Abstract

A custom adaptive-optics (AO) multiphoton microscope was used to visualize the corneal stroma after the insertion of a photocurable polymer material. A lamellar pocket was created and a certain amount of polymer in liquid form was injected. This turned into a rigid film after UV irradiation. Intact eyes were used as control. Tomographic and regular second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy images were recorded from both control and corneas with polymer implants. In control corneas, the SHG signal decreased uniformly with depth. However, treated corneas exhibited an abrupt loss of SHG signal at the implant location. The use of AO increased the SHG levels and improved the visualization of the stroma, not only at deeper corneal layers but also beneath the implant. Moreover, the absence of SHG signal from the implant allowed its geometrical characterization (thickness and location). This technique offers a potential tool for non-invasive analysis of morphological changes in the cornea after surgery or treatment, and might be useful in future clinical environments.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. P. Matteini, F. Ratto, F. Rossi, R. Cicchi, C. Stringari, D. Kapsokalyvas, F. S. Pavone, and R. Pini, “Photothermally-induced disordered patterns of corneal collagen revealed by SHG imaging,” Opt. Express 17(6), 4868–4878 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  35. Ö. F. Yilmaz, S. Bayraktar, A. Agca, B. Yilmaz, M. B. McDonald, and C. van de Pol, “Intracorneal inlay for the surgical correction of presbyopia,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 34(11), 1921–1927 (2008).
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    [Crossref]
  38. E. J. Gualda, J. M. Bueno, and P. Artal, “Wavefront optimized nonlinear microscopy of ex vivo human retinas,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 026007 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  40. M. Han, L. Zickler, G. Giese, M. Walter, F. H. Loesel, and J. F. Bille, “Second-harmonic imaging of cornea after intrastromal femtosecond laser ablation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(4), 760–766 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (1)

M. Winkler, G. Shoa, Y. Xie, S. J. Petsche, P. M. Pinsky, T. Juhasz, D. J. Brown, and J. V. Jester, “Three-dimensional distribution of transverse collagen fibers in the anterior human corneal stroma,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(12), 7293–7301 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (3)

W. Lo, W. L. Chen, C. M. Hsueh, A. A. Ghazaryan, S. J. Chen, D. H. K. Ma, C. Y. Dong, and H. Y. Tan, “Fast Fourier transform-based analysis of second-harmonic generation image in keratoconic cornea,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53(7), 3501–3507 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Latour, I. Gusachenko, L. Kowalczuk, I. Lamarre, and M. C. Schanne-Klein, “In vivo structural imaging of the cornea by polarization-resolved second harmonic microscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(1), 1–15 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Morishige, N. Yamada, X. Zhang, Y. Morita, N. Yamada, K. Kimura, A. Takahara, and K. H. Sonoda, “Abnormalities of stromal structure in the bullous keratopathy cornea identified by second harmonic generation imaging microscopy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53(8), 4998–5003 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (9)

E. J. Gualda, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, M. C. Martínez-García, P. Moreno, J. Hernández-Toro, L. Roso, P. Artal, and J. M. Bueno, “Femtosecond infrared intrastromal ablation and backscattering-mode adaptive-optics multiphoton microscopy in chicken corneas,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(11), 2950–2960 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Winkler, D. Chai, S. Kriling, C. J. Nien, D. J. Brown, B. Jester, T. Juhasz, and J. V. Jester, “Nonlinear optical macroscopic assessment of 3-D corneal collagen organization and axial biomechanics,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(12), 8818–8827 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Wu, B. E. Applegate, and A. T. Yeh, “Cornea microstructure and mechanical responses measured with nonlinear optical and optical coherence microscopy using sub-10-fs pulses,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(5), 1135–1146 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Morishige, Y. Takagi, T. Chikama, A. Takahara, and T. Nishida, “Three-dimensional analysis of collagen lamellae in the anterior stroma of the human cornea visualized by second harmonic generation imaging microscopy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(2), 911–915 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Bueno, E. J. Gualda, A. Giakoumaki, P. Pérez-Merino, S. Marcos, and P. Artal, “Multiphoton microscopy of ex vivo corneas after collagen cross-linking,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(8), 5325–5331 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Krüger, M. Hovakimyan, D. F. Ramírez Ojeda, O. Stachs, A. Wree, R. F. Guthoff, and A. Heisterkamp, “Combined nonlinear and femtosecond confocal laser-scanning microscopy of rabbit corneas after photochemical cross-linking,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(7), 4247–4255 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Chai, R. N. Gaster, R. Roizenblatt, T. Juhasz, D. J. Brown, and J. V. Jester, “Quantitative assessment of UVA-riboflavin corneal cross-linking using nonlinear optical microscopy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(7), 4231–4238 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Bueno, E. J. Gualda, and P. Artal, “Analysis of corneal stroma organization with wavefront optimized nonlinear microscopy,” Cornea 30(6), 692–701 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Pennos, I. Pentari, H. Ginis, N. Kariotakis, G. Kymionis, and I. Pallikaris, “Mechanical reinforcement of the cornea with an intrastromal in-situ photo-polymerised implant,” Acta Ophthalmol. (Copenh.) 89, S248 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (5)

E. J. Gualda, J. M. Bueno, and P. Artal, “Wavefront optimized nonlinear microscopy of ex vivo human retinas,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 026007 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Bueno, E. J. Gualda, and P. Artal, “Adaptive optics multiphoton microscopy to study ex vivo ocular tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(6), 066004 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Aptel, N. Olivier, A. Deniset-Besseau, J.-M. Legeais, K. Plamann, M.-C. Schanne-Klein, and E. Beaurepaire, “Multimodal Nonlinear Imaging of the Human Cornea,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(5), 2459–2465 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Hao, K. Flynn, C. Nien-Shy, B. E. Jester, M. Winkler, D. J. Brown, O. La Schiazza, J. Bille, and J. V. Jester, “In vivo non-linear optical (NLO) imaging in live rabbit eyes using the Heidelberg Two-Photon Laser Ophthalmoscope,” Exp. Eye Res. 91(2), 308–314 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Steven, M. Hovakimyan, R. F. Guthoff, G. Hüttmann, and O. Stachs, “Imaging corneal crosslinking by autofluorescence 2-photon microscopy, second harmonic generation, and fluorescence lifetime measurements,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 36(12), 2150–2159 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (4)

C. M. Hsueh, W. Lo, W. L. Chen, V. A. Hovhannisyan, G. Y. Liu, S. S. Wang, H. Y. Tan, and C. Y. Dong, “Structural characterization of edematous corneas by forward and backward second harmonic generation imaging,” Biophys. J. 97(4), 1198–1205 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Matteini, F. Ratto, F. Rossi, R. Cicchi, C. Stringari, D. Kapsokalyvas, F. S. Pavone, and R. Pini, “Photothermally-induced disordered patterns of corneal collagen revealed by SHG imaging,” Opt. Express 17(6), 4868–4878 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Lo, Y.-L. Chang, J.-S. Liu, C.-M. Hseuh, V. Hovhannisyan, S.-J. Chen, H.-Y. Tan, and C.-Y. Dong, “Multimodal, multiphoton microscopy and image correlation analysis for characterizing corneal thermal damage,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(5), 054003 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Morishige, T. Nishida, and J. V. Jester, “Second harmonic generation for visualizing 3-dimensional structure of corneal collagen lamellae,” Cornea 28(11Suppl 1), S46–S53 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (4)

T.-J. Wang, W. Lo, C. M. Hsueh, M. S. Hsieh, C. Y. Dong, and F. R. Hu, “Ex vivo multiphoton analysis of rabbit corneal wound healing following conductive keratoplasty,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(3), 034019 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Wu and A. T. Yeh, “Rabbit cornea microstructure response to changes in intraocular pressure visualized by using nonlinear optical microscopy,” Cornea 27(2), 202–208 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. G. Wang, A. Eitner, J. Lindenau, and K. J. Halbhuber, “High-resolution two-photon excitation microscopy of ocular tissues in porcine eye,” Lasers Surg. Med. 40(4), 247–256 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ö. F. Yilmaz, S. Bayraktar, A. Agca, B. Yilmaz, M. B. McDonald, and C. van de Pol, “Intracorneal inlay for the surgical correction of presbyopia,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 34(11), 1921–1927 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (4)

B. G. Wang, I. Riemann, H. Schubert, D. Schweitzer, K. König, and K. J. Halbhuber, “Multiphoton microscopy for monitoring intratissue femtosecond laser surgery effects,” Lasers Surg. Med. 39(6), 527–533 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Morishige, A. J. Wahlert, M. C. Kenney, D. J. Brown, K. Kawamoto, T. Chikama, T. Nishida, and J. V. Jester, “Second-harmonic imaging microscopy of normal human and keratoconus cornea,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48(3), 1087–1094 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. W. Teng, H. Y. Tan, Y. Sun, S. J. Lin, W. Lo, C. M. Hsueh, C. H. Hsiao, W. C. Lin, S. C. Huang, and C. Y. Dong, “Multiphoton fluorescence and second-harmonic-generation microscopy for imaging structural alterations in corneal scar tissue in penetrating full-thickness wound,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 125(7), 977–978 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-Y. Tan, Y. Sun, W. Lo, S. W. Teng, R. J. Wu, S. H. Jee, W. C. Lin, C. H. Hsiao, H. C. Lin, Y. F. Chen, D. H. Ma, S. C. Huang, S. J. Lin, and C. Y. Dong, “Multiphoton fluorescence and second harmonic generation microscopy for imaging infectious keratitis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(2), 024013 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

S. W. Teng, H. Y. Tan, J. L. Peng, H. H. Lin, K. H. Kim, W. Lo, Y. Sun, W. C. Lin, S. J. Lin, S. H. Jee, P. T. So, and C. Y. Dong, “Multiphoton autofluorescence and second-harmonic generation imaging of the ex vivo porcine eye,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47(3), 1216–1224 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Morishige, W. M. Petroll, T. Nishida, M. C. Kenney, and J. V. Jester, “Noninvasive corneal stromal collagen imaging using two-photon-generated second-harmonic signals,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 32(11), 1784–1791 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Y. Tan, Y. Sun, W. Lo, S. J. Lin, C. H. Hsiao, Y. F. Chen, S. C. Huang, W. C. Lin, S. H. Jee, H. S. Yu, and C. Y. Dong, “Multiphoton fluorescence and second harmonic generation imaging of the structural alterations in keratoconus ex vivo,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47(12), 5251–5259 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

M. Han, G. Giese, and J. Bille, “Second harmonic generation imaging of collagen fibrils in cornea and sclera,” Opt. Express 13(15), 5791–5797 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Y. Tan, S. W. Teng, W. Lo, W. C. Lin, S. J. Lin, S. H. Jee, and C. Y. Dong, “Characterizing the thermally induced structural changes to intact porcine eye, part 1: second harmonic generation imaging of cornea stroma,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(5), 054019 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

M. Han, G. Giese, L. Zickler, H. Sun, and J. Bille, “Mini-invasive corneal surgery and imaging with femtosecond lasers,” Opt. Express 12(18), 4275–4281 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Han, L. Zickler, G. Giese, M. Walter, F. H. Loesel, and J. F. Bille, “Second-harmonic imaging of cornea after intrastromal femtosecond laser ablation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(4), 760–766 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

2001 (1)

P. J. Campagnola, H. A. Clark, W. A. Mohler, A. Lewis, and L. M. Loew, “Second-harmonic imaging microscopy of living cells,” J. Biomed. Opt. 6(3), 277–286 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

J. Colin, B. Cochener, G. Savary, and F. Malet, “Correcting keratoconus with intracorneal rings,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 26(8), 1117–1122 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1971 (1)

Agca, A.

