Abstract

Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a widely used three-dimensional (3D) optical imaging method with many biomedical and non-medical applications. Miniaturization, cost reduction, and increased functionality of OCT systems will be critical for future emerging clinical applications. We present a silicon photonic integrated circuit swept-source OCT (SS-OCT) coherent receiver with dual polarization, dual balanced, in-phase and quadrature (IQ) detection. We demonstrate multiple functional capabilities of IQ polarization resolved detection including: complex-conjugate suppressed full-range OCT, polarization diversity detection, and polarization-sensitive OCT. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of a silicon photonic integrated receiver for OCT. The integrated coherent receiver provides a miniaturized, low-cost solution for SS-OCT, and is also a key step towards a fully integrated high speed SS-OCT system with good performance and multi-functional capabilities. With further performance improvement and cost reduction, photonic integrated technology promises to greatly increase penetration of OCT systems in existing applications and enable new applications.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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2015 (1)

2014 (5)

2013 (2)

2012 (6)

B. Baumann, W. Choi, B. Potsaid, D. Huang, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Swept source/Fourier domain polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography with a passive polarization delay unit,” Opt. Express 20(9), 10229–10241 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. D. Nguyen, N. Weiss, W. Beeker, M. Hoekman, A. Leinse, R. G. Heideman, T. G. van Leeuwen, and J. Kalkman, “Integrated-optics-based swept-source optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 37(23), 4820–4822 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. I. Akca, V. Nguyen, J. Kalkman, N. Ismail, G. Sengo, S. Fei, A. Driessen, T. G. van Leeuwen, M. Pollnau, K. Worhoff, and R. M. de Ridder, “Toward Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography on a Chip,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(3), 1223–1233 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. Vermeulen, S. Selvaraja, P. Verheyen, P. Absil, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, and G. Roelkens, “Silicon-on-insulator polarization rotator based on a symmetry breaking silicon overlay,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(6), 482–484 (2012).
[Crossref]

V. Jayaraman, G. D. Cole, M. Robertson, A. Uddin, and A. Cable, “High-sweep-rate 1310 nm MEMS-VCSEL with 150 nm continuous tuning range,” Electron. Lett. 48(14), 867–869 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, O. Tan, J. Tokayer, B. Potsaid, Y. Wang, J. J. Liu, M. F. Kraus, H. Subhash, J. G. Fujimoto, J. Hornegger, and D. Huang, “Split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography with optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 20(4), 4710–4725 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

L. Chen, C. R. Doerr, L. Buhl, Y. Baeyens, and R. A. Aroca, “Monolithically integrated 40-wavelength demultiplexer and photodetector array on silicon,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(13), 869–871 (2011).
[Crossref]

V. D. Nguyen, B. I. Akca, K. Wörhoff, R. M. de Ridder, M. Pollnau, T. G. van Leeuwen, and J. Kalkman, “Spectral domain optical coherence tomography imaging with an integrated optics spectrometer,” Opt. Lett. 36(7), 1293–1295 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Pircher, C. K. Hitzenberger, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography in the human eye,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 30(6), 431–451 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

2009 (2)

2007 (6)

B. Baumann, M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Full range complex spectral domain optical coherence tomography without additional phase shifters,” Opt. Express 15(20), 13375–13387 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. An and R. K. Wang, “Use of a scanner to modulate spatial interferograms for in vivo full-range Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 32(23), 3423–3425 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. K. Wang, “In vivo full range complex Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(5), 054103 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. K. Nadkarni, M. C. Pierce, B. H. Park, J. F. de Boer, P. Whittaker, B. E. Bouma, J. E. Bressner, E. Halpern, S. L. Houser, and G. J. Tearney, “Measurement of collagen and smooth muscle cell content in atherosclerotic plaques using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 49(13), 1474–1481 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. K. Wang, S. L. Jacques, Z. Ma, S. Hurst, S. R. Hanson, and A. Gruber, “Three dimensional optical angiography,” Opt. Express 15(7), 4083–4097 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. S. Ralston, D. L. Marks, P. S. Carney, and S. A. Boppart, “Interferometric synthetic aperture microscopy,” Nat. Phys. 3(2), 129–134 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (4)

