Abstract

Hypothesis: We hypothesize that degenerated spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) in guinea pigs reduces auditory brainstem responses evoked by pulsed infrared stimulation. Background: Pulsed infrared laser excitation can directly evoke physiological responses in neuronal and other excitable cells in vivo and in vitro. Laser pulses could benefit patients with cochlear implants to stimulate the auditory system. Methods: Pulsed infrared lasers were used to study evoked optical auditory brainstem responses (oABRs) in normal hearing and deafened animals. Aslo, the morphology and anatomy of SGNs in normal hearing and deafened guinea pigs were compared. Results: By recording oABRs evoked by varying infrared laser pulse durations, it is suggested that degeneration of SGNs in deafened guinea pigs was associated with an elevated oABR threshold and with lower amplitudes. Moreover, oABR threshold decreased while amplitudes increased in both normal hearing and deafened animals as the pulse duration prolonged. Electron microscopy revealed that SGNs in deafened guinea pigs had swollen and vacuolar mitochondria, as well as demyelinated soma and axons. Conclusion: Infrared laser pulses can stimulate SGNs to evoke oABRs in guinea pigs. Deafened guinea pigs have elevated thresholds and smaller amplitude responses, likely a result of degenerated SGNs. Short pulse durations are more suitable to evoke responses in both normal hearing and deafened animals.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. C. P. Richter, A. I. Matic, J. D. Wells, E. D. Jansen, and J. T. Walsh., “Neural stimulation with optical radiation,” Laser Photon. Rev. 5(1), 68–80 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. A. D. Izzo, C. P. Richter, E. D. Jansen, and J. T. Walsh., “Laser stimulation of the auditory nerve,” Lasers Surg. Med. 38(8), 745–753 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. M. G. Shapiro, K. Homma, S. Villarreal, C. P. Richter, and F. Bezanilla, “Infrared light excites cells by changing their electrical capacitance,” Nat. Commun. 3(736), 736 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. J. Wells, C. Kao, K. Mariappan, J. Albea, E. D. Jansen, P. Konrad, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “Optical stimulation of neural tissue in vivo,” Opt. Lett. 30(5), 504–506 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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  7. M. W. Jenkins, A. R. Duke, S. Gu, H. J. Chiel, H. Fujioka, M. Watanabe, E. D. Jansen, and A. M. Rollins, “Optical pacing of the embryonic heart,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 623–626 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. J. Wells, C. Kao, P. Konrad, T. Milner, J. Kim, A. Mahadevan-Jansen, and E. D. Jansen, “Biophysical mechanisms of transient optical stimulation of peripheral nerve,” Biophys. J. 93(7), 2567–2580 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. J. A. Chikar, S. A. Batts, B. E. Pfingst, and Y. Raphael, “Visualization of spiral ganglion neurites within the scala tympani with a cochlear implant in situ,” J. Neurosci. Methods 179(2), 201–207 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. N. Xia, X. Y. Wu, X. Wang, Z. X. Mou, M. Q. Wang, X. Gu, X. L. Zheng, and W. S. Hou, “Pulsed 808-nm infrared laser stimulation of the auditory nerve in guinea pig cochlea,” Lasers Med. Sci. 29(1), 343–349 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. A. I. Matic, A. M. Robinson, H. K. Young, B. Badofsky, S. M. Rajguru, S. Stock, and C. P. Richter, “Behavioral and electrophysiological responses evoked by chronic infrared neural stimulation of the cochlea,” PLoS ONE 8(3), e58189 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. M. J. Agterberg, H. Versnel, J. C. de Groot, G. F. Smoorenburg, F. W. Albers, and S. F. Klis, “Morphological changes in spiral ganglion cells after intracochlear application of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in deafened guinea pigs,” Hear. Res. 244(1-2), 25–34 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  25. H. Versnel, M. J. Agterberg, J. C. de Groot, G. F. Smoorenburg, and S. F. Klis, “Time course of cochlear electrophysiology and morphology after combined administration of kanamycin and furosemide,” Hear. Res. 231(1-2), 1–12 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. L. N. Gillespie, G. M. Clark, P. F. Bartlett, and P. L. Marzella, “BDNF-induced survival of auditory neurons in vivo: Cessation of treatment leads to accelerated loss of survival effects,” J. Neurosci. Res. 71(6), 785–790 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  27. I. U. Teudt, H. Maier, C. P. Richter, and A. Kral, “Acoustic events and “optophonic” cochlear responses induced by pulsed near-infrared laser,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 58(6), 1648–1655 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  29. C. P. Richter and X. Tan, “Photons and neurons,” Hear. Res. 311, 72–88 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  30. A. D. Izzo, E. Suh, J. Pathria, J. T. Walsh, D. S. Whitlon, and C. P. Richter, “Selectivity of neural stimulation in the auditory system: a comparison of optic and electric stimuli,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(2), 021008 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  31. A. Viberg and B. Canlon, “The guide to plotting a cochleogram,” Hear. Res. 197(1-2), 1–10 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  32. B. Ray, T. S. Roy, S. Wadhwa, and K. K. Roy, “Development of the human fetal cochlear nerve: a morphometric study,” Hear. Res. 202(1-2), 74–86 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  33. S. L. McFadden, D. Ding, H. Jiang, and R. J. Salvi, “Time course of efferent fiber and spiral ganglion cell degeneration following complete hair cell loss in the chinchilla,” Brain Res. 997(1), 40–51 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  34. L. Li, C. W. Parkins, and D. B. Webster, “Does electrical stimulation of deaf cochleae prevent spiral ganglion degeneration?” Hear. Res. 133(1-2), 27–39 (1999).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  35. R. M. Banakis, A. I. Matic, S. M. Rajguru, and C. Richter, “Optical stimulation of the auditory nerve: effects of pulse shape,” Proc. SPIE 7883(1), 788358 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  36. L. E. Moreno, S. M. Rajguru, A. I. Matic, N. Yerram, A. M. Robinson, M. Hwang, S. Stock, and C. P. Richter, “Infrared neural stimulation: beam path in the guinea pig cochlea,” Hear. Res. 282(1-2), 289–302 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  37. J. T. Walsh and J. P. Cummings, “Effect of the dynamic optical properties of water on midinfrared laser ablation,” Lasers Surg. Med. 15(3), 295–305 (1994).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (3)