Ö. F. Yilmaz, S. Bayraktar, A. Agca, B. Yilmaz, M. B. McDonald, and C. van de Pol, “Intracorneal inlay for the surgical correction of presbyopia,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 34(11), 1921–1927 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Applegate, B. E.

Aptel, F.

F. Aptel, N. Olivier, A. Deniset-Besseau, J.-M. Legeais, K. Plamann, M.-C. Schanne-Klein, and E. Beaurepaire, “Multimodal Nonlinear Imaging of the Human Cornea,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(5), 2459–2465 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Artal, P.

J. M. Bueno, E. J. Gualda, and P. Artal, “Analysis of corneal stroma organization with wavefront optimized nonlinear microscopy,” Cornea 30(6), 692–701 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Bueno, E. J. Gualda, A. Giakoumaki, P. Pérez-Merino, S. Marcos, and P. Artal, “Multiphoton microscopy of ex vivo corneas after collagen cross-linking,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(8), 5325–5331 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. J. Gualda, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, M. C. Martínez-García, P. Moreno, J. Hernández-Toro, L. Roso, P. Artal, and J. M. Bueno, “Femtosecond infrared intrastromal ablation and backscattering-mode adaptive-optics multiphoton microscopy in chicken corneas,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(11), 2950–2960 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Bueno, E. J. Gualda, and P. Artal, “Adaptive optics multiphoton microscopy to study ex vivo ocular tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(6), 066004 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. J. Gualda, J. M. Bueno, and P. Artal, “Wavefront optimized nonlinear microscopy of ex vivo human retinas,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 026007 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bayraktar, S.

Ö. F. Yilmaz, S. Bayraktar, A. Agca, B. Yilmaz, M. B. McDonald, and C. van de Pol, “Intracorneal inlay for the surgical correction of presbyopia,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 34(11), 1921–1927 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beaurepaire, E.

F. Aptel, N. Olivier, A. Deniset-Besseau, J.-M. Legeais, K. Plamann, M.-C. Schanne-Klein, and E. Beaurepaire, “Multimodal Nonlinear Imaging of the Human Cornea,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(5), 2459–2465 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bille, J.

M. Hao, K. Flynn, C. Nien-Shy, B. E. Jester, M. Winkler, D. J. Brown, O. La Schiazza, J. Bille, and J. V. Jester, “In vivo non-linear optical (NLO) imaging in live rabbit eyes using the Heidelberg Two-Photon Laser Ophthalmoscope,” Exp. Eye Res. 91(2), 308–314 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Han, G. Giese, and J. Bille, “Second harmonic generation imaging of collagen fibrils in cornea and sclera,” Opt. Express 13(15), 5791–5797 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Han, G. Giese, L. Zickler, H. Sun, and J. Bille, “Mini-invasive corneal surgery and imaging with femtosecond lasers,” Opt. Express 12(18), 4275–4281 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bille, J. F.

M. Han, L. Zickler, G. Giese, M. Walter, F. H. Loesel, and J. F. Bille, “Second-harmonic imaging of cornea after intrastromal femtosecond laser ablation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(4), 760–766 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brown, D. J.

M. Winkler, G. Shoa, Y. Xie, S. J. Petsche, P. M. Pinsky, T. Juhasz, D. J. Brown, and J. V. Jester, “Three-dimensional distribution of transverse collagen fibers in the anterior human corneal stroma,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(12), 7293–7301 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Chai, R. N. Gaster, R. Roizenblatt, T. Juhasz, D. J. Brown, and J. V. Jester, “Quantitative assessment of UVA-riboflavin corneal cross-linking using nonlinear optical microscopy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(7), 4231–4238 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Winkler, D. Chai, S. Kriling, C. J. Nien, D. J. Brown, B. Jester, T. Juhasz, and J. V. Jester, “Nonlinear optical macroscopic assessment of 3-D corneal collagen organization and axial biomechanics,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(12), 8818–8827 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Hao, K. Flynn, C. Nien-Shy, B. E. Jester, M. Winkler, D. J. Brown, O. La Schiazza, J. Bille, and J. V. Jester, “In vivo non-linear optical (NLO) imaging in live rabbit eyes using the Heidelberg Two-Photon Laser Ophthalmoscope,” Exp. Eye Res. 91(2), 308–314 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Morishige, A. J. Wahlert, M. C. Kenney, D. J. Brown, K. Kawamoto, T. Chikama, T. Nishida, and J. V. Jester, “Second-harmonic imaging microscopy of normal human and keratoconus cornea,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48(3), 1087–1094 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bueno, J. M.

J. M. Bueno, E. J. Gualda, and P. Artal, “Analysis of corneal stroma organization with wavefront optimized nonlinear microscopy,” Cornea 30(6), 692–701 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Bueno, E. J. Gualda, A. Giakoumaki, P. Pérez-Merino, S. Marcos, and P. Artal, “Multiphoton microscopy of ex vivo corneas after collagen cross-linking,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(8), 5325–5331 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. J. Gualda, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, M. C. Martínez-García, P. Moreno, J. Hernández-Toro, L. Roso, P. Artal, and J. M. Bueno, “Femtosecond infrared intrastromal ablation and backscattering-mode adaptive-optics multiphoton microscopy in chicken corneas,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(11), 2950–2960 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Bueno, E. J. Gualda, and P. Artal, “Adaptive optics multiphoton microscopy to study ex vivo ocular tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(6), 066004 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. J. Gualda, J. M. Bueno, and P. Artal, “Wavefront optimized nonlinear microscopy of ex vivo human retinas,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 026007 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Campagnola, P. J.

P. J. Campagnola, H. A. Clark, W. A. Mohler, A. Lewis, and L. M. Loew, “Second-harmonic imaging microscopy of living cells,” J. Biomed. Opt. 6(3), 277–286 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chai, D.

M. Winkler, D. Chai, S. Kriling, C. J. Nien, D. J. Brown, B. Jester, T. Juhasz, and J. V. Jester, “Nonlinear optical macroscopic assessment of 3-D corneal collagen organization and axial biomechanics,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(12), 8818–8827 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Chai, R. N. Gaster, R. Roizenblatt, T. Juhasz, D. J. Brown, and J. V. Jester, “Quantitative assessment of UVA-riboflavin corneal cross-linking using nonlinear optical microscopy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(7), 4231–4238 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, Y.-L.

W. Lo, Y.-L. Chang, J.-S. Liu, C.-M. Hseuh, V. Hovhannisyan, S.-J. Chen, H.-Y. Tan, and C.-Y. Dong, “Multimodal, multiphoton microscopy and image correlation analysis for characterizing corneal thermal damage,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(5), 054003 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, S. J.

W. Lo, W. L. Chen, C. M. Hsueh, A. A. Ghazaryan, S. J. Chen, D. H. K. Ma, C. Y. Dong, and H. Y. Tan, “Fast Fourier transform-based analysis of second-harmonic generation image in keratoconic cornea,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53(7), 3501–3507 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, S.-J.

W. Lo, Y.-L. Chang, J.-S. Liu, C.-M. Hseuh, V. Hovhannisyan, S.-J. Chen, H.-Y. Tan, and C.-Y. Dong, “Multimodal, multiphoton microscopy and image correlation analysis for characterizing corneal thermal damage,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(5), 054003 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, W. L.

W. Lo, W. L. Chen, C. M. Hsueh, A. A. Ghazaryan, S. J. Chen, D. H. K. Ma, C. Y. Dong, and H. Y. Tan, “Fast Fourier transform-based analysis of second-harmonic generation image in keratoconic cornea,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53(7), 3501–3507 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. M. Hsueh, W. Lo, W. L. Chen, V. A. Hovhannisyan, G. Y. Liu, S. S. Wang, H. Y. Tan, and C. Y. Dong, “Structural characterization of edematous corneas by forward and backward second harmonic generation imaging,” Biophys. J. 97(4), 1198–1205 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Y. F.

H.-Y. Tan, Y. Sun, W. Lo, S. W. Teng, R. J. Wu, S. H. Jee, W. C. Lin, C. H. Hsiao, H. C. Lin, Y. F. Chen, D. H. Ma, S. C. Huang, S. J. Lin, and C. Y. Dong, “Multiphoton fluorescence and second harmonic generation microscopy for imaging infectious keratitis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(2), 024013 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Y. Tan, Y. Sun, W. Lo, S. J. Lin, C. H. Hsiao, Y. F. Chen, S. C. Huang, W. C. Lin, S. H. Jee, H. S. Yu, and C. Y. Dong, “Multiphoton fluorescence and second harmonic generation imaging of the structural alterations in keratoconus ex vivo,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47(12), 5251–5259 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chikama, T.

N. Morishige, Y. Takagi, T. Chikama, A. Takahara, and T. Nishida, “Three-dimensional analysis of collagen lamellae in the anterior stroma of the human cornea visualized by second harmonic generation imaging microscopy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(2), 911–915 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Morishige, A. J. Wahlert, M. C. Kenney, D. J. Brown, K. Kawamoto, T. Chikama, T. Nishida, and J. V. Jester, “Second-harmonic imaging microscopy of normal human and keratoconus cornea,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48(3), 1087–1094 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cicchi, R.

Clark, H. A.

P. J. Campagnola, H. A. Clark, W. A. Mohler, A. Lewis, and L. M. Loew, “Second-harmonic imaging microscopy of living cells,” J. Biomed. Opt. 6(3), 277–286 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cochener, B.

J. Colin, B. Cochener, G. Savary, and F. Malet, “Correcting keratoconus with intracorneal rings,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 26(8), 1117–1122 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Colin, J.

J. Colin, B. Cochener, G. Savary, and F. Malet, “Correcting keratoconus with intracorneal rings,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 26(8), 1117–1122 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Deniset-Besseau, A.

F. Aptel, N. Olivier, A. Deniset-Besseau, J.-M. Legeais, K. Plamann, M.-C. Schanne-Klein, and E. Beaurepaire, “Multimodal Nonlinear Imaging of the Human Cornea,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(5), 2459–2465 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dong, C. Y.

