Abstract

Photothermal OCT (PTOCT) provides high sensitivity to molecular targets in tissue, and occupies a spatial imaging regime that is attractive for small animal imaging. However, current implementations of PTOCT require extensive temporal sampling, resulting in slow frame rates and a large data burden that limit its in vivo utility. To address these limitations, we have implemented optical lock-in techniques for photothermal optical lock-in OCT (poli-OCT), and demonstrated the in vivo imaging capabilities of this approach. The poli-OCT signal was assessed in tissue-mimicking phantoms containing indocyanine green (ICG), an FDA approved small molecule that has not been previously imaged in vivo with PTOCT. Then, the effects of in vivo blood flow and motion artifact were assessed and attenuated, and in vivo poli-OCT was demonstrated with both ICG and gold nanorods as contrast agents. Experiments revealed that poli-OCT signals agreed with optical lock-in theory and the bio-heat equation, and the system exhibited shot noise limited performance. In phantoms containing biologically relevant concentrations of ICG (1 µg/ml), the poli-OCT signal was significantly greater than control phantoms (p<0.05), demonstrating sensitivity to small molecules. Finally, in vivo poli-OCT of ICG identified the lymphatic vessels in a mouse ear, and also identified low concentrations (200 pM) of gold nanorods in subcutaneous injections at frame rates ten times faster than previously reported. This work illustrates that future in vivo molecular imaging studies could benefit from the improved acquisition and analysis times enabled by poli-OCT.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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2015 (2)

H. Y. Lee, P. D. Raphael, J. Park, A. K. Ellerbee, B. E. Applegate, and J. S. Oghalai, “Noninvasive in vivo imaging reveals differences between tectorial membrane and basilar membrane traveling waves in the mouse cochlea,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(10), 3128–3133 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. M. Poole, C. E. Nelson, R. V. Joshi, J. R. Martin, M. K. Gupta, S. C. Haws, T. E. Kavanaugh, M. C. Skala, and C. L. Duvall, “ROS-responsive microspheres for on demand antioxidant therapy in a model of diabetic peripheral arterial disease,” Biomaterials 41, 166–175 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (6)

C. E. Nelson, A. J. Kim, E. J. Adolph, M. K. Gupta, F. Yu, K. M. Hocking, J. M. Davidson, S. A. Guelcher, and C. L. Duvall, “Tunable delivery of siRNA from a biodegradable scaffold to promote angiogenesis in vivo,” Adv. Mater. 26(4), 607–614 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. I. J. Ellenbroek and J. van Rheenen, “Imaging hallmarks of cancer in living mice,” Nat. Rev. Cancer 14(6), 406–418 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. de Jong, J. Essers, and W. M. van Weerden, “Imaging preclinical tumour models: improving translational power,” Nat. Rev. Cancer 14(7), 481–493 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Tucker-Schwartz, K. R. Beavers, W. W. Sit, A. T. Shah, C. L. Duvall, and M. C. Skala, “In vivo imaging of nanoparticle delivery and tumor microvasculature with multimodal optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(6), 1731–1743 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. J. Eldridge, A. Meiri, A. Sheinfeld, M. T. Rinehart, and A. Wax, “Fast wide-field photothermal and quantitative phase cell imaging with optical lock-in detection,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(8), 2517–2525 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Nahas, M. Varna, E. Fort, and A. C. Boccara, “Detection of plasmonic nanoparticles with full field-OCT: optical and photothermal detection,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(10), 3541–3546 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (7)

T. Klein, W. Wieser, L. Reznicek, A. Neubauer, A. Kampik, and R. Huber, “Multi-MHz retinal OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(10), 1890–1908 (2013).
[PubMed]

A. J. Walsh, R. S. Cook, H. C. Manning, D. J. Hicks, A. Lafontant, C. L. Arteaga, and M. C. Skala, “Optical Metabolic Imaging Identifies Glycolytic Levels, Subtypes, and Early-Treatment Response in Breast Cancer,” Cancer Res. 73(20), 6164–6174 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. M. Thurber, K. S. Yang, T. Reiner, R. H. Kohler, P. Sorger, T. Mitchison, and R. Weissleder, “Single-cell and subcellular pharmacokinetic imaging allows insight into drug action in vivo,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1504 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Yin, R. V. Kuranov, A. B. McElroy, S. Kazmi, A. K. Dunn, T. Q. Duong, and T. E. Milner, “Dual-wavelength photothermal optical coherence tomography for imaging microvasculature blood oxygen saturation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(5), 056005 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. W. Kilarski, E. Güç, J. C. M. Teo, S. R. Oliver, A. W. Lund, and M. A. Swartz, “Intravital immunofluorescence for visualizing the microcirculatory and immune microenvironments in the mouse ear dermis,” PLoS ONE 8(2), e57135 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Yousefi, J. Qin, Z. Zhi, and R. K. Wang, “Label-free optical lymphangiography: development of an automatic segmentation method applied to optical coherence tomography to visualize lymphatic vessels using Hessian filters,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(8), 86004 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. W. Jones, R. A. Roberts, G. R. Robbins, J. L. Perry, M. P. Kai, K. Chen, T. Bo, M. E. Napier, J. P. Y. Ting, J. M. Desimone, and J. E. Bear, “Nanoparticle clearance is governed by Th1/Th2 immunity and strain background,” J. Clin. Invest. 123(7), 3061–3073 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (10)