N. Xia, X. Y. Wu, X. Wang, Z. X. Mou, M. Q. Wang, X. Gu, X. L. Zheng, and W. S. Hou, “Pulsed 808-nm infrared laser stimulation of the auditory nerve in guinea pig cochlea,” Lasers Med. Sci. 29(1), 343–349 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. U. Verma, A. A. Guex, K. E. Hancock, N. Durakovic, C. M. McKay, M. C. C. Slama, M. C. Brown, and D. J. Lee, “Auditory responses to electric and infrared neural stimulation of the rat cochlear nucleus,” Hear. Res. 310, 69–75 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. P. Richter and X. Tan, “Photons and neurons,” Hear. Res. 311, 72–88 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (1)

A. I. Matic, A. M. Robinson, H. K. Young, B. Badofsky, S. M. Rajguru, S. Stock, and C. P. Richter, “Behavioral and electrophysiological responses evoked by chronic infrared neural stimulation of the cochlea,” PLoS ONE 8(3), e58189 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (4)

L. A. Reiss, A. E. Perreau, and C. W. Turner, “Effects of lower frequency-to-electrode allocations on speech and pitch perception with the hybrid short-electrode cochlear implant,” Audiol. Neurootol. 17(6), 357–372 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Goyal, S. Rajguru, A. I. Matic, S. R. Stock, and C. P. Richter, “Acute damage threshold for infrared neural stimulation of the cochlea: functional and histological evaluation,” Anat. Rec. (Hoboken) 295(11), 1987–1999 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. G. Shapiro, K. Homma, S. Villarreal, C. P. Richter, and F. Bezanilla, “Infrared light excites cells by changing their electrical capacitance,” Nat. Commun. 3(736), 736 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Schultz, P. Baumhoff, H. Maier, I. U. Teudt, A. Krüger, T. Lenarz, and A. Kral, “Nanosecond laser pulse stimulation of the inner ear-a wavelength study,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(12), 3332–3345 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (5)

