. Ophthalmol. 12(6), 459–466 (2002).
[PubMed]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. D. Rogers, A. J. Radosevich, J. Yi, and V. Backman, “Modeling Light Scattering in Tissue as Continuous Random Media Using a Versatile Refractive Index Correlation Function,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(2), 173–186 (2013).
[PubMed]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (4)

R. M. Werkmeister, N. Dragostinoff, S. Palkovits, R. Told, A. Boltz, R. A. Leitgeb, M. Gröschl, G. Garhöfer, and L. Schmetterer, “Measurement of Absolute Blood Flow Velocity and Blood Flow in the Human Retina by Dual-Beam Bidirectional Doppler Fourier-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53(10), 6062–6071 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Dai, X. Liu, H. F. Zhang, C. A. Puliafito, and S. Jiao, “Absolute Retinal Blood Flow Measurement With a Dual-Beam Doppler Optical Coherence Tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(13), 7998–8003 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, A. A. Fawzi, R. Varma, A. A. Sadun, X. Zhang, O. Tan, J. A. Izatt, and D. Huang, “Pilot Study of Optical Coherence Tomography Measurement of Retinal Blood Flow in Retinal and Optic Nerve Diseases,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(2), 840–845 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Srinivas, O. Tan, S. Wu, M. G. Nittala, D. Huang, R. Varma, and S. R. Sadda, “Doppler Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography measured Retinal blood flow in Chinese American adults: The Chinese American Eye Study,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 55(5), 214 (2014).

J. Biomed. Opt. (4)

A. M. Zysk, F. T. Nguyen, A. L. Oldenburg, D. L. Marks, and S. A. Boppart, “Optical coherence tomography: a review of clinical development from bench to bedside,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 051403 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, O. Tan, and D. Huang, “In vivo total retinal blood flow measurement by Fourier domain Doppler optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041215 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yao, K. I. Maslov, Y. Zhang, Y. Xia, and L. V. Wang, “Label-free oxygen-metabolic photoacoustic microscopy in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(7), 076003 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Kagemann, G. Wollstein, M. Wojtkowski, H. Ishikawa, K. A. Townsend, M. L. Gabriele, V. J. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Schuman, “Spectral oximetry assessed with high-speed ultra-high-resolution optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041212 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lasers Med. Sci. (1)

N. Bosschaart, G. J. Edelman, M. C. Aalders, T. G. van Leeuwen, and D. J. Faber, “A literature review and novel theoretical approach on the optical properties of whole blood,” Lasers Med. Sci. 29(2), 453–479 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Biotechnol. (1)

J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography for ultrahigh resolution in vivo imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21(11), 1361–1367 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

F. E. Robles, C. Wilson, G. Grant, and A. Wax, “Molecular imaging true-colour spectroscopic optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 744–747 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ophthalmology (1)

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, O. Tan, M. L. Klein, C. J. Flaxel, B. Potsaid, J. J. Liu, C. D. Lu, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of Choroidal Neovascularization in Age-Related Macular Degeneration,” Ophthalmology 121(7), 1435–1444 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (7)

J. Yi and V. Backman, “Imaging a full set of optical scattering properties of biological tissue by inverse spectroscopic optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 37(21), 4443–4445 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yi, Q. Wei, W. Liu, V. Backman, and H. F. Zhang, “Visible-light optical coherence tomography for retinal oximetry,” Opt. Lett. 38(11), 1796–1798 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. J. Srinivasan, J. Y. Jiang, M. A. Yaseen, H. Radhakrishnan, W. Wu, S. Barry, A. E. Cable, and D. A. Boas, “Rapid volumetric angiography of cortical microvasculature with optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 35(1), 43–45 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yi and X. Li, “Estimation of oxygen saturation from erythrocytes by high-resolution spectroscopic optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 35(12), 2094–2096 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Faber, E. G. Mik, M. C. G. Aalders, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “Toward assessment of blood oxygen saturation by spectroscopic optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 30(9), 1015–1017 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C.-W. Lu, C.-K. Lee, M.-T. Tsai, Y.-M. Wang, and C. C. Yang, “Measurement of the hemoglobin oxygen saturation level with spectroscopic spectral-domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 33(5), 416–418 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Faber, E. G. Mik, M. C. G. Aalders, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “Light absorption of (oxy-)hemoglobin assessed by spectroscopic optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 28(16), 1436–1438 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Med. Biol. (1)

M. Hammer, A. Roggan, D. Schweitzer, and G. Müller, “Optical properties of ocular fundus tissues-an in vitro study using the double-integrating-sphere technique and inverse Monte Carlo simulation,” Phys. Med. Biol. 40(6), 963–978 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

D. J. Faber, M. C. G. Aalders, E. G. Mik, B. A. Hooper, M. J. C. van Gemert, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “Oxygen Saturation-Dependent Absorption and Scattering of Blood,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(2), 028102 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1)