W. Lo, W. L. Chen, C. M. Hsueh, A. A. Ghazaryan, S. J. Chen, D. H. K. Ma, C. Y. Dong, and H. Y. Tan, “Fast Fourier transform-based analysis of second-harmonic generation image in keratoconic cornea,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53(7), 3501–3507 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. M. Hsueh, W. Lo, W. L. Chen, V. A. Hovhannisyan, G. Y. Liu, S. S. Wang, H. Y. Tan, and C. Y. Dong, “Structural characterization of edematous corneas by forward and backward second harmonic generation imaging,” Biophys. J. 97(4), 1198–1205 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T.-J. Wang, W. Lo, C. M. Hsueh, M. S. Hsieh, C. Y. Dong, and F. R. Hu, “Ex vivo multiphoton analysis of rabbit corneal wound healing following conductive keratoplasty,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(3), 034019 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. W. Teng, H. Y. Tan, Y. Sun, S. J. Lin, W. Lo, C. M. Hsueh, C. H. Hsiao, W. C. Lin, S. C. Huang, and C. Y. Dong, “Multiphoton fluorescence and second-harmonic-generation microscopy for imaging structural alterations in corneal scar tissue in penetrating full-thickness wound,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 125(7), 977–978 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-Y. Tan, Y. Sun, W. Lo, S. W. Teng, R. J. Wu, S. H. Jee, W. C. Lin, C. H. Hsiao, H. C. Lin, Y. F. Chen, D. H. Ma, S. C. Huang, S. J. Lin, and C. Y. Dong, “Multiphoton fluorescence and second harmonic generation microscopy for imaging infectious keratitis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(2), 024013 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. W. Teng, H. Y. Tan, J. L. Peng, H. H. Lin, K. H. Kim, W. Lo, Y. Sun, W. C. Lin, S. J. Lin, S. H. Jee, P. T. So, and C. Y. Dong, “Multiphoton autofluorescence and second-harmonic generation imaging of the ex vivo porcine eye,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47(3), 1216–1224 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Y. Tan, Y. Sun, W. Lo, S. J. Lin, C. H. Hsiao, Y. F. Chen, S. C. Huang, W. C. Lin, S. H. Jee, H. S. Yu, and C. Y. Dong, “Multiphoton fluorescence and second harmonic generation imaging of the structural alterations in keratoconus ex vivo,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47(12), 5251–5259 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Y. Tan, S. W. Teng, W. Lo, W. C. Lin, S. J. Lin, S. H. Jee, and C. Y. Dong, “Characterizing the thermally induced structural changes to intact porcine eye, part 1: second harmonic generation imaging of cornea stroma,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(5), 054019 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dong, C.-Y.

W. Lo, Y.-L. Chang, J.-S. Liu, C.-M. Hseuh, V. Hovhannisyan, S.-J. Chen, H.-Y. Tan, and C.-Y. Dong, “Multimodal, multiphoton microscopy and image correlation analysis for characterizing corneal thermal damage,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(5), 054003 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eitner, A.

B. G. Wang, A. Eitner, J. Lindenau, and K. J. Halbhuber, “High-resolution two-photon excitation microscopy of ocular tissues in porcine eye,” Lasers Surg. Med. 40(4), 247–256 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fine, S.

Flynn, K.

M. Hao, K. Flynn, C. Nien-Shy, B. E. Jester, M. Winkler, D. J. Brown, O. La Schiazza, J. Bille, and J. V. Jester, “In vivo non-linear optical (NLO) imaging in live rabbit eyes using the Heidelberg Two-Photon Laser Ophthalmoscope,” Exp. Eye Res. 91(2), 308–314 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gaster, R. N.

D. Chai, R. N. Gaster, R. Roizenblatt, T. Juhasz, D. J. Brown, and J. V. Jester, “Quantitative assessment of UVA-riboflavin corneal cross-linking using nonlinear optical microscopy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(7), 4231–4238 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ghazaryan, A. A.

W. Lo, W. L. Chen, C. M. Hsueh, A. A. Ghazaryan, S. J. Chen, D. H. K. Ma, C. Y. Dong, and H. Y. Tan, “Fast Fourier transform-based analysis of second-harmonic generation image in keratoconic cornea,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53(7), 3501–3507 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Giakoumaki, A.

J. M. Bueno, E. J. Gualda, A. Giakoumaki, P. Pérez-Merino, S. Marcos, and P. Artal, “Multiphoton microscopy of ex vivo corneas after collagen cross-linking,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(8), 5325–5331 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Giese, G.

Ginis, H.

A. Pennos, I. Pentari, H. Ginis, N. Kariotakis, G. Kymionis, and I. Pallikaris, “Mechanical reinforcement of the cornea with an intrastromal in-situ photo-polymerised implant,” Acta Ophthalmol. (Copenh.) 89, S248 (2011).
[Crossref]

Gualda, E. J.

E. J. Gualda, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, M. C. Martínez-García, P. Moreno, J. Hernández-Toro, L. Roso, P. Artal, and J. M. Bueno, “Femtosecond infrared intrastromal ablation and backscattering-mode adaptive-optics multiphoton microscopy in chicken corneas,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(11), 2950–2960 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Bueno, E. J. Gualda, A. Giakoumaki, P. Pérez-Merino, S. Marcos, and P. Artal, “Multiphoton microscopy of ex vivo corneas after collagen cross-linking,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(8), 5325–5331 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Bueno, E. J. Gualda, and P. Artal, “Analysis of corneal stroma organization with wavefront optimized nonlinear microscopy,” Cornea 30(6), 692–701 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. J. Gualda, J. M. Bueno, and P. Artal, “Wavefront optimized nonlinear microscopy of ex vivo human retinas,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 026007 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Bueno, E. J. Gualda, and P. Artal, “Adaptive optics multiphoton microscopy to study ex vivo ocular tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(6), 066004 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gusachenko, I.

Guthoff, R. F.

A. Krüger, M. Hovakimyan, D. F. Ramírez Ojeda, O. Stachs, A. Wree, R. F. Guthoff, and A. Heisterkamp, “Combined nonlinear and femtosecond confocal laser-scanning microscopy of rabbit corneas after photochemical cross-linking,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(7), 4247–4255 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Steven, M. Hovakimyan, R. F. Guthoff, G. Hüttmann, and O. Stachs, “Imaging corneal crosslinking by autofluorescence 2-photon microscopy, second harmonic generation, and fluorescence lifetime measurements,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 36(12), 2150–2159 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Halbhuber, K. J.

B. G. Wang, A. Eitner, J. Lindenau, and K. J. Halbhuber, “High-resolution two-photon excitation microscopy of ocular tissues in porcine eye,” Lasers Surg. Med. 40(4), 247–256 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. G. Wang, I. Riemann, H. Schubert, D. Schweitzer, K. König, and K. J. Halbhuber, “Multiphoton microscopy for monitoring intratissue femtosecond laser surgery effects,” Lasers Surg. Med. 39(6), 527–533 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Han, M.

Hansen, W. P.

Hao, M.

M. Hao, K. Flynn, C. Nien-Shy, B. E. Jester, M. Winkler, D. J. Brown, O. La Schiazza, J. Bille, and J. V. Jester, “In vivo non-linear optical (NLO) imaging in live rabbit eyes using the Heidelberg Two-Photon Laser Ophthalmoscope,” Exp. Eye Res. 91(2), 308–314 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Heisterkamp, A.

A. Krüger, M. Hovakimyan, D. F. Ramírez Ojeda, O. Stachs, A. Wree, R. F. Guthoff, and A. Heisterkamp, “Combined nonlinear and femtosecond confocal laser-scanning microscopy of rabbit corneas after photochemical cross-linking,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(7), 4247–4255 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hernández-Toro, J.

Hovakimyan, M.

A. Krüger, M. Hovakimyan, D. F. Ramírez Ojeda, O. Stachs, A. Wree, R. F. Guthoff, and A. Heisterkamp, “Combined nonlinear and femtosecond confocal laser-scanning microscopy of rabbit corneas after photochemical cross-linking,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(7), 4247–4255 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Steven, M. Hovakimyan, R. F. Guthoff, G. Hüttmann, and O. Stachs, “Imaging corneal crosslinking by autofluorescence 2-photon microscopy, second harmonic generation, and fluorescence lifetime measurements,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 36(12), 2150–2159 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hovhannisyan, V.

W. Lo, Y.-L. Chang, J.-S. Liu, C.-M. Hseuh, V. Hovhannisyan, S.-J. Chen, H.-Y. Tan, and C.-Y. Dong, “Multimodal, multiphoton microscopy and image correlation analysis for characterizing corneal thermal damage,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(5), 054003 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hovhannisyan, V. A.

C. M. Hsueh, W. Lo, W. L. Chen, V. A. Hovhannisyan, G. Y. Liu, S. S. Wang, H. Y. Tan, and C. Y. Dong, “Structural characterization of edematous corneas by forward and backward second harmonic generation imaging,” Biophys. J. 97(4), 1198–1205 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hseuh, C.-M.

W. Lo, Y.-L. Chang, J.-S. Liu, C.-M. Hseuh, V. Hovhannisyan, S.-J. Chen, H.-Y. Tan, and C.-Y. Dong, “Multimodal, multiphoton microscopy and image correlation analysis for characterizing corneal thermal damage,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(5), 054003 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hsiao, C. H.

S. W. Teng, H. Y. Tan, Y. Sun, S. J. Lin, W. Lo, C. M. Hsueh, C. H. Hsiao, W. C. Lin, S. C. Huang, and C. Y. Dong, “Multiphoton fluorescence and second-harmonic-generation microscopy for imaging structural alterations in corneal scar tissue in penetrating full-thickness wound,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 125(7), 977–978 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-Y. Tan, Y. Sun, W. Lo, S. W. Teng, R. J. Wu, S. H. Jee, W. C. Lin, C. H. Hsiao, H. C. Lin, Y. F. Chen, D. H. Ma, S. C. Huang, S. J. Lin, and C. Y. Dong, “Multiphoton fluorescence and second harmonic generation microscopy for imaging infectious keratitis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(2), 024013 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Y. Tan, Y. Sun, W. Lo, S. J. Lin, C. H. Hsiao, Y. F. Chen, S. C. Huang, W. C. Lin, S. H. Jee, H. S. Yu, and C. Y. Dong, “Multiphoton fluorescence and second harmonic generation imaging of the structural alterations in keratoconus ex vivo,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47(12), 5251–5259 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hsieh, M. S.

T.-J. Wang, W. Lo, C. M. Hsueh, M. S. Hsieh, C. Y. Dong, and F. R. Hu, “Ex vivo multiphoton analysis of rabbit corneal wound healing following conductive keratoplasty,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(3), 034019 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hsueh, C. M.