2005 (2)

2004 (2)

2003 (4)

2002 (3)

M. Wojtkowski, A. Kowalczyk, R. Leitgeb, and A. F. Fercher, “Full range complex spectral optical coherence tomography technique in eye imaging,” Opt. Lett. 27(16), 1415–1417 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. F. de Boer and T. E. Milner, “Review of polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography and Stokes vector determination,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 359–371 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yabushita, B. E. Bouma, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, D. H. Kang, E. F. Halpern, and G. J. Tearney, “Characterization of human atherosclerosis by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 106(13), 1640–1645 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (3)

1997 (2)

1995 (1)

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. El-Zaiat, “Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 117(1-2), 43–48 (1995).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Absil, P.

D. Vermeulen, S. Selvaraja, P. Verheyen, P. Absil, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, and G. Roelkens, “Silicon-on-insulator polarization rotator based on a symmetry breaking silicon overlay,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(6), 482–484 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. Vermeulen, S. Selvaraja, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, W. Bogaerts, P. Absil, D. Van Thourhout, and G. Roelkens, “High-efficiency fiber-to-chip grating couplers realized using an advanced CMOS-compatible silicon-on-insulator platform,” Opt. Express 18(17), 18278–18283 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adler, D. C.

Ahsen, O. O.

Akca, B. I.

B. I. Akca, V. Nguyen, J. Kalkman, N. Ismail, G. Sengo, S. Fei, A. Driessen, T. G. van Leeuwen, M. Pollnau, K. Worhoff, and R. M. de Ridder, “Toward Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography on a Chip,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(3), 1223–1233 (2012).
[Crossref]

V. D. Nguyen, B. I. Akca, K. Wörhoff, R. M. de Ridder, M. Pollnau, T. G. van Leeuwen, and J. Kalkman, “Spectral domain optical coherence tomography imaging with an integrated optics spectrometer,” Opt. Lett. 36(7), 1293–1295 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alex, A.

An, L.

Aretz, H. T.

H. Yabushita, B. E. Bouma, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, D. H. Kang, E. F. Halpern, and G. J. Tearney, “Characterization of human atherosclerosis by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 106(13), 1640–1645 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aroca, R. A.

L. Chen, C. R. Doerr, L. Buhl, Y. Baeyens, and R. A. Aroca, “Monolithically integrated 40-wavelength demultiplexer and photodetector array on silicon,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(13), 869–871 (2011).
[Crossref]

Baets, R.

Baeyens, Y.

L. Chen, C. R. Doerr, L. Buhl, Y. Baeyens, and R. A. Aroca, “Monolithically integrated 40-wavelength demultiplexer and photodetector array on silicon,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(13), 869–871 (2011).
[Crossref]

Baumann, B.

Beeker, W.

Biedermann, B. R.

Bogaerts, W.

D. Vermeulen, S. Selvaraja, P. Verheyen, P. Absil, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, and G. Roelkens, “Silicon-on-insulator polarization rotator based on a symmetry breaking silicon overlay,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(6), 482–484 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. Vermeulen, S. Selvaraja, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, W. Bogaerts, P. Absil, D. Van Thourhout, and G. Roelkens, “High-efficiency fiber-to-chip grating couplers realized using an advanced CMOS-compatible silicon-on-insulator platform,” Opt. Express 18(17), 18278–18283 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boppart, S. A.

T. S. Ralston, D. L. Marks, P. S. Carney, and S. A. Boppart, “Interferometric synthetic aperture microscopy,” Nat. Phys. 3(2), 129–134 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bouma, B.

Bouma, B. E.

S. K. Nadkarni, M. C. Pierce, B. H. Park, J. F. de Boer, P. Whittaker, B. E. Bouma, J. E. Bressner, E. Halpern, S. L. Houser, and G. J. Tearney, “Measurement of collagen and smooth muscle cell content in atherosclerotic plaques using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 49(13), 1474–1481 (2007).
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H. Yabushita, B. E. Bouma, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, D. H. Kang, E. F. Halpern, and G. J. Tearney, “Characterization of human atherosclerosis by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 106(13), 1640–1645 (2002).
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Bressner, J. E.