D. Y. Kim, J. Fingler, R. J. Zawadzki, S. S. Park, L. S. Morse, D. M. Schwartz, S. E. Fraser, and J. S. Werner, “Optical imaging of the chorioretinal vasculature in the living human eye,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110(35), 14354–14359 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sci. Rep. (1)

W. Song, Q. Wei, W. Liu, T. Liu, J. Yi, N. Sheibani, A. A. Fawzi, R. A. Linsenmeier, S. Jiao, and H. F. Zhang, “A combined method to quantify the retinal metabolic rate of oxygen using photoacoustic ophthalmoscopy and optical coherence tomography,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6525 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (1)

S. Chen, J. Yi, W. Liu, V. Backman, and H. Zhang, “Monte Carlo Investigation of Optical Coherence Tomography Retinal Oximetry,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. (Accepted).
[PubMed]

Supplementary Material (1)

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» Visualization 1: AVI (4927 KB)      Fly through angiography

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Spectroscopic analysis of in vitro phantom experiment. (a) Cross-sectional images of the tube based on direct (top row) and motion-enhanced dynamic scattering (bottom row) contrasts; (b) En face OCT angiography image of the tube. The yellow rectangles indicate the ROI used; (c) Representative motion contrast spectrum calculated from selected ROI’s, flow rate = 0.00 mL/min; (d) Averaged intensity Im taken from four ROI’s within the capillary tube; (d) The spectral derivative of motion contrast spectrum obtained within the capillary tube with varying flow rates from 560 to 580 nm. Error bar = S.D.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Example of cross-sectional images of conventional OCT in rat retina in vivo using vis-OCT. Anatomical layers are labeled including, NFL/GCL-nerve fiber layer/ganglion cell layer, IPL-inner plexiform layer, INL-inner nuclear layer, OPL-outer plexiform layer, ONL-outer nuclear layer, ELM-external limiting membrane, IS/OS-inner segments/outer segments, and RPE-retinal pigment epithelium. (b) The corresponding OCT microangiograph generated using motion contrast. Vessels in retinal circulation and choroicapillaries are identified. Artifacts created by the hyper-reflective layers in IS/OS and RPE are indicated with a blue arrow. (c) Overlaid image from (a) and (b). The choroicapillaris lay beneath RPE layer.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

In vivo imaging of a rat retina using vis-OCT. (a) and (b) are en face projection of amplitude and motion enhanced microangiography, respectively. In the microangiography map, each major retinal arterioles and venules are color-encoded based on the measured sO2 value. (c) A three dimensional rendering of rat retinal microvasculature. See Visualization 1 for the fly-through en face microangiogram.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measurement of absolute sO2 values in the retinal circulation in vivo. (a) Measured arterial sO2 calibrated against pulse oximetry readings (R2 = 0.87) from n = 8 rats. Black line is the linear regression of the data (b) Measured sO2 of major retinal arteries and venues upon changes of inhalation gas mixtures (n = 8 for each bar). Error bar = S.E.M. *: p < 0.05. **: p < 0.01.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measured relative choriocapillaris sO2 change comparing to normal air breathing (n = 6). ***: p < 0.0001.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Summary of data processing procedures to extract sO2.

Equations (14)

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AA( z,λ )= I 0 ( λ )r( z,λ )η( z,λ )G( Δφ ),
η(z,λ)= e 0 z 2 μ t ( z ' ,  λ)dz' ,
OD( z,λ )=ln AA( z,λ ) I 0 ( λ ) =lnr( λ )+lnη( μ a , μ s ,λ )+lnG( Δφ ),
OD( z,λ )=αλ+lnB2 0 z μ t ( z ' ,λ)dz'+lnG( Δφ ).
OD( z,λ ) λ = 2 0 z μ t ( z ' ,λ)dz' λ +α+ lnG( Δφ ) λ .
OD( z,λ ) λ = 2 0 z μ t ( z ' ,λ)dz' λ +α.
0 z μ t ( z ' ,λ)dz'= 0 l b μ t ( z ' ,λ)dz ' blood + 0 l else μ t ( z ' ,λ)dz ' static tissue
0 z μ t ( z ' ,λ)dz'= μ t_b l b + μ t_else ¯ l else ,
0 z μ t ( z ' ,λ)dz' λ = μ t_b λ l b + μ t_else ¯ λ l else μ t b λ l b .
μ t_b =s O 2 μ t Oxy +( 1s O 2 ) μ t Deoxy ,
OD( z,λ ) λ =s O 2 ( k Oxy k Deoxy ) l b + k Deoxy l b +α.
AGFP( x )=arg[ A * ( x,z, t 2 )A( x,z, t 1 )dz ],
LGFP( z )=arg[ A * ( x,z, t 2 )A( x,z, t 1 )dx ].
AG( x,z )=E| A'( x,z, t τ+1 )A'( x,z, t τ ) |,

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