I. U. Teudt, H. Maier, C. P. Richter, and A. Kral, “Acoustic events and “optophonic” cochlear responses induced by pulsed near-infrared laser,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 58(6), 1648–1655 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. P. Richter, A. I. Matic, J. D. Wells, E. D. Jansen, and J. T. Walsh., “Neural stimulation with optical radiation,” Laser Photon. Rev. 5(1), 68–80 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. M. Rajguru, C. P. Richter, A. I. Matic, G. R. Holstein, S. M. Highstein, G. M. Dittami, and R. D. Rabbitt, “Infrared photostimulation of the crista ampullaris,” J. Physiol. 589(6), 1283–1294 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. M. Banakis, A. I. Matic, S. M. Rajguru, and C. Richter, “Optical stimulation of the auditory nerve: effects of pulse shape,” Proc. SPIE 7883(1), 788358 (2011).
[Crossref]

L. E. Moreno, S. M. Rajguru, A. I. Matic, N. Yerram, A. M. Robinson, M. Hwang, S. Stock, and C. P. Richter, “Infrared neural stimulation: beam path in the guinea pig cochlea,” Hear. Res. 282(1-2), 289–302 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

P. D. Littlefield, I. Vujanovic, J. Mundi, A. I. Matic, and C. P. Richter, “Laser stimulation of single auditory nerve fibers,” Laryngoscope 120(10), 2071–2082 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. W. Jenkins, A. R. Duke, S. Gu, H. J. Chiel, H. Fujioka, M. Watanabe, E. D. Jansen, and A. M. Rollins, “Optical pacing of the embryonic heart,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 623–626 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. M. Rajguru, A. I. Matic, A. M. Robinson, A. J. Fishman, L. E. Moreno, A. Bradley, I. Vujanovic, J. Breen, J. D. Wells, M. Bendett, and C. P. Richter, “Optical cochlear implants: evaluation of surgical approach and laser parameters in cats,” Hear. Res. 269(1-2), 102–111 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

J. A. Chikar, S. A. Batts, B. E. Pfingst, and Y. Raphael, “Visualization of spiral ganglion neurites within the scala tympani with a cochlear implant in situ,” J. Neurosci. Methods 179(2), 201–207 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (5)

M. J. Agterberg, H. Versnel, J. C. de Groot, G. F. Smoorenburg, F. W. Albers, and S. F. Klis, “Morphological changes in spiral ganglion cells after intracochlear application of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in deafened guinea pigs,” Hear. Res. 244(1-2), 25–34 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. W. Turner, L. A. Reiss, and B. J. Gantz, “Combined acoustic and electric hearing: preserving residual acoustic hearing,” Hear. Res. 242(1-2), 164–171 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. D. Izzo, J. T. Walsh, H. Ralph, J. Webb, M. Bendett, J. Wells, and C. P. Richter, “Laser stimulation of auditory neurons: effect of shorter pulse duration and penetration depth,” Biophys. J. 94(8), 3159–3166 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. P. Richter, R. Bayon, A. D. Izzo, M. Otting, E. Suh, S. Goyal, J. Hotaling, and J. T. Walsh., “Optical stimulation of auditory neurons: effects of acute and chronic deafening,” Hear. Res. 242(1-2), 42–51 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Littlefield, A. D. Izzo, J. Mundi, J. T. Walsh, E. D. Jansen, M. Bendett, J. Webb, H. Ralph, and C. P. Richter, “Characterization of Single Auditory Nerve Fibers in response to Laser Stimulation,” Optical Interactions with Tissue and Cells XIX. 6854, 68540F (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (6)

J. Wells, C. Kao, P. Konrad, T. Milner, J. Kim, A. Mahadevan-Jansen, and E. D. Jansen, “Biophysical mechanisms of transient optical stimulation of peripheral nerve,” Biophys. J. 93(7), 2567–2580 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. U. Teudt, A. E. Nevel, A. D. Izzo, J. T. Walsh, and C. P. Richter, “Optical stimulation of the facial nerve: a new monitoring technique?” Laryngoscope 117(9), 1641–1647 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. D. Izzo, J. T. Walsh, E. D. Jansen, M. Bendett, J. Webb, H. Ralph, and C. P. Richter, “Optical parameter variability in laser nerve stimulation: a study of pulse duration, repetition rate, and wavelength,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 54(6), 1108–1114 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Versnel, M. J. Agterberg, J. C. de Groot, G. F. Smoorenburg, and S. F. Klis, “Time course of cochlear electrophysiology and morphology after combined administration of kanamycin and furosemide,” Hear. Res. 231(1-2), 1–12 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Coco, S. B. Epp, J. B. Fallon, J. Xu, R. E. Millard, and R. K. Shepherd, “Does cochlear implantation and electrical stimulation affect residual hair cells and spiral ganglion neurons?” Hear. Res. 225(1-2), 60–70 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. D. Izzo, E. Suh, J. Pathria, J. T. Walsh, D. S. Whitlon, and C. P. Richter, “Selectivity of neural stimulation in the auditory system: a comparison of optic and electric stimuli,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(2), 021008 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