S. K. Nadkarni, M. C. Pierce, B. H. Park, J. F. de Boer, P. Whittaker, B. E. Bouma, J. E. Bressner, E. Halpern, S. L. Houser, and G. J. Tearney, “Measurement of collagen and smooth muscle cell content in atherosclerotic plaques using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 49(13), 1474–1481 (2007).
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Buhl, L.

L. Chen, C. R. Doerr, L. Buhl, Y. Baeyens, and R. A. Aroca, “Monolithically integrated 40-wavelength demultiplexer and photodetector array on silicon,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(13), 869–871 (2011).
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Cable, A. E.

Carney, P. S.

T. S. Ralston, D. L. Marks, P. S. Carney, and S. A. Boppart, “Interferometric synthetic aperture microscopy,” Nat. Phys. 3(2), 129–134 (2007).
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Cense, B.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
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L. Chen, C. R. Doerr, L. Buhl, Y. Baeyens, and R. A. Aroca, “Monolithically integrated 40-wavelength demultiplexer and photodetector array on silicon,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(13), 869–871 (2011).
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Chinn, S. R.

Choi, W.

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Choma, M. A.

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V. Jayaraman, G. D. Cole, M. Robertson, A. Uddin, and A. Cable, “High-sweep-rate 1310 nm MEMS-VCSEL with 150 nm continuous tuning range,” Electron. Lett. 48(14), 867–869 (2012).
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Dallas, W.

de Boer, J.

de Boer, J. F.

de Ridder, R. M.

B. I. Akca, V. Nguyen, J. Kalkman, N. Ismail, G. Sengo, S. Fei, A. Driessen, T. G. van Leeuwen, M. Pollnau, K. Worhoff, and R. M. de Ridder, “Toward Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography on a Chip,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(3), 1223–1233 (2012).
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V. D. Nguyen, B. I. Akca, K. Wörhoff, R. M. de Ridder, M. Pollnau, T. G. van Leeuwen, and J. Kalkman, “Spectral domain optical coherence tomography imaging with an integrated optics spectrometer,” Opt. Lett. 36(7), 1293–1295 (2011).
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Dodabalapur, A.

Doerr, C. R.

L. Chen, C. R. Doerr, L. Buhl, Y. Baeyens, and R. A. Aroca, “Monolithically integrated 40-wavelength demultiplexer and photodetector array on silicon,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(13), 869–871 (2011).
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Drexler, W.

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B. I. Akca, V. Nguyen, J. Kalkman, N. Ismail, G. Sengo, S. Fei, A. Driessen, T. G. van Leeuwen, M. Pollnau, K. Worhoff, and R. M. de Ridder, “Toward Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography on a Chip,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(3), 1223–1233 (2012).
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A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. El-Zaiat, “Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 117(1-2), 43–48 (1995).
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B. I. Akca, V. Nguyen, J. Kalkman, N. Ismail, G. Sengo, S. Fei, A. Driessen, T. G. van Leeuwen, M. Pollnau, K. Worhoff, and R. M. de Ridder, “Toward Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography on a Chip,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(3), 1223–1233 (2012).
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Fujimoto, J. G.

Z. Wang, H.-C. Lee, O. O. Ahsen, B. Lee, W. Choi, B. Potsaid, J. Liu, V. Jayaraman, A. Cable, M. F. Kraus, K. Liang, J. Hornegger, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Depth-encoded all-fiber swept source polarization sensitive OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(9), 2931–2949 (2014).
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T.-H. Tsai, B. Potsaid, Y. K. Tao, V. Jayaraman, J. Jiang, P. J. S. Heim, M. F. Kraus, C. Zhou, J. Hornegger, H. Mashimo, A. E. Cable, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh speed endoscopic optical coherence tomography using micromotor imaging catheter and VCSEL technology,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(7), 1119–1132 (2013).
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W. Choi, B. Potsaid, V. Jayaraman, B. Baumann, I. Grulkowski, J. J. Liu, C. D. Lu, A. E. Cable, D. Huang, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Phase-sensitive swept-source optical coherence tomography imaging of the human retina with a vertical cavity surface-emitting laser light source,” Opt. Lett. 38(3), 338–340 (2013).
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B. Baumann, W. Choi, B. Potsaid, D. Huang, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Swept source/Fourier domain polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography with a passive polarization delay unit,” Opt. Express 20(9), 10229–10241 (2012).
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Y. Jia, O. Tan, J. Tokayer, B. Potsaid, Y. Wang, J. J. Liu, M. F. Kraus, H. Subhash, J. G. Fujimoto, J. Hornegger, and D. Huang, “Split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography with optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 20(4), 4710–4725 (2012).
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M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Polarization-sensitive low-coherence reflectometer for birefringence characterization and ranging,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9(6), 903–908 (1992).
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D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
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Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
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Grulkowski, I.

