Abstract

Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD) is a common manifestation of atherosclerosis, characterized by lower leg ischemia and myopathy in association with leg dysfunction. In the present study, Spontaneous and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) spectroscopic techniques in CH-stretching spectral region were evaluated for discriminating healthy and diseased tissues of human gastrocnemius biopsies of control and PAD patients. Since Raman signatures of the tissues in the fingerprint region are highly complex and CH containing moieties are dense, CH-stretching limited spectral range was used to classify the diseased tissues. A total of 181 Raman spectra from 9 patients and 122 CARS spectra from 12 patients were acquired. Due to the high dimensionality of the data in Raman and CARS measurements, principal component analysis (PCA) was first performed to reduce the dimensionality of the data (6 and 9 principal scores for Raman and CARS, respectively) in the CH-stretching region, followed by a discriminant function analysis (DFA) to classify the samples into different categories based on disease severity. The CH2 and CH3 vibrational signatures were observed in the Raman and CARS spectroscopy. Raman and CARS data in conjunction with PCA-DFA analysis were capable of differentiating healthy and PAD gastrocnemius with an accuracy of 85.6% and 78.7%, respectively.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
Clinical characterization of in vivo inflammatory bowel disease with Raman spectroscopy

Isaac J. Pence, Dawn B. Beaulieu, Sara N. Horst, Xiaohong Bi, Alan J. Herline, David A. Schwartz, and Anita Mahadevan-Jansen
Biomed. Opt. Express 8(2) 524-535 (2017)

Raman spectroscopy of endoscopic colonic biopsies from patients with ulcerative colitis to identify mucosal inflammation and healing

James Addis, Noor Mohammed, Olorunda Rotimi, Derek Magee, Animesh Jha, and Venkataraman Subramanian
Biomed. Opt. Express 7(5) 2022-2035 (2016)

Discrimination of liver malignancies with 1064 nm dispersive Raman spectroscopy

Isaac J. Pence, Chetan A. Patil, Chad A. Lieber, and Anita Mahadevan-Jansen
Biomed. Opt. Express 6(8) 2724-2737 (2015)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. A. Bonifacio, C. Beleites, F. Vittur, E. Marsich, S. Semeraro, S. Paoletti, and V. Sergo, “Chemical imaging of articular cartilage sections with Raman mapping, employing uni- and multi-variate methods for data analysis,” Analyst (Lond.) 135(12), 3193–3204 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. Z. Movasaghi, S. Rehman, and I. U. Rehman, “Raman spectroscopy of biological tissues,” Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. 42(5), 493–541 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  3. S. Koljenović, T. C. Bakker Schut, J. P. van Meerbeeck, A. P. Maat, S. A. Burgers, P. E. Zondervan, J. M. Kros, and G. J. Puppels, “Raman microspectroscopic mapping studies of human bronchial tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(6), 1187–1197 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. A. Nijssen, T. C. Bakker Schut, F. Heule, P. J. Caspers, D. P. Hayes, M. H. A. Neumann, and G. J. Puppels, “Discriminating basal cell carcinoma from its surrounding tissue by Raman spectroscopy,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 119(1), 64–69 (2002).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. P. Chen, A. Shen, X. D. Zhou, and J. M. Hu, “Bio-Raman spectroscopy: a potential clinical analytical method assisting in disease diagnosis,” Anal. Methods 3(6), 1257–1269 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  6. G. J. Puppels, F. F. de Mul, C. Otto, J. Greve, M. Robert-Nicoud, D. J. Arndt-Jovin, and T. M. Jovin, “Studying single living cells and chromosomes by confocal Raman microspectroscopy,” Nature 347(6290), 301–303 (1990).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. H. P. Buschman, G. Deinum, J. T. Motz, M. Fitzmaurice, J. R. Kramer, A. van der Laarse, A. V. Bruschke, and M. S. Feld, “Raman microspectroscopy of human coronary atherosclerosis: Biochemical assessment of cellular and extracellular morphologic structures in situ,” Cardiovasc. Pathol. 10(2), 69–82 (2001).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. H. J. van Manen, Y. M. Kraan, D. Roos, and C. Otto, “Single-cell Raman and fluorescence microscopy reveal the association of lipid bodies with phagosomes in leukocytes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(29), 10159–10164 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. X. N. He, J. Allen, P. N. Black, T. Baldacchini, X. Huang, H. Huang, L. Jiang, and Y. F. Lu, “Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering and spontaneous Raman spectroscopy and microscopy of microalgae with nitrogen depletion,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(11), 2896–2906 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. C. Di Napoli, I. Pope, F. Masia, P. Watson, W. Langbein, and P. Borri, “Hyperspectral and differential CARS microscopy for quantitative chemical imaging in human adipocytes,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(5), 1378–1390 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. M. Gniadecka, P. A. Philipsen, S. Sigurdsson, S. Wessel, O. F. Nielsen, D. H. Christensen, J. Hercogova, K. Rossen, H. K. Thomsen, R. Gniadecki, L. K. Hansen, and H. C. Wulf, “Melanoma diagnosis by Raman spectroscopy and neural networks: structure alterations in proteins and lipids in intact cancer tissue,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 122(2), 443–449 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. R. E. Kast, G. K. Serhatkulu, A. Cao, A. K. Pandya, H. Dai, J. S. Thakur, V. M. Naik, R. Naik, M. D. Klein, G. W. Auner, and R. Rabah, “Raman spectroscopy can differentiate malignant tumors from normal breast tissue and detect early neoplastic changes in a mouse model,” Biopolymers 89(3), 235–241 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. T. T. Le, H. M. Duren, M. N. Slipchenko, C. D. Hu, and J. X. Cheng, “Label-free quantitative analysis of lipid metabolism in living Caenorhabditis elegans,” J. Lipid Res. 51(3), 672–677 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. X. Nan, J. X. Cheng, and X. S. Xie, “Vibrational imaging of lipid droplets in live fibroblast cells with coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” J. Lipid Res. 44(11), 2202–2208 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. J. J. F. Belch, E. J. Topol, G. Agnelli, M. Bertrand, R. M. Califf, D. L. Clement, M. A. Creager, J. D. Easton, J. R. Gavin, P. Greenland, G. Hankey, P. Hanrath, A. T. Hirsch, J. Meyer, S. C. Smith, F. Sullivan, M. A. Weber, and Prevention of Atherothrombotic Disease Network, “Critical issues in peripheral arterial disease detection and management: a call to action,” Arch. Intern. Med. 163(8), 884–892 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. M. H. Criqui, A. Fronek, E. Barrett-Connor, M. R. Klauber, S. Gabriel, and D. Goodman, “The prevalence of peripheral arterial disease in a defined population,” Circulation 71(3), 510–515 (1985).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. A. T. Hirsch, M. H. Criqui, D. Treat-Jacobson, J. G. Regensteiner, M. A. Creager, J. W. Olin, S. H. Krook, D. B. Hunninghake, A. J. Comerota, M. E. Walsh, M. M. McDermott, and W. R. Hiatt, “Peripheral arterial disease detection, awareness, and treatment in primary care,” JAMA 286(11), 1317–1324 (2001).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. A. J. J. Wood and W. R. Hiatt, “Medical treatment of peripheral arterial disease and claudication,” N. Engl. J. Med. 344(21), 1608–1621 (2001).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. M. D. Muller, A. B. Reed, U. A. Leuenberger, and L. I. Sinoway, “Physiology in medicine: peripheral arterial disease,” J. Appl. Physiol. 115(9), 1219–1226 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. M. H. Criqui, R. D. Langer, A. Fronek, H. S. Feigelson, M. R. Klauber, T. J. McCann, and D. Browner, “Mortality over a period of 10 years in patients with peripheral arterial disease,” N. Engl. J. Med. 326(6), 381–386 (1992).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. G. C. Leng, F. G. R. Fowkes, A. J. Lee, J. Dunbar, E. Housley, and C. V. Ruckley, “Use of ankle brachial pressure index to predict cardiovascular events and death: a cohort study,” BMJ 313(7070), 1440–1443 (1996).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. C. Cimminiello, S. Kownator, J. C. Wautrecht, C. P. Carvounis, S. E. Kranendonk, B. Kindler, M. Mangrella, C. Borghi, and PANDORA Study Investigators, “The PANDORA study: peripheral arterial disease in patients with non-high cardiovascular risk,” Intern. Emerg. Med. 6(6), 509–519 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. D. J. Weiss, G. P. Casale, P. Koutakis, A. A. Nella, S. A. Swanson, Z. Zhu, D. Miserlis, J. M. Johanning, and I. I. Pipinos, “Oxidative damage and myofiber degeneration in the gastrocnemius of patients with peripheral arterial disease,” J. Transl. Med. 11(1), 230 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. K. Cluff, D. Miserlis, G. K. Naganathan, I. I. Pipinos, P. Koutakis, A. Samal, R. D. McComb, J. Subbiah, and G. P. Casale, “Morphometric analysis of gastrocnemius muscle biopsies from patients with peripheral arterial disease: objective grading of muscle degeneration,” Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol. 305(3), R291–R299 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  25. J. K. S. Kim, Z. Zhu, G. Casale, P. Koutakis, R. D. McComb, S. Swanson, J. Thompson, D. Miserlis, J. M. Johanning, G. Haynatzki, and I. I. Pipinos, “Human enterovirus in the gastrocnemius of patients with peripheral arterial disease,” J Am Heart Assoc 2(4), e000082 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. C. Kendall, N. Stone, N. Shepherd, K. Geboes, B. Warren, R. Bennett, and H. Barr, “Raman spectroscopy, a potential tool for the objective identification and classification of neoplasia in Barrett’s oesophagus,” J. Pathol. 200(5), 602–609 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  27. C. Krafft, S. B. Sobottka, G. Schackert, and R. Salzer, “Near infrared Raman spectroscopic mapping of native brain tissue and intracranial tumors,” Analyst (Lond.) 130(7), 1070–1077 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  28. C. M. Krishna, G. D. Sockalingum, G. Kegelaer, S. Rubin, V. B. Kartha, and M. Manfait, “Micro-Raman spectroscopy of mixed cancer cell populations,” Vib. Spectrosc. 38(1-2), 95–100 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  29. M. Moreno, L. Raniero, E. A. L. Arisawa, A. M. do Espirito Santo, E. A. P. dos Santos, R. A. Bitar, and A. A. Martin, “Raman spectroscopy study of breast disease,” Theor. Chem. Acc. 125(3-6), 329–334 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  30. M. Muratore, “Raman spectroscopy and partial least squares analysis in discrimination of peripheral cells affected by Huntington’s disease,” Anal. Chim. Acta 793, 1–10 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  31. A. Sahu, K. Dalal, S. Naglot, P. Aggarwal, and C. Murali Krishna, “Serum based diagnosis of asthma using Raman spectroscopy: an early phase pilot study,” PLoS ONE 8(11), e78921 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  32. Y. H. Ong, M. Lim, and Q. Liu, “Comparison of principal component analysis and biochemical component analysis in Raman spectroscopy for the discrimination of apoptosis and necrosis in K562 leukemia cells,” Opt. Express 20(20), 22158–22171 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  33. K. Hamasha, Q. I. Mohaidat, R. A. Putnam, R. C. Woodman, S. Palchaudhuri, and S. J. Rehse, “Sensitive and specific discrimination of pathogenic and nonpathogenic Escherichia coli using Raman spectroscopy-a comparison of two multivariate analysis techniques,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(4), 481–489 (2013).
    [PubMed]
  34. A. W. Gardner and A. Afaq, “Management of lower extremity peripheral arterial disease,” J. Cardiopulm. Rehabil. Prev. 28(6), 349–357 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  35. K. Cluff, A. M. Kelly, P. Koutakis, X. N. He, X. Huang, Y. F. Lu, I. I. Pipinos, G. P. Casale, and J. Subbiah, “Surface-enhanced Raman spectral biomarkers correlate with Ankle Brachial Index and characterize leg muscle biochemical composition of patients with peripheral arterial disease,” Physiol. Rep. 2(9), e12148 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  36. X. Huang, X. N. He, W. Xiong, Y. Gao, L. J. Jiang, L. Liu, Y. S. Zhou, L. Jiang, J. F. Silvain, and Y. F. Lu, “Contrast enhancement using silica microspheres in coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopic imaging,” Opt. Express 22(3), 2889–2896 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  37. J. Zhao, H. Lui, D. I. McLean, and H. Zeng, “Automated Autofluorescence Background Subtraction Algorithm for Biomedical Raman Spectroscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc. 61(11), 1225–1232 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  38. R. Lu, W. Gan, B. H. Wu, Z. Zhang, Y. Guo, and H. F. Wang, “C-H stretching vibrations of methyl, methylene and methine groups at the vapor/alcohol (n = 1-8) interfaces,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109(29), 14118–14129 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  39. C. L. Evans and X. S. Xie, “Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy: chemical imaging for biology and medicine,” Annu Rev Anal Chem (Palo Alto Calif) 1(1), 883–909 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  40. C. Di Napoli, I. Pope, F. Masia, P. Watson, W. Langbein, and P. Borri, “Hyperspectral and differential CARS microscopy for quantitative chemical imaging in human adipocytes,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(5), 1378–1390 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  41. M. Balu, G. Liu, Z. Chen, B. J. Tromberg, and E. O. Potma, “Fiber delivered probe for efficient CARS imaging of tissues,” Opt. Express 18(3), 2380–2388 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  42. F. Légaré, C. L. Evans, F. Ganikhanov, and X. S. Xie, “Towards CARS Endoscopy,” Opt. Express 14(10), 4427–4432 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  43. A. T. Hirsch, Z. J. Haskal, N. R. Hertzer, C. W. Bakal, M. A. Creager, J. L. Halperin, L. F. Hiratzka, W. R. C. Murphy, J. W. Olin, J. B. Puschett, K. A. Rosenfield, D. Sacks, J. C. Stanley, L. M. Taylor, C. J. White, J. White, and R. A. White, “ACC/AHA 2005 Practice Guidelines for the Management of Patients With Peripheral Arterial Disease (Lower Extremity, Renal, Mesenteric, and Abdominal Aortic),” Circulation 113(11), e463–e465 (2006).