P. Lenton, J. Rudney, R. Chen, A. Fok, C. Aparicio, and R. S. Jones, “Imaging in vivo secondary caries and ex vivo dental biofilms using cross-polarization optical coherence tomography,” Dent. Mater. 28(7), 792–800 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Tang, T. M. Fan, L. B. Borst, and J. Cheng, “Synthesis and Biological Response of Size-Specific, Monodisperse Drug-Silica Nanoconjugates,” ACS Nano 6(5), 3954–3966 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. L. Li, C. C. Goh, J. L. Keeble, J. S. Qin, B. Roediger, R. Jain, Y. Wang, W. K. Chew, W. Weninger, and L. G. Ng, “Intravital multiphoton imaging of immune responses in the mouse ear skin,” Nat. Protoc. 7(2), 221–234 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Kwon, G. D. Agollah, W. Chan, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Altered lymphatic function and architecture in salt-induced hypertension assessed by near-infrared fluorescence imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(8), 080504 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. V. Pastuskovas, E. E. Mundo, S. P. Williams, T. K. Nayak, J. Ho, S. Ulufatu, S. Clark, S. Ross, E. Cheng, K. Parsons-Reponte, G. Cain, M. Van Hoy, N. Majidy, S. Bheddah, J. dela Cruz Chuh, K. R. Kozak, N. Lewin-Koh, P. Nauka, D. Bumbaca, M. Sliwkowski, J. Tibbitts, F. P. Theil, P. J. Fielder, L. A. Khawli, and C. A. Boswell, “Effects of anti-VEGF on pharmacokinetics, biodistribution, and tumor penetration of trastuzumab in a preclinical breast cancer model,” Mol. Cancer Ther. 11(3), 752–762 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. C. Dreaden, L. A. Austin, M. A. Mackey, and M. A. El-Sayed, “Size matters: gold nanoparticles in targeted cancer drug delivery,” Ther. Deliv. 3(4), 457–478 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Tucker-Schwartz, T. Hong, D. C. Colvin, Y. Xu, and M. C. Skala, “Dual-modality photothermal optical coherence tomography and magnetic-resonance imaging of carbon nanotubes,” Opt. Lett. 37(5), 872–874 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Pache, N. L. Bocchio, A. Bouwens, M. Villiger, C. Berclaz, J. Goulley, M. I. Gibson, C. Santschi, and T. Lasser, “Fast three-dimensional imaging of gold nanoparticles in living cells with photothermal optical lock-in Optical Coherence Microscopy,” Opt. Express 20(19), 21385–21399 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Liu, A. J. Lin, B. J. Tromberg, and Z. Chen, “A comparison of Doppler optical coherence tomography methods,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(10), 2669–2680 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Tucker-Schwartz, T. A. Meyer, C. A. Patil, C. L. Duvall, and M. C. Skala, “In vivo photothermal optical coherence tomography of gold nanorod contrast agents,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(11), 2881–2895 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (4)

S. Kwon and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Mouse phenotyping with near-infrared fluorescence lymphatic imaging,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(6), 1403–1411 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jung, R. Reif, Y. Zeng, and R. K. Wang, “Three-dimensional high-resolution imaging of gold nanorods uptake in sentinel lymph nodes,” Nano Lett. 11(7), 2938–2943 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. M. Arnida, M. M. Janát-Amsbury, A. Ray, C. M. Peterson, and H. Ghandehari, “Geometry and surface characteristics of gold nanoparticles influence their biodistribution and uptake by macrophages,” Eur. J. Pharm. Biopharm. 77(3), 417–423 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Guan, R. Reif, Z. Huang, and R. K. Wang, “Depth profiling of photothermal compound concentrations using phase sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(12), 126003 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

2009 (3)

M. Szkulmowski, I. Grulkowski, D. Szlag, A. Szkulmowska, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Flow velocity estimation by complex ambiguity free joint Spectral and Time domain Optical Coherence Tomography,” Opt. Express 17(16), 14281–14297 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. D. Perrault, C. Walkey, T. Jennings, H. C. Fischer, and W. C. W. Chan, “Mediating Tumor Targeting Efficiency of Nanoparticles Through Design,” Nano Lett. 9(5), 1909–1915 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Akiyama, T. Mori, Y. Katayama, and T. Niidome, “The effects of PEG grafting level and injection dose on gold nanorod biodistribution in the tumor-bearing mice,” J. Control. Release 139(1), 81–84 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (4)

D. C. Adler, S. W. Huang, R. Huber, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Photothermal detection of gold nanoparticles using phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 16(7), 4376–4393 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Mariampillai, B. A. Standish, E. H. Moriyama, M. Khurana, N. R. Munce, M. K. K. Leung, J. Jiang, A. Cable, B. C. Wilson, I. A. Vitkin, and V. X. D. Yang, “Speckle variance detection of microvasculature using swept-source optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 33(13), 1530–1532 (2008).
[PubMed]

M. C. Skala, M. J. Crow, A. Wax, and J. A. Izatt, “Photothermal optical coherence tomography of epidermal growth factor receptor in live cells using immunotargeted gold nanospheres,” Nano Lett. 8(10), 3461–3467 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. K. Willmann, N. van Bruggen, L. M. Dinkelborg, and S. S. Gambhir, “Molecular imaging in drug development,” Nat. Rev. Drug Discov. 7(7), 591–607 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

R. K. K. Wang, “In vivo full range complex Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(5), 054103 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

T. Hoshida, N. Isaka, J. Hagendoorn, E. di Tomaso, Y. L. Chen, B. Pytowski, D. Fukumura, T. P. Padera, and R. K. Jain, “Imaging steps of lymphatic metastasis reveals that vascular endothelial growth factor-C increases metastasis by increasing delivery of cancer cells to lymph nodes: therapeutic implications,” Cancer Res. 66(16), 8065–8075 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. S. Jones and D. Fried, “Remineralization of enamel caries can decrease optical reflectivity,” J. Dent. Res. 85(9), 804–808 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

A. Oldenburg, F. Toublan, K. Suslick, A. Wei, and S. Boppart, “Magnetomotive contrast for in vivo optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 13(17), 6597–6614 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. L. Harvey, R. S. Srinivasan, M. E. Dillard, N. C. Johnson, M. H. Witte, K. Boyd, M. W. Sleeman, and G. Oliver, “Lymphatic vascular defects promoted by Prox1 haploinsufficiency cause adult-onset obesity,” Nat. Genet. 37(10), 1072–1081 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

2003 (2)

R. Leitgeb, C. Hitzenberger, and A. Fercher, “Performance of fourier domain vs. time domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 11(8), 889–894 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Cognet, C. Tardin, D. Boyer, D. Choquet, P. Tamarat, and B. Lounis, “Single metallic nanoparticle imaging for protein detection in cells,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100(20), 11350–11355 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

D. Boyer, P. Tamarat, A. Maali, B. Lounis, and M. Orrit, “Photothermal imaging of nanometer-sized metal particles among scatterers,” Science 297(5584), 1160–1163 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

1996 (1)

M. J. C. van Gemert, G. W. Lucassen, and A. J. Welch, “Time constants in thermal laser medicine: II. Distributions of time constants and thermal relaxation of tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 41(8), 1381–1399 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adler, D. C.

Adolph, E. J.

C. E. Nelson, A. J. Kim, E. J. Adolph, M. K. Gupta, F. Yu, K. M. Hocking, J. M. Davidson, S. A. Guelcher, and C. L. Duvall, “Tunable delivery of siRNA from a biodegradable scaffold to promote angiogenesis in vivo,” Adv. Mater. 26(4), 607–614 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Agollah, G. D.