A. D. Izzo, C. P. Richter, E. D. Jansen, and J. T. Walsh., “Laser stimulation of the auditory nerve,” Lasers Surg. Med. 38(8), 745–753 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

J. Wells, C. Kao, K. Mariappan, J. Albea, E. D. Jansen, P. Konrad, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “Optical stimulation of neural tissue in vivo,” Opt. Lett. 30(5), 504–506 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Ray, T. S. Roy, S. Wadhwa, and K. K. Roy, “Development of the human fetal cochlear nerve: a morphometric study,” Hear. Res. 202(1-2), 74–86 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

S. L. McFadden, D. Ding, H. Jiang, and R. J. Salvi, “Time course of efferent fiber and spiral ganglion cell degeneration following complete hair cell loss in the chinchilla,” Brain Res. 997(1), 40–51 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Viberg and B. Canlon, “The guide to plotting a cochleogram,” Hear. Res. 197(1-2), 1–10 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

L. N. Gillespie, G. M. Clark, P. F. Bartlett, and P. L. Marzella, “BDNF-induced survival of auditory neurons in vivo: Cessation of treatment leads to accelerated loss of survival effects,” J. Neurosci. Res. 71(6), 785–790 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

L. Li, C. W. Parkins, and D. B. Webster, “Does electrical stimulation of deaf cochleae prevent spiral ganglion degeneration?” Hear. Res. 133(1-2), 27–39 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

A. Kral, R. Hartmann, D. Mortazavi, and R. Klinke, “Spatial resolution of cochlear implants: the electrical field and excitation of auditory afferents,” Hear. Res. 121(1-2), 11–28 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

J. T. Walsh and J. P. Cummings, “Effect of the dynamic optical properties of water on midinfrared laser ablation,” Lasers Surg. Med. 15(3), 295–305 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Agterberg, M. J.

M. J. Agterberg, H. Versnel, J. C. de Groot, G. F. Smoorenburg, F. W. Albers, and S. F. Klis, “Morphological changes in spiral ganglion cells after intracochlear application of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in deafened guinea pigs,” Hear. Res. 244(1-2), 25–34 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Versnel, M. J. Agterberg, J. C. de Groot, G. F. Smoorenburg, and S. F. Klis, “Time course of cochlear electrophysiology and morphology after combined administration of kanamycin and furosemide,” Hear. Res. 231(1-2), 1–12 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Albea, J.

Albers, F. W.

M. J. Agterberg, H. Versnel, J. C. de Groot, G. F. Smoorenburg, F. W. Albers, and S. F. Klis, “Morphological changes in spiral ganglion cells after intracochlear application of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in deafened guinea pigs,” Hear. Res. 244(1-2), 25–34 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Badofsky, B.

A. I. Matic, A. M. Robinson, H. K. Young, B. Badofsky, S. M. Rajguru, S. Stock, and C. P. Richter, “Behavioral and electrophysiological responses evoked by chronic infrared neural stimulation of the cochlea,” PLoS ONE 8(3), e58189 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Banakis, R. M.

R. M. Banakis, A. I. Matic, S. M. Rajguru, and C. Richter, “Optical stimulation of the auditory nerve: effects of pulse shape,” Proc. SPIE 7883(1), 788358 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bartlett, P. F.

L. N. Gillespie, G. M. Clark, P. F. Bartlett, and P. L. Marzella, “BDNF-induced survival of auditory neurons in vivo: Cessation of treatment leads to accelerated loss of survival effects,” J. Neurosci. Res. 71(6), 785–790 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Batts, S. A.