2014 (4)

2013 (7)

M. D. Muller, A. B. Reed, U. A. Leuenberger, and L. I. Sinoway, “Physiology in medicine: peripheral arterial disease,” J. Appl. Physiol. 115(9), 1219–1226 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Weiss, G. P. Casale, P. Koutakis, A. A. Nella, S. A. Swanson, Z. Zhu, D. Miserlis, J. M. Johanning, and I. I. Pipinos, “Oxidative damage and myofiber degeneration in the gastrocnemius of patients with peripheral arterial disease,” J. Transl. Med. 11(1), 230 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Muratore, “Raman spectroscopy and partial least squares analysis in discrimination of peripheral cells affected by Huntington’s disease,” Anal. Chim. Acta 793, 1–10 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Cluff, D. Miserlis, G. K. Naganathan, I. I. Pipinos, P. Koutakis, A. Samal, R. D. McComb, J. Subbiah, and G. P. Casale, “Morphometric analysis of gastrocnemius muscle biopsies from patients with peripheral arterial disease: objective grading of muscle degeneration,” Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol. 305(3), R291–R299 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Sahu, K. Dalal, S. Naglot, P. Aggarwal, and C. Murali Krishna, “Serum based diagnosis of asthma using Raman spectroscopy: an early phase pilot study,” PLoS ONE 8(11), e78921 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Hamasha, Q. I. Mohaidat, R. A. Putnam, R. C. Woodman, S. Palchaudhuri, and S. J. Rehse, “Sensitive and specific discrimination of pathogenic and nonpathogenic Escherichia coli using Raman spectroscopy-a comparison of two multivariate analysis techniques,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(4), 481–489 (2013).
[PubMed]

J. K. S. Kim, Z. Zhu, G. Casale, P. Koutakis, R. D. McComb, S. Swanson, J. Thompson, D. Miserlis, J. M. Johanning, G. Haynatzki, and I. I. Pipinos, “Human enterovirus in the gastrocnemius of patients with peripheral arterial disease,” J Am Heart Assoc 2(4), e000082 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

2011 (2)

C. Cimminiello, S. Kownator, J. C. Wautrecht, C. P. Carvounis, S. E. Kranendonk, B. Kindler, M. Mangrella, C. Borghi, and PANDORA Study Investigators, “The PANDORA study: peripheral arterial disease in patients with non-high cardiovascular risk,” Intern. Emerg. Med. 6(6), 509–519 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Chen, A. Shen, X. D. Zhou, and J. M. Hu, “Bio-Raman spectroscopy: a potential clinical analytical method assisting in disease diagnosis,” Anal. Methods 3(6), 1257–1269 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (4)

M. Balu, G. Liu, Z. Chen, B. J. Tromberg, and E. O. Potma, “Fiber delivered probe for efficient CARS imaging of tissues,” Opt. Express 18(3), 2380–2388 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Bonifacio, C. Beleites, F. Vittur, E. Marsich, S. Semeraro, S. Paoletti, and V. Sergo, “Chemical imaging of articular cartilage sections with Raman mapping, employing uni- and multi-variate methods for data analysis,” Analyst (Lond.) 135(12), 3193–3204 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Moreno, L. Raniero, E. A. L. Arisawa, A. M. do Espirito Santo, E. A. P. dos Santos, R. A. Bitar, and A. A. Martin, “Raman spectroscopy study of breast disease,” Theor. Chem. Acc. 125(3-6), 329–334 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. T. Le, H. M. Duren, M. N. Slipchenko, C. D. Hu, and J. X. Cheng, “Label-free quantitative analysis of lipid metabolism in living Caenorhabditis elegans,” J. Lipid Res. 51(3), 672–677 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

A. W. Gardner and A. Afaq, “Management of lower extremity peripheral arterial disease,” J. Cardiopulm. Rehabil. Prev. 28(6), 349–357 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. E. Kast, G. K. Serhatkulu, A. Cao, A. K. Pandya, H. Dai, J. S. Thakur, V. M. Naik, R. Naik, M. D. Klein, G. W. Auner, and R. Rabah, “Raman spectroscopy can differentiate malignant tumors from normal breast tissue and detect early neoplastic changes in a mouse model,” Biopolymers 89(3), 235–241 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. L. Evans and X. S. Xie, “Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy: chemical imaging for biology and medicine,” Annu Rev Anal Chem (Palo Alto Calif) 1(1), 883–909 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

2006 (2)

F. Légaré, C. L. Evans, F. Ganikhanov, and X. S. Xie, “Towards CARS Endoscopy,” Opt. Express 14(10), 4427–4432 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. T. Hirsch, Z. J. Haskal, N. R. Hertzer, C. W. Bakal, M. A. Creager, J. L. Halperin, L. F. Hiratzka, W. R. C. Murphy, J. W. Olin, J. B. Puschett, K. A. Rosenfield, D. Sacks, J. C. Stanley, L. M. Taylor, C. J. White, J. White, and R. A. White, “ACC/AHA 2005 Practice Guidelines for the Management of Patients With Peripheral Arterial Disease (Lower Extremity, Renal, Mesenteric, and Abdominal Aortic),” Circulation 113(11), e463–e465 (2006).

2005 (4)

H. J. van Manen, Y. M. Kraan, D. Roos, and C. Otto, “Single-cell Raman and fluorescence microscopy reveal the association of lipid bodies with phagosomes in leukocytes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(29), 10159–10164 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Krafft, S. B. Sobottka, G. Schackert, and R. Salzer, “Near infrared Raman spectroscopic mapping of native brain tissue and intracranial tumors,” Analyst (Lond.) 130(7), 1070–1077 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. M. Krishna, G. D. Sockalingum, G. Kegelaer, S. Rubin, V. B. Kartha, and M. Manfait, “Micro-Raman spectroscopy of mixed cancer cell populations,” Vib. Spectrosc. 38(1-2), 95–100 (2005).
[Crossref]

R. Lu, W. Gan, B. H. Wu, Z. Zhang, Y. Guo, and H. F. Wang, “C-H stretching vibrations of methyl, methylene and methine groups at the vapor/alcohol (n = 1-8) interfaces,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109(29), 14118–14129 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

M. Gniadecka, P. A. Philipsen, S. Sigurdsson, S. Wessel, O. F. Nielsen, D. H. Christensen, J. Hercogova, K. Rossen, H. K. Thomsen, R. Gniadecki, L. K. Hansen, and H. C. Wulf, “Melanoma diagnosis by Raman spectroscopy and neural networks: structure alterations in proteins and lipids in intact cancer tissue,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 122(2), 443–449 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Koljenović, T. C. Bakker Schut, J. P. van Meerbeeck, A. P. Maat, S. A. Burgers, P. E. Zondervan, J. M. Kros, and G. J. Puppels, “Raman microspectroscopic mapping studies of human bronchial tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(6), 1187–1197 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (3)

X. Nan, J. X. Cheng, and X. S. Xie, “Vibrational imaging of lipid droplets in live fibroblast cells with coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” J. Lipid Res. 44(11), 2202–2208 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Kendall, N. Stone, N. Shepherd, K. Geboes, B. Warren, R. Bennett, and H. Barr, “Raman spectroscopy, a potential tool for the objective identification and classification of neoplasia in Barrett’s oesophagus,” J. Pathol. 200(5), 602–609 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. J. F. Belch, E. J. Topol, G. Agnelli, M. Bertrand, R. M. Califf, D. L. Clement, M. A. Creager, J. D. Easton, J. R. Gavin, P. Greenland, G. Hankey, P. Hanrath, A. T. Hirsch, J. Meyer, S. C. Smith, F. Sullivan, M. A. Weber, and Prevention of Atherothrombotic Disease Network, “Critical issues in peripheral arterial disease detection and management: a call to action,” Arch. Intern. Med. 163(8), 884–892 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

A. Nijssen, T. C. Bakker Schut, F. Heule, P. J. Caspers, D. P. Hayes, M. H. A. Neumann, and G. J. Puppels, “Discriminating basal cell carcinoma from its surrounding tissue by Raman spectroscopy,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 119(1), 64–69 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (3)

H. P. Buschman, G. Deinum, J. T. Motz, M. Fitzmaurice, J. R. Kramer, A. van der Laarse, A. V. Bruschke, and M. S. Feld, “Raman microspectroscopy of human coronary atherosclerosis: Biochemical assessment of cellular and extracellular morphologic structures in situ,” Cardiovasc. Pathol. 10(2), 69–82 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. J. J. Wood and W. R. Hiatt, “Medical treatment of peripheral arterial disease and claudication,” N. Engl. J. Med. 344(21), 1608–1621 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. T. Hirsch, M. H. Criqui, D. Treat-Jacobson, J. G. Regensteiner, M. A. Creager, J. W. Olin, S. H. Krook, D. B. Hunninghake, A. J. Comerota, M. E. Walsh, M. M. McDermott, and W. R. Hiatt, “Peripheral arterial disease detection, awareness, and treatment in primary care,” JAMA 286(11), 1317–1324 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

G. C. Leng, F. G. R. Fowkes, A. J. Lee, J. Dunbar, E. Housley, and C. V. Ruckley, “Use of ankle brachial pressure index to predict cardiovascular events and death: a cohort study,” BMJ 313(7070), 1440–1443 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

M. H. Criqui, R. D. Langer, A. Fronek, H. S. Feigelson, M. R. Klauber, T. J. McCann, and D. Browner, “Mortality over a period of 10 years in patients with peripheral arterial disease,” N. Engl. J. Med. 326(6), 381–386 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

G. J. Puppels, F. F. de Mul, C. Otto, J. Greve, M. Robert-Nicoud, D. J. Arndt-Jovin, and T. M. Jovin, “Studying single living cells and chromosomes by confocal Raman microspectroscopy,” Nature 347(6290), 301–303 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1985 (1)

M. H. Criqui, A. Fronek, E. Barrett-Connor, M. R. Klauber, S. Gabriel, and D. Goodman, “The prevalence of peripheral arterial disease in a defined population,” Circulation 71(3), 510–515 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Afaq, A.

A. W. Gardner and A. Afaq, “Management of lower extremity peripheral arterial disease,” J. Cardiopulm. Rehabil. Prev. 28(6), 349–357 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aggarwal, P.

A. Sahu, K. Dalal, S. Naglot, P. Aggarwal, and C. Murali Krishna, “Serum based diagnosis of asthma using Raman spectroscopy: an early phase pilot study,” PLoS ONE 8(11), e78921 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Agnelli, G.

J. J. F. Belch, E. J. Topol, G. Agnelli, M. Bertrand, R. M. Califf, D. L. Clement, M. A. Creager, J. D. Easton, J. R. Gavin, P. Greenland, G. Hankey, P. Hanrath, A. T. Hirsch, J. Meyer, S. C. Smith, F. Sullivan, M. A. Weber, and Prevention of Atherothrombotic Disease Network, “Critical issues in peripheral arterial disease detection and management: a call to action,” Arch. Intern. Med. 163(8), 884–892 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Allen, J.

Arisawa, E. A. L.

M. Moreno, L. Raniero, E. A. L. Arisawa, A. M. do Espirito Santo, E. A. P. dos Santos, R. A. Bitar, and A. A. Martin, “Raman spectroscopy study of breast disease,” Theor. Chem. Acc. 125(3-6), 329–334 (2010).
[Crossref]

Arndt-Jovin, D. J.

G. J. Puppels, F. F. de Mul, C. Otto, J. Greve, M. Robert-Nicoud, D. J. Arndt-Jovin, and T. M. Jovin, “Studying single living cells and chromosomes by confocal Raman microspectroscopy,” Nature 347(6290), 301–303 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Auner, G. W.

R. E. Kast, G. K. Serhatkulu, A. Cao, A. K. Pandya, H. Dai, J. S. Thakur, V. M. Naik, R. Naik, M. D. Klein, G. W. Auner, and R. Rabah, “Raman spectroscopy can differentiate malignant tumors from normal breast tissue and detect early neoplastic changes in a mouse model,” Biopolymers 89(3), 235–241 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bakal, C. W.

A. T. Hirsch, Z. J. Haskal, N. R. Hertzer, C. W. Bakal, M. A. Creager, J. L. Halperin, L. F. Hiratzka, W. R. C. Murphy, J. W. Olin, J. B. Puschett, K. A. Rosenfield, D. Sacks, J. C. Stanley, L. M. Taylor, C. J. White, J. White, and R. A. White, “ACC/AHA 2005 Practice Guidelines for the Management of Patients With Peripheral Arterial Disease (Lower Extremity, Renal, Mesenteric, and Abdominal Aortic),” Circulation 113(11), e463–e465 (2006).

Bakker Schut, T. C.

S. Koljenović, T. C. Bakker Schut, J. P. van Meerbeeck, A. P. Maat, S. A. Burgers, P. E. Zondervan, J. M. Kros, and G. J. Puppels, “Raman microspectroscopic mapping studies of human bronchial tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(6), 1187–1197 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Nijssen, T. C. Bakker Schut, F. Heule, P. J. Caspers, D. P. Hayes, M. H. A. Neumann, and G. J. Puppels, “Discriminating basal cell carcinoma from its surrounding tissue by Raman spectroscopy,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 119(1), 64–69 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baldacchini, T.

Balu, M.

Barr, H.

C. Kendall, N. Stone, N. Shepherd, K. Geboes, B. Warren, R. Bennett, and H. Barr, “Raman spectroscopy, a potential tool for the objective identification and classification of neoplasia in Barrett’s oesophagus,” J. Pathol. 200(5), 602–609 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barrett-Connor, E.

M. H. Criqui, A. Fronek, E. Barrett-Connor, M. R. Klauber, S. Gabriel, and D. Goodman, “The prevalence of peripheral arterial disease in a defined population,” Circulation 71(3), 510–515 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Belch, J. J. F.

J. J. F. Belch, E. J. Topol, G. Agnelli, M. Bertrand, R. M. Califf, D. L. Clement, M. A. Creager, J. D. Easton, J. R. Gavin, P. Greenland, G. Hankey, P. Hanrath, A. T. Hirsch, J. Meyer, S. C. Smith, F. Sullivan, M. A. Weber, and Prevention of Atherothrombotic Disease Network, “Critical issues in peripheral arterial disease detection and management: a call to action,” Arch. Intern. Med. 163(8), 884–892 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beleites, C.

A. Bonifacio, C. Beleites, F. Vittur, E. Marsich, S. Semeraro, S. Paoletti, and V. Sergo, “Chemical imaging of articular cartilage sections with Raman mapping, employing uni- and multi-variate methods for data analysis,” Analyst (Lond.) 135(12), 3193–3204 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bennett, R.

C. Kendall, N. Stone, N. Shepherd, K. Geboes, B. Warren, R. Bennett, and H. Barr, “Raman spectroscopy, a potential tool for the objective identification and classification of neoplasia in Barrett’s oesophagus,” J. Pathol. 200(5), 602–609 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bertrand, M.

J. J. F. Belch, E. J. Topol, G. Agnelli, M. Bertrand, R. M. Califf, D. L. Clement, M. A. Creager, J. D. Easton, J. R. Gavin, P. Greenland, G. Hankey, P. Hanrath, A. T. Hirsch, J. Meyer, S. C. Smith, F. Sullivan, M. A. Weber, and Prevention of Atherothrombotic Disease Network, “Critical issues in peripheral arterial disease detection and management: a call to action,” Arch. Intern. Med. 163(8), 884–892 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bitar, R. A.

M. Moreno, L. Raniero, E. A. L. Arisawa, A. M. do Espirito Santo, E. A. P. dos Santos, R. A. Bitar, and A. A. Martin, “Raman spectroscopy study of breast disease,” Theor. Chem. Acc. 125(3-6), 329–334 (2010).
[Crossref]

Black, P. N.

Bonifacio, A.

A. Bonifacio, C. Beleites, F. Vittur, E. Marsich, S. Semeraro, S. Paoletti, and V. Sergo, “Chemical imaging of articular cartilage sections with Raman mapping, employing uni- and multi-variate methods for data analysis,” Analyst (Lond.) 135(12), 3193–3204 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Borghi, C.