S. Kwon, G. D. Agollah, W. Chan, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Altered lymphatic function and architecture in salt-induced hypertension assessed by near-infrared fluorescence imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(8), 080504 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Akiyama, Y.

Y. Akiyama, T. Mori, Y. Katayama, and T. Niidome, “The effects of PEG grafting level and injection dose on gold nanorod biodistribution in the tumor-bearing mice,” J. Control. Release 139(1), 81–84 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aparicio, C.

P. Lenton, J. Rudney, R. Chen, A. Fok, C. Aparicio, and R. S. Jones, “Imaging in vivo secondary caries and ex vivo dental biofilms using cross-polarization optical coherence tomography,” Dent. Mater. 28(7), 792–800 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Applegate, B. E.

H. Y. Lee, P. D. Raphael, J. Park, A. K. Ellerbee, B. E. Applegate, and J. S. Oghalai, “Noninvasive in vivo imaging reveals differences between tectorial membrane and basilar membrane traveling waves in the mouse cochlea,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(10), 3128–3133 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arnida, M. M.

M. M. Arnida, M. M. Janát-Amsbury, A. Ray, C. M. Peterson, and H. Ghandehari, “Geometry and surface characteristics of gold nanoparticles influence their biodistribution and uptake by macrophages,” Eur. J. Pharm. Biopharm. 77(3), 417–423 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arteaga, C. L.

A. J. Walsh, R. S. Cook, H. C. Manning, D. J. Hicks, A. Lafontant, C. L. Arteaga, and M. C. Skala, “Optical Metabolic Imaging Identifies Glycolytic Levels, Subtypes, and Early-Treatment Response in Breast Cancer,” Cancer Res. 73(20), 6164–6174 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Austin, L. A.

E. C. Dreaden, L. A. Austin, M. A. Mackey, and M. A. El-Sayed, “Size matters: gold nanoparticles in targeted cancer drug delivery,” Ther. Deliv. 3(4), 457–478 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bear, J. E.

S. W. Jones, R. A. Roberts, G. R. Robbins, J. L. Perry, M. P. Kai, K. Chen, T. Bo, M. E. Napier, J. P. Y. Ting, J. M. Desimone, and J. E. Bear, “Nanoparticle clearance is governed by Th1/Th2 immunity and strain background,” J. Clin. Invest. 123(7), 3061–3073 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beavers, K. R.

Berclaz, C.

Bheddah, S.

C. V. Pastuskovas, E. E. Mundo, S. P. Williams, T. K. Nayak, J. Ho, S. Ulufatu, S. Clark, S. Ross, E. Cheng, K. Parsons-Reponte, G. Cain, M. Van Hoy, N. Majidy, S. Bheddah, J. dela Cruz Chuh, K. R. Kozak, N. Lewin-Koh, P. Nauka, D. Bumbaca, M. Sliwkowski, J. Tibbitts, F. P. Theil, P. J. Fielder, L. A. Khawli, and C. A. Boswell, “Effects of anti-VEGF on pharmacokinetics, biodistribution, and tumor penetration of trastuzumab in a preclinical breast cancer model,” Mol. Cancer Ther. 11(3), 752–762 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bo, T.

S. W. Jones, R. A. Roberts, G. R. Robbins, J. L. Perry, M. P. Kai, K. Chen, T. Bo, M. E. Napier, J. P. Y. Ting, J. M. Desimone, and J. E. Bear, “Nanoparticle clearance is governed by Th1/Th2 immunity and strain background,” J. Clin. Invest. 123(7), 3061–3073 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boccara, A. C.

Bocchio, N. L.

Boppart, S.

Borst, L. B.

L. Tang, T. M. Fan, L. B. Borst, and J. Cheng, “Synthesis and Biological Response of Size-Specific, Monodisperse Drug-Silica Nanoconjugates,” ACS Nano 6(5), 3954–3966 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boswell, C. A.

C. V. Pastuskovas, E. E. Mundo, S. P. Williams, T. K. Nayak, J. Ho, S. Ulufatu, S. Clark, S. Ross, E. Cheng, K. Parsons-Reponte, G. Cain, M. Van Hoy, N. Majidy, S. Bheddah, J. dela Cruz Chuh, K. R. Kozak, N. Lewin-Koh, P. Nauka, D. Bumbaca, M. Sliwkowski, J. Tibbitts, F. P. Theil, P. J. Fielder, L. A. Khawli, and C. A. Boswell, “Effects of anti-VEGF on pharmacokinetics, biodistribution, and tumor penetration of trastuzumab in a preclinical breast cancer model,” Mol. Cancer Ther. 11(3), 752–762 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bouwens, A.

Boyd, K.

N. L. Harvey, R. S. Srinivasan, M. E. Dillard, N. C. Johnson, M. H. Witte, K. Boyd, M. W. Sleeman, and G. Oliver, “Lymphatic vascular defects promoted by Prox1 haploinsufficiency cause adult-onset obesity,” Nat. Genet. 37(10), 1072–1081 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boyer, D.

L. Cognet, C. Tardin, D. Boyer, D. Choquet, P. Tamarat, and B. Lounis, “Single metallic nanoparticle imaging for protein detection in cells,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100(20), 11350–11355 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Boyer, P. Tamarat, A. Maali, B. Lounis, and M. Orrit, “Photothermal imaging of nanometer-sized metal particles among scatterers,” Science 297(5584), 1160–1163 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bumbaca, D.

C. V. Pastuskovas, E. E. Mundo, S. P. Williams, T. K. Nayak, J. Ho, S. Ulufatu, S. Clark, S. Ross, E. Cheng, K. Parsons-Reponte, G. Cain, M. Van Hoy, N. Majidy, S. Bheddah, J. dela Cruz Chuh, K. R. Kozak, N. Lewin-Koh, P. Nauka, D. Bumbaca, M. Sliwkowski, J. Tibbitts, F. P. Theil, P. J. Fielder, L. A. Khawli, and C. A. Boswell, “Effects of anti-VEGF on pharmacokinetics, biodistribution, and tumor penetration of trastuzumab in a preclinical breast cancer model,” Mol. Cancer Ther. 11(3), 752–762 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cable, A.

Cain, G.