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S. K. Nadkarni, M. C. Pierce, B. H. Park, J. F. de Boer, P. Whittaker, B. E. Bouma, J. E. Bressner, E. Halpern, S. L. Houser, and G. J. Tearney, “Measurement of collagen and smooth muscle cell content in atherosclerotic plaques using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 49(13), 1474–1481 (2007).
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Halpern, E. F.

H. Yabushita, B. E. Bouma, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, D. H. Kang, E. F. Halpern, and G. J. Tearney, “Characterization of human atherosclerosis by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 106(13), 1640–1645 (2002).
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Hee, M. R.

M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Polarization-sensitive low-coherence reflectometer for birefringence characterization and ranging,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9(6), 903–908 (1992).
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D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
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Heim, P. J. S.

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Hitzenberger, C. K.

M. Pircher, C. K. Hitzenberger, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography in the human eye,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 30(6), 431–451 (2011).
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B. Baumann, M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Full range complex spectral domain optical coherence tomography without additional phase shifters,” Opt. Express 15(20), 13375–13387 (2007).
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A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. El-Zaiat, “Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 117(1-2), 43–48 (1995).
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Hofer, B.

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S. K. Nadkarni, M. C. Pierce, B. H. Park, J. F. de Boer, P. Whittaker, B. E. Bouma, J. E. Bressner, E. Halpern, S. L. Houser, and G. J. Tearney, “Measurement of collagen and smooth muscle cell content in atherosclerotic plaques using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 49(13), 1474–1481 (2007).
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H. Yabushita, B. E. Bouma, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, D. H. Kang, E. F. Halpern, and G. J. Tearney, “Characterization of human atherosclerosis by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 106(13), 1640–1645 (2002).
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B. I. Akca, V. Nguyen, J. Kalkman, N. Ismail, G. Sengo, S. Fei, A. Driessen, T. G. van Leeuwen, M. Pollnau, K. Worhoff, and R. M. de Ridder, “Toward Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography on a Chip,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(3), 1223–1233 (2012).
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H. Yabushita, B. E. Bouma, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, D. H. Kang, E. F. Halpern, and G. J. Tearney, “Characterization of human atherosclerosis by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 106(13), 1640–1645 (2002).
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Jia, Y.

Jiang, J.

Joannopoulos, J. D.

Kalkman, J.

Kamp, G.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. El-Zaiat, “Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 117(1-2), 43–48 (1995).
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H. Yabushita, B. E. Bouma, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, D. H. Kang, E. F. Halpern, and G. J. Tearney, “Characterization of human atherosclerosis by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 106(13), 1640–1645 (2002).
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Kärtner, F. X.

Kauffman, C. R.

H. Yabushita, B. E. Bouma, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, D. H. Kang, E. F. Halpern, and G. J. Tearney, “Characterization of human atherosclerosis by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 106(13), 1640–1645 (2002).
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Kowalczyk, A.

Kraus, M. F.

Kulkarni, M.

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Lee, A. M.

Lee, B.

Lee, H.-C.

Lee, K.-S.

Leinse, A.

Leitgeb, R.

Lepage, G.

Li, X. D.

Liang, K.

Lim, Y.

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, J.

Liu, J. J.

Lu, C. D.

Ma, Z.

MacAulay, C.

Makita, S.

Marks, D. L.

T. S. Ralston, D. L. Marks, P. S. Carney, and S. A. Boppart, “Interferometric synthetic aperture microscopy,” Nat. Phys. 3(2), 129–134 (2007).
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Mashimo, H.

Matz, G.

Meemon, P.