C. Cimminiello, S. Kownator, J. C. Wautrecht, C. P. Carvounis, S. E. Kranendonk, B. Kindler, M. Mangrella, C. Borghi, and PANDORA Study Investigators, “The PANDORA study: peripheral arterial disease in patients with non-high cardiovascular risk,” Intern. Emerg. Med. 6(6), 509–519 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Borri, P.

Browner, D.

M. H. Criqui, R. D. Langer, A. Fronek, H. S. Feigelson, M. R. Klauber, T. J. McCann, and D. Browner, “Mortality over a period of 10 years in patients with peripheral arterial disease,” N. Engl. J. Med. 326(6), 381–386 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bruschke, A. V.

H. P. Buschman, G. Deinum, J. T. Motz, M. Fitzmaurice, J. R. Kramer, A. van der Laarse, A. V. Bruschke, and M. S. Feld, “Raman microspectroscopy of human coronary atherosclerosis: Biochemical assessment of cellular and extracellular morphologic structures in situ,” Cardiovasc. Pathol. 10(2), 69–82 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Burgers, S. A.

S. Koljenović, T. C. Bakker Schut, J. P. van Meerbeeck, A. P. Maat, S. A. Burgers, P. E. Zondervan, J. M. Kros, and G. J. Puppels, “Raman microspectroscopic mapping studies of human bronchial tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(6), 1187–1197 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Buschman, H. P.

H. P. Buschman, G. Deinum, J. T. Motz, M. Fitzmaurice, J. R. Kramer, A. van der Laarse, A. V. Bruschke, and M. S. Feld, “Raman microspectroscopy of human coronary atherosclerosis: Biochemical assessment of cellular and extracellular morphologic structures in situ,” Cardiovasc. Pathol. 10(2), 69–82 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Califf, R. M.

J. J. F. Belch, E. J. Topol, G. Agnelli, M. Bertrand, R. M. Califf, D. L. Clement, M. A. Creager, J. D. Easton, J. R. Gavin, P. Greenland, G. Hankey, P. Hanrath, A. T. Hirsch, J. Meyer, S. C. Smith, F. Sullivan, M. A. Weber, and Prevention of Atherothrombotic Disease Network, “Critical issues in peripheral arterial disease detection and management: a call to action,” Arch. Intern. Med. 163(8), 884–892 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cao, A.

R. E. Kast, G. K. Serhatkulu, A. Cao, A. K. Pandya, H. Dai, J. S. Thakur, V. M. Naik, R. Naik, M. D. Klein, G. W. Auner, and R. Rabah, “Raman spectroscopy can differentiate malignant tumors from normal breast tissue and detect early neoplastic changes in a mouse model,” Biopolymers 89(3), 235–241 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Carvounis, C. P.

C. Cimminiello, S. Kownator, J. C. Wautrecht, C. P. Carvounis, S. E. Kranendonk, B. Kindler, M. Mangrella, C. Borghi, and PANDORA Study Investigators, “The PANDORA study: peripheral arterial disease in patients with non-high cardiovascular risk,” Intern. Emerg. Med. 6(6), 509–519 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Casale, G.

J. K. S. Kim, Z. Zhu, G. Casale, P. Koutakis, R. D. McComb, S. Swanson, J. Thompson, D. Miserlis, J. M. Johanning, G. Haynatzki, and I. I. Pipinos, “Human enterovirus in the gastrocnemius of patients with peripheral arterial disease,” J Am Heart Assoc 2(4), e000082 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Casale, G. P.

K. Cluff, A. M. Kelly, P. Koutakis, X. N. He, X. Huang, Y. F. Lu, I. I. Pipinos, G. P. Casale, and J. Subbiah, “Surface-enhanced Raman spectral biomarkers correlate with Ankle Brachial Index and characterize leg muscle biochemical composition of patients with peripheral arterial disease,” Physiol. Rep. 2(9), e12148 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Cluff, D. Miserlis, G. K. Naganathan, I. I. Pipinos, P. Koutakis, A. Samal, R. D. McComb, J. Subbiah, and G. P. Casale, “Morphometric analysis of gastrocnemius muscle biopsies from patients with peripheral arterial disease: objective grading of muscle degeneration,” Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol. 305(3), R291–R299 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Weiss, G. P. Casale, P. Koutakis, A. A. Nella, S. A. Swanson, Z. Zhu, D. Miserlis, J. M. Johanning, and I. I. Pipinos, “Oxidative damage and myofiber degeneration in the gastrocnemius of patients with peripheral arterial disease,” J. Transl. Med. 11(1), 230 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Caspers, P. J.

A. Nijssen, T. C. Bakker Schut, F. Heule, P. J. Caspers, D. P. Hayes, M. H. A. Neumann, and G. J. Puppels, “Discriminating basal cell carcinoma from its surrounding tissue by Raman spectroscopy,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 119(1), 64–69 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, P.

P. Chen, A. Shen, X. D. Zhou, and J. M. Hu, “Bio-Raman spectroscopy: a potential clinical analytical method assisting in disease diagnosis,” Anal. Methods 3(6), 1257–1269 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chen, Z.

Cheng, J. X.

T. T. Le, H. M. Duren, M. N. Slipchenko, C. D. Hu, and J. X. Cheng, “Label-free quantitative analysis of lipid metabolism in living Caenorhabditis elegans,” J. Lipid Res. 51(3), 672–677 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Nan, J. X. Cheng, and X. S. Xie, “Vibrational imaging of lipid droplets in live fibroblast cells with coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” J. Lipid Res. 44(11), 2202–2208 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Christensen, D. H.

M. Gniadecka, P. A. Philipsen, S. Sigurdsson, S. Wessel, O. F. Nielsen, D. H. Christensen, J. Hercogova, K. Rossen, H. K. Thomsen, R. Gniadecki, L. K. Hansen, and H. C. Wulf, “Melanoma diagnosis by Raman spectroscopy and neural networks: structure alterations in proteins and lipids in intact cancer tissue,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 122(2), 443–449 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cimminiello, C.

C. Cimminiello, S. Kownator, J. C. Wautrecht, C. P. Carvounis, S. E. Kranendonk, B. Kindler, M. Mangrella, C. Borghi, and PANDORA Study Investigators, “The PANDORA study: peripheral arterial disease in patients with non-high cardiovascular risk,” Intern. Emerg. Med. 6(6), 509–519 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Clement, D. L.

J. J. F. Belch, E. J. Topol, G. Agnelli, M. Bertrand, R. M. Califf, D. L. Clement, M. A. Creager, J. D. Easton, J. R. Gavin, P. Greenland, G. Hankey, P. Hanrath, A. T. Hirsch, J. Meyer, S. C. Smith, F. Sullivan, M. A. Weber, and Prevention of Atherothrombotic Disease Network, “Critical issues in peripheral arterial disease detection and management: a call to action,” Arch. Intern. Med. 163(8), 884–892 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cluff, K.

K. Cluff, A. M. Kelly, P. Koutakis, X. N. He, X. Huang, Y. F. Lu, I. I. Pipinos, G. P. Casale, and J. Subbiah, “Surface-enhanced Raman spectral biomarkers correlate with Ankle Brachial Index and characterize leg muscle biochemical composition of patients with peripheral arterial disease,” Physiol. Rep. 2(9), e12148 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Cluff, D. Miserlis, G. K. Naganathan, I. I. Pipinos, P. Koutakis, A. Samal, R. D. McComb, J. Subbiah, and G. P. Casale, “Morphometric analysis of gastrocnemius muscle biopsies from patients with peripheral arterial disease: objective grading of muscle degeneration,” Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol. 305(3), R291–R299 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Comerota, A. J.

A. T. Hirsch, M. H. Criqui, D. Treat-Jacobson, J. G. Regensteiner, M. A. Creager, J. W. Olin, S. H. Krook, D. B. Hunninghake, A. J. Comerota, M. E. Walsh, M. M. McDermott, and W. R. Hiatt, “Peripheral arterial disease detection, awareness, and treatment in primary care,” JAMA 286(11), 1317–1324 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Creager, M. A.

A. T. Hirsch, Z. J. Haskal, N. R. Hertzer, C. W. Bakal, M. A. Creager, J. L. Halperin, L. F. Hiratzka, W. R. C. Murphy, J. W. Olin, J. B. Puschett, K. A. Rosenfield, D. Sacks, J. C. Stanley, L. M. Taylor, C. J. White, J. White, and R. A. White, “ACC/AHA 2005 Practice Guidelines for the Management of Patients With Peripheral Arterial Disease (Lower Extremity, Renal, Mesenteric, and Abdominal Aortic),” Circulation 113(11), e463–e465 (2006).

J. J. F. Belch, E. J. Topol, G. Agnelli, M. Bertrand, R. M. Califf, D. L. Clement, M. A. Creager, J. D. Easton, J. R. Gavin, P. Greenland, G. Hankey, P. Hanrath, A. T. Hirsch, J. Meyer, S. C. Smith, F. Sullivan, M. A. Weber, and Prevention of Atherothrombotic Disease Network, “Critical issues in peripheral arterial disease detection and management: a call to action,” Arch. Intern. Med. 163(8), 884–892 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. T. Hirsch, M. H. Criqui, D. Treat-Jacobson, J. G. Regensteiner, M. A. Creager, J. W. Olin, S. H. Krook, D. B. Hunninghake, A. J. Comerota, M. E. Walsh, M. M. McDermott, and W. R. Hiatt, “Peripheral arterial disease detection, awareness, and treatment in primary care,” JAMA 286(11), 1317–1324 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Criqui, M. H.

A. T. Hirsch, M. H. Criqui, D. Treat-Jacobson, J. G. Regensteiner, M. A. Creager, J. W. Olin, S. H. Krook, D. B. Hunninghake, A. J. Comerota, M. E. Walsh, M. M. McDermott, and W. R. Hiatt, “Peripheral arterial disease detection, awareness, and treatment in primary care,” JAMA 286(11), 1317–1324 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. H. Criqui, R. D. Langer, A. Fronek, H. S. Feigelson, M. R. Klauber, T. J. McCann, and D. Browner, “Mortality over a period of 10 years in patients with peripheral arterial disease,” N. Engl. J. Med. 326(6), 381–386 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. H. Criqui, A. Fronek, E. Barrett-Connor, M. R. Klauber, S. Gabriel, and D. Goodman, “The prevalence of peripheral arterial disease in a defined population,” Circulation 71(3), 510–515 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dai, H.

R. E. Kast, G. K. Serhatkulu, A. Cao, A. K. Pandya, H. Dai, J. S. Thakur, V. M. Naik, R. Naik, M. D. Klein, G. W. Auner, and R. Rabah, “Raman spectroscopy can differentiate malignant tumors from normal breast tissue and detect early neoplastic changes in a mouse model,” Biopolymers 89(3), 235–241 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dalal, K.

A. Sahu, K. Dalal, S. Naglot, P. Aggarwal, and C. Murali Krishna, “Serum based diagnosis of asthma using Raman spectroscopy: an early phase pilot study,” PLoS ONE 8(11), e78921 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

de Mul, F. F.

G. J. Puppels, F. F. de Mul, C. Otto, J. Greve, M. Robert-Nicoud, D. J. Arndt-Jovin, and T. M. Jovin, “Studying single living cells and chromosomes by confocal Raman microspectroscopy,” Nature 347(6290), 301–303 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Deinum, G.

H. P. Buschman, G. Deinum, J. T. Motz, M. Fitzmaurice, J. R. Kramer, A. van der Laarse, A. V. Bruschke, and M. S. Feld, “Raman microspectroscopy of human coronary atherosclerosis: Biochemical assessment of cellular and extracellular morphologic structures in situ,” Cardiovasc. Pathol. 10(2), 69–82 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Di Napoli, C.

do Espirito Santo, A. M.

M. Moreno, L. Raniero, E. A. L. Arisawa, A. M. do Espirito Santo, E. A. P. dos Santos, R. A. Bitar, and A. A. Martin, “Raman spectroscopy study of breast disease,” Theor. Chem. Acc. 125(3-6), 329–334 (2010).
[Crossref]

dos Santos, E. A. P.

M. Moreno, L. Raniero, E. A. L. Arisawa, A. M. do Espirito Santo, E. A. P. dos Santos, R. A. Bitar, and A. A. Martin, “Raman spectroscopy study of breast disease,” Theor. Chem. Acc. 125(3-6), 329–334 (2010).
[Crossref]

Dunbar, J.

G. C. Leng, F. G. R. Fowkes, A. J. Lee, J. Dunbar, E. Housley, and C. V. Ruckley, “Use of ankle brachial pressure index to predict cardiovascular events and death: a cohort study,” BMJ 313(7070), 1440–1443 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Duren, H. M.

T. T. Le, H. M. Duren, M. N. Slipchenko, C. D. Hu, and J. X. Cheng, “Label-free quantitative analysis of lipid metabolism in living Caenorhabditis elegans,” J. Lipid Res. 51(3), 672–677 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Easton, J. D.

J. J. F. Belch, E. J. Topol, G. Agnelli, M. Bertrand, R. M. Califf, D. L. Clement, M. A. Creager, J. D. Easton, J. R. Gavin, P. Greenland, G. Hankey, P. Hanrath, A. T. Hirsch, J. Meyer, S. C. Smith, F. Sullivan, M. A. Weber, and Prevention of Atherothrombotic Disease Network, “Critical issues in peripheral arterial disease detection and management: a call to action,” Arch. Intern. Med. 163(8), 884–892 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Evans, C. L.

C. L. Evans and X. S. Xie, “Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy: chemical imaging for biology and medicine,” Annu Rev Anal Chem (Palo Alto Calif) 1(1), 883–909 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Légaré, C. L. Evans, F. Ganikhanov, and X. S. Xie, “Towards CARS Endoscopy,” Opt. Express 14(10), 4427–4432 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feigelson, H. S.

M. H. Criqui, R. D. Langer, A. Fronek, H. S. Feigelson, M. R. Klauber, T. J. McCann, and D. Browner, “Mortality over a period of 10 years in patients with peripheral arterial disease,” N. Engl. J. Med. 326(6), 381–386 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feld, M. S.

H. P. Buschman, G. Deinum, J. T. Motz, M. Fitzmaurice, J. R. Kramer, A. van der Laarse, A. V. Bruschke, and M. S. Feld, “Raman microspectroscopy of human coronary atherosclerosis: Biochemical assessment of cellular and extracellular morphologic structures in situ,” Cardiovasc. Pathol. 10(2), 69–82 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fitzmaurice, M.

H. P. Buschman, G. Deinum, J. T. Motz, M. Fitzmaurice, J. R. Kramer, A. van der Laarse, A. V. Bruschke, and M. S. Feld, “Raman microspectroscopy of human coronary atherosclerosis: Biochemical assessment of cellular and extracellular morphologic structures in situ,” Cardiovasc. Pathol. 10(2), 69–82 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fowkes, F. G. R.