W. Lo, W. L. Chen, C. M. Hsueh, A. A. Ghazaryan, S. J. Chen, D. H. K. Ma, C. Y. Dong, and H. Y. Tan, “Fast Fourier transform-based analysis of second-harmonic generation image in keratoconic cornea,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53(7), 3501–3507 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. M. Hsueh, W. Lo, W. L. Chen, V. A. Hovhannisyan, G. Y. Liu, S. S. Wang, H. Y. Tan, and C. Y. Dong, “Structural characterization of edematous corneas by forward and backward second harmonic generation imaging,” Biophys. J. 97(4), 1198–1205 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T.-J. Wang, W. Lo, C. M. Hsueh, M. S. Hsieh, C. Y. Dong, and F. R. Hu, “Ex vivo multiphoton analysis of rabbit corneal wound healing following conductive keratoplasty,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(3), 034019 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. W. Teng, H. Y. Tan, Y. Sun, S. J. Lin, W. Lo, C. M. Hsueh, C. H. Hsiao, W. C. Lin, S. C. Huang, and C. Y. Dong, “Multiphoton fluorescence and second-harmonic-generation microscopy for imaging structural alterations in corneal scar tissue in penetrating full-thickness wound,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 125(7), 977–978 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hu, F. R.

T.-J. Wang, W. Lo, C. M. Hsueh, M. S. Hsieh, C. Y. Dong, and F. R. Hu, “Ex vivo multiphoton analysis of rabbit corneal wound healing following conductive keratoplasty,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(3), 034019 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, S. C.

S. W. Teng, H. Y. Tan, Y. Sun, S. J. Lin, W. Lo, C. M. Hsueh, C. H. Hsiao, W. C. Lin, S. C. Huang, and C. Y. Dong, “Multiphoton fluorescence and second-harmonic-generation microscopy for imaging structural alterations in corneal scar tissue in penetrating full-thickness wound,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 125(7), 977–978 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-Y. Tan, Y. Sun, W. Lo, S. W. Teng, R. J. Wu, S. H. Jee, W. C. Lin, C. H. Hsiao, H. C. Lin, Y. F. Chen, D. H. Ma, S. C. Huang, S. J. Lin, and C. Y. Dong, “Multiphoton fluorescence and second harmonic generation microscopy for imaging infectious keratitis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(2), 024013 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Y. Tan, Y. Sun, W. Lo, S. J. Lin, C. H. Hsiao, Y. F. Chen, S. C. Huang, W. C. Lin, S. H. Jee, H. S. Yu, and C. Y. Dong, “Multiphoton fluorescence and second harmonic generation imaging of the structural alterations in keratoconus ex vivo,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47(12), 5251–5259 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hüttmann, G.

P. Steven, M. Hovakimyan, R. F. Guthoff, G. Hüttmann, and O. Stachs, “Imaging corneal crosslinking by autofluorescence 2-photon microscopy, second harmonic generation, and fluorescence lifetime measurements,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 36(12), 2150–2159 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jee, S. H.

H.-Y. Tan, Y. Sun, W. Lo, S. W. Teng, R. J. Wu, S. H. Jee, W. C. Lin, C. H. Hsiao, H. C. Lin, Y. F. Chen, D. H. Ma, S. C. Huang, S. J. Lin, and C. Y. Dong, “Multiphoton fluorescence and second harmonic generation microscopy for imaging infectious keratitis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(2), 024013 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Y. Tan, Y. Sun, W. Lo, S. J. Lin, C. H. Hsiao, Y. F. Chen, S. C. Huang, W. C. Lin, S. H. Jee, H. S. Yu, and C. Y. Dong, “Multiphoton fluorescence and second harmonic generation imaging of the structural alterations in keratoconus ex vivo,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47(12), 5251–5259 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. W. Teng, H. Y. Tan, J. L. Peng, H. H. Lin, K. H. Kim, W. Lo, Y. Sun, W. C. Lin, S. J. Lin, S. H. Jee, P. T. So, and C. Y. Dong, “Multiphoton autofluorescence and second-harmonic generation imaging of the ex vivo porcine eye,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47(3), 1216–1224 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Y. Tan, S. W. Teng, W. Lo, W. C. Lin, S. J. Lin, S. H. Jee, and C. Y. Dong, “Characterizing the thermally induced structural changes to intact porcine eye, part 1: second harmonic generation imaging of cornea stroma,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(5), 054019 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jester, B.

M. Winkler, D. Chai, S. Kriling, C. J. Nien, D. J. Brown, B. Jester, T. Juhasz, and J. V. Jester, “Nonlinear optical macroscopic assessment of 3-D corneal collagen organization and axial biomechanics,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(12), 8818–8827 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jester, B. E.

M. Hao, K. Flynn, C. Nien-Shy, B. E. Jester, M. Winkler, D. J. Brown, O. La Schiazza, J. Bille, and J. V. Jester, “In vivo non-linear optical (NLO) imaging in live rabbit eyes using the Heidelberg Two-Photon Laser Ophthalmoscope,” Exp. Eye Res. 91(2), 308–314 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jester, J. V.

M. Winkler, G. Shoa, Y. Xie, S. J. Petsche, P. M. Pinsky, T. Juhasz, D. J. Brown, and J. V. Jester, “Three-dimensional distribution of transverse collagen fibers in the anterior human corneal stroma,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(12), 7293–7301 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Chai, R. N. Gaster, R. Roizenblatt, T. Juhasz, D. J. Brown, and J. V. Jester, “Quantitative assessment of UVA-riboflavin corneal cross-linking using nonlinear optical microscopy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(7), 4231–4238 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Winkler, D. Chai, S. Kriling, C. J. Nien, D. J. Brown, B. Jester, T. Juhasz, and J. V. Jester, “Nonlinear optical macroscopic assessment of 3-D corneal collagen organization and axial biomechanics,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(12), 8818–8827 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Hao, K. Flynn, C. Nien-Shy, B. E. Jester, M. Winkler, D. J. Brown, O. La Schiazza, J. Bille, and J. V. Jester, “In vivo non-linear optical (NLO) imaging in live rabbit eyes using the Heidelberg Two-Photon Laser Ophthalmoscope,” Exp. Eye Res. 91(2), 308–314 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Morishige, T. Nishida, and J. V. Jester, “Second harmonic generation for visualizing 3-dimensional structure of corneal collagen lamellae,” Cornea 28(11Suppl 1), S46–S53 (2009).
[Crossref]

N. Morishige, A. J. Wahlert, M. C. Kenney, D. J. Brown, K. Kawamoto, T. Chikama, T. Nishida, and J. V. Jester, “Second-harmonic imaging microscopy of normal human and keratoconus cornea,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48(3), 1087–1094 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Morishige, W. M. Petroll, T. Nishida, M. C. Kenney, and J. V. Jester, “Noninvasive corneal stromal collagen imaging using two-photon-generated second-harmonic signals,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 32(11), 1784–1791 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Juhasz, T.

M. Winkler, G. Shoa, Y. Xie, S. J. Petsche, P. M. Pinsky, T. Juhasz, D. J. Brown, and J. V. Jester, “Three-dimensional distribution of transverse collagen fibers in the anterior human corneal stroma,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(12), 7293–7301 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Chai, R. N. Gaster, R. Roizenblatt, T. Juhasz, D. J. Brown, and J. V. Jester, “Quantitative assessment of UVA-riboflavin corneal cross-linking using nonlinear optical microscopy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(7), 4231–4238 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Winkler, D. Chai, S. Kriling, C. J. Nien, D. J. Brown, B. Jester, T. Juhasz, and J. V. Jester, “Nonlinear optical macroscopic assessment of 3-D corneal collagen organization and axial biomechanics,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(12), 8818–8827 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kapsokalyvas, D.

Kariotakis, N.

A. Pennos, I. Pentari, H. Ginis, N. Kariotakis, G. Kymionis, and I. Pallikaris, “Mechanical reinforcement of the cornea with an intrastromal in-situ photo-polymerised implant,” Acta Ophthalmol. (Copenh.) 89, S248 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kawamoto, K.

N. Morishige, A. J. Wahlert, M. C. Kenney, D. J. Brown, K. Kawamoto, T. Chikama, T. Nishida, and J. V. Jester, “Second-harmonic imaging microscopy of normal human and keratoconus cornea,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48(3), 1087–1094 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kenney, M. C.

N. Morishige, A. J. Wahlert, M. C. Kenney, D. J. Brown, K. Kawamoto, T. Chikama, T. Nishida, and J. V. Jester, “Second-harmonic imaging microscopy of normal human and keratoconus cornea,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48(3), 1087–1094 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Morishige, W. M. Petroll, T. Nishida, M. C. Kenney, and J. V. Jester, “Noninvasive corneal stromal collagen imaging using two-photon-generated second-harmonic signals,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 32(11), 1784–1791 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, K. H.

S. W. Teng, H. Y. Tan, J. L. Peng, H. H. Lin, K. H. Kim, W. Lo, Y. Sun, W. C. Lin, S. J. Lin, S. H. Jee, P. T. So, and C. Y. Dong, “Multiphoton autofluorescence and second-harmonic generation imaging of the ex vivo porcine eye,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47(3), 1216–1224 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kimura, K.

N. Morishige, N. Yamada, X. Zhang, Y. Morita, N. Yamada, K. Kimura, A. Takahara, and K. H. Sonoda, “Abnormalities of stromal structure in the bullous keratopathy cornea identified by second harmonic generation imaging microscopy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53(8), 4998–5003 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

König, K.

B. G. Wang, I. Riemann, H. Schubert, D. Schweitzer, K. König, and K. J. Halbhuber, “Multiphoton microscopy for monitoring intratissue femtosecond laser surgery effects,” Lasers Surg. Med. 39(6), 527–533 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kowalczuk, L.

Kriling, S.

M. Winkler, D. Chai, S. Kriling, C. J. Nien, D. J. Brown, B. Jester, T. Juhasz, and J. V. Jester, “Nonlinear optical macroscopic assessment of 3-D corneal collagen organization and axial biomechanics,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(12), 8818–8827 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Krüger, A.

A. Krüger, M. Hovakimyan, D. F. Ramírez Ojeda, O. Stachs, A. Wree, R. F. Guthoff, and A. Heisterkamp, “Combined nonlinear and femtosecond confocal laser-scanning microscopy of rabbit corneas after photochemical cross-linking,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(7), 4247–4255 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kymionis, G.

A. Pennos, I. Pentari, H. Ginis, N. Kariotakis, G. Kymionis, and I. Pallikaris, “Mechanical reinforcement of the cornea with an intrastromal in-situ photo-polymerised implant,” Acta Ophthalmol. (Copenh.) 89, S248 (2011).
[Crossref]

La Schiazza, O.

M. Hao, K. Flynn, C. Nien-Shy, B. E. Jester, M. Winkler, D. J. Brown, O. La Schiazza, J. Bille, and J. V. Jester, “In vivo non-linear optical (NLO) imaging in live rabbit eyes using the Heidelberg Two-Photon Laser Ophthalmoscope,” Exp. Eye Res. 91(2), 308–314 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lamarre, I.

Latour, G.

Legeais, J.-M.

F. Aptel, N. Olivier, A. Deniset-Besseau, J.-M. Legeais, K. Plamann, M.-C. Schanne-Klein, and E. Beaurepaire, “Multimodal Nonlinear Imaging of the Human Cornea,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(5), 2459–2465 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lewis, A.

P. J. Campagnola, H. A. Clark, W. A. Mohler, A. Lewis, and L. M. Loew, “Second-harmonic imaging microscopy of living cells,” J. Biomed. Opt. 6(3), 277–286 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, H. C.