C. V. Pastuskovas, E. E. Mundo, S. P. Williams, T. K. Nayak, J. Ho, S. Ulufatu, S. Clark, S. Ross, E. Cheng, K. Parsons-Reponte, G. Cain, M. Van Hoy, N. Majidy, S. Bheddah, J. dela Cruz Chuh, K. R. Kozak, N. Lewin-Koh, P. Nauka, D. Bumbaca, M. Sliwkowski, J. Tibbitts, F. P. Theil, P. J. Fielder, L. A. Khawli, and C. A. Boswell, “Effects of anti-VEGF on pharmacokinetics, biodistribution, and tumor penetration of trastuzumab in a preclinical breast cancer model,” Mol. Cancer Ther. 11(3), 752–762 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chan, W.

S. Kwon, G. D. Agollah, W. Chan, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Altered lymphatic function and architecture in salt-induced hypertension assessed by near-infrared fluorescence imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(8), 080504 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chan, W. C. W.

S. D. Perrault, C. Walkey, T. Jennings, H. C. Fischer, and W. C. W. Chan, “Mediating Tumor Targeting Efficiency of Nanoparticles Through Design,” Nano Lett. 9(5), 1909–1915 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, K.

S. W. Jones, R. A. Roberts, G. R. Robbins, J. L. Perry, M. P. Kai, K. Chen, T. Bo, M. E. Napier, J. P. Y. Ting, J. M. Desimone, and J. E. Bear, “Nanoparticle clearance is governed by Th1/Th2 immunity and strain background,” J. Clin. Invest. 123(7), 3061–3073 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, R.

P. Lenton, J. Rudney, R. Chen, A. Fok, C. Aparicio, and R. S. Jones, “Imaging in vivo secondary caries and ex vivo dental biofilms using cross-polarization optical coherence tomography,” Dent. Mater. 28(7), 792–800 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Y. L.

T. Hoshida, N. Isaka, J. Hagendoorn, E. di Tomaso, Y. L. Chen, B. Pytowski, D. Fukumura, T. P. Padera, and R. K. Jain, “Imaging steps of lymphatic metastasis reveals that vascular endothelial growth factor-C increases metastasis by increasing delivery of cancer cells to lymph nodes: therapeutic implications,” Cancer Res. 66(16), 8065–8075 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Z.

Cheng, E.

C. V. Pastuskovas, E. E. Mundo, S. P. Williams, T. K. Nayak, J. Ho, S. Ulufatu, S. Clark, S. Ross, E. Cheng, K. Parsons-Reponte, G. Cain, M. Van Hoy, N. Majidy, S. Bheddah, J. dela Cruz Chuh, K. R. Kozak, N. Lewin-Koh, P. Nauka, D. Bumbaca, M. Sliwkowski, J. Tibbitts, F. P. Theil, P. J. Fielder, L. A. Khawli, and C. A. Boswell, “Effects of anti-VEGF on pharmacokinetics, biodistribution, and tumor penetration of trastuzumab in a preclinical breast cancer model,” Mol. Cancer Ther. 11(3), 752–762 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheng, J.

L. Tang, T. M. Fan, L. B. Borst, and J. Cheng, “Synthesis and Biological Response of Size-Specific, Monodisperse Drug-Silica Nanoconjugates,” ACS Nano 6(5), 3954–3966 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chew, W. K.

J. L. Li, C. C. Goh, J. L. Keeble, J. S. Qin, B. Roediger, R. Jain, Y. Wang, W. K. Chew, W. Weninger, and L. G. Ng, “Intravital multiphoton imaging of immune responses in the mouse ear skin,” Nat. Protoc. 7(2), 221–234 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choquet, D.

L. Cognet, C. Tardin, D. Boyer, D. Choquet, P. Tamarat, and B. Lounis, “Single metallic nanoparticle imaging for protein detection in cells,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100(20), 11350–11355 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Clark, S.

C. V. Pastuskovas, E. E. Mundo, S. P. Williams, T. K. Nayak, J. Ho, S. Ulufatu, S. Clark, S. Ross, E. Cheng, K. Parsons-Reponte, G. Cain, M. Van Hoy, N. Majidy, S. Bheddah, J. dela Cruz Chuh, K. R. Kozak, N. Lewin-Koh, P. Nauka, D. Bumbaca, M. Sliwkowski, J. Tibbitts, F. P. Theil, P. J. Fielder, L. A. Khawli, and C. A. Boswell, “Effects of anti-VEGF on pharmacokinetics, biodistribution, and tumor penetration of trastuzumab in a preclinical breast cancer model,” Mol. Cancer Ther. 11(3), 752–762 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cognet, L.

L. Cognet, C. Tardin, D. Boyer, D. Choquet, P. Tamarat, and B. Lounis, “Single metallic nanoparticle imaging for protein detection in cells,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100(20), 11350–11355 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cohen, D. W.

Colvin, D. C.

Connolly, J. L.

Cook, R. S.

A. J. Walsh, R. S. Cook, H. C. Manning, D. J. Hicks, A. Lafontant, C. L. Arteaga, and M. C. Skala, “Optical Metabolic Imaging Identifies Glycolytic Levels, Subtypes, and Early-Treatment Response in Breast Cancer,” Cancer Res. 73(20), 6164–6174 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Crow, M. J.

M. C. Skala, M. J. Crow, A. Wax, and J. A. Izatt, “Photothermal optical coherence tomography of epidermal growth factor receptor in live cells using immunotargeted gold nanospheres,” Nano Lett. 8(10), 3461–3467 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Davidson, J. M.

C. E. Nelson, A. J. Kim, E. J. Adolph, M. K. Gupta, F. Yu, K. M. Hocking, J. M. Davidson, S. A. Guelcher, and C. L. Duvall, “Tunable delivery of siRNA from a biodegradable scaffold to promote angiogenesis in vivo,” Adv. Mater. 26(4), 607–614 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

de Jong, M.

M. de Jong, J. Essers, and W. M. van Weerden, “Imaging preclinical tumour models: improving translational power,” Nat. Rev. Cancer 14(7), 481–493 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

dela Cruz Chuh, J.

C. V. Pastuskovas, E. E. Mundo, S. P. Williams, T. K. Nayak, J. Ho, S. Ulufatu, S. Clark, S. Ross, E. Cheng, K. Parsons-Reponte, G. Cain, M. Van Hoy, N. Majidy, S. Bheddah, J. dela Cruz Chuh, K. R. Kozak, N. Lewin-Koh, P. Nauka, D. Bumbaca, M. Sliwkowski, J. Tibbitts, F. P. Theil, P. J. Fielder, L. A. Khawli, and C. A. Boswell, “Effects of anti-VEGF on pharmacokinetics, biodistribution, and tumor penetration of trastuzumab in a preclinical breast cancer model,” Mol. Cancer Ther. 11(3), 752–762 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Desimone, J. M.