G. C. Leng, F. G. R. Fowkes, A. J. Lee, J. Dunbar, E. Housley, and C. V. Ruckley, “Use of ankle brachial pressure index to predict cardiovascular events and death: a cohort study,” BMJ 313(7070), 1440–1443 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fronek, A.

M. H. Criqui, R. D. Langer, A. Fronek, H. S. Feigelson, M. R. Klauber, T. J. McCann, and D. Browner, “Mortality over a period of 10 years in patients with peripheral arterial disease,” N. Engl. J. Med. 326(6), 381–386 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. H. Criqui, A. Fronek, E. Barrett-Connor, M. R. Klauber, S. Gabriel, and D. Goodman, “The prevalence of peripheral arterial disease in a defined population,” Circulation 71(3), 510–515 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gabriel, S.

M. H. Criqui, A. Fronek, E. Barrett-Connor, M. R. Klauber, S. Gabriel, and D. Goodman, “The prevalence of peripheral arterial disease in a defined population,” Circulation 71(3), 510–515 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gan, W.

R. Lu, W. Gan, B. H. Wu, Z. Zhang, Y. Guo, and H. F. Wang, “C-H stretching vibrations of methyl, methylene and methine groups at the vapor/alcohol (n = 1-8) interfaces,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109(29), 14118–14129 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ganikhanov, F.

Gao, Y.

Gardner, A. W.

A. W. Gardner and A. Afaq, “Management of lower extremity peripheral arterial disease,” J. Cardiopulm. Rehabil. Prev. 28(6), 349–357 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gavin, J. R.

J. J. F. Belch, E. J. Topol, G. Agnelli, M. Bertrand, R. M. Califf, D. L. Clement, M. A. Creager, J. D. Easton, J. R. Gavin, P. Greenland, G. Hankey, P. Hanrath, A. T. Hirsch, J. Meyer, S. C. Smith, F. Sullivan, M. A. Weber, and Prevention of Atherothrombotic Disease Network, “Critical issues in peripheral arterial disease detection and management: a call to action,” Arch. Intern. Med. 163(8), 884–892 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Geboes, K.

C. Kendall, N. Stone, N. Shepherd, K. Geboes, B. Warren, R. Bennett, and H. Barr, “Raman spectroscopy, a potential tool for the objective identification and classification of neoplasia in Barrett’s oesophagus,” J. Pathol. 200(5), 602–609 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gniadecka, M.

M. Gniadecka, P. A. Philipsen, S. Sigurdsson, S. Wessel, O. F. Nielsen, D. H. Christensen, J. Hercogova, K. Rossen, H. K. Thomsen, R. Gniadecki, L. K. Hansen, and H. C. Wulf, “Melanoma diagnosis by Raman spectroscopy and neural networks: structure alterations in proteins and lipids in intact cancer tissue,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 122(2), 443–449 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gniadecki, R.

M. Gniadecka, P. A. Philipsen, S. Sigurdsson, S. Wessel, O. F. Nielsen, D. H. Christensen, J. Hercogova, K. Rossen, H. K. Thomsen, R. Gniadecki, L. K. Hansen, and H. C. Wulf, “Melanoma diagnosis by Raman spectroscopy and neural networks: structure alterations in proteins and lipids in intact cancer tissue,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 122(2), 443–449 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Goodman, D.

M. H. Criqui, A. Fronek, E. Barrett-Connor, M. R. Klauber, S. Gabriel, and D. Goodman, “The prevalence of peripheral arterial disease in a defined population,” Circulation 71(3), 510–515 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Greenland, P.

J. J. F. Belch, E. J. Topol, G. Agnelli, M. Bertrand, R. M. Califf, D. L. Clement, M. A. Creager, J. D. Easton, J. R. Gavin, P. Greenland, G. Hankey, P. Hanrath, A. T. Hirsch, J. Meyer, S. C. Smith, F. Sullivan, M. A. Weber, and Prevention of Atherothrombotic Disease Network, “Critical issues in peripheral arterial disease detection and management: a call to action,” Arch. Intern. Med. 163(8), 884–892 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Greve, J.

G. J. Puppels, F. F. de Mul, C. Otto, J. Greve, M. Robert-Nicoud, D. J. Arndt-Jovin, and T. M. Jovin, “Studying single living cells and chromosomes by confocal Raman microspectroscopy,” Nature 347(6290), 301–303 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guo, Y.

R. Lu, W. Gan, B. H. Wu, Z. Zhang, Y. Guo, and H. F. Wang, “C-H stretching vibrations of methyl, methylene and methine groups at the vapor/alcohol (n = 1-8) interfaces,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109(29), 14118–14129 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Halperin, J. L.

A. T. Hirsch, Z. J. Haskal, N. R. Hertzer, C. W. Bakal, M. A. Creager, J. L. Halperin, L. F. Hiratzka, W. R. C. Murphy, J. W. Olin, J. B. Puschett, K. A. Rosenfield, D. Sacks, J. C. Stanley, L. M. Taylor, C. J. White, J. White, and R. A. White, “ACC/AHA 2005 Practice Guidelines for the Management of Patients With Peripheral Arterial Disease (Lower Extremity, Renal, Mesenteric, and Abdominal Aortic),” Circulation 113(11), e463–e465 (2006).

Hamasha, K.

Hankey, G.

J. J. F. Belch, E. J. Topol, G. Agnelli, M. Bertrand, R. M. Califf, D. L. Clement, M. A. Creager, J. D. Easton, J. R. Gavin, P. Greenland, G. Hankey, P. Hanrath, A. T. Hirsch, J. Meyer, S. C. Smith, F. Sullivan, M. A. Weber, and Prevention of Atherothrombotic Disease Network, “Critical issues in peripheral arterial disease detection and management: a call to action,” Arch. Intern. Med. 163(8), 884–892 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hanrath, P.

J. J. F. Belch, E. J. Topol, G. Agnelli, M. Bertrand, R. M. Califf, D. L. Clement, M. A. Creager, J. D. Easton, J. R. Gavin, P. Greenland, G. Hankey, P. Hanrath, A. T. Hirsch, J. Meyer, S. C. Smith, F. Sullivan, M. A. Weber, and Prevention of Atherothrombotic Disease Network, “Critical issues in peripheral arterial disease detection and management: a call to action,” Arch. Intern. Med. 163(8), 884–892 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hansen, L. K.

M. Gniadecka, P. A. Philipsen, S. Sigurdsson, S. Wessel, O. F. Nielsen, D. H. Christensen, J. Hercogova, K. Rossen, H. K. Thomsen, R. Gniadecki, L. K. Hansen, and H. C. Wulf, “Melanoma diagnosis by Raman spectroscopy and neural networks: structure alterations in proteins and lipids in intact cancer tissue,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 122(2), 443–449 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Haskal, Z. J.

A. T. Hirsch, Z. J. Haskal, N. R. Hertzer, C. W. Bakal, M. A. Creager, J. L. Halperin, L. F. Hiratzka, W. R. C. Murphy, J. W. Olin, J. B. Puschett, K. A. Rosenfield, D. Sacks, J. C. Stanley, L. M. Taylor, C. J. White, J. White, and R. A. White, “ACC/AHA 2005 Practice Guidelines for the Management of Patients With Peripheral Arterial Disease (Lower Extremity, Renal, Mesenteric, and Abdominal Aortic),” Circulation 113(11), e463–e465 (2006).

Hayes, D. P.

A. Nijssen, T. C. Bakker Schut, F. Heule, P. J. Caspers, D. P. Hayes, M. H. A. Neumann, and G. J. Puppels, “Discriminating basal cell carcinoma from its surrounding tissue by Raman spectroscopy,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 119(1), 64–69 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Haynatzki, G.

J. K. S. Kim, Z. Zhu, G. Casale, P. Koutakis, R. D. McComb, S. Swanson, J. Thompson, D. Miserlis, J. M. Johanning, G. Haynatzki, and I. I. Pipinos, “Human enterovirus in the gastrocnemius of patients with peripheral arterial disease,” J Am Heart Assoc 2(4), e000082 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

He, X. N.

Hercogova, J.

M. Gniadecka, P. A. Philipsen, S. Sigurdsson, S. Wessel, O. F. Nielsen, D. H. Christensen, J. Hercogova, K. Rossen, H. K. Thomsen, R. Gniadecki, L. K. Hansen, and H. C. Wulf, “Melanoma diagnosis by Raman spectroscopy and neural networks: structure alterations in proteins and lipids in intact cancer tissue,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 122(2), 443–449 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hertzer, N. R.

A. T. Hirsch, Z. J. Haskal, N. R. Hertzer, C. W. Bakal, M. A. Creager, J. L. Halperin, L. F. Hiratzka, W. R. C. Murphy, J. W. Olin, J. B. Puschett, K. A. Rosenfield, D. Sacks, J. C. Stanley, L. M. Taylor, C. J. White, J. White, and R. A. White, “ACC/AHA 2005 Practice Guidelines for the Management of Patients With Peripheral Arterial Disease (Lower Extremity, Renal, Mesenteric, and Abdominal Aortic),” Circulation 113(11), e463–e465 (2006).

Heule, F.

A. Nijssen, T. C. Bakker Schut, F. Heule, P. J. Caspers, D. P. Hayes, M. H. A. Neumann, and G. J. Puppels, “Discriminating basal cell carcinoma from its surrounding tissue by Raman spectroscopy,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 119(1), 64–69 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hiatt, W. R.

A. T. Hirsch, M. H. Criqui, D. Treat-Jacobson, J. G. Regensteiner, M. A. Creager, J. W. Olin, S. H. Krook, D. B. Hunninghake, A. J. Comerota, M. E. Walsh, M. M. McDermott, and W. R. Hiatt, “Peripheral arterial disease detection, awareness, and treatment in primary care,” JAMA 286(11), 1317–1324 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. J. J. Wood and W. R. Hiatt, “Medical treatment of peripheral arterial disease and claudication,” N. Engl. J. Med. 344(21), 1608–1621 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hiratzka, L. F.

A. T. Hirsch, Z. J. Haskal, N. R. Hertzer, C. W. Bakal, M. A. Creager, J. L. Halperin, L. F. Hiratzka, W. R. C. Murphy, J. W. Olin, J. B. Puschett, K. A. Rosenfield, D. Sacks, J. C. Stanley, L. M. Taylor, C. J. White, J. White, and R. A. White, “ACC/AHA 2005 Practice Guidelines for the Management of Patients With Peripheral Arterial Disease (Lower Extremity, Renal, Mesenteric, and Abdominal Aortic),” Circulation 113(11), e463–e465 (2006).

Hirsch, A. T.

A. T. Hirsch, Z. J. Haskal, N. R. Hertzer, C. W. Bakal, M. A. Creager, J. L. Halperin, L. F. Hiratzka, W. R. C. Murphy, J. W. Olin, J. B. Puschett, K. A. Rosenfield, D. Sacks, J. C. Stanley, L. M. Taylor, C. J. White, J. White, and R. A. White, “ACC/AHA 2005 Practice Guidelines for the Management of Patients With Peripheral Arterial Disease (Lower Extremity, Renal, Mesenteric, and Abdominal Aortic),” Circulation 113(11), e463–e465 (2006).

J. J. F. Belch, E. J. Topol, G. Agnelli, M. Bertrand, R. M. Califf, D. L. Clement, M. A. Creager, J. D. Easton, J. R. Gavin, P. Greenland, G. Hankey, P. Hanrath, A. T. Hirsch, J. Meyer, S. C. Smith, F. Sullivan, M. A. Weber, and Prevention of Atherothrombotic Disease Network, “Critical issues in peripheral arterial disease detection and management: a call to action,” Arch. Intern. Med. 163(8), 884–892 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. T. Hirsch, M. H. Criqui, D. Treat-Jacobson, J. G. Regensteiner, M. A. Creager, J. W. Olin, S. H. Krook, D. B. Hunninghake, A. J. Comerota, M. E. Walsh, M. M. McDermott, and W. R. Hiatt, “Peripheral arterial disease detection, awareness, and treatment in primary care,” JAMA 286(11), 1317–1324 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Housley, E.

G. C. Leng, F. G. R. Fowkes, A. J. Lee, J. Dunbar, E. Housley, and C. V. Ruckley, “Use of ankle brachial pressure index to predict cardiovascular events and death: a cohort study,” BMJ 313(7070), 1440–1443 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hu, C. D.

T. T. Le, H. M. Duren, M. N. Slipchenko, C. D. Hu, and J. X. Cheng, “Label-free quantitative analysis of lipid metabolism in living Caenorhabditis elegans,” J. Lipid Res. 51(3), 672–677 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hu, J. M.

P. Chen, A. Shen, X. D. Zhou, and J. M. Hu, “Bio-Raman spectroscopy: a potential clinical analytical method assisting in disease diagnosis,” Anal. Methods 3(6), 1257–1269 (2011).
[Crossref]

Huang, H.

Huang, X.

Hunninghake, D. B.

A. T. Hirsch, M. H. Criqui, D. Treat-Jacobson, J. G. Regensteiner, M. A. Creager, J. W. Olin, S. H. Krook, D. B. Hunninghake, A. J. Comerota, M. E. Walsh, M. M. McDermott, and W. R. Hiatt, “Peripheral arterial disease detection, awareness, and treatment in primary care,” JAMA 286(11), 1317–1324 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jiang, L.

Jiang, L. J.

Johanning, J. M.

D. J. Weiss, G. P. Casale, P. Koutakis, A. A. Nella, S. A. Swanson, Z. Zhu, D. Miserlis, J. M. Johanning, and I. I. Pipinos, “Oxidative damage and myofiber degeneration in the gastrocnemius of patients with peripheral arterial disease,” J. Transl. Med. 11(1), 230 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. K. S. Kim, Z. Zhu, G. Casale, P. Koutakis, R. D. McComb, S. Swanson, J. Thompson, D. Miserlis, J. M. Johanning, G. Haynatzki, and I. I. Pipinos, “Human enterovirus in the gastrocnemius of patients with peripheral arterial disease,” J Am Heart Assoc 2(4), e000082 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jovin, T. M.

G. J. Puppels, F. F. de Mul, C. Otto, J. Greve, M. Robert-Nicoud, D. J. Arndt-Jovin, and T. M. Jovin, “Studying single living cells and chromosomes by confocal Raman microspectroscopy,” Nature 347(6290), 301–303 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kartha, V. B.

C. M. Krishna, G. D. Sockalingum, G. Kegelaer, S. Rubin, V. B. Kartha, and M. Manfait, “Micro-Raman spectroscopy of mixed cancer cell populations,” Vib. Spectrosc. 38(1-2), 95–100 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kast, R. E.

R. E. Kast, G. K. Serhatkulu, A. Cao, A. K. Pandya, H. Dai, J. S. Thakur, V. M. Naik, R. Naik, M. D. Klein, G. W. Auner, and R. Rabah, “Raman spectroscopy can differentiate malignant tumors from normal breast tissue and detect early neoplastic changes in a mouse model,” Biopolymers 89(3), 235–241 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kegelaer, G.