H.-Y. Tan, Y. Sun, W. Lo, S. W. Teng, R. J. Wu, S. H. Jee, W. C. Lin, C. H. Hsiao, H. C. Lin, Y. F. Chen, D. H. Ma, S. C. Huang, S. J. Lin, and C. Y. Dong, “Multiphoton fluorescence and second harmonic generation microscopy for imaging infectious keratitis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(2), 024013 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, H. H.

S. W. Teng, H. Y. Tan, J. L. Peng, H. H. Lin, K. H. Kim, W. Lo, Y. Sun, W. C. Lin, S. J. Lin, S. H. Jee, P. T. So, and C. Y. Dong, “Multiphoton autofluorescence and second-harmonic generation imaging of the ex vivo porcine eye,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47(3), 1216–1224 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, S. J.

H.-Y. Tan, Y. Sun, W. Lo, S. W. Teng, R. J. Wu, S. H. Jee, W. C. Lin, C. H. Hsiao, H. C. Lin, Y. F. Chen, D. H. Ma, S. C. Huang, S. J. Lin, and C. Y. Dong, “Multiphoton fluorescence and second harmonic generation microscopy for imaging infectious keratitis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(2), 024013 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. W. Teng, H. Y. Tan, Y. Sun, S. J. Lin, W. Lo, C. M. Hsueh, C. H. Hsiao, W. C. Lin, S. C. Huang, and C. Y. Dong, “Multiphoton fluorescence and second-harmonic-generation microscopy for imaging structural alterations in corneal scar tissue in penetrating full-thickness wound,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 125(7), 977–978 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. W. Teng, H. Y. Tan, J. L. Peng, H. H. Lin, K. H. Kim, W. Lo, Y. Sun, W. C. Lin, S. J. Lin, S. H. Jee, P. T. So, and C. Y. Dong, “Multiphoton autofluorescence and second-harmonic generation imaging of the ex vivo porcine eye,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47(3), 1216–1224 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Y. Tan, Y. Sun, W. Lo, S. J. Lin, C. H. Hsiao, Y. F. Chen, S. C. Huang, W. C. Lin, S. H. Jee, H. S. Yu, and C. Y. Dong, “Multiphoton fluorescence and second harmonic generation imaging of the structural alterations in keratoconus ex vivo,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47(12), 5251–5259 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Y. Tan, S. W. Teng, W. Lo, W. C. Lin, S. J. Lin, S. H. Jee, and C. Y. Dong, “Characterizing the thermally induced structural changes to intact porcine eye, part 1: second harmonic generation imaging of cornea stroma,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(5), 054019 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, W. C.

S. W. Teng, H. Y. Tan, Y. Sun, S. J. Lin, W. Lo, C. M. Hsueh, C. H. Hsiao, W. C. Lin, S. C. Huang, and C. Y. Dong, “Multiphoton fluorescence and second-harmonic-generation microscopy for imaging structural alterations in corneal scar tissue in penetrating full-thickness wound,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 125(7), 977–978 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-Y. Tan, Y. Sun, W. Lo, S. W. Teng, R. J. Wu, S. H. Jee, W. C. Lin, C. H. Hsiao, H. C. Lin, Y. F. Chen, D. H. Ma, S. C. Huang, S. J. Lin, and C. Y. Dong, “Multiphoton fluorescence and second harmonic generation microscopy for imaging infectious keratitis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(2), 024013 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Y. Tan, Y. Sun, W. Lo, S. J. Lin, C. H. Hsiao, Y. F. Chen, S. C. Huang, W. C. Lin, S. H. Jee, H. S. Yu, and C. Y. Dong, “Multiphoton fluorescence and second harmonic generation imaging of the structural alterations in keratoconus ex vivo,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47(12), 5251–5259 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. W. Teng, H. Y. Tan, J. L. Peng, H. H. Lin, K. H. Kim, W. Lo, Y. Sun, W. C. Lin, S. J. Lin, S. H. Jee, P. T. So, and C. Y. Dong, “Multiphoton autofluorescence and second-harmonic generation imaging of the ex vivo porcine eye,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47(3), 1216–1224 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Y. Tan, S. W. Teng, W. Lo, W. C. Lin, S. J. Lin, S. H. Jee, and C. Y. Dong, “Characterizing the thermally induced structural changes to intact porcine eye, part 1: second harmonic generation imaging of cornea stroma,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(5), 054019 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lindenau, J.

B. G. Wang, A. Eitner, J. Lindenau, and K. J. Halbhuber, “High-resolution two-photon excitation microscopy of ocular tissues in porcine eye,” Lasers Surg. Med. 40(4), 247–256 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, G. Y.

C. M. Hsueh, W. Lo, W. L. Chen, V. A. Hovhannisyan, G. Y. Liu, S. S. Wang, H. Y. Tan, and C. Y. Dong, “Structural characterization of edematous corneas by forward and backward second harmonic generation imaging,” Biophys. J. 97(4), 1198–1205 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, J.-S.

W. Lo, Y.-L. Chang, J.-S. Liu, C.-M. Hseuh, V. Hovhannisyan, S.-J. Chen, H.-Y. Tan, and C.-Y. Dong, “Multimodal, multiphoton microscopy and image correlation analysis for characterizing corneal thermal damage,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(5), 054003 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lo, W.

W. Lo, W. L. Chen, C. M. Hsueh, A. A. Ghazaryan, S. J. Chen, D. H. K. Ma, C. Y. Dong, and H. Y. Tan, “Fast Fourier transform-based analysis of second-harmonic generation image in keratoconic cornea,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53(7), 3501–3507 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. M. Hsueh, W. Lo, W. L. Chen, V. A. Hovhannisyan, G. Y. Liu, S. S. Wang, H. Y. Tan, and C. Y. Dong, “Structural characterization of edematous corneas by forward and backward second harmonic generation imaging,” Biophys. J. 97(4), 1198–1205 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Lo, Y.-L. Chang, J.-S. Liu, C.-M. Hseuh, V. Hovhannisyan, S.-J. Chen, H.-Y. Tan, and C.-Y. Dong, “Multimodal, multiphoton microscopy and image correlation analysis for characterizing corneal thermal damage,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(5), 054003 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T.-J. Wang, W. Lo, C. M. Hsueh, M. S. Hsieh, C. Y. Dong, and F. R. Hu, “Ex vivo multiphoton analysis of rabbit corneal wound healing following conductive keratoplasty,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(3), 034019 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. W. Teng, H. Y. Tan, Y. Sun, S. J. Lin, W. Lo, C. M. Hsueh, C. H. Hsiao, W. C. Lin, S. C. Huang, and C. Y. Dong, “Multiphoton fluorescence and second-harmonic-generation microscopy for imaging structural alterations in corneal scar tissue in penetrating full-thickness wound,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 125(7), 977–978 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-Y. Tan, Y. Sun, W. Lo, S. W. Teng, R. J. Wu, S. H. Jee, W. C. Lin, C. H. Hsiao, H. C. Lin, Y. F. Chen, D. H. Ma, S. C. Huang, S. J. Lin, and C. Y. Dong, “Multiphoton fluorescence and second harmonic generation microscopy for imaging infectious keratitis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(2), 024013 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Y. Tan, Y. Sun, W. Lo, S. J. Lin, C. H. Hsiao, Y. F. Chen, S. C. Huang, W. C. Lin, S. H. Jee, H. S. Yu, and C. Y. Dong, “Multiphoton fluorescence and second harmonic generation imaging of the structural alterations in keratoconus ex vivo,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47(12), 5251–5259 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. W. Teng, H. Y. Tan, J. L. Peng, H. H. Lin, K. H. Kim, W. Lo, Y. Sun, W. C. Lin, S. J. Lin, S. H. Jee, P. T. So, and C. Y. Dong, “Multiphoton autofluorescence and second-harmonic generation imaging of the ex vivo porcine eye,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47(3), 1216–1224 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Y. Tan, S. W. Teng, W. Lo, W. C. Lin, S. J. Lin, S. H. Jee, and C. Y. Dong, “Characterizing the thermally induced structural changes to intact porcine eye, part 1: second harmonic generation imaging of cornea stroma,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(5), 054019 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Loesel, F. H.

M. Han, L. Zickler, G. Giese, M. Walter, F. H. Loesel, and J. F. Bille, “Second-harmonic imaging of cornea after intrastromal femtosecond laser ablation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(4), 760–766 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Loew, L. M.

P. J. Campagnola, H. A. Clark, W. A. Mohler, A. Lewis, and L. M. Loew, “Second-harmonic imaging microscopy of living cells,” J. Biomed. Opt. 6(3), 277–286 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ma, D. H.

H.-Y. Tan, Y. Sun, W. Lo, S. W. Teng, R. J. Wu, S. H. Jee, W. C. Lin, C. H. Hsiao, H. C. Lin, Y. F. Chen, D. H. Ma, S. C. Huang, S. J. Lin, and C. Y. Dong, “Multiphoton fluorescence and second harmonic generation microscopy for imaging infectious keratitis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(2), 024013 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ma, D. H. K.

W. Lo, W. L. Chen, C. M. Hsueh, A. A. Ghazaryan, S. J. Chen, D. H. K. Ma, C. Y. Dong, and H. Y. Tan, “Fast Fourier transform-based analysis of second-harmonic generation image in keratoconic cornea,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53(7), 3501–3507 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Malet, F.

J. Colin, B. Cochener, G. Savary, and F. Malet, “Correcting keratoconus with intracorneal rings,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 26(8), 1117–1122 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Marcos, S.

J. M. Bueno, E. J. Gualda, A. Giakoumaki, P. Pérez-Merino, S. Marcos, and P. Artal, “Multiphoton microscopy of ex vivo corneas after collagen cross-linking,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(8), 5325–5331 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Martínez-García, M. C.

Matteini, P.

McDonald, M. B.

Ö. F. Yilmaz, S. Bayraktar, A. Agca, B. Yilmaz, M. B. McDonald, and C. van de Pol, “Intracorneal inlay for the surgical correction of presbyopia,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 34(11), 1921–1927 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mohler, W. A.

P. J. Campagnola, H. A. Clark, W. A. Mohler, A. Lewis, and L. M. Loew, “Second-harmonic imaging microscopy of living cells,” J. Biomed. Opt. 6(3), 277–286 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moreno, P.

Morishige, N.

N. Morishige, N. Yamada, X. Zhang, Y. Morita, N. Yamada, K. Kimura, A. Takahara, and K. H. Sonoda, “Abnormalities of stromal structure in the bullous keratopathy cornea identified by second harmonic generation imaging microscopy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53(8), 4998–5003 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Morishige, Y. Takagi, T. Chikama, A. Takahara, and T. Nishida, “Three-dimensional analysis of collagen lamellae in the anterior stroma of the human cornea visualized by second harmonic generation imaging microscopy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(2), 911–915 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Morishige, T. Nishida, and J. V. Jester, “Second harmonic generation for visualizing 3-dimensional structure of corneal collagen lamellae,” Cornea 28(11Suppl 1), S46–S53 (2009).
[Crossref]

N. Morishige, A. J. Wahlert, M. C. Kenney, D. J. Brown, K. Kawamoto, T. Chikama, T. Nishida, and J. V. Jester, “Second-harmonic imaging microscopy of normal human and keratoconus cornea,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48(3), 1087–1094 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Morishige, W. M. Petroll, T. Nishida, M. C. Kenney, and J. V. Jester, “Noninvasive corneal stromal collagen imaging using two-photon-generated second-harmonic signals,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 32(11), 1784–1791 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Morita, Y.