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J. F. de Boer and T. E. Milner, “Review of polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography and Stokes vector determination,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 359–371 (2002).
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Nadkarni, S. K.

S. K. Nadkarni, M. C. Pierce, B. H. Park, J. F. de Boer, P. Whittaker, B. E. Bouma, J. E. Bressner, E. Halpern, S. L. Houser, and G. J. Tearney, “Measurement of collagen and smooth muscle cell content in atherosclerotic plaques using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 49(13), 1474–1481 (2007).
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Nelson, J. S.

Nguyen, V.

B. I. Akca, V. Nguyen, J. Kalkman, N. Ismail, G. Sengo, S. Fei, A. Driessen, T. G. van Leeuwen, M. Pollnau, K. Worhoff, and R. M. de Ridder, “Toward Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography on a Chip,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(3), 1223–1233 (2012).
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Pahlevaninezhad, H.

Park, B. H.

S. K. Nadkarni, M. C. Pierce, B. H. Park, J. F. de Boer, P. Whittaker, B. E. Bouma, J. E. Bressner, E. Halpern, S. L. Houser, and G. J. Tearney, “Measurement of collagen and smooth muscle cell content in atherosclerotic plaques using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 49(13), 1474–1481 (2007).
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B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, B. Cense, and J. F. de Boer, “Jones matrix analysis for a polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography system using fiber-optic components,” Opt. Lett. 29(21), 2512–2514 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. F. de Boer, B. Cense, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Improved signal-to-noise ratio in spectral-domain compared with time-domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 28(21), 2067–2069 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pfeiffer, T.

Pierce, M. C.

S. K. Nadkarni, M. C. Pierce, B. H. Park, J. F. de Boer, P. Whittaker, B. E. Bouma, J. E. Bressner, E. Halpern, S. L. Houser, and G. J. Tearney, “Measurement of collagen and smooth muscle cell content in atherosclerotic plaques using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 49(13), 1474–1481 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, B. Cense, and J. F. de Boer, “Jones matrix analysis for a polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography system using fiber-optic components,” Opt. Lett. 29(21), 2512–2514 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. F. de Boer, B. Cense, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Improved signal-to-noise ratio in spectral-domain compared with time-domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 28(21), 2067–2069 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pircher, M.

M. Pircher, C. K. Hitzenberger, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography in the human eye,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 30(6), 431–451 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Baumann, M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Full range complex spectral domain optical coherence tomography without additional phase shifters,” Opt. Express 15(20), 13375–13387 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pitris, C.

Pollnau, M.

B. I. Akca, V. Nguyen, J. Kalkman, N. Ismail, G. Sengo, S. Fei, A. Driessen, T. G. van Leeuwen, M. Pollnau, K. Worhoff, and R. M. de Ridder, “Toward Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography on a Chip,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(3), 1223–1233 (2012).
[Crossref]

V. D. Nguyen, B. I. Akca, K. Wörhoff, R. M. de Ridder, M. Pollnau, T. G. van Leeuwen, and J. Kalkman, “Spectral domain optical coherence tomography imaging with an integrated optics spectrometer,” Opt. Lett. 36(7), 1293–1295 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Potsaid, B.

Z. Wang, H.-C. Lee, O. O. Ahsen, B. Lee, W. Choi, B. Potsaid, J. Liu, V. Jayaraman, A. Cable, M. F. Kraus, K. Liang, J. Hornegger, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Depth-encoded all-fiber swept source polarization sensitive OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(9), 2931–2949 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Choi, B. Potsaid, V. Jayaraman, B. Baumann, I. Grulkowski, J. J. Liu, C. D. Lu, A. E. Cable, D. Huang, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Phase-sensitive swept-source optical coherence tomography imaging of the human retina with a vertical cavity surface-emitting laser light source,” Opt. Lett. 38(3), 338–340 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T.-H. Tsai, B. Potsaid, Y. K. Tao, V. Jayaraman, J. Jiang, P. J. S. Heim, M. F. Kraus, C. Zhou, J. Hornegger, H. Mashimo, A. E. Cable, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh speed endoscopic optical coherence tomography using micromotor imaging catheter and VCSEL technology,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(7), 1119–1132 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Baumann, W. Choi, B. Potsaid, D. Huang, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Swept source/Fourier domain polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography with a passive polarization delay unit,” Opt. Express 20(9), 10229–10241 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, O. Tan, J. Tokayer, B. Potsaid, Y. Wang, J. J. Liu, M. F. Kraus, H. Subhash, J. G. Fujimoto, J. Hornegger, and D. Huang, “Split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography with optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 20(4), 4710–4725 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
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Ralston, T. S.