C. M. Krishna, G. D. Sockalingum, G. Kegelaer, S. Rubin, V. B. Kartha, and M. Manfait, “Micro-Raman spectroscopy of mixed cancer cell populations,” Vib. Spectrosc. 38(1-2), 95–100 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kelly, A. M.

K. Cluff, A. M. Kelly, P. Koutakis, X. N. He, X. Huang, Y. F. Lu, I. I. Pipinos, G. P. Casale, and J. Subbiah, “Surface-enhanced Raman spectral biomarkers correlate with Ankle Brachial Index and characterize leg muscle biochemical composition of patients with peripheral arterial disease,” Physiol. Rep. 2(9), e12148 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kendall, C.

C. Kendall, N. Stone, N. Shepherd, K. Geboes, B. Warren, R. Bennett, and H. Barr, “Raman spectroscopy, a potential tool for the objective identification and classification of neoplasia in Barrett’s oesophagus,” J. Pathol. 200(5), 602–609 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, J. K. S.

J. K. S. Kim, Z. Zhu, G. Casale, P. Koutakis, R. D. McComb, S. Swanson, J. Thompson, D. Miserlis, J. M. Johanning, G. Haynatzki, and I. I. Pipinos, “Human enterovirus in the gastrocnemius of patients with peripheral arterial disease,” J Am Heart Assoc 2(4), e000082 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kindler, B.

C. Cimminiello, S. Kownator, J. C. Wautrecht, C. P. Carvounis, S. E. Kranendonk, B. Kindler, M. Mangrella, C. Borghi, and PANDORA Study Investigators, “The PANDORA study: peripheral arterial disease in patients with non-high cardiovascular risk,” Intern. Emerg. Med. 6(6), 509–519 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Klauber, M. R.

M. H. Criqui, R. D. Langer, A. Fronek, H. S. Feigelson, M. R. Klauber, T. J. McCann, and D. Browner, “Mortality over a period of 10 years in patients with peripheral arterial disease,” N. Engl. J. Med. 326(6), 381–386 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. H. Criqui, A. Fronek, E. Barrett-Connor, M. R. Klauber, S. Gabriel, and D. Goodman, “The prevalence of peripheral arterial disease in a defined population,” Circulation 71(3), 510–515 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Klein, M. D.

R. E. Kast, G. K. Serhatkulu, A. Cao, A. K. Pandya, H. Dai, J. S. Thakur, V. M. Naik, R. Naik, M. D. Klein, G. W. Auner, and R. Rabah, “Raman spectroscopy can differentiate malignant tumors from normal breast tissue and detect early neoplastic changes in a mouse model,” Biopolymers 89(3), 235–241 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Koljenovic, S.

S. Koljenović, T. C. Bakker Schut, J. P. van Meerbeeck, A. P. Maat, S. A. Burgers, P. E. Zondervan, J. M. Kros, and G. J. Puppels, “Raman microspectroscopic mapping studies of human bronchial tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(6), 1187–1197 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Koutakis, P.

K. Cluff, A. M. Kelly, P. Koutakis, X. N. He, X. Huang, Y. F. Lu, I. I. Pipinos, G. P. Casale, and J. Subbiah, “Surface-enhanced Raman spectral biomarkers correlate with Ankle Brachial Index and characterize leg muscle biochemical composition of patients with peripheral arterial disease,” Physiol. Rep. 2(9), e12148 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Weiss, G. P. Casale, P. Koutakis, A. A. Nella, S. A. Swanson, Z. Zhu, D. Miserlis, J. M. Johanning, and I. I. Pipinos, “Oxidative damage and myofiber degeneration in the gastrocnemius of patients with peripheral arterial disease,” J. Transl. Med. 11(1), 230 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. K. S. Kim, Z. Zhu, G. Casale, P. Koutakis, R. D. McComb, S. Swanson, J. Thompson, D. Miserlis, J. M. Johanning, G. Haynatzki, and I. I. Pipinos, “Human enterovirus in the gastrocnemius of patients with peripheral arterial disease,” J Am Heart Assoc 2(4), e000082 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Cluff, D. Miserlis, G. K. Naganathan, I. I. Pipinos, P. Koutakis, A. Samal, R. D. McComb, J. Subbiah, and G. P. Casale, “Morphometric analysis of gastrocnemius muscle biopsies from patients with peripheral arterial disease: objective grading of muscle degeneration,” Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol. 305(3), R291–R299 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kownator, S.

C. Cimminiello, S. Kownator, J. C. Wautrecht, C. P. Carvounis, S. E. Kranendonk, B. Kindler, M. Mangrella, C. Borghi, and PANDORA Study Investigators, “The PANDORA study: peripheral arterial disease in patients with non-high cardiovascular risk,” Intern. Emerg. Med. 6(6), 509–519 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kraan, Y. M.

H. J. van Manen, Y. M. Kraan, D. Roos, and C. Otto, “Single-cell Raman and fluorescence microscopy reveal the association of lipid bodies with phagosomes in leukocytes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(29), 10159–10164 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Krafft, C.

C. Krafft, S. B. Sobottka, G. Schackert, and R. Salzer, “Near infrared Raman spectroscopic mapping of native brain tissue and intracranial tumors,” Analyst (Lond.) 130(7), 1070–1077 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kramer, J. R.

H. P. Buschman, G. Deinum, J. T. Motz, M. Fitzmaurice, J. R. Kramer, A. van der Laarse, A. V. Bruschke, and M. S. Feld, “Raman microspectroscopy of human coronary atherosclerosis: Biochemical assessment of cellular and extracellular morphologic structures in situ,” Cardiovasc. Pathol. 10(2), 69–82 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kranendonk, S. E.

C. Cimminiello, S. Kownator, J. C. Wautrecht, C. P. Carvounis, S. E. Kranendonk, B. Kindler, M. Mangrella, C. Borghi, and PANDORA Study Investigators, “The PANDORA study: peripheral arterial disease in patients with non-high cardiovascular risk,” Intern. Emerg. Med. 6(6), 509–519 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Krishna, C. M.

C. M. Krishna, G. D. Sockalingum, G. Kegelaer, S. Rubin, V. B. Kartha, and M. Manfait, “Micro-Raman spectroscopy of mixed cancer cell populations,” Vib. Spectrosc. 38(1-2), 95–100 (2005).
[Crossref]

Krook, S. H.

A. T. Hirsch, M. H. Criqui, D. Treat-Jacobson, J. G. Regensteiner, M. A. Creager, J. W. Olin, S. H. Krook, D. B. Hunninghake, A. J. Comerota, M. E. Walsh, M. M. McDermott, and W. R. Hiatt, “Peripheral arterial disease detection, awareness, and treatment in primary care,” JAMA 286(11), 1317–1324 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kros, J. M.

S. Koljenović, T. C. Bakker Schut, J. P. van Meerbeeck, A. P. Maat, S. A. Burgers, P. E. Zondervan, J. M. Kros, and G. J. Puppels, “Raman microspectroscopic mapping studies of human bronchial tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(6), 1187–1197 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Langbein, W.

Langer, R. D.

M. H. Criqui, R. D. Langer, A. Fronek, H. S. Feigelson, M. R. Klauber, T. J. McCann, and D. Browner, “Mortality over a period of 10 years in patients with peripheral arterial disease,” N. Engl. J. Med. 326(6), 381–386 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Le, T. T.

T. T. Le, H. M. Duren, M. N. Slipchenko, C. D. Hu, and J. X. Cheng, “Label-free quantitative analysis of lipid metabolism in living Caenorhabditis elegans,” J. Lipid Res. 51(3), 672–677 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, A. J.

G. C. Leng, F. G. R. Fowkes, A. J. Lee, J. Dunbar, E. Housley, and C. V. Ruckley, “Use of ankle brachial pressure index to predict cardiovascular events and death: a cohort study,” BMJ 313(7070), 1440–1443 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Légaré, F.

Leng, G. C.

G. C. Leng, F. G. R. Fowkes, A. J. Lee, J. Dunbar, E. Housley, and C. V. Ruckley, “Use of ankle brachial pressure index to predict cardiovascular events and death: a cohort study,” BMJ 313(7070), 1440–1443 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leuenberger, U. A.

M. D. Muller, A. B. Reed, U. A. Leuenberger, and L. I. Sinoway, “Physiology in medicine: peripheral arterial disease,” J. Appl. Physiol. 115(9), 1219–1226 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lim, M.

Liu, G.

Liu, L.

Liu, Q.

Lu, R.

R. Lu, W. Gan, B. H. Wu, Z. Zhang, Y. Guo, and H. F. Wang, “C-H stretching vibrations of methyl, methylene and methine groups at the vapor/alcohol (n = 1-8) interfaces,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109(29), 14118–14129 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lu, Y. F.

Lui, H.

Maat, A. P.

S. Koljenović, T. C. Bakker Schut, J. P. van Meerbeeck, A. P. Maat, S. A. Burgers, P. E. Zondervan, J. M. Kros, and G. J. Puppels, “Raman microspectroscopic mapping studies of human bronchial tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(6), 1187–1197 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Manfait, M.

C. M. Krishna, G. D. Sockalingum, G. Kegelaer, S. Rubin, V. B. Kartha, and M. Manfait, “Micro-Raman spectroscopy of mixed cancer cell populations,” Vib. Spectrosc. 38(1-2), 95–100 (2005).
[Crossref]

Mangrella, M.

C. Cimminiello, S. Kownator, J. C. Wautrecht, C. P. Carvounis, S. E. Kranendonk, B. Kindler, M. Mangrella, C. Borghi, and PANDORA Study Investigators, “The PANDORA study: peripheral arterial disease in patients with non-high cardiovascular risk,” Intern. Emerg. Med. 6(6), 509–519 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Marsich, E.

A. Bonifacio, C. Beleites, F. Vittur, E. Marsich, S. Semeraro, S. Paoletti, and V. Sergo, “Chemical imaging of articular cartilage sections with Raman mapping, employing uni- and multi-variate methods for data analysis,” Analyst (Lond.) 135(12), 3193–3204 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Martin, A. A.

M. Moreno, L. Raniero, E. A. L. Arisawa, A. M. do Espirito Santo, E. A. P. dos Santos, R. A. Bitar, and A. A. Martin, “Raman spectroscopy study of breast disease,” Theor. Chem. Acc. 125(3-6), 329–334 (2010).
[Crossref]

Masia, F.

McCann, T. J.

M. H. Criqui, R. D. Langer, A. Fronek, H. S. Feigelson, M. R. Klauber, T. J. McCann, and D. Browner, “Mortality over a period of 10 years in patients with peripheral arterial disease,” N. Engl. J. Med. 326(6), 381–386 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McComb, R. D.

K. Cluff, D. Miserlis, G. K. Naganathan, I. I. Pipinos, P. Koutakis, A. Samal, R. D. McComb, J. Subbiah, and G. P. Casale, “Morphometric analysis of gastrocnemius muscle biopsies from patients with peripheral arterial disease: objective grading of muscle degeneration,” Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol. 305(3), R291–R299 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. K. S. Kim, Z. Zhu, G. Casale, P. Koutakis, R. D. McComb, S. Swanson, J. Thompson, D. Miserlis, J. M. Johanning, G. Haynatzki, and I. I. Pipinos, “Human enterovirus in the gastrocnemius of patients with peripheral arterial disease,” J Am Heart Assoc 2(4), e000082 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McDermott, M. M.

A. T. Hirsch, M. H. Criqui, D. Treat-Jacobson, J. G. Regensteiner, M. A. Creager, J. W. Olin, S. H. Krook, D. B. Hunninghake, A. J. Comerota, M. E. Walsh, M. M. McDermott, and W. R. Hiatt, “Peripheral arterial disease detection, awareness, and treatment in primary care,” JAMA 286(11), 1317–1324 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McLean, D. I.

Meyer, J.

J. J. F. Belch, E. J. Topol, G. Agnelli, M. Bertrand, R. M. Califf, D. L. Clement, M. A. Creager, J. D. Easton, J. R. Gavin, P. Greenland, G. Hankey, P. Hanrath, A. T. Hirsch, J. Meyer, S. C. Smith, F. Sullivan, M. A. Weber, and Prevention of Atherothrombotic Disease Network, “Critical issues in peripheral arterial disease detection and management: a call to action,” Arch. Intern. Med. 163(8), 884–892 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Miserlis, D.

J. K. S. Kim, Z. Zhu, G. Casale, P. Koutakis, R. D. McComb, S. Swanson, J. Thompson, D. Miserlis, J. M. Johanning, G. Haynatzki, and I. I. Pipinos, “Human enterovirus in the gastrocnemius of patients with peripheral arterial disease,” J Am Heart Assoc 2(4), e000082 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Cluff, D. Miserlis, G. K. Naganathan, I. I. Pipinos, P. Koutakis, A. Samal, R. D. McComb, J. Subbiah, and G. P. Casale, “Morphometric analysis of gastrocnemius muscle biopsies from patients with peripheral arterial disease: objective grading of muscle degeneration,” Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol. 305(3), R291–R299 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Weiss, G. P. Casale, P. Koutakis, A. A. Nella, S. A. Swanson, Z. Zhu, D. Miserlis, J. M. Johanning, and I. I. Pipinos, “Oxidative damage and myofiber degeneration in the gastrocnemius of patients with peripheral arterial disease,” J. Transl. Med. 11(1), 230 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mohaidat, Q. I.

Moreno, M.

M. Moreno, L. Raniero, E. A. L. Arisawa, A. M. do Espirito Santo, E. A. P. dos Santos, R. A. Bitar, and A. A. Martin, “Raman spectroscopy study of breast disease,” Theor. Chem. Acc. 125(3-6), 329–334 (2010).
[Crossref]

Motz, J. T.

H. P. Buschman, G. Deinum, J. T. Motz, M. Fitzmaurice, J. R. Kramer, A. van der Laarse, A. V. Bruschke, and M. S. Feld, “Raman microspectroscopy of human coronary atherosclerosis: Biochemical assessment of cellular and extracellular morphologic structures in situ,” Cardiovasc. Pathol. 10(2), 69–82 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Movasaghi, Z.

Z. Movasaghi, S. Rehman, and I. U. Rehman, “Raman spectroscopy of biological tissues,” Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. 42(5), 493–541 (2007).
[Crossref]

Muller, M. D.

M. D. Muller, A. B. Reed, U. A. Leuenberger, and L. I. Sinoway, “Physiology in medicine: peripheral arterial disease,” J. Appl. Physiol. 115(9), 1219–1226 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Murali Krishna, C.

A. Sahu, K. Dalal, S. Naglot, P. Aggarwal, and C. Murali Krishna, “Serum based diagnosis of asthma using Raman spectroscopy: an early phase pilot study,” PLoS ONE 8(11), e78921 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Muratore, M.

M. Muratore, “Raman spectroscopy and partial least squares analysis in discrimination of peripheral cells affected by Huntington’s disease,” Anal. Chim. Acta 793, 1–10 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Murphy, W. R. C.