N. Morishige, N. Yamada, X. Zhang, Y. Morita, N. Yamada, K. Kimura, A. Takahara, and K. H. Sonoda, “Abnormalities of stromal structure in the bullous keratopathy cornea identified by second harmonic generation imaging microscopy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53(8), 4998–5003 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nassif, N.

Nien, C. J.

M. Winkler, D. Chai, S. Kriling, C. J. Nien, D. J. Brown, B. Jester, T. Juhasz, and J. V. Jester, “Nonlinear optical macroscopic assessment of 3-D corneal collagen organization and axial biomechanics,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(12), 8818–8827 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nien-Shy, C.

M. Hao, K. Flynn, C. Nien-Shy, B. E. Jester, M. Winkler, D. J. Brown, O. La Schiazza, J. Bille, and J. V. Jester, “In vivo non-linear optical (NLO) imaging in live rabbit eyes using the Heidelberg Two-Photon Laser Ophthalmoscope,” Exp. Eye Res. 91(2), 308–314 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nishida, T.

N. Morishige, Y. Takagi, T. Chikama, A. Takahara, and T. Nishida, “Three-dimensional analysis of collagen lamellae in the anterior stroma of the human cornea visualized by second harmonic generation imaging microscopy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(2), 911–915 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Morishige, T. Nishida, and J. V. Jester, “Second harmonic generation for visualizing 3-dimensional structure of corneal collagen lamellae,” Cornea 28(11Suppl 1), S46–S53 (2009).
[Crossref]

N. Morishige, A. J. Wahlert, M. C. Kenney, D. J. Brown, K. Kawamoto, T. Chikama, T. Nishida, and J. V. Jester, “Second-harmonic imaging microscopy of normal human and keratoconus cornea,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48(3), 1087–1094 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Morishige, W. M. Petroll, T. Nishida, M. C. Kenney, and J. V. Jester, “Noninvasive corneal stromal collagen imaging using two-photon-generated second-harmonic signals,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 32(11), 1784–1791 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Olivier, N.

F. Aptel, N. Olivier, A. Deniset-Besseau, J.-M. Legeais, K. Plamann, M.-C. Schanne-Klein, and E. Beaurepaire, “Multimodal Nonlinear Imaging of the Human Cornea,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(5), 2459–2465 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pallikaris, I.

A. Pennos, I. Pentari, H. Ginis, N. Kariotakis, G. Kymionis, and I. Pallikaris, “Mechanical reinforcement of the cornea with an intrastromal in-situ photo-polymerised implant,” Acta Ophthalmol. (Copenh.) 89, S248 (2011).
[Crossref]

Pavone, F. S.

Peng, J. L.

S. W. Teng, H. Y. Tan, J. L. Peng, H. H. Lin, K. H. Kim, W. Lo, Y. Sun, W. C. Lin, S. J. Lin, S. H. Jee, P. T. So, and C. Y. Dong, “Multiphoton autofluorescence and second-harmonic generation imaging of the ex vivo porcine eye,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47(3), 1216–1224 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pennos, A.

A. Pennos, I. Pentari, H. Ginis, N. Kariotakis, G. Kymionis, and I. Pallikaris, “Mechanical reinforcement of the cornea with an intrastromal in-situ photo-polymerised implant,” Acta Ophthalmol. (Copenh.) 89, S248 (2011).
[Crossref]

Pentari, I.

A. Pennos, I. Pentari, H. Ginis, N. Kariotakis, G. Kymionis, and I. Pallikaris, “Mechanical reinforcement of the cornea with an intrastromal in-situ photo-polymerised implant,” Acta Ophthalmol. (Copenh.) 89, S248 (2011).
[Crossref]

Pérez-Merino, P.

J. M. Bueno, E. J. Gualda, A. Giakoumaki, P. Pérez-Merino, S. Marcos, and P. Artal, “Multiphoton microscopy of ex vivo corneas after collagen cross-linking,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(8), 5325–5331 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Petroll, W. M.

N. Morishige, W. M. Petroll, T. Nishida, M. C. Kenney, and J. V. Jester, “Noninvasive corneal stromal collagen imaging using two-photon-generated second-harmonic signals,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 32(11), 1784–1791 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Petsche, S. J.

M. Winkler, G. Shoa, Y. Xie, S. J. Petsche, P. M. Pinsky, T. Juhasz, D. J. Brown, and J. V. Jester, “Three-dimensional distribution of transverse collagen fibers in the anterior human corneal stroma,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(12), 7293–7301 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pini, R.

Pinsky, P. M.

M. Winkler, G. Shoa, Y. Xie, S. J. Petsche, P. M. Pinsky, T. Juhasz, D. J. Brown, and J. V. Jester, “Three-dimensional distribution of transverse collagen fibers in the anterior human corneal stroma,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(12), 7293–7301 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Plamann, K.

F. Aptel, N. Olivier, A. Deniset-Besseau, J.-M. Legeais, K. Plamann, M.-C. Schanne-Klein, and E. Beaurepaire, “Multimodal Nonlinear Imaging of the Human Cornea,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(5), 2459–2465 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ramírez Ojeda, D. F.

A. Krüger, M. Hovakimyan, D. F. Ramírez Ojeda, O. Stachs, A. Wree, R. F. Guthoff, and A. Heisterkamp, “Combined nonlinear and femtosecond confocal laser-scanning microscopy of rabbit corneas after photochemical cross-linking,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(7), 4247–4255 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ratto, F.

Riemann, I.

B. G. Wang, I. Riemann, H. Schubert, D. Schweitzer, K. König, and K. J. Halbhuber, “Multiphoton microscopy for monitoring intratissue femtosecond laser surgery effects,” Lasers Surg. Med. 39(6), 527–533 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Roizenblatt, R.

D. Chai, R. N. Gaster, R. Roizenblatt, T. Juhasz, D. J. Brown, and J. V. Jester, “Quantitative assessment of UVA-riboflavin corneal cross-linking using nonlinear optical microscopy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(7), 4231–4238 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Roso, L.

Rossi, F.

Savary, G.

J. Colin, B. Cochener, G. Savary, and F. Malet, “Correcting keratoconus with intracorneal rings,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 26(8), 1117–1122 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schanne-Klein, M. C.

Schanne-Klein, M.-C.

F. Aptel, N. Olivier, A. Deniset-Besseau, J.-M. Legeais, K. Plamann, M.-C. Schanne-Klein, and E. Beaurepaire, “Multimodal Nonlinear Imaging of the Human Cornea,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(5), 2459–2465 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schubert, H.

B. G. Wang, I. Riemann, H. Schubert, D. Schweitzer, K. König, and K. J. Halbhuber, “Multiphoton microscopy for monitoring intratissue femtosecond laser surgery effects,” Lasers Surg. Med. 39(6), 527–533 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schweitzer, D.

B. G. Wang, I. Riemann, H. Schubert, D. Schweitzer, K. König, and K. J. Halbhuber, “Multiphoton microscopy for monitoring intratissue femtosecond laser surgery effects,” Lasers Surg. Med. 39(6), 527–533 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shoa, G.

M. Winkler, G. Shoa, Y. Xie, S. J. Petsche, P. M. Pinsky, T. Juhasz, D. J. Brown, and J. V. Jester, “Three-dimensional distribution of transverse collagen fibers in the anterior human corneal stroma,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(12), 7293–7301 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

So, P. T.

S. W. Teng, H. Y. Tan, J. L. Peng, H. H. Lin, K. H. Kim, W. Lo, Y. Sun, W. C. Lin, S. J. Lin, S. H. Jee, P. T. So, and C. Y. Dong, “Multiphoton autofluorescence and second-harmonic generation imaging of the ex vivo porcine eye,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47(3), 1216–1224 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sonoda, K. H.

N. Morishige, N. Yamada, X. Zhang, Y. Morita, N. Yamada, K. Kimura, A. Takahara, and K. H. Sonoda, “Abnormalities of stromal structure in the bullous keratopathy cornea identified by second harmonic generation imaging microscopy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53(8), 4998–5003 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stachs, O.

A. Krüger, M. Hovakimyan, D. F. Ramírez Ojeda, O. Stachs, A. Wree, R. F. Guthoff, and A. Heisterkamp, “Combined nonlinear and femtosecond confocal laser-scanning microscopy of rabbit corneas after photochemical cross-linking,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(7), 4247–4255 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Steven, M. Hovakimyan, R. F. Guthoff, G. Hüttmann, and O. Stachs, “Imaging corneal crosslinking by autofluorescence 2-photon microscopy, second harmonic generation, and fluorescence lifetime measurements,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 36(12), 2150–2159 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Steven, P.

P. Steven, M. Hovakimyan, R. F. Guthoff, G. Hüttmann, and O. Stachs, “Imaging corneal crosslinking by autofluorescence 2-photon microscopy, second harmonic generation, and fluorescence lifetime measurements,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 36(12), 2150–2159 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stringari, C.

Sun, H.

Sun, Y.

S. W. Teng, H. Y. Tan, Y. Sun, S. J. Lin, W. Lo, C. M. Hsueh, C. H. Hsiao, W. C. Lin, S. C. Huang, and C. Y. Dong, “Multiphoton fluorescence and second-harmonic-generation microscopy for imaging structural alterations in corneal scar tissue in penetrating full-thickness wound,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 125(7), 977–978 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-Y. Tan, Y. Sun, W. Lo, S. W. Teng, R. J. Wu, S. H. Jee, W. C. Lin, C. H. Hsiao, H. C. Lin, Y. F. Chen, D. H. Ma, S. C. Huang, S. J. Lin, and C. Y. Dong, “Multiphoton fluorescence and second harmonic generation microscopy for imaging infectious keratitis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(2), 024013 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. W. Teng, H. Y. Tan, J. L. Peng, H. H. Lin, K. H. Kim, W. Lo, Y. Sun, W. C. Lin, S. J. Lin, S. H. Jee, P. T. So, and C. Y. Dong, “Multiphoton autofluorescence and second-harmonic generation imaging of the ex vivo porcine eye,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47(3), 1216–1224 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Y. Tan, Y. Sun, W. Lo, S. J. Lin, C. H. Hsiao, Y. F. Chen, S. C. Huang, W. C. Lin, S. H. Jee, H. S. Yu, and C. Y. Dong, “Multiphoton fluorescence and second harmonic generation imaging of the structural alterations in keratoconus ex vivo,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47(12), 5251–5259 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Takagi, Y.