T. S. Ralston, D. L. Marks, P. S. Carney, and S. A. Boppart, “Interferometric synthetic aperture microscopy,” Nat. Phys. 3(2), 129–134 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Robertson, M.

V. Jayaraman, G. D. Cole, M. Robertson, A. Uddin, and A. Cable, “High-sweep-rate 1310 nm MEMS-VCSEL with 150 nm continuous tuning range,” Electron. Lett. 48(14), 867–869 (2012).
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Roelkens, G.

D. Vermeulen, S. Selvaraja, P. Verheyen, P. Absil, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, and G. Roelkens, “Silicon-on-insulator polarization rotator based on a symmetry breaking silicon overlay,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(6), 482–484 (2012).
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D. Vermeulen, S. Selvaraja, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, W. Bogaerts, P. Absil, D. Van Thourhout, and G. Roelkens, “High-efficiency fiber-to-chip grating couplers realized using an advanced CMOS-compatible silicon-on-insulator platform,” Opt. Express 18(17), 18278–18283 (2010).
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Sarunic, M.

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Schlendorf, K. H.

H. Yabushita, B. E. Bouma, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, D. H. Kang, E. F. Halpern, and G. J. Tearney, “Characterization of human atherosclerosis by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 106(13), 1640–1645 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schmidt-Erfurth, U.

M. Pircher, C. K. Hitzenberger, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography in the human eye,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 30(6), 431–451 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
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Selvaraja, S.

D. Vermeulen, S. Selvaraja, P. Verheyen, P. Absil, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, and G. Roelkens, “Silicon-on-insulator polarization rotator based on a symmetry breaking silicon overlay,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(6), 482–484 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. Vermeulen, S. Selvaraja, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, W. Bogaerts, P. Absil, D. Van Thourhout, and G. Roelkens, “High-efficiency fiber-to-chip grating couplers realized using an advanced CMOS-compatible silicon-on-insulator platform,” Opt. Express 18(17), 18278–18283 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sengo, G.

B. I. Akca, V. Nguyen, J. Kalkman, N. Ismail, G. Sengo, S. Fei, A. Driessen, T. G. van Leeuwen, M. Pollnau, K. Worhoff, and R. M. de Ridder, “Toward Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography on a Chip,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(3), 1223–1233 (2012).
[Crossref]

Shishkov, M.

H. Yabushita, B. E. Bouma, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, D. H. Kang, E. F. Halpern, and G. J. Tearney, “Characterization of human atherosclerosis by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 106(13), 1640–1645 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Siddiqui, M.

Slusher, R. E.

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Subhash, H.

Swanson, E. A.

Tan, O.

Tao, Y. K.

Tearney, G.

Tearney, G. J.

S. K. Nadkarni, M. C. Pierce, B. H. Park, J. F. de Boer, P. Whittaker, B. E. Bouma, J. E. Bressner, E. Halpern, S. L. Houser, and G. J. Tearney, “Measurement of collagen and smooth muscle cell content in atherosclerotic plaques using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 49(13), 1474–1481 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. J. Vakoc, S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Elimination of depth degeneracy in optical frequency-domain imaging through polarization-based optical demodulation,” Opt. Lett. 31(3), 362–364 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. F. de Boer, B. Cense, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Improved signal-to-noise ratio in spectral-domain compared with time-domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 28(21), 2067–2069 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yabushita, B. E. Bouma, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, D. H. Kang, E. F. Halpern, and G. J. Tearney, “Characterization of human atherosclerosis by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 106(13), 1640–1645 (2002).
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Tokayer, J.

Tozburun, S.

Tsai, T.-H.

Uddin, A.