A. T. Hirsch, Z. J. Haskal, N. R. Hertzer, C. W. Bakal, M. A. Creager, J. L. Halperin, L. F. Hiratzka, W. R. C. Murphy, J. W. Olin, J. B. Puschett, K. A. Rosenfield, D. Sacks, J. C. Stanley, L. M. Taylor, C. J. White, J. White, and R. A. White, “ACC/AHA 2005 Practice Guidelines for the Management of Patients With Peripheral Arterial Disease (Lower Extremity, Renal, Mesenteric, and Abdominal Aortic),” Circulation 113(11), e463–e465 (2006).

Naganathan, G. K.

K. Cluff, D. Miserlis, G. K. Naganathan, I. I. Pipinos, P. Koutakis, A. Samal, R. D. McComb, J. Subbiah, and G. P. Casale, “Morphometric analysis of gastrocnemius muscle biopsies from patients with peripheral arterial disease: objective grading of muscle degeneration,” Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol. 305(3), R291–R299 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Naglot, S.

A. Sahu, K. Dalal, S. Naglot, P. Aggarwal, and C. Murali Krishna, “Serum based diagnosis of asthma using Raman spectroscopy: an early phase pilot study,” PLoS ONE 8(11), e78921 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Naik, R.

R. E. Kast, G. K. Serhatkulu, A. Cao, A. K. Pandya, H. Dai, J. S. Thakur, V. M. Naik, R. Naik, M. D. Klein, G. W. Auner, and R. Rabah, “Raman spectroscopy can differentiate malignant tumors from normal breast tissue and detect early neoplastic changes in a mouse model,” Biopolymers 89(3), 235–241 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Naik, V. M.

R. E. Kast, G. K. Serhatkulu, A. Cao, A. K. Pandya, H. Dai, J. S. Thakur, V. M. Naik, R. Naik, M. D. Klein, G. W. Auner, and R. Rabah, “Raman spectroscopy can differentiate malignant tumors from normal breast tissue and detect early neoplastic changes in a mouse model,” Biopolymers 89(3), 235–241 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nan, X.

X. Nan, J. X. Cheng, and X. S. Xie, “Vibrational imaging of lipid droplets in live fibroblast cells with coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” J. Lipid Res. 44(11), 2202–2208 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nella, A. A.

D. J. Weiss, G. P. Casale, P. Koutakis, A. A. Nella, S. A. Swanson, Z. Zhu, D. Miserlis, J. M. Johanning, and I. I. Pipinos, “Oxidative damage and myofiber degeneration in the gastrocnemius of patients with peripheral arterial disease,” J. Transl. Med. 11(1), 230 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Neumann, M. H. A.

A. Nijssen, T. C. Bakker Schut, F. Heule, P. J. Caspers, D. P. Hayes, M. H. A. Neumann, and G. J. Puppels, “Discriminating basal cell carcinoma from its surrounding tissue by Raman spectroscopy,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 119(1), 64–69 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nielsen, O. F.

M. Gniadecka, P. A. Philipsen, S. Sigurdsson, S. Wessel, O. F. Nielsen, D. H. Christensen, J. Hercogova, K. Rossen, H. K. Thomsen, R. Gniadecki, L. K. Hansen, and H. C. Wulf, “Melanoma diagnosis by Raman spectroscopy and neural networks: structure alterations in proteins and lipids in intact cancer tissue,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 122(2), 443–449 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nijssen, A.

A. Nijssen, T. C. Bakker Schut, F. Heule, P. J. Caspers, D. P. Hayes, M. H. A. Neumann, and G. J. Puppels, “Discriminating basal cell carcinoma from its surrounding tissue by Raman spectroscopy,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 119(1), 64–69 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Olin, J. W.

A. T. Hirsch, Z. J. Haskal, N. R. Hertzer, C. W. Bakal, M. A. Creager, J. L. Halperin, L. F. Hiratzka, W. R. C. Murphy, J. W. Olin, J. B. Puschett, K. A. Rosenfield, D. Sacks, J. C. Stanley, L. M. Taylor, C. J. White, J. White, and R. A. White, “ACC/AHA 2005 Practice Guidelines for the Management of Patients With Peripheral Arterial Disease (Lower Extremity, Renal, Mesenteric, and Abdominal Aortic),” Circulation 113(11), e463–e465 (2006).

A. T. Hirsch, M. H. Criqui, D. Treat-Jacobson, J. G. Regensteiner, M. A. Creager, J. W. Olin, S. H. Krook, D. B. Hunninghake, A. J. Comerota, M. E. Walsh, M. M. McDermott, and W. R. Hiatt, “Peripheral arterial disease detection, awareness, and treatment in primary care,” JAMA 286(11), 1317–1324 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ong, Y. H.

Otto, C.

H. J. van Manen, Y. M. Kraan, D. Roos, and C. Otto, “Single-cell Raman and fluorescence microscopy reveal the association of lipid bodies with phagosomes in leukocytes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(29), 10159–10164 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. J. Puppels, F. F. de Mul, C. Otto, J. Greve, M. Robert-Nicoud, D. J. Arndt-Jovin, and T. M. Jovin, “Studying single living cells and chromosomes by confocal Raman microspectroscopy,” Nature 347(6290), 301–303 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Palchaudhuri, S.

Pandya, A. K.

R. E. Kast, G. K. Serhatkulu, A. Cao, A. K. Pandya, H. Dai, J. S. Thakur, V. M. Naik, R. Naik, M. D. Klein, G. W. Auner, and R. Rabah, “Raman spectroscopy can differentiate malignant tumors from normal breast tissue and detect early neoplastic changes in a mouse model,” Biopolymers 89(3), 235–241 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Paoletti, S.

A. Bonifacio, C. Beleites, F. Vittur, E. Marsich, S. Semeraro, S. Paoletti, and V. Sergo, “Chemical imaging of articular cartilage sections with Raman mapping, employing uni- and multi-variate methods for data analysis,” Analyst (Lond.) 135(12), 3193–3204 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Philipsen, P. A.

M. Gniadecka, P. A. Philipsen, S. Sigurdsson, S. Wessel, O. F. Nielsen, D. H. Christensen, J. Hercogova, K. Rossen, H. K. Thomsen, R. Gniadecki, L. K. Hansen, and H. C. Wulf, “Melanoma diagnosis by Raman spectroscopy and neural networks: structure alterations in proteins and lipids in intact cancer tissue,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 122(2), 443–449 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pipinos, I. I.

K. Cluff, A. M. Kelly, P. Koutakis, X. N. He, X. Huang, Y. F. Lu, I. I. Pipinos, G. P. Casale, and J. Subbiah, “Surface-enhanced Raman spectral biomarkers correlate with Ankle Brachial Index and characterize leg muscle biochemical composition of patients with peripheral arterial disease,” Physiol. Rep. 2(9), e12148 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. K. S. Kim, Z. Zhu, G. Casale, P. Koutakis, R. D. McComb, S. Swanson, J. Thompson, D. Miserlis, J. M. Johanning, G. Haynatzki, and I. I. Pipinos, “Human enterovirus in the gastrocnemius of patients with peripheral arterial disease,” J Am Heart Assoc 2(4), e000082 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Weiss, G. P. Casale, P. Koutakis, A. A. Nella, S. A. Swanson, Z. Zhu, D. Miserlis, J. M. Johanning, and I. I. Pipinos, “Oxidative damage and myofiber degeneration in the gastrocnemius of patients with peripheral arterial disease,” J. Transl. Med. 11(1), 230 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Cluff, D. Miserlis, G. K. Naganathan, I. I. Pipinos, P. Koutakis, A. Samal, R. D. McComb, J. Subbiah, and G. P. Casale, “Morphometric analysis of gastrocnemius muscle biopsies from patients with peripheral arterial disease: objective grading of muscle degeneration,” Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol. 305(3), R291–R299 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pope, I.

Potma, E. O.

Puppels, G. J.

S. Koljenović, T. C. Bakker Schut, J. P. van Meerbeeck, A. P. Maat, S. A. Burgers, P. E. Zondervan, J. M. Kros, and G. J. Puppels, “Raman microspectroscopic mapping studies of human bronchial tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(6), 1187–1197 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Nijssen, T. C. Bakker Schut, F. Heule, P. J. Caspers, D. P. Hayes, M. H. A. Neumann, and G. J. Puppels, “Discriminating basal cell carcinoma from its surrounding tissue by Raman spectroscopy,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 119(1), 64–69 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. J. Puppels, F. F. de Mul, C. Otto, J. Greve, M. Robert-Nicoud, D. J. Arndt-Jovin, and T. M. Jovin, “Studying single living cells and chromosomes by confocal Raman microspectroscopy,” Nature 347(6290), 301–303 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Puschett, J. B.

A. T. Hirsch, Z. J. Haskal, N. R. Hertzer, C. W. Bakal, M. A. Creager, J. L. Halperin, L. F. Hiratzka, W. R. C. Murphy, J. W. Olin, J. B. Puschett, K. A. Rosenfield, D. Sacks, J. C. Stanley, L. M. Taylor, C. J. White, J. White, and R. A. White, “ACC/AHA 2005 Practice Guidelines for the Management of Patients With Peripheral Arterial Disease (Lower Extremity, Renal, Mesenteric, and Abdominal Aortic),” Circulation 113(11), e463–e465 (2006).

Putnam, R. A.

Rabah, R.

R. E. Kast, G. K. Serhatkulu, A. Cao, A. K. Pandya, H. Dai, J. S. Thakur, V. M. Naik, R. Naik, M. D. Klein, G. W. Auner, and R. Rabah, “Raman spectroscopy can differentiate malignant tumors from normal breast tissue and detect early neoplastic changes in a mouse model,” Biopolymers 89(3), 235–241 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Raniero, L.

M. Moreno, L. Raniero, E. A. L. Arisawa, A. M. do Espirito Santo, E. A. P. dos Santos, R. A. Bitar, and A. A. Martin, “Raman spectroscopy study of breast disease,” Theor. Chem. Acc. 125(3-6), 329–334 (2010).
[Crossref]

Reed, A. B.

M. D. Muller, A. B. Reed, U. A. Leuenberger, and L. I. Sinoway, “Physiology in medicine: peripheral arterial disease,” J. Appl. Physiol. 115(9), 1219–1226 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Regensteiner, J. G.

A. T. Hirsch, M. H. Criqui, D. Treat-Jacobson, J. G. Regensteiner, M. A. Creager, J. W. Olin, S. H. Krook, D. B. Hunninghake, A. J. Comerota, M. E. Walsh, M. M. McDermott, and W. R. Hiatt, “Peripheral arterial disease detection, awareness, and treatment in primary care,” JAMA 286(11), 1317–1324 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rehman, I. U.

Z. Movasaghi, S. Rehman, and I. U. Rehman, “Raman spectroscopy of biological tissues,” Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. 42(5), 493–541 (2007).
[Crossref]

Rehman, S.

Z. Movasaghi, S. Rehman, and I. U. Rehman, “Raman spectroscopy of biological tissues,” Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. 42(5), 493–541 (2007).
[Crossref]

Rehse, S. J.

Robert-Nicoud, M.

G. J. Puppels, F. F. de Mul, C. Otto, J. Greve, M. Robert-Nicoud, D. J. Arndt-Jovin, and T. M. Jovin, “Studying single living cells and chromosomes by confocal Raman microspectroscopy,” Nature 347(6290), 301–303 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Roos, D.

H. J. van Manen, Y. M. Kraan, D. Roos, and C. Otto, “Single-cell Raman and fluorescence microscopy reveal the association of lipid bodies with phagosomes in leukocytes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(29), 10159–10164 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rosenfield, K. A.

A. T. Hirsch, Z. J. Haskal, N. R. Hertzer, C. W. Bakal, M. A. Creager, J. L. Halperin, L. F. Hiratzka, W. R. C. Murphy, J. W. Olin, J. B. Puschett, K. A. Rosenfield, D. Sacks, J. C. Stanley, L. M. Taylor, C. J. White, J. White, and R. A. White, “ACC/AHA 2005 Practice Guidelines for the Management of Patients With Peripheral Arterial Disease (Lower Extremity, Renal, Mesenteric, and Abdominal Aortic),” Circulation 113(11), e463–e465 (2006).

Rossen, K.

M. Gniadecka, P. A. Philipsen, S. Sigurdsson, S. Wessel, O. F. Nielsen, D. H. Christensen, J. Hercogova, K. Rossen, H. K. Thomsen, R. Gniadecki, L. K. Hansen, and H. C. Wulf, “Melanoma diagnosis by Raman spectroscopy and neural networks: structure alterations in proteins and lipids in intact cancer tissue,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 122(2), 443–449 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rubin, S.

C. M. Krishna, G. D. Sockalingum, G. Kegelaer, S. Rubin, V. B. Kartha, and M. Manfait, “Micro-Raman spectroscopy of mixed cancer cell populations,” Vib. Spectrosc. 38(1-2), 95–100 (2005).
[Crossref]

Ruckley, C. V.

G. C. Leng, F. G. R. Fowkes, A. J. Lee, J. Dunbar, E. Housley, and C. V. Ruckley, “Use of ankle brachial pressure index to predict cardiovascular events and death: a cohort study,” BMJ 313(7070), 1440–1443 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sacks, D.

A. T. Hirsch, Z. J. Haskal, N. R. Hertzer, C. W. Bakal, M. A. Creager, J. L. Halperin, L. F. Hiratzka, W. R. C. Murphy, J. W. Olin, J. B. Puschett, K. A. Rosenfield, D. Sacks, J. C. Stanley, L. M. Taylor, C. J. White, J. White, and R. A. White, “ACC/AHA 2005 Practice Guidelines for the Management of Patients With Peripheral Arterial Disease (Lower Extremity, Renal, Mesenteric, and Abdominal Aortic),” Circulation 113(11), e463–e465 (2006).

Sahu, A.

A. Sahu, K. Dalal, S. Naglot, P. Aggarwal, and C. Murali Krishna, “Serum based diagnosis of asthma using Raman spectroscopy: an early phase pilot study,” PLoS ONE 8(11), e78921 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Salzer, R.

C. Krafft, S. B. Sobottka, G. Schackert, and R. Salzer, “Near infrared Raman spectroscopic mapping of native brain tissue and intracranial tumors,” Analyst (Lond.) 130(7), 1070–1077 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Samal, A.

K. Cluff, D. Miserlis, G. K. Naganathan, I. I. Pipinos, P. Koutakis, A. Samal, R. D. McComb, J. Subbiah, and G. P. Casale, “Morphometric analysis of gastrocnemius muscle biopsies from patients with peripheral arterial disease: objective grading of muscle degeneration,” Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol. 305(3), R291–R299 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schackert, G.

C. Krafft, S. B. Sobottka, G. Schackert, and R. Salzer, “Near infrared Raman spectroscopic mapping of native brain tissue and intracranial tumors,” Analyst (Lond.) 130(7), 1070–1077 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Semeraro, S.

A. Bonifacio, C. Beleites, F. Vittur, E. Marsich, S. Semeraro, S. Paoletti, and V. Sergo, “Chemical imaging of articular cartilage sections with Raman mapping, employing uni- and multi-variate methods for data analysis,” Analyst (Lond.) 135(12), 3193–3204 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sergo, V.