N. Morishige, Y. Takagi, T. Chikama, A. Takahara, and T. Nishida, “Three-dimensional analysis of collagen lamellae in the anterior stroma of the human cornea visualized by second harmonic generation imaging microscopy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(2), 911–915 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Takahara, A.

N. Morishige, N. Yamada, X. Zhang, Y. Morita, N. Yamada, K. Kimura, A. Takahara, and K. H. Sonoda, “Abnormalities of stromal structure in the bullous keratopathy cornea identified by second harmonic generation imaging microscopy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53(8), 4998–5003 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Morishige, Y. Takagi, T. Chikama, A. Takahara, and T. Nishida, “Three-dimensional analysis of collagen lamellae in the anterior stroma of the human cornea visualized by second harmonic generation imaging microscopy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(2), 911–915 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tan, H. Y.

W. Lo, W. L. Chen, C. M. Hsueh, A. A. Ghazaryan, S. J. Chen, D. H. K. Ma, C. Y. Dong, and H. Y. Tan, “Fast Fourier transform-based analysis of second-harmonic generation image in keratoconic cornea,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53(7), 3501–3507 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. M. Hsueh, W. Lo, W. L. Chen, V. A. Hovhannisyan, G. Y. Liu, S. S. Wang, H. Y. Tan, and C. Y. Dong, “Structural characterization of edematous corneas by forward and backward second harmonic generation imaging,” Biophys. J. 97(4), 1198–1205 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. W. Teng, H. Y. Tan, Y. Sun, S. J. Lin, W. Lo, C. M. Hsueh, C. H. Hsiao, W. C. Lin, S. C. Huang, and C. Y. Dong, “Multiphoton fluorescence and second-harmonic-generation microscopy for imaging structural alterations in corneal scar tissue in penetrating full-thickness wound,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 125(7), 977–978 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. W. Teng, H. Y. Tan, J. L. Peng, H. H. Lin, K. H. Kim, W. Lo, Y. Sun, W. C. Lin, S. J. Lin, S. H. Jee, P. T. So, and C. Y. Dong, “Multiphoton autofluorescence and second-harmonic generation imaging of the ex vivo porcine eye,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47(3), 1216–1224 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Y. Tan, Y. Sun, W. Lo, S. J. Lin, C. H. Hsiao, Y. F. Chen, S. C. Huang, W. C. Lin, S. H. Jee, H. S. Yu, and C. Y. Dong, “Multiphoton fluorescence and second harmonic generation imaging of the structural alterations in keratoconus ex vivo,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47(12), 5251–5259 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Y. Tan, S. W. Teng, W. Lo, W. C. Lin, S. J. Lin, S. H. Jee, and C. Y. Dong, “Characterizing the thermally induced structural changes to intact porcine eye, part 1: second harmonic generation imaging of cornea stroma,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(5), 054019 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tan, H.-Y.

W. Lo, Y.-L. Chang, J.-S. Liu, C.-M. Hseuh, V. Hovhannisyan, S.-J. Chen, H.-Y. Tan, and C.-Y. Dong, “Multimodal, multiphoton microscopy and image correlation analysis for characterizing corneal thermal damage,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(5), 054003 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-Y. Tan, Y. Sun, W. Lo, S. W. Teng, R. J. Wu, S. H. Jee, W. C. Lin, C. H. Hsiao, H. C. Lin, Y. F. Chen, D. H. Ma, S. C. Huang, S. J. Lin, and C. Y. Dong, “Multiphoton fluorescence and second harmonic generation microscopy for imaging infectious keratitis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(2), 024013 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Teng, S. W.

S. W. Teng, H. Y. Tan, Y. Sun, S. J. Lin, W. Lo, C. M. Hsueh, C. H. Hsiao, W. C. Lin, S. C. Huang, and C. Y. Dong, “Multiphoton fluorescence and second-harmonic-generation microscopy for imaging structural alterations in corneal scar tissue in penetrating full-thickness wound,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 125(7), 977–978 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-Y. Tan, Y. Sun, W. Lo, S. W. Teng, R. J. Wu, S. H. Jee, W. C. Lin, C. H. Hsiao, H. C. Lin, Y. F. Chen, D. H. Ma, S. C. Huang, S. J. Lin, and C. Y. Dong, “Multiphoton fluorescence and second harmonic generation microscopy for imaging infectious keratitis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(2), 024013 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. W. Teng, H. Y. Tan, J. L. Peng, H. H. Lin, K. H. Kim, W. Lo, Y. Sun, W. C. Lin, S. J. Lin, S. H. Jee, P. T. So, and C. Y. Dong, “Multiphoton autofluorescence and second-harmonic generation imaging of the ex vivo porcine eye,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47(3), 1216–1224 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Y. Tan, S. W. Teng, W. Lo, W. C. Lin, S. J. Lin, S. H. Jee, and C. Y. Dong, “Characterizing the thermally induced structural changes to intact porcine eye, part 1: second harmonic generation imaging of cornea stroma,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(5), 054019 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tromberg, B. J.

van de Pol, C.

Ö. F. Yilmaz, S. Bayraktar, A. Agca, B. Yilmaz, M. B. McDonald, and C. van de Pol, “Intracorneal inlay for the surgical correction of presbyopia,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 34(11), 1921–1927 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vázquez de Aldana, J. R.

Wahlert, A. J.

N. Morishige, A. J. Wahlert, M. C. Kenney, D. J. Brown, K. Kawamoto, T. Chikama, T. Nishida, and J. V. Jester, “Second-harmonic imaging microscopy of normal human and keratoconus cornea,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48(3), 1087–1094 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Walter, M.

M. Han, L. Zickler, G. Giese, M. Walter, F. H. Loesel, and J. F. Bille, “Second-harmonic imaging of cornea after intrastromal femtosecond laser ablation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(4), 760–766 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, B. G.

B. G. Wang, A. Eitner, J. Lindenau, and K. J. Halbhuber, “High-resolution two-photon excitation microscopy of ocular tissues in porcine eye,” Lasers Surg. Med. 40(4), 247–256 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. G. Wang, I. Riemann, H. Schubert, D. Schweitzer, K. König, and K. J. Halbhuber, “Multiphoton microscopy for monitoring intratissue femtosecond laser surgery effects,” Lasers Surg. Med. 39(6), 527–533 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, S. S.

C. M. Hsueh, W. Lo, W. L. Chen, V. A. Hovhannisyan, G. Y. Liu, S. S. Wang, H. Y. Tan, and C. Y. Dong, “Structural characterization of edematous corneas by forward and backward second harmonic generation imaging,” Biophys. J. 97(4), 1198–1205 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, T.-J.

T.-J. Wang, W. Lo, C. M. Hsueh, M. S. Hsieh, C. Y. Dong, and F. R. Hu, “Ex vivo multiphoton analysis of rabbit corneal wound healing following conductive keratoplasty,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(3), 034019 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Winkler, M.

M. Winkler, G. Shoa, Y. Xie, S. J. Petsche, P. M. Pinsky, T. Juhasz, D. J. Brown, and J. V. Jester, “Three-dimensional distribution of transverse collagen fibers in the anterior human corneal stroma,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(12), 7293–7301 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Winkler, D. Chai, S. Kriling, C. J. Nien, D. J. Brown, B. Jester, T. Juhasz, and J. V. Jester, “Nonlinear optical macroscopic assessment of 3-D corneal collagen organization and axial biomechanics,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(12), 8818–8827 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Hao, K. Flynn, C. Nien-Shy, B. E. Jester, M. Winkler, D. J. Brown, O. La Schiazza, J. Bille, and J. V. Jester, “In vivo non-linear optical (NLO) imaging in live rabbit eyes using the Heidelberg Two-Photon Laser Ophthalmoscope,” Exp. Eye Res. 91(2), 308–314 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wree, A.

A. Krüger, M. Hovakimyan, D. F. Ramírez Ojeda, O. Stachs, A. Wree, R. F. Guthoff, and A. Heisterkamp, “Combined nonlinear and femtosecond confocal laser-scanning microscopy of rabbit corneas after photochemical cross-linking,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(7), 4247–4255 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, Q.

Q. Wu, B. E. Applegate, and A. T. Yeh, “Cornea microstructure and mechanical responses measured with nonlinear optical and optical coherence microscopy using sub-10-fs pulses,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(5), 1135–1146 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Wu and A. T. Yeh, “Rabbit cornea microstructure response to changes in intraocular pressure visualized by using nonlinear optical microscopy,” Cornea 27(2), 202–208 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, R. J.

H.-Y. Tan, Y. Sun, W. Lo, S. W. Teng, R. J. Wu, S. H. Jee, W. C. Lin, C. H. Hsiao, H. C. Lin, Y. F. Chen, D. H. Ma, S. C. Huang, S. J. Lin, and C. Y. Dong, “Multiphoton fluorescence and second harmonic generation microscopy for imaging infectious keratitis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(2), 024013 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xie, Y.

M. Winkler, G. Shoa, Y. Xie, S. J. Petsche, P. M. Pinsky, T. Juhasz, D. J. Brown, and J. V. Jester, “Three-dimensional distribution of transverse collagen fibers in the anterior human corneal stroma,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(12), 7293–7301 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yamada, N.

N. Morishige, N. Yamada, X. Zhang, Y. Morita, N. Yamada, K. Kimura, A. Takahara, and K. H. Sonoda, “Abnormalities of stromal structure in the bullous keratopathy cornea identified by second harmonic generation imaging microscopy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53(8), 4998–5003 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Morishige, N. Yamada, X. Zhang, Y. Morita, N. Yamada, K. Kimura, A. Takahara, and K. H. Sonoda, “Abnormalities of stromal structure in the bullous keratopathy cornea identified by second harmonic generation imaging microscopy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53(8), 4998–5003 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yeh, A. T.

Yilmaz, B.

Ö. F. Yilmaz, S. Bayraktar, A. Agca, B. Yilmaz, M. B. McDonald, and C. van de Pol, “Intracorneal inlay for the surgical correction of presbyopia,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 34(11), 1921–1927 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yilmaz, Ö. F.

Ö. F. Yilmaz, S. Bayraktar, A. Agca, B. Yilmaz, M. B. McDonald, and C. van de Pol, “Intracorneal inlay for the surgical correction of presbyopia,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 34(11), 1921–1927 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, H. S.

H. Y. Tan, Y. Sun, W. Lo, S. J. Lin, C. H. Hsiao, Y. F. Chen, S. C. Huang, W. C. Lin, S. H. Jee, H. S. Yu, and C. Y. Dong, “Multiphoton fluorescence and second harmonic generation imaging of the structural alterations in keratoconus ex vivo,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47(12), 5251–5259 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

N. Morishige, N. Yamada, X. Zhang, Y. Morita, N. Yamada, K. Kimura, A. Takahara, and K. H. Sonoda, “Abnormalities of stromal structure in the bullous keratopathy cornea identified by second harmonic generation imaging microscopy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53(8), 4998–5003 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zickler, L.