V. Jayaraman, G. D. Cole, M. Robertson, A. Uddin, and A. Cable, “High-sweep-rate 1310 nm MEMS-VCSEL with 150 nm continuous tuning range,” Electron. Lett. 48(14), 867–869 (2012).
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Unterhuber, A.

Vakoc, B.

Vakoc, B. J.

van Leeuwen, T. G.

Van Thourhout, D.

D. Vermeulen, S. Selvaraja, P. Verheyen, P. Absil, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, and G. Roelkens, “Silicon-on-insulator polarization rotator based on a symmetry breaking silicon overlay,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(6), 482–484 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. Vermeulen, S. Selvaraja, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, W. Bogaerts, P. Absil, D. Van Thourhout, and G. Roelkens, “High-efficiency fiber-to-chip grating couplers realized using an advanced CMOS-compatible silicon-on-insulator platform,” Opt. Express 18(17), 18278–18283 (2010).
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Verheyen, P.

D. Vermeulen, S. Selvaraja, P. Verheyen, P. Absil, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, and G. Roelkens, “Silicon-on-insulator polarization rotator based on a symmetry breaking silicon overlay,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(6), 482–484 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. Vermeulen, S. Selvaraja, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, W. Bogaerts, P. Absil, D. Van Thourhout, and G. Roelkens, “High-efficiency fiber-to-chip grating couplers realized using an advanced CMOS-compatible silicon-on-insulator platform,” Opt. Express 18(17), 18278–18283 (2010).
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Vermeulen, D.

D. Vermeulen, S. Selvaraja, P. Verheyen, P. Absil, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, and G. Roelkens, “Silicon-on-insulator polarization rotator based on a symmetry breaking silicon overlay,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(6), 482–484 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. Vermeulen, S. Selvaraja, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, W. Bogaerts, P. Absil, D. Van Thourhout, and G. Roelkens, “High-efficiency fiber-to-chip grating couplers realized using an advanced CMOS-compatible silicon-on-insulator platform,” Opt. Express 18(17), 18278–18283 (2010).
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Wang, R. K.

Wang, Y.

Wang, Z.

Weiss, N.

Whittaker, P.

S. K. Nadkarni, M. C. Pierce, B. H. Park, J. F. de Boer, P. Whittaker, B. E. Bouma, J. E. Bressner, E. Halpern, S. L. Houser, and G. J. Tearney, “Measurement of collagen and smooth muscle cell content in atherosclerotic plaques using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 49(13), 1474–1481 (2007).
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Wieser, W.

Wojtkowski, M.

Worhoff, K.

B. I. Akca, V. Nguyen, J. Kalkman, N. Ismail, G. Sengo, S. Fei, A. Driessen, T. G. van Leeuwen, M. Pollnau, K. Worhoff, and R. M. de Ridder, “Toward Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography on a Chip,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(3), 1223–1233 (2012).
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Wörhoff, K.

Xiang, S.

Yabushita, H.

H. Yabushita, B. E. Bouma, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, D. H. Kang, E. F. Halpern, and G. J. Tearney, “Characterization of human atherosclerosis by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 106(13), 1640–1645 (2002).
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Yang, C.

Yang, V. X.

Yasuno, Y.

Yatagai, T.

Yazdanfar, S.

Yun, S.

Yun, S. H.

Yurtsever, G.

Zabihian, B.

Zhang, E. Z.

Zhao, Y.

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Electron. Lett. (1)

V. Jayaraman, G. D. Cole, M. Robertson, A. Uddin, and A. Cable, “High-sweep-rate 1310 nm MEMS-VCSEL with 150 nm continuous tuning range,” Electron. Lett. 48(14), 867–869 (2012).
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IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

B. I. Akca, V. Nguyen, J. Kalkman, N. Ismail, G. Sengo, S. Fei, A. Driessen, T. G. van Leeuwen, M. Pollnau, K. Worhoff, and R. M. de Ridder, “Toward Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography on a Chip,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(3), 1223–1233 (2012).
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IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