A. Bonifacio, C. Beleites, F. Vittur, E. Marsich, S. Semeraro, S. Paoletti, and V. Sergo, “Chemical imaging of articular cartilage sections with Raman mapping, employing uni- and multi-variate methods for data analysis,” Analyst (Lond.) 135(12), 3193–3204 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Serhatkulu, G. K.

R. E. Kast, G. K. Serhatkulu, A. Cao, A. K. Pandya, H. Dai, J. S. Thakur, V. M. Naik, R. Naik, M. D. Klein, G. W. Auner, and R. Rabah, “Raman spectroscopy can differentiate malignant tumors from normal breast tissue and detect early neoplastic changes in a mouse model,” Biopolymers 89(3), 235–241 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shen, A.

P. Chen, A. Shen, X. D. Zhou, and J. M. Hu, “Bio-Raman spectroscopy: a potential clinical analytical method assisting in disease diagnosis,” Anal. Methods 3(6), 1257–1269 (2011).
[Crossref]

Shepherd, N.

C. Kendall, N. Stone, N. Shepherd, K. Geboes, B. Warren, R. Bennett, and H. Barr, “Raman spectroscopy, a potential tool for the objective identification and classification of neoplasia in Barrett’s oesophagus,” J. Pathol. 200(5), 602–609 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sigurdsson, S.

M. Gniadecka, P. A. Philipsen, S. Sigurdsson, S. Wessel, O. F. Nielsen, D. H. Christensen, J. Hercogova, K. Rossen, H. K. Thomsen, R. Gniadecki, L. K. Hansen, and H. C. Wulf, “Melanoma diagnosis by Raman spectroscopy and neural networks: structure alterations in proteins and lipids in intact cancer tissue,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 122(2), 443–449 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Silvain, J. F.

Sinoway, L. I.

M. D. Muller, A. B. Reed, U. A. Leuenberger, and L. I. Sinoway, “Physiology in medicine: peripheral arterial disease,” J. Appl. Physiol. 115(9), 1219–1226 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Slipchenko, M. N.

T. T. Le, H. M. Duren, M. N. Slipchenko, C. D. Hu, and J. X. Cheng, “Label-free quantitative analysis of lipid metabolism in living Caenorhabditis elegans,” J. Lipid Res. 51(3), 672–677 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Smith, S. C.

J. J. F. Belch, E. J. Topol, G. Agnelli, M. Bertrand, R. M. Califf, D. L. Clement, M. A. Creager, J. D. Easton, J. R. Gavin, P. Greenland, G. Hankey, P. Hanrath, A. T. Hirsch, J. Meyer, S. C. Smith, F. Sullivan, M. A. Weber, and Prevention of Atherothrombotic Disease Network, “Critical issues in peripheral arterial disease detection and management: a call to action,” Arch. Intern. Med. 163(8), 884–892 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sobottka, S. B.

C. Krafft, S. B. Sobottka, G. Schackert, and R. Salzer, “Near infrared Raman spectroscopic mapping of native brain tissue and intracranial tumors,” Analyst (Lond.) 130(7), 1070–1077 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sockalingum, G. D.

C. M. Krishna, G. D. Sockalingum, G. Kegelaer, S. Rubin, V. B. Kartha, and M. Manfait, “Micro-Raman spectroscopy of mixed cancer cell populations,” Vib. Spectrosc. 38(1-2), 95–100 (2005).
[Crossref]

Stanley, J. C.

A. T. Hirsch, Z. J. Haskal, N. R. Hertzer, C. W. Bakal, M. A. Creager, J. L. Halperin, L. F. Hiratzka, W. R. C. Murphy, J. W. Olin, J. B. Puschett, K. A. Rosenfield, D. Sacks, J. C. Stanley, L. M. Taylor, C. J. White, J. White, and R. A. White, “ACC/AHA 2005 Practice Guidelines for the Management of Patients With Peripheral Arterial Disease (Lower Extremity, Renal, Mesenteric, and Abdominal Aortic),” Circulation 113(11), e463–e465 (2006).

Stone, N.

C. Kendall, N. Stone, N. Shepherd, K. Geboes, B. Warren, R. Bennett, and H. Barr, “Raman spectroscopy, a potential tool for the objective identification and classification of neoplasia in Barrett’s oesophagus,” J. Pathol. 200(5), 602–609 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Subbiah, J.

K. Cluff, A. M. Kelly, P. Koutakis, X. N. He, X. Huang, Y. F. Lu, I. I. Pipinos, G. P. Casale, and J. Subbiah, “Surface-enhanced Raman spectral biomarkers correlate with Ankle Brachial Index and characterize leg muscle biochemical composition of patients with peripheral arterial disease,” Physiol. Rep. 2(9), e12148 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Cluff, D. Miserlis, G. K. Naganathan, I. I. Pipinos, P. Koutakis, A. Samal, R. D. McComb, J. Subbiah, and G. P. Casale, “Morphometric analysis of gastrocnemius muscle biopsies from patients with peripheral arterial disease: objective grading of muscle degeneration,” Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol. 305(3), R291–R299 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sullivan, F.

J. J. F. Belch, E. J. Topol, G. Agnelli, M. Bertrand, R. M. Califf, D. L. Clement, M. A. Creager, J. D. Easton, J. R. Gavin, P. Greenland, G. Hankey, P. Hanrath, A. T. Hirsch, J. Meyer, S. C. Smith, F. Sullivan, M. A. Weber, and Prevention of Atherothrombotic Disease Network, “Critical issues in peripheral arterial disease detection and management: a call to action,” Arch. Intern. Med. 163(8), 884–892 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Swanson, S.

J. K. S. Kim, Z. Zhu, G. Casale, P. Koutakis, R. D. McComb, S. Swanson, J. Thompson, D. Miserlis, J. M. Johanning, G. Haynatzki, and I. I. Pipinos, “Human enterovirus in the gastrocnemius of patients with peripheral arterial disease,” J Am Heart Assoc 2(4), e000082 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Swanson, S. A.

D. J. Weiss, G. P. Casale, P. Koutakis, A. A. Nella, S. A. Swanson, Z. Zhu, D. Miserlis, J. M. Johanning, and I. I. Pipinos, “Oxidative damage and myofiber degeneration in the gastrocnemius of patients with peripheral arterial disease,” J. Transl. Med. 11(1), 230 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Taylor, L. M.

A. T. Hirsch, Z. J. Haskal, N. R. Hertzer, C. W. Bakal, M. A. Creager, J. L. Halperin, L. F. Hiratzka, W. R. C. Murphy, J. W. Olin, J. B. Puschett, K. A. Rosenfield, D. Sacks, J. C. Stanley, L. M. Taylor, C. J. White, J. White, and R. A. White, “ACC/AHA 2005 Practice Guidelines for the Management of Patients With Peripheral Arterial Disease (Lower Extremity, Renal, Mesenteric, and Abdominal Aortic),” Circulation 113(11), e463–e465 (2006).

Thakur, J. S.

R. E. Kast, G. K. Serhatkulu, A. Cao, A. K. Pandya, H. Dai, J. S. Thakur, V. M. Naik, R. Naik, M. D. Klein, G. W. Auner, and R. Rabah, “Raman spectroscopy can differentiate malignant tumors from normal breast tissue and detect early neoplastic changes in a mouse model,” Biopolymers 89(3), 235–241 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thompson, J.

J. K. S. Kim, Z. Zhu, G. Casale, P. Koutakis, R. D. McComb, S. Swanson, J. Thompson, D. Miserlis, J. M. Johanning, G. Haynatzki, and I. I. Pipinos, “Human enterovirus in the gastrocnemius of patients with peripheral arterial disease,” J Am Heart Assoc 2(4), e000082 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thomsen, H. K.

M. Gniadecka, P. A. Philipsen, S. Sigurdsson, S. Wessel, O. F. Nielsen, D. H. Christensen, J. Hercogova, K. Rossen, H. K. Thomsen, R. Gniadecki, L. K. Hansen, and H. C. Wulf, “Melanoma diagnosis by Raman spectroscopy and neural networks: structure alterations in proteins and lipids in intact cancer tissue,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 122(2), 443–449 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Topol, E. J.

J. J. F. Belch, E. J. Topol, G. Agnelli, M. Bertrand, R. M. Califf, D. L. Clement, M. A. Creager, J. D. Easton, J. R. Gavin, P. Greenland, G. Hankey, P. Hanrath, A. T. Hirsch, J. Meyer, S. C. Smith, F. Sullivan, M. A. Weber, and Prevention of Atherothrombotic Disease Network, “Critical issues in peripheral arterial disease detection and management: a call to action,” Arch. Intern. Med. 163(8), 884–892 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Treat-Jacobson, D.

A. T. Hirsch, M. H. Criqui, D. Treat-Jacobson, J. G. Regensteiner, M. A. Creager, J. W. Olin, S. H. Krook, D. B. Hunninghake, A. J. Comerota, M. E. Walsh, M. M. McDermott, and W. R. Hiatt, “Peripheral arterial disease detection, awareness, and treatment in primary care,” JAMA 286(11), 1317–1324 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tromberg, B. J.

van der Laarse, A.

H. P. Buschman, G. Deinum, J. T. Motz, M. Fitzmaurice, J. R. Kramer, A. van der Laarse, A. V. Bruschke, and M. S. Feld, “Raman microspectroscopy of human coronary atherosclerosis: Biochemical assessment of cellular and extracellular morphologic structures in situ,” Cardiovasc. Pathol. 10(2), 69–82 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

van Manen, H. J.

H. J. van Manen, Y. M. Kraan, D. Roos, and C. Otto, “Single-cell Raman and fluorescence microscopy reveal the association of lipid bodies with phagosomes in leukocytes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(29), 10159–10164 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

van Meerbeeck, J. P.

S. Koljenović, T. C. Bakker Schut, J. P. van Meerbeeck, A. P. Maat, S. A. Burgers, P. E. Zondervan, J. M. Kros, and G. J. Puppels, “Raman microspectroscopic mapping studies of human bronchial tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(6), 1187–1197 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vittur, F.

A. Bonifacio, C. Beleites, F. Vittur, E. Marsich, S. Semeraro, S. Paoletti, and V. Sergo, “Chemical imaging of articular cartilage sections with Raman mapping, employing uni- and multi-variate methods for data analysis,” Analyst (Lond.) 135(12), 3193–3204 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Walsh, M. E.

A. T. Hirsch, M. H. Criqui, D. Treat-Jacobson, J. G. Regensteiner, M. A. Creager, J. W. Olin, S. H. Krook, D. B. Hunninghake, A. J. Comerota, M. E. Walsh, M. M. McDermott, and W. R. Hiatt, “Peripheral arterial disease detection, awareness, and treatment in primary care,” JAMA 286(11), 1317–1324 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, H. F.

R. Lu, W. Gan, B. H. Wu, Z. Zhang, Y. Guo, and H. F. Wang, “C-H stretching vibrations of methyl, methylene and methine groups at the vapor/alcohol (n = 1-8) interfaces,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109(29), 14118–14129 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Warren, B.

C. Kendall, N. Stone, N. Shepherd, K. Geboes, B. Warren, R. Bennett, and H. Barr, “Raman spectroscopy, a potential tool for the objective identification and classification of neoplasia in Barrett’s oesophagus,” J. Pathol. 200(5), 602–609 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Watson, P.

Wautrecht, J. C.

C. Cimminiello, S. Kownator, J. C. Wautrecht, C. P. Carvounis, S. E. Kranendonk, B. Kindler, M. Mangrella, C. Borghi, and PANDORA Study Investigators, “The PANDORA study: peripheral arterial disease in patients with non-high cardiovascular risk,” Intern. Emerg. Med. 6(6), 509–519 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weber, M. A.

J. J. F. Belch, E. J. Topol, G. Agnelli, M. Bertrand, R. M. Califf, D. L. Clement, M. A. Creager, J. D. Easton, J. R. Gavin, P. Greenland, G. Hankey, P. Hanrath, A. T. Hirsch, J. Meyer, S. C. Smith, F. Sullivan, M. A. Weber, and Prevention of Atherothrombotic Disease Network, “Critical issues in peripheral arterial disease detection and management: a call to action,” Arch. Intern. Med. 163(8), 884–892 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weiss, D. J.

D. J. Weiss, G. P. Casale, P. Koutakis, A. A. Nella, S. A. Swanson, Z. Zhu, D. Miserlis, J. M. Johanning, and I. I. Pipinos, “Oxidative damage and myofiber degeneration in the gastrocnemius of patients with peripheral arterial disease,” J. Transl. Med. 11(1), 230 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wessel, S.

M. Gniadecka, P. A. Philipsen, S. Sigurdsson, S. Wessel, O. F. Nielsen, D. H. Christensen, J. Hercogova, K. Rossen, H. K. Thomsen, R. Gniadecki, L. K. Hansen, and H. C. Wulf, “Melanoma diagnosis by Raman spectroscopy and neural networks: structure alterations in proteins and lipids in intact cancer tissue,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 122(2), 443–449 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

White, C. J.

A. T. Hirsch, Z. J. Haskal, N. R. Hertzer, C. W. Bakal, M. A. Creager, J. L. Halperin, L. F. Hiratzka, W. R. C. Murphy, J. W. Olin, J. B. Puschett, K. A. Rosenfield, D. Sacks, J. C. Stanley, L. M. Taylor, C. J. White, J. White, and R. A. White, “ACC/AHA 2005 Practice Guidelines for the Management of Patients With Peripheral Arterial Disease (Lower Extremity, Renal, Mesenteric, and Abdominal Aortic),” Circulation 113(11), e463–e465 (2006).

White, J.

A. T. Hirsch, Z. J. Haskal, N. R. Hertzer, C. W. Bakal, M. A. Creager, J. L. Halperin, L. F. Hiratzka, W. R. C. Murphy, J. W. Olin, J. B. Puschett, K. A. Rosenfield, D. Sacks, J. C. Stanley, L. M. Taylor, C. J. White, J. White, and R. A. White, “ACC/AHA 2005 Practice Guidelines for the Management of Patients With Peripheral Arterial Disease (Lower Extremity, Renal, Mesenteric, and Abdominal Aortic),” Circulation 113(11), e463–e465 (2006).

White, R. A.

A. T. Hirsch, Z. J. Haskal, N. R. Hertzer, C. W. Bakal, M. A. Creager, J. L. Halperin, L. F. Hiratzka, W. R. C. Murphy, J. W. Olin, J. B. Puschett, K. A. Rosenfield, D. Sacks, J. C. Stanley, L. M. Taylor, C. J. White, J. White, and R. A. White, “ACC/AHA 2005 Practice Guidelines for the Management of Patients With Peripheral Arterial Disease (Lower Extremity, Renal, Mesenteric, and Abdominal Aortic),” Circulation 113(11), e463–e465 (2006).

Wood, A. J. J.

A. J. J. Wood and W. R. Hiatt, “Medical treatment of peripheral arterial disease and claudication,” N. Engl. J. Med. 344(21), 1608–1621 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Woodman, R. C.