M. Han, L. Zickler, G. Giese, M. Walter, F. H. Loesel, and J. F. Bille, “Second-harmonic imaging of cornea after intrastromal femtosecond laser ablation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(4), 760–766 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Han, G. Giese, L. Zickler, H. Sun, and J. Bille, “Mini-invasive corneal surgery and imaging with femtosecond lasers,” Opt. Express 12(18), 4275–4281 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zoumi, A.

Acta Ophthalmol. (Copenh.) (1)

A. Pennos, I. Pentari, H. Ginis, N. Kariotakis, G. Kymionis, and I. Pallikaris, “Mechanical reinforcement of the cornea with an intrastromal in-situ photo-polymerised implant,” Acta Ophthalmol. (Copenh.) 89, S248 (2011).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Arch. Ophthalmol. (1)

S. W. Teng, H. Y. Tan, Y. Sun, S. J. Lin, W. Lo, C. M. Hsueh, C. H. Hsiao, W. C. Lin, S. C. Huang, and C. Y. Dong, “Multiphoton fluorescence and second-harmonic-generation microscopy for imaging structural alterations in corneal scar tissue in penetrating full-thickness wound,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 125(7), 977–978 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biomed. Opt. Express (3)

Biophys. J. (1)

C. M. Hsueh, W. Lo, W. L. Chen, V. A. Hovhannisyan, G. Y. Liu, S. S. Wang, H. Y. Tan, and C. Y. Dong, “Structural characterization of edematous corneas by forward and backward second harmonic generation imaging,” Biophys. J. 97(4), 1198–1205 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cornea (3)

Q. Wu and A. T. Yeh, “Rabbit cornea microstructure response to changes in intraocular pressure visualized by using nonlinear optical microscopy,” Cornea 27(2), 202–208 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Morishige, T. Nishida, and J. V. Jester, “Second harmonic generation for visualizing 3-dimensional structure of corneal collagen lamellae,” Cornea 28(11Suppl 1), S46–S53 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. M. Bueno, E. J. Gualda, and P. Artal, “Analysis of corneal stroma organization with wavefront optimized nonlinear microscopy,” Cornea 30(6), 692–701 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Exp. Eye Res. (1)

M. Hao, K. Flynn, C. Nien-Shy, B. E. Jester, M. Winkler, D. J. Brown, O. La Schiazza, J. Bille, and J. V. Jester, “In vivo non-linear optical (NLO) imaging in live rabbit eyes using the Heidelberg Two-Photon Laser Ophthalmoscope,” Exp. Eye Res. 91(2), 308–314 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (12)

S. W. Teng, H. Y. Tan, J. L. Peng, H. H. Lin, K. H. Kim, W. Lo, Y. Sun, W. C. Lin, S. J. Lin, S. H. Jee, P. T. So, and C. Y. Dong, “Multiphoton autofluorescence and second-harmonic generation imaging of the ex vivo porcine eye,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47(3), 1216–1224 (2006).
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N. Morishige, N. Yamada, X. Zhang, Y. Morita, N. Yamada, K. Kimura, A. Takahara, and K. H. Sonoda, “Abnormalities of stromal structure in the bullous keratopathy cornea identified by second harmonic generation imaging microscopy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53(8), 4998–5003 (2012).
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M. Winkler, D. Chai, S. Kriling, C. J. Nien, D. J. Brown, B. Jester, T. Juhasz, and J. V. Jester, “Nonlinear optical macroscopic assessment of 3-D corneal collagen organization and axial biomechanics,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(12), 8818–8827 (2011).
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F. Aptel, N. Olivier, A. Deniset-Besseau, J.-M. Legeais, K. Plamann, M.-C. Schanne-Klein, and E. Beaurepaire, “Multimodal Nonlinear Imaging of the Human Cornea,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(5), 2459–2465 (2010).
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N. Morishige, Y. Takagi, T. Chikama, A. Takahara, and T. Nishida, “Three-dimensional analysis of collagen lamellae in the anterior stroma of the human cornea visualized by second harmonic generation imaging microscopy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(2), 911–915 (2011).
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M. Winkler, G. Shoa, Y. Xie, S. J. Petsche, P. M. Pinsky, T. Juhasz, D. J. Brown, and J. V. Jester, “Three-dimensional distribution of transverse collagen fibers in the anterior human corneal stroma,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(12), 7293–7301 (2013).
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H. Y. Tan, Y. Sun, W. Lo, S. J. Lin, C. H. Hsiao, Y. F. Chen, S. C. Huang, W. C. Lin, S. H. Jee, H. S. Yu, and C. Y. Dong, “Multiphoton fluorescence and second harmonic generation imaging of the structural alterations in keratoconus ex vivo,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47(12), 5251–5259 (2006).
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N. Morishige, A. J. Wahlert, M. C. Kenney, D. J. Brown, K. Kawamoto, T. Chikama, T. Nishida, and J. V. Jester, “Second-harmonic imaging microscopy of normal human and keratoconus cornea,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48(3), 1087–1094 (2007).
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W. Lo, W. L. Chen, C. M. Hsueh, A. A. Ghazaryan, S. J. Chen, D. H. K. Ma, C. Y. Dong, and H. Y. Tan, “Fast Fourier transform-based analysis of second-harmonic generation image in keratoconic cornea,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53(7), 3501–3507 (2012).
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J. M. Bueno, E. J. Gualda, A. Giakoumaki, P. Pérez-Merino, S. Marcos, and P. Artal, “Multiphoton microscopy of ex vivo corneas after collagen cross-linking,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(8), 5325–5331 (2011).
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A. Krüger, M. Hovakimyan, D. F. Ramírez Ojeda, O. Stachs, A. Wree, R. F. Guthoff, and A. Heisterkamp, “Combined nonlinear and femtosecond confocal laser-scanning microscopy of rabbit corneas after photochemical cross-linking,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(7), 4247–4255 (2011).
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D. Chai, R. N. Gaster, R. Roizenblatt, T. Juhasz, D. J. Brown, and J. V. Jester, “Quantitative assessment of UVA-riboflavin corneal cross-linking using nonlinear optical microscopy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(7), 4231–4238 (2011).
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J. Biomed. Opt. (8)

P. J. Campagnola, H. A. Clark, W. A. Mohler, A. Lewis, and L. M. Loew, “Second-harmonic imaging microscopy of living cells,” J. Biomed. Opt. 6(3), 277–286 (2001).
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W. Lo, Y.-L. Chang, J.-S. Liu, C.-M. Hseuh, V. Hovhannisyan, S.-J. Chen, H.-Y. Tan, and C.-Y. Dong, “Multimodal, multiphoton microscopy and image correlation analysis for characterizing corneal thermal damage,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(5), 054003 (2009).
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T.-J. Wang, W. Lo, C. M. Hsueh, M. S. Hsieh, C. Y. Dong, and F. R. Hu, “Ex vivo multiphoton analysis of rabbit corneal wound healing following conductive keratoplasty,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(3), 034019 (2008).
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H. Y. Tan, S. W. Teng, W. Lo, W. C. Lin, S. J. Lin, S. H. Jee, and C. Y. Dong, “Characterizing the thermally induced structural changes to intact porcine eye, part 1: second harmonic generation imaging of cornea stroma,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(5), 054019 (2005).
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H.-Y. Tan, Y. Sun, W. Lo, S. W. Teng, R. J. Wu, S. H. Jee, W. C. Lin, C. H. Hsiao, H. C. Lin, Y. F. Chen, D. H. Ma, S. C. Huang, S. J. Lin, and C. Y. Dong, “Multiphoton fluorescence and second harmonic generation microscopy for imaging infectious keratitis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(2), 024013 (2007).
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E. J. Gualda, J. M. Bueno, and P. Artal, “Wavefront optimized nonlinear microscopy of ex vivo human retinas,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 026007 (2010).
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M. Han, L. Zickler, G. Giese, M. Walter, F. H. Loesel, and J. F. Bille, “Second-harmonic imaging of cornea after intrastromal femtosecond laser ablation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(4), 760–766 (2004).
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J. M. Bueno, E. J. Gualda, and P. Artal, “Adaptive optics multiphoton microscopy to study ex vivo ocular tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(6), 066004 (2010).
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J. Cataract Refract. Surg. (4)

J. Colin, B. Cochener, G. Savary, and F. Malet, “Correcting keratoconus with intracorneal rings,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 26(8), 1117–1122 (2000).
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Ö. F. Yilmaz, S. Bayraktar, A. Agca, B. Yilmaz, M. B. McDonald, and C. van de Pol, “Intracorneal inlay for the surgical correction of presbyopia,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 34(11), 1921–1927 (2008).
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N. Morishige, W. M. Petroll, T. Nishida, M. C. Kenney, and J. V. Jester, “Noninvasive corneal stromal collagen imaging using two-photon-generated second-harmonic signals,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 32(11), 1784–1791 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Steven, M. Hovakimyan, R. F. Guthoff, G. Hüttmann, and O. Stachs, “Imaging corneal crosslinking by autofluorescence 2-photon microscopy, second harmonic generation, and fluorescence lifetime measurements,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 36(12), 2150–2159 (2010).
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Lasers Surg. Med. (2)

B. G. Wang, A. Eitner, J. Lindenau, and K. J. Halbhuber, “High-resolution two-photon excitation microscopy of ocular tissues in porcine eye,” Lasers Surg. Med. 40(4), 247–256 (2008).
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B. G. Wang, I. Riemann, H. Schubert, D. Schweitzer, K. König, and K. J. Halbhuber, “Multiphoton microscopy for monitoring intratissue femtosecond laser surgery effects,” Lasers Surg. Med. 39(6), 527–533 (2007).
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Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (1)

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 AO multiphoton microscope setup. PMT, photomultiplier tube (see text for details).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Schematic representation of the insertion of the intrastromal polymer layer.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 TPEF (black line) and SHG (grey line) signal intensity values across a polymer sample.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Example of the benefit of AO in SHG imaging of a porcine cornea. The plot shows the SHG intensity profiles as a function of depth without (grey line) and with (black line) AO in operation. For direct comparisons SHG images corresponding to a depth location of 100 and 400 μm are also shown. Image size: 210x210 μm2.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Comparison of tomographic SHG images of a porcine cornea implanted with a polymer sample with AO on (upper panel) and AO off (bottom panel). Bar length: 50 μm.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Intensity profiles as a function of depth for the cornea shown in Fig. 5, without (grey) and with (black) the AO module in operation. SHG images corresponding to a depth location of 450 μm are shown on the right. Image size: 210x210 μm2.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Tomographic SHG images of corneas with polymer implants at different depth locations. Arrows indicate the edges of the implants. Bar length: 50 μm.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Reconstructed volume rendering of an implanted porcine cornea. SHG images of the corners correspond to the locations surrounded the polymer implant as indicated by the arrows (depth locations: 375 and 445 μm, respectively).
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 SHG images of stromal collagen in a control porcine cornea (a) and in a stromal layer close to the lamellar implant of a polymer-implanted corneas (b). Both were located at similar depth position ~260 μm. Bar length: 50 μm.

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