S. W. Jones, R. A. Roberts, G. R. Robbins, J. L. Perry, M. P. Kai, K. Chen, T. Bo, M. E. Napier, J. P. Y. Ting, J. M. Desimone, and J. E. Bear, “Nanoparticle clearance is governed by Th1/Th2 immunity and strain background,” J. Clin. Invest. 123(7), 3061–3073 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

di Tomaso, E.

T. Hoshida, N. Isaka, J. Hagendoorn, E. di Tomaso, Y. L. Chen, B. Pytowski, D. Fukumura, T. P. Padera, and R. K. Jain, “Imaging steps of lymphatic metastasis reveals that vascular endothelial growth factor-C increases metastasis by increasing delivery of cancer cells to lymph nodes: therapeutic implications,” Cancer Res. 66(16), 8065–8075 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dillard, M. E.

N. L. Harvey, R. S. Srinivasan, M. E. Dillard, N. C. Johnson, M. H. Witte, K. Boyd, M. W. Sleeman, and G. Oliver, “Lymphatic vascular defects promoted by Prox1 haploinsufficiency cause adult-onset obesity,” Nat. Genet. 37(10), 1072–1081 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dinkelborg, L. M.

J. K. Willmann, N. van Bruggen, L. M. Dinkelborg, and S. S. Gambhir, “Molecular imaging in drug development,” Nat. Rev. Drug Discov. 7(7), 591–607 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dreaden, E. C.

E. C. Dreaden, L. A. Austin, M. A. Mackey, and M. A. El-Sayed, “Size matters: gold nanoparticles in targeted cancer drug delivery,” Ther. Deliv. 3(4), 457–478 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Duker, J.

Dunn, A. K.

B. Yin, R. V. Kuranov, A. B. McElroy, S. Kazmi, A. K. Dunn, T. Q. Duong, and T. E. Milner, “Dual-wavelength photothermal optical coherence tomography for imaging microvasculature blood oxygen saturation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(5), 056005 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Duong, T. Q.

B. Yin, R. V. Kuranov, A. B. McElroy, S. Kazmi, A. K. Dunn, T. Q. Duong, and T. E. Milner, “Dual-wavelength photothermal optical coherence tomography for imaging microvasculature blood oxygen saturation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(5), 056005 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Duvall, C. L.

K. M. Poole, C. E. Nelson, R. V. Joshi, J. R. Martin, M. K. Gupta, S. C. Haws, T. E. Kavanaugh, M. C. Skala, and C. L. Duvall, “ROS-responsive microspheres for on demand antioxidant therapy in a model of diabetic peripheral arterial disease,” Biomaterials 41, 166–175 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Tucker-Schwartz, K. R. Beavers, W. W. Sit, A. T. Shah, C. L. Duvall, and M. C. Skala, “In vivo imaging of nanoparticle delivery and tumor microvasculature with multimodal optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(6), 1731–1743 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. E. Nelson, A. J. Kim, E. J. Adolph, M. K. Gupta, F. Yu, K. M. Hocking, J. M. Davidson, S. A. Guelcher, and C. L. Duvall, “Tunable delivery of siRNA from a biodegradable scaffold to promote angiogenesis in vivo,” Adv. Mater. 26(4), 607–614 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Tucker-Schwartz, T. A. Meyer, C. A. Patil, C. L. Duvall, and M. C. Skala, “In vivo photothermal optical coherence tomography of gold nanorod contrast agents,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(11), 2881–2895 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eldridge, W. J.

Ellenbroek, S. I. J.

S. I. J. Ellenbroek and J. van Rheenen, “Imaging hallmarks of cancer in living mice,” Nat. Rev. Cancer 14(6), 406–418 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ellerbee, A. K.

H. Y. Lee, P. D. Raphael, J. Park, A. K. Ellerbee, B. E. Applegate, and J. S. Oghalai, “Noninvasive in vivo imaging reveals differences between tectorial membrane and basilar membrane traveling waves in the mouse cochlea,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(10), 3128–3133 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

El-Sayed, M. A.

E. C. Dreaden, L. A. Austin, M. A. Mackey, and M. A. El-Sayed, “Size matters: gold nanoparticles in targeted cancer drug delivery,” Ther. Deliv. 3(4), 457–478 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Essers, J.

M. de Jong, J. Essers, and W. M. van Weerden, “Imaging preclinical tumour models: improving translational power,” Nat. Rev. Cancer 14(7), 481–493 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fan, T. M.

L. Tang, T. M. Fan, L. B. Borst, and J. Cheng, “Synthesis and Biological Response of Size-Specific, Monodisperse Drug-Silica Nanoconjugates,” ACS Nano 6(5), 3954–3966 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fercher, A.

Fielder, P. J.

C. V. Pastuskovas, E. E. Mundo, S. P. Williams, T. K. Nayak, J. Ho, S. Ulufatu, S. Clark, S. Ross, E. Cheng, K. Parsons-Reponte, G. Cain, M. Van Hoy, N. Majidy, S. Bheddah, J. dela Cruz Chuh, K. R. Kozak, N. Lewin-Koh, P. Nauka, D. Bumbaca, M. Sliwkowski, J. Tibbitts, F. P. Theil, P. J. Fielder, L. A. Khawli, and C. A. Boswell, “Effects of anti-VEGF on pharmacokinetics, biodistribution, and tumor penetration of trastuzumab in a preclinical breast cancer model,” Mol. Cancer Ther. 11(3), 752–762 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fischer, H. C.

S. D. Perrault, C. Walkey, T. Jennings, H. C. Fischer, and W. C. W. Chan, “Mediating Tumor Targeting Efficiency of Nanoparticles Through Design,” Nano Lett. 9(5), 1909–1915 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fok, A.

P. Lenton, J. Rudney, R. Chen, A. Fok, C. Aparicio, and R. S. Jones, “Imaging in vivo secondary caries and ex vivo dental biofilms using cross-polarization optical coherence tomography,” Dent. Mater. 28(7), 792–800 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fort, E.

Fried, D.

R. S. Jones and D. Fried, “Remineralization of enamel caries can decrease optical reflectivity,” J. Dent. Res. 85(9), 804–808 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J.