Wu, B. H.

R. Lu, W. Gan, B. H. Wu, Z. Zhang, Y. Guo, and H. F. Wang, “C-H stretching vibrations of methyl, methylene and methine groups at the vapor/alcohol (n = 1-8) interfaces,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109(29), 14118–14129 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wulf, H. C.

M. Gniadecka, P. A. Philipsen, S. Sigurdsson, S. Wessel, O. F. Nielsen, D. H. Christensen, J. Hercogova, K. Rossen, H. K. Thomsen, R. Gniadecki, L. K. Hansen, and H. C. Wulf, “Melanoma diagnosis by Raman spectroscopy and neural networks: structure alterations in proteins and lipids in intact cancer tissue,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 122(2), 443–449 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xie, X. S.

C. L. Evans and X. S. Xie, “Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy: chemical imaging for biology and medicine,” Annu Rev Anal Chem (Palo Alto Calif) 1(1), 883–909 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Légaré, C. L. Evans, F. Ganikhanov, and X. S. Xie, “Towards CARS Endoscopy,” Opt. Express 14(10), 4427–4432 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Nan, J. X. Cheng, and X. S. Xie, “Vibrational imaging of lipid droplets in live fibroblast cells with coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” J. Lipid Res. 44(11), 2202–2208 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xiong, W.

Zeng, H.

Zhang, Z.

R. Lu, W. Gan, B. H. Wu, Z. Zhang, Y. Guo, and H. F. Wang, “C-H stretching vibrations of methyl, methylene and methine groups at the vapor/alcohol (n = 1-8) interfaces,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109(29), 14118–14129 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, J.

Zhou, X. D.

P. Chen, A. Shen, X. D. Zhou, and J. M. Hu, “Bio-Raman spectroscopy: a potential clinical analytical method assisting in disease diagnosis,” Anal. Methods 3(6), 1257–1269 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhou, Y. S.

Zhu, Z.

D. J. Weiss, G. P. Casale, P. Koutakis, A. A. Nella, S. A. Swanson, Z. Zhu, D. Miserlis, J. M. Johanning, and I. I. Pipinos, “Oxidative damage and myofiber degeneration in the gastrocnemius of patients with peripheral arterial disease,” J. Transl. Med. 11(1), 230 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. K. S. Kim, Z. Zhu, G. Casale, P. Koutakis, R. D. McComb, S. Swanson, J. Thompson, D. Miserlis, J. M. Johanning, G. Haynatzki, and I. I. Pipinos, “Human enterovirus in the gastrocnemius of patients with peripheral arterial disease,” J Am Heart Assoc 2(4), e000082 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zondervan, P. E.

S. Koljenović, T. C. Bakker Schut, J. P. van Meerbeeck, A. P. Maat, S. A. Burgers, P. E. Zondervan, J. M. Kros, and G. J. Puppels, “Raman microspectroscopic mapping studies of human bronchial tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(6), 1187–1197 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol. (1)

K. Cluff, D. Miserlis, G. K. Naganathan, I. I. Pipinos, P. Koutakis, A. Samal, R. D. McComb, J. Subbiah, and G. P. Casale, “Morphometric analysis of gastrocnemius muscle biopsies from patients with peripheral arterial disease: objective grading of muscle degeneration,” Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol. 305(3), R291–R299 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anal. Chim. Acta (1)

M. Muratore, “Raman spectroscopy and partial least squares analysis in discrimination of peripheral cells affected by Huntington’s disease,” Anal. Chim. Acta 793, 1–10 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anal. Methods (1)

P. Chen, A. Shen, X. D. Zhou, and J. M. Hu, “Bio-Raman spectroscopy: a potential clinical analytical method assisting in disease diagnosis,” Anal. Methods 3(6), 1257–1269 (2011).
[Crossref]

Analyst (Lond.) (2)

A. Bonifacio, C. Beleites, F. Vittur, E. Marsich, S. Semeraro, S. Paoletti, and V. Sergo, “Chemical imaging of articular cartilage sections with Raman mapping, employing uni- and multi-variate methods for data analysis,” Analyst (Lond.) 135(12), 3193–3204 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Krafft, S. B. Sobottka, G. Schackert, and R. Salzer, “Near infrared Raman spectroscopic mapping of native brain tissue and intracranial tumors,” Analyst (Lond.) 130(7), 1070–1077 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Annu Rev Anal Chem (Palo Alto Calif) (1)

C. L. Evans and X. S. Xie, “Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy: chemical imaging for biology and medicine,” Annu Rev Anal Chem (Palo Alto Calif) 1(1), 883–909 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Spectrosc. (1)

Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. (1)

Z. Movasaghi, S. Rehman, and I. U. Rehman, “Raman spectroscopy of biological tissues,” Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. 42(5), 493–541 (2007).
[Crossref]

Arch. Intern. Med. (1)

J. J. F. Belch, E. J. Topol, G. Agnelli, M. Bertrand, R. M. Califf, D. L. Clement, M. A. Creager, J. D. Easton, J. R. Gavin, P. Greenland, G. Hankey, P. Hanrath, A. T. Hirsch, J. Meyer, S. C. Smith, F. Sullivan, M. A. Weber, and Prevention of Atherothrombotic Disease Network, “Critical issues in peripheral arterial disease detection and management: a call to action,” Arch. Intern. Med. 163(8), 884–892 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biomed. Opt. Express (4)

Biopolymers (1)

R. E. Kast, G. K. Serhatkulu, A. Cao, A. K. Pandya, H. Dai, J. S. Thakur, V. M. Naik, R. Naik, M. D. Klein, G. W. Auner, and R. Rabah, “Raman spectroscopy can differentiate malignant tumors from normal breast tissue and detect early neoplastic changes in a mouse model,” Biopolymers 89(3), 235–241 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

BMJ (1)

G. C. Leng, F. G. R. Fowkes, A. J. Lee, J. Dunbar, E. Housley, and C. V. Ruckley, “Use of ankle brachial pressure index to predict cardiovascular events and death: a cohort study,” BMJ 313(7070), 1440–1443 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cardiovasc. Pathol. (1)

H. P. Buschman, G. Deinum, J. T. Motz, M. Fitzmaurice, J. R. Kramer, A. van der Laarse, A. V. Bruschke, and M. S. Feld, “Raman microspectroscopy of human coronary atherosclerosis: Biochemical assessment of cellular and extracellular morphologic structures in situ,” Cardiovasc. Pathol. 10(2), 69–82 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Circulation (2)

M. H. Criqui, A. Fronek, E. Barrett-Connor, M. R. Klauber, S. Gabriel, and D. Goodman, “The prevalence of peripheral arterial disease in a defined population,” Circulation 71(3), 510–515 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. T. Hirsch, Z. J. Haskal, N. R. Hertzer, C. W. Bakal, M. A. Creager, J. L. Halperin, L. F. Hiratzka, W. R. C. Murphy, J. W. Olin, J. B. Puschett, K. A. Rosenfield, D. Sacks, J. C. Stanley, L. M. Taylor, C. J. White, J. White, and R. A. White, “ACC/AHA 2005 Practice Guidelines for the Management of Patients With Peripheral Arterial Disease (Lower Extremity, Renal, Mesenteric, and Abdominal Aortic),” Circulation 113(11), e463–e465 (2006).

Intern. Emerg. Med. (1)

C. Cimminiello, S. Kownator, J. C. Wautrecht, C. P. Carvounis, S. E. Kranendonk, B. Kindler, M. Mangrella, C. Borghi, and PANDORA Study Investigators, “The PANDORA study: peripheral arterial disease in patients with non-high cardiovascular risk,” Intern. Emerg. Med. 6(6), 509–519 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J Am Heart Assoc (1)

J. K. S. Kim, Z. Zhu, G. Casale, P. Koutakis, R. D. McComb, S. Swanson, J. Thompson, D. Miserlis, J. M. Johanning, G. Haynatzki, and I. I. Pipinos, “Human enterovirus in the gastrocnemius of patients with peripheral arterial disease,” J Am Heart Assoc 2(4), e000082 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Appl. Physiol. (1)

M. D. Muller, A. B. Reed, U. A. Leuenberger, and L. I. Sinoway, “Physiology in medicine: peripheral arterial disease,” J. Appl. Physiol. 115(9), 1219–1226 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

S. Koljenović, T. C. Bakker Schut, J. P. van Meerbeeck, A. P. Maat, S. A. Burgers, P. E. Zondervan, J. M. Kros, and G. J. Puppels, “Raman microspectroscopic mapping studies of human bronchial tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(6), 1187–1197 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Cardiopulm. Rehabil. Prev. (1)

A. W. Gardner and A. Afaq, “Management of lower extremity peripheral arterial disease,” J. Cardiopulm. Rehabil. Prev. 28(6), 349–357 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Invest. Dermatol. (2)

A. Nijssen, T. C. Bakker Schut, F. Heule, P. J. Caspers, D. P. Hayes, M. H. A. Neumann, and G. J. Puppels, “Discriminating basal cell carcinoma from its surrounding tissue by Raman spectroscopy,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 119(1), 64–69 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Gniadecka, P. A. Philipsen, S. Sigurdsson, S. Wessel, O. F. Nielsen, D. H. Christensen, J. Hercogova, K. Rossen, H. K. Thomsen, R. Gniadecki, L. K. Hansen, and H. C. Wulf, “Melanoma diagnosis by Raman spectroscopy and neural networks: structure alterations in proteins and lipids in intact cancer tissue,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 122(2), 443–449 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Lipid Res. (2)

T. T. Le, H. M. Duren, M. N. Slipchenko, C. D. Hu, and J. X. Cheng, “Label-free quantitative analysis of lipid metabolism in living Caenorhabditis elegans,” J. Lipid Res. 51(3), 672–677 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Nan, J. X. Cheng, and X. S. Xie, “Vibrational imaging of lipid droplets in live fibroblast cells with coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” J. Lipid Res. 44(11), 2202–2208 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Pathol. (1)

C. Kendall, N. Stone, N. Shepherd, K. Geboes, B. Warren, R. Bennett, and H. Barr, “Raman spectroscopy, a potential tool for the objective identification and classification of neoplasia in Barrett’s oesophagus,” J. Pathol. 200(5), 602–609 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Phys. Chem. B (1)

R. Lu, W. Gan, B. H. Wu, Z. Zhang, Y. Guo, and H. F. Wang, “C-H stretching vibrations of methyl, methylene and methine groups at the vapor/alcohol (n = 1-8) interfaces,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109(29), 14118–14129 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Transl. Med. (1)

D. J. Weiss, G. P. Casale, P. Koutakis, A. A. Nella, S. A. Swanson, Z. Zhu, D. Miserlis, J. M. Johanning, and I. I. Pipinos, “Oxidative damage and myofiber degeneration in the gastrocnemius of patients with peripheral arterial disease,” J. Transl. Med. 11(1), 230 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

JAMA (1)

A. T. Hirsch, M. H. Criqui, D. Treat-Jacobson, J. G. Regensteiner, M. A. Creager, J. W. Olin, S. H. Krook, D. B. Hunninghake, A. J. Comerota, M. E. Walsh, M. M. McDermott, and W. R. Hiatt, “Peripheral arterial disease detection, awareness, and treatment in primary care,” JAMA 286(11), 1317–1324 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Engl. J. Med. (2)

A. J. J. Wood and W. R. Hiatt, “Medical treatment of peripheral arterial disease and claudication,” N. Engl. J. Med. 344(21), 1608–1621 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. H. Criqui, R. D. Langer, A. Fronek, H. S. Feigelson, M. R. Klauber, T. J. McCann, and D. Browner, “Mortality over a period of 10 years in patients with peripheral arterial disease,” N. Engl. J. Med. 326(6), 381–386 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nature (1)

G. J. Puppels, F. F. de Mul, C. Otto, J. Greve, M. Robert-Nicoud, D. J. Arndt-Jovin, and T. M. Jovin, “Studying single living cells and chromosomes by confocal Raman microspectroscopy,” Nature 347(6290), 301–303 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (4)

Physiol. Rep. (1)

K. Cluff, A. M. Kelly, P. Koutakis, X. N. He, X. Huang, Y. F. Lu, I. I. Pipinos, G. P. Casale, and J. Subbiah, “Surface-enhanced Raman spectral biomarkers correlate with Ankle Brachial Index and characterize leg muscle biochemical composition of patients with peripheral arterial disease,” Physiol. Rep. 2(9), e12148 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

PLoS ONE (1)

A. Sahu, K. Dalal, S. Naglot, P. Aggarwal, and C. Murali Krishna, “Serum based diagnosis of asthma using Raman spectroscopy: an early phase pilot study,” PLoS ONE 8(11), e78921 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1)

H. J. van Manen, Y. M. Kraan, D. Roos, and C. Otto, “Single-cell Raman and fluorescence microscopy reveal the association of lipid bodies with phagosomes in leukocytes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(29), 10159–10164 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Theor. Chem. Acc. (1)

M. Moreno, L. Raniero, E. A. L. Arisawa, A. M. do Espirito Santo, E. A. P. dos Santos, R. A. Bitar, and A. A. Martin, “Raman spectroscopy study of breast disease,” Theor. Chem. Acc. 125(3-6), 329–334 (2010).
[Crossref]

Vib. Spectrosc. (1)

C. M. Krishna, G. D. Sockalingum, G. Kegelaer, S. Rubin, V. B. Kartha, and M. Manfait, “Micro-Raman spectroscopy of mixed cancer cell populations,” Vib. Spectrosc. 38(1-2), 95–100 (2005).
[Crossref]

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Averaged preprocessed Raman spectra of healthy tissue and two PAD levels: moderate and severe. The spectra have been normalized at 3300 cm−1 and offset vertically for clarity. (b) PC-DFA plot showing the two discriminant function scores of a total 181 Raman spectra from healthy tissue and two levels of PAD.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Raman spectra of first three principal component loadings of the PCA, where (a) is PC #1, (b) PC #2, and (c) PC #3; (d) PC #1 loading of the PCA plotted with the spectrum obtained by subtracting the averaged healthy spectrum from that of severe.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Averaged preprocessed CARS spectra of healthy tissue and two PAD levels: moderate and severe. The spectra have been offset vertically for clarity. (b) A PC-DFA plot showing the first two discriminant function scores of a total of 122 CARS spectra from healthy tissue and two levels of PAD.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 CARS spectra of first three principal components loadings of the PCA, where (a) is PC #1, (b) PC #2, and (c) PC #3; (d) PC #1 loading of the PCA plotted with the spectrum obtained by subtracting the averaged healthy spectrum from that of the severe.

Tables (6)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Raman data sets tested in this study

Tables Icon

Table 2 CARS data sets tested in this study

Tables Icon

Table 3 Peak assignments of the Raman spectra of the CH region

Tables Icon

Table 4 Classification accuracy of PC-DFA based on Raman data (cross-validation method)

Tables Icon

Table 5 Classification accuracy of PC-DFA based on CARS data (Cross-validation method)

Tables Icon

Table 6 Classification accuracy of Raman and CARS

Metrics