D. Vermeulen, S. Selvaraja, P. Verheyen, P. Absil, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, and G. Roelkens, “Silicon-on-insulator polarization rotator based on a symmetry breaking silicon overlay,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(6), 482–484 (2012).
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D. Vermeulen, S. Selvaraja, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, W. Bogaerts, P. Absil, D. Van Thourhout, and G. Roelkens, “High-efficiency fiber-to-chip grating couplers realized using an advanced CMOS-compatible silicon-on-insulator platform,” Opt. Express 18(17), 18278–18283 (2010).
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B. R. Biedermann, W. Wieser, C. M. Eigenwillig, T. Klein, and R. Huber, “Dispersion, coherence and noise of Fourier domain mode locked lasers,” Opt. Express 17(12), 9947–9961 (2009).
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M. Sarunic, M. A. Choma, C. Yang, and J. A. Izatt, “Instantaneous complex conjugate resolved spectral domain and swept-source OCT using 3x3 fiber couplers,” Opt. Express 13(3), 957–967 (2005).
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B. Baumann, M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Full range complex spectral domain optical coherence tomography without additional phase shifters,” Opt. Express 15(20), 13375–13387 (2007).
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L. An and R. K. Wang, “Use of a scanner to modulate spatial interferograms for in vivo full-range Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 32(23), 3423–3425 (2007).
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B. J. Vakoc, S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Elimination of depth degeneracy in optical frequency-domain imaging through polarization-based optical demodulation,” Opt. Lett. 31(3), 362–364 (2006).
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S. K. Selvaraja, W. Bogaerts, P. Absil, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Record low-loss hybrid rib/wire waveguides for silicon photonic circuits,” Group IV Photonics (2010).

C. R. Doerr, L. Chen, D. Vermeulen, T. Nielsen, S. Azemati, S. Stulz, G. McBrien, X.-M. Xu, B. Mikkelsen, M. Givehchi, C. Rasmussen, and S. Y. Park, “Single-chip silicon photonics 100-Gb/s coherent transceiver,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2014), Th5C. 1.
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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Top: Schematic diagram of the silicon photonic integrated coherent receiver for SS-OCT. Bottom: a photo of the integrated receiver including the four transimpedance amplifiers. The actual portion of the silicon photonic integrated circuit receiver portion measures less than 3mm by 4mm.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Schematic of the 1550nm FDML swept light source used for SS-OCT imaging with the integrated receiver. DCF: dispersion compensation fiber; ISO: isolator; FFP-TF: Fabry-Perot tunable filter; SOA: semiconductor amplifier; PC: polarization controller.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 OCT system using the integrated coherent receiver. LO: local oscillator; PC: polarization controller; PM: polarization maintaining fiber.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Point spread functions and complex conjugate suppression over a ± 3mm imaging range. (A) Without complex conjugate suppression. (B) With complex conjugate suppression.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Full-range OCT imaging. Images of human lip in vivo. (A) Conventional single channel processing. (B) Quadrature signal processing of the complex interference spectra demonstrating suppression of the mirror artifact. Arrows indicate zero-delay. EP: epithelium; LP: lamina propria; S: plastic sheath for protecting the micromotor probe. The images consist of 738 A-lines per B-scan.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Polarization diversity catheter-based OCT imaging of a normal swine left main coronary artery ex vivo. Cross-sectional intensity images from individual polarization detection channels (A-B) and after combining the two channels (C). (D-F) Corresponding en face OCT images from a volumetric data set. Polarization artifacts can be seen in each polarization detection channel but were effectively removed by compounding the two orthogonal polarization channels. SB: side branch. The cross-sectional images consist of 738 A-lines per B-scan and their longitudinal position is indicated by the dotted line in (D). The en face view images are generated from a volumetric data sets consisting of 1000 B-scans (1000 x 738 A-scans) by extracting the pixel values at a depth indicated by the arrow head in (A).
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 PS-OCT imaging of a human left anterior descending artery specimen ex vivo. (A) Intensity image. (B) Phase retardation image. FP: fibrous plaque. The images have 1000 A-scans per B-scan.

Equations (2)

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I ( k m ) = S ( k m ) ( | E r e f | 2 + | E s a m p l e | 2 + | E r e f | | E s a m p l e | ( cos ( 2 Δ x k m + φ ) + j sin ( 2 Δ x k m + φ ) ) )
I ( x n ) S ( x n ) | E r e f | | E s a m p l e | δ ( x n Δ x )

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