Fujimoto, J. G.

Fukumura, D.

T. Hoshida, N. Isaka, J. Hagendoorn, E. di Tomaso, Y. L. Chen, B. Pytowski, D. Fukumura, T. P. Padera, and R. K. Jain, “Imaging steps of lymphatic metastasis reveals that vascular endothelial growth factor-C increases metastasis by increasing delivery of cancer cells to lymph nodes: therapeutic implications,” Cancer Res. 66(16), 8065–8075 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gambhir, S. S.

J. K. Willmann, N. van Bruggen, L. M. Dinkelborg, and S. S. Gambhir, “Molecular imaging in drug development,” Nat. Rev. Drug Discov. 7(7), 591–607 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ghandehari, H.

M. M. Arnida, M. M. Janát-Amsbury, A. Ray, C. M. Peterson, and H. Ghandehari, “Geometry and surface characteristics of gold nanoparticles influence their biodistribution and uptake by macrophages,” Eur. J. Pharm. Biopharm. 77(3), 417–423 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gibson, M. I.

Goh, C. C.

J. L. Li, C. C. Goh, J. L. Keeble, J. S. Qin, B. Roediger, R. Jain, Y. Wang, W. K. Chew, W. Weninger, and L. G. Ng, “Intravital multiphoton imaging of immune responses in the mouse ear skin,” Nat. Protoc. 7(2), 221–234 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Goulley, J.

Grulkowski, I.

Guan, G.

G. Guan, R. Reif, Z. Huang, and R. K. Wang, “Depth profiling of photothermal compound concentrations using phase sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(12), 126003 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Güç, E.

W. W. Kilarski, E. Güç, J. C. M. Teo, S. R. Oliver, A. W. Lund, and M. A. Swartz, “Intravital immunofluorescence for visualizing the microcirculatory and immune microenvironments in the mouse ear dermis,” PLoS ONE 8(2), e57135 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guelcher, S. A.

C. E. Nelson, A. J. Kim, E. J. Adolph, M. K. Gupta, F. Yu, K. M. Hocking, J. M. Davidson, S. A. Guelcher, and C. L. Duvall, “Tunable delivery of siRNA from a biodegradable scaffold to promote angiogenesis in vivo,” Adv. Mater. 26(4), 607–614 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gupta, M. K.

K. M. Poole, C. E. Nelson, R. V. Joshi, J. R. Martin, M. K. Gupta, S. C. Haws, T. E. Kavanaugh, M. C. Skala, and C. L. Duvall, “ROS-responsive microspheres for on demand antioxidant therapy in a model of diabetic peripheral arterial disease,” Biomaterials 41, 166–175 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. E. Nelson, A. J. Kim, E. J. Adolph, M. K. Gupta, F. Yu, K. M. Hocking, J. M. Davidson, S. A. Guelcher, and C. L. Duvall, “Tunable delivery of siRNA from a biodegradable scaffold to promote angiogenesis in vivo,” Adv. Mater. 26(4), 607–614 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hagendoorn, J.

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C. V. Pastuskovas, E. E. Mundo, S. P. Williams, T. K. Nayak, J. Ho, S. Ulufatu, S. Clark, S. Ross, E. Cheng, K. Parsons-Reponte, G. Cain, M. Van Hoy, N. Majidy, S. Bheddah, J. dela Cruz Chuh, K. R. Kozak, N. Lewin-Koh, P. Nauka, D. Bumbaca, M. Sliwkowski, J. Tibbitts, F. P. Theil, P. J. Fielder, L. A. Khawli, and C. A. Boswell, “Effects of anti-VEGF on pharmacokinetics, biodistribution, and tumor penetration of trastuzumab in a preclinical breast cancer model,” Mol. Cancer Ther. 11(3), 752–762 (2012).
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Ng, L. G.

J. L. Li, C. C. Goh, J. L. Keeble, J. S. Qin, B. Roediger, R. Jain, Y. Wang, W. K. Chew, W. Weninger, and L. G. Ng, “Intravital multiphoton imaging of immune responses in the mouse ear skin,” Nat. Protoc. 7(2), 221–234 (2012).
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Y. Akiyama, T. Mori, Y. Katayama, and T. Niidome, “The effects of PEG grafting level and injection dose on gold nanorod biodistribution in the tumor-bearing mice,” J. Control. Release 139(1), 81–84 (2009).
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Padera, T. P.

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Y. Jung, R. Reif, Y. Zeng, and R. K. Wang, “Three-dimensional high-resolution imaging of gold nanorods uptake in sentinel lymph nodes,” Nano Lett. 11(7), 2938–2943 (2011).
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ACS Nano (1)

L. Tang, T. M. Fan, L. B. Borst, and J. Cheng, “Synthesis and Biological Response of Size-Specific, Monodisperse Drug-Silica Nanoconjugates,” ACS Nano 6(5), 3954–3966 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adv. Mater. (1)

C. E. Nelson, A. J. Kim, E. J. Adolph, M. K. Gupta, F. Yu, K. M. Hocking, J. M. Davidson, S. A. Guelcher, and C. L. Duvall, “Tunable delivery of siRNA from a biodegradable scaffold to promote angiogenesis in vivo,” Adv. Mater. 26(4), 607–614 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

R. K. K. Wang, “In vivo full range complex Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(5), 054103 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biomaterials (1)

K. M. Poole, C. E. Nelson, R. V. Joshi, J. R. Martin, M. K. Gupta, S. C. Haws, T. E. Kavanaugh, M. C. Skala, and C. L. Duvall, “ROS-responsive microspheres for on demand antioxidant therapy in a model of diabetic peripheral arterial disease,” Biomaterials 41, 166–175 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biomed. Opt. Express (7)

Cancer Res. (2)

A. J. Walsh, R. S. Cook, H. C. Manning, D. J. Hicks, A. Lafontant, C. L. Arteaga, and M. C. Skala, “Optical Metabolic Imaging Identifies Glycolytic Levels, Subtypes, and Early-Treatment Response in Breast Cancer,” Cancer Res. 73(20), 6164–6174 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Hoshida, N. Isaka, J. Hagendoorn, E. di Tomaso, Y. L. Chen, B. Pytowski, D. Fukumura, T. P. Padera, and R. K. Jain, “Imaging steps of lymphatic metastasis reveals that vascular endothelial growth factor-C increases metastasis by increasing delivery of cancer cells to lymph nodes: therapeutic implications,” Cancer Res. 66(16), 8065–8075 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dent. Mater. (1)

P. Lenton, J. Rudney, R. Chen, A. Fok, C. Aparicio, and R. S. Jones, “Imaging in vivo secondary caries and ex vivo dental biofilms using cross-polarization optical coherence tomography,” Dent. Mater. 28(7), 792–800 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eur. J. Pharm. Biopharm. (1)

M. M. Arnida, M. M. Janát-Amsbury, A. Ray, C. M. Peterson, and H. Ghandehari, “Geometry and surface characteristics of gold nanoparticles influence their biodistribution and uptake by macrophages,” Eur. J. Pharm. Biopharm. 77(3), 417–423 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (4)

G. Guan, R. Reif, Z. Huang, and R. K. Wang, “Depth profiling of photothermal compound concentrations using phase sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(12), 126003 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Yousefi, J. Qin, Z. Zhi, and R. K. Wang, “Label-free optical lymphangiography: development of an automatic segmentation method applied to optical coherence tomography to visualize lymphatic vessels using Hessian filters,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(8), 86004 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Kwon, G. D. Agollah, W. Chan, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Altered lymphatic function and architecture in salt-induced hypertension assessed by near-infrared fluorescence imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(8), 080504 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Yin, R. V. Kuranov, A. B. McElroy, S. Kazmi, A. K. Dunn, T. Q. Duong, and T. E. Milner, “Dual-wavelength photothermal optical coherence tomography for imaging microvasculature blood oxygen saturation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(5), 056005 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Clin. Invest. (1)

S. W. Jones, R. A. Roberts, G. R. Robbins, J. L. Perry, M. P. Kai, K. Chen, T. Bo, M. E. Napier, J. P. Y. Ting, J. M. Desimone, and J. E. Bear, “Nanoparticle clearance is governed by Th1/Th2 immunity and strain background,” J. Clin. Invest. 123(7), 3061–3073 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Control. Release (1)

Y. Akiyama, T. Mori, Y. Katayama, and T. Niidome, “The effects of PEG grafting level and injection dose on gold nanorod biodistribution in the tumor-bearing mice,” J. Control. Release 139(1), 81–84 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Dent. Res. (1)

R. S. Jones and D. Fried, “Remineralization of enamel caries can decrease optical reflectivity,” J. Dent. Res. 85(9), 804–808 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mol. Cancer Ther. (1)

C. V. Pastuskovas, E. E. Mundo, S. P. Williams, T. K. Nayak, J. Ho, S. Ulufatu, S. Clark, S. Ross, E. Cheng, K. Parsons-Reponte, G. Cain, M. Van Hoy, N. Majidy, S. Bheddah, J. dela Cruz Chuh, K. R. Kozak, N. Lewin-Koh, P. Nauka, D. Bumbaca, M. Sliwkowski, J. Tibbitts, F. P. Theil, P. J. Fielder, L. A. Khawli, and C. A. Boswell, “Effects of anti-VEGF on pharmacokinetics, biodistribution, and tumor penetration of trastuzumab in a preclinical breast cancer model,” Mol. Cancer Ther. 11(3), 752–762 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nano Lett. (3)

M. C. Skala, M. J. Crow, A. Wax, and J. A. Izatt, “Photothermal optical coherence tomography of epidermal growth factor receptor in live cells using immunotargeted gold nanospheres,” Nano Lett. 8(10), 3461–3467 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jung, R. Reif, Y. Zeng, and R. K. Wang, “Three-dimensional high-resolution imaging of gold nanorods uptake in sentinel lymph nodes,” Nano Lett. 11(7), 2938–2943 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. D. Perrault, C. Walkey, T. Jennings, H. C. Fischer, and W. C. W. Chan, “Mediating Tumor Targeting Efficiency of Nanoparticles Through Design,” Nano Lett. 9(5), 1909–1915 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Commun. (1)

G. M. Thurber, K. S. Yang, T. Reiner, R. H. Kohler, P. Sorger, T. Mitchison, and R. Weissleder, “Single-cell and subcellular pharmacokinetic imaging allows insight into drug action in vivo,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1504 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Genet. (1)

N. L. Harvey, R. S. Srinivasan, M. E. Dillard, N. C. Johnson, M. H. Witte, K. Boyd, M. W. Sleeman, and G. Oliver, “Lymphatic vascular defects promoted by Prox1 haploinsufficiency cause adult-onset obesity,” Nat. Genet. 37(10), 1072–1081 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Protoc. (1)

J. L. Li, C. C. Goh, J. L. Keeble, J. S. Qin, B. Roediger, R. Jain, Y. Wang, W. K. Chew, W. Weninger, and L. G. Ng, “Intravital multiphoton imaging of immune responses in the mouse ear skin,” Nat. Protoc. 7(2), 221–234 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Rev. Cancer (2)

S. I. J. Ellenbroek and J. van Rheenen, “Imaging hallmarks of cancer in living mice,” Nat. Rev. Cancer 14(6), 406–418 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. de Jong, J. Essers, and W. M. van Weerden, “Imaging preclinical tumour models: improving translational power,” Nat. Rev. Cancer 14(7), 481–493 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Rev. Drug Discov. (1)

J. K. Willmann, N. van Bruggen, L. M. Dinkelborg, and S. S. Gambhir, “Molecular imaging in drug development,” Nat. Rev. Drug Discov. 7(7), 591–607 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (7)

R. Leitgeb, C. Hitzenberger, and A. Fercher, “Performance of fourier domain vs. time domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 11(8), 889–894 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, T. Ko, J. Fujimoto, A. Kowalczyk, and J. Duker, “Ultrahigh-resolution, high-speed, Fourier domain optical coherence tomography and methods for dispersion compensation,” Opt. Express 12(11), 2404–2422 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Oldenburg, F. Toublan, K. Suslick, A. Wei, and S. Boppart, “Magnetomotive contrast for in vivo optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 13(17), 6597–6614 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. C. Adler, S. W. Huang, R. Huber, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Photothermal detection of gold nanoparticles using phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 16(7), 4376–4393 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Pache, N. L. Bocchio, A. Bouwens, M. Villiger, C. Berclaz, J. Goulley, M. I. Gibson, C. Santschi, and T. Lasser, “Fast three-dimensional imaging of gold nanoparticles in living cells with photothermal optical lock-in Optical Coherence Microscopy,” Opt. Express 20(19), 21385–21399 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Moon, S. W. Lee, and Z. Chen, “Reference spectrum extraction and fixed-pattern noise removal in optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 18(24), 24395–24404 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Szkulmowski, I. Grulkowski, D. Szlag, A. Szkulmowska, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Flow velocity estimation by complex ambiguity free joint Spectral and Time domain Optical Coherence Tomography,” Opt. Express 17(16), 14281–14297 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Med. Biol. (1)

M. J. C. van Gemert, G. W. Lucassen, and A. J. Welch, “Time constants in thermal laser medicine: II. Distributions of time constants and thermal relaxation of tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 41(8), 1381–1399 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

PLoS ONE (1)

W. W. Kilarski, E. Güç, J. C. M. Teo, S. R. Oliver, A. W. Lund, and M. A. Swartz, “Intravital immunofluorescence for visualizing the microcirculatory and immune microenvironments in the mouse ear dermis,” PLoS ONE 8(2), e57135 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2)

L. Cognet, C. Tardin, D. Boyer, D. Choquet, P. Tamarat, and B. Lounis, “Single metallic nanoparticle imaging for protein detection in cells,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100(20), 11350–11355 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Y. Lee, P. D. Raphael, J. Park, A. K. Ellerbee, B. E. Applegate, and J. S. Oghalai, “Noninvasive in vivo imaging reveals differences between tectorial membrane and basilar membrane traveling waves in the mouse cochlea,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(10), 3128–3133 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (1)

D. Boyer, P. Tamarat, A. Maali, B. Lounis, and M. Orrit, “Photothermal imaging of nanometer-sized metal particles among scatterers,” Science 297(5584), 1160–1163 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ther. Deliv. (1)

E. C. Dreaden, L. A. Austin, M. A. Mackey, and M. A. El-Sayed, “Size matters: gold nanoparticles in targeted cancer drug delivery,” Ther. Deliv. 3(4), 457–478 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (1)

W. Drexler and J. G. Fujimoto, Optical Coherence Tomography: Technology and Applications (Springer, 2008).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Photothermal optical lock-in OCT. (a) In poli-OCT, a frequency shift (ΩR) is imposed on the reference arm, which attenuates time-averaged interference signals from static non-absorbing samples. (b) A custom poli-OCT system was constructed for in vivo imaging. ICG (extinction spectrum, inset) was heated using 770 nm light (green, inset) from the Ti:Sapphire photothermal laser (PT laser). An 860 nm wavelength, 40 nm bandwidth, superluminscent diode (SLD) was used for imaging (yellow, inset). D (TeO2): Dispersion matching of AOM crystals; D: Dispersion compensation; HWP: Half wave plate; LP: Linear polarizer; QWP: Quarter wave plate; PBS: Polarization sensitive beam splitter; AOM: Acousto-optic modulator; SLD: Superluminescent diode; C: Fiber collimation/coupling; AM: Alignment mirror; PC: Polarization controller
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Poli-OCT signal characterization in phantoms containing ICG (absorber) and TiO2 (scatterer) while altering image system parameters. Solid phantoms were imaged with the PT laser on (black, top), the PT laser off (blue, top), and the sample arm blocked (green, top). (a) The poli-OCT signal (black) increased linearly with integration time (τ) set to multiples (n) of the frequency shift period (T0). (b) The SNR of the poli-OCT signal increased linearly as well. (c) The poli-OCT signal (black) increased with the square root of the sample arm power, while (d) the SNR increased linearly. The poli-OCT signal agrees with theory [19], and SNR results are consistent with shot noise limited performance [19, 24].
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Poli-OCT signal characterization in phantoms containing ICG (absorber) and TiO2 (scatterer) while altering photothermal signal magnitudes. (a) As the PT laser frequency (ΩP, where ΩP = ΩR) is increased, the poli-OCT signal (black) decreases nonlinearly. (b) Increasing PT laser power caused a linear increase in poli-OCT signal. (c) Increasing the concentration of the ICG resulted in a linear increase in the poli-OCT signal. The average signal from n = 10 repeated scans showed a significant increase (*p<0.05, figure inset) with 1 µg/ml concentration of ICG compared to the control (red).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Poli-OCT signal characterization in phantoms containing ICG (absorber) and TiO2 (scatterer), validating theoretical assumptions. (a) When the PT laser modulation frequency (ΩP, x-axis) is mismatched from the reference arm frequency shift (ΩR, red vertical line), the poli-OCT signal (black) is attenuated. (b) The poli-OCT signal with the PT laser on (black) and off (blue) are both minimized at CCD integration times (τ) that are integer multiples (n) of the frequency shift period (T0) (red vertical lines). The scattering signal (blue) is effectively removed only when the integration time is equal to a multiple of the frequency shift period.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Motion and blood flow affects in vivo poli-OCT signal. A 3D image volume of a mouse ear with the PT laser off shows motion artifact and flow manifested as poli-OCT background signal. (a) A representative B-scan shows false positive background signal due to blood flow in vessels (green arrow) and motion artifact (red arrow). (b) The same image volume represented as an en face projection shows the signals due to motion artifact and flow. (c) Median filtering the 3D image volume attenuates artifacts due to motion. (d) The average background signal in the image volume is attenuated with increasing frequency shifts in the reference arm (ΩR, x-axis). Red boxes show 2X zoomed image regions. Scale bar = 1 mm.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 In vivo poli-OCT of mouse ear lymphatics using ICG as a contrast agent. 3D image volumes were acquired of a mouse ear after intradermal injection of ICG. Representative B-scans containing tissue morphology (gray) and poli-OCT signal (green) with the PT laser (a) off and (b) on. (c) En face projections of the volume including the vasculature (red, speckle variance OCT) shows minimal extravascular poli-OCT signal (green) with the PT laser off. (d) With the PT laser on, the poli-OCT signal (green) increases in locations where the lymphatic vessels are draining ICG from the injection site. Scale bar = 1 mm.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 In vivo poli-OCT imaging of subcutaneous injections of gold nanorods in two mice. 3D image volumes were acquired of a mouse ear after injection of Matrigel alone (top) or Matrigel plus 200 pM gold nanorods (bottom). En face average intensity projections contain the poli-OCT signal (green) and speckle variance OCT signal (red). With Matrigel alone, no poli-OCT signal is observed (a) without or (b) with the PT laser. (c) In the presence of gold nanorods, no extra-vascular poli-OCT signal is present without the PT laser. (d) Only with gold nanorods and the PT laser on, is there an observable poli-OCT signal. Scale bar = 1 mm.

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