J. A. Chikar, S. A. Batts, B. E. Pfingst, and Y. Raphael, “Visualization of spiral ganglion neurites within the scala tympani with a cochlear implant in situ,” J. Neurosci. Methods 179(2), 201–207 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baumhoff, P.

Bayon, R.

C. P. Richter, R. Bayon, A. D. Izzo, M. Otting, E. Suh, S. Goyal, J. Hotaling, and J. T. Walsh., “Optical stimulation of auditory neurons: effects of acute and chronic deafening,” Hear. Res. 242(1-2), 42–51 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bendett, M.

S. M. Rajguru, A. I. Matic, A. M. Robinson, A. J. Fishman, L. E. Moreno, A. Bradley, I. Vujanovic, J. Breen, J. D. Wells, M. Bendett, and C. P. Richter, “Optical cochlear implants: evaluation of surgical approach and laser parameters in cats,” Hear. Res. 269(1-2), 102–111 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. D. Izzo, J. T. Walsh, H. Ralph, J. Webb, M. Bendett, J. Wells, and C. P. Richter, “Laser stimulation of auditory neurons: effect of shorter pulse duration and penetration depth,” Biophys. J. 94(8), 3159–3166 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Littlefield, A. D. Izzo, J. Mundi, J. T. Walsh, E. D. Jansen, M. Bendett, J. Webb, H. Ralph, and C. P. Richter, “Characterization of Single Auditory Nerve Fibers in response to Laser Stimulation,” Optical Interactions with Tissue and Cells XIX. 6854, 68540F (2008).
[Crossref]

A. D. Izzo, J. T. Walsh, E. D. Jansen, M. Bendett, J. Webb, H. Ralph, and C. P. Richter, “Optical parameter variability in laser nerve stimulation: a study of pulse duration, repetition rate, and wavelength,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 54(6), 1108–1114 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bezanilla, F.

M. G. Shapiro, K. Homma, S. Villarreal, C. P. Richter, and F. Bezanilla, “Infrared light excites cells by changing their electrical capacitance,” Nat. Commun. 3(736), 736 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bradley, A.

S. M. Rajguru, A. I. Matic, A. M. Robinson, A. J. Fishman, L. E. Moreno, A. Bradley, I. Vujanovic, J. Breen, J. D. Wells, M. Bendett, and C. P. Richter, “Optical cochlear implants: evaluation of surgical approach and laser parameters in cats,” Hear. Res. 269(1-2), 102–111 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Breen, J.

S. M. Rajguru, A. I. Matic, A. M. Robinson, A. J. Fishman, L. E. Moreno, A. Bradley, I. Vujanovic, J. Breen, J. D. Wells, M. Bendett, and C. P. Richter, “Optical cochlear implants: evaluation of surgical approach and laser parameters in cats,” Hear. Res. 269(1-2), 102–111 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brown, M. C.

R. U. Verma, A. A. Guex, K. E. Hancock, N. Durakovic, C. M. McKay, M. C. C. Slama, M. C. Brown, and D. J. Lee, “Auditory responses to electric and infrared neural stimulation of the rat cochlear nucleus,” Hear. Res. 310, 69–75 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Canlon, B.

A. Viberg and B. Canlon, “The guide to plotting a cochleogram,” Hear. Res. 197(1-2), 1–10 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chiel, H. J.

M. W. Jenkins, A. R. Duke, S. Gu, H. J. Chiel, H. Fujioka, M. Watanabe, E. D. Jansen, and A. M. Rollins, “Optical pacing of the embryonic heart,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 623–626 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chikar, J. A.

J. A. Chikar, S. A. Batts, B. E. Pfingst, and Y. Raphael, “Visualization of spiral ganglion neurites within the scala tympani with a cochlear implant in situ,” J. Neurosci. Methods 179(2), 201–207 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Clark, G. M.

L. N. Gillespie, G. M. Clark, P. F. Bartlett, and P. L. Marzella, “BDNF-induced survival of auditory neurons in vivo: Cessation of treatment leads to accelerated loss of survival effects,” J. Neurosci. Res. 71(6), 785–790 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Coco, A.

A. Coco, S. B. Epp, J. B. Fallon, J. Xu, R. E. Millard, and R. K. Shepherd, “Does cochlear implantation and electrical stimulation affect residual hair cells and spiral ganglion neurons?” Hear. Res. 225(1-2), 60–70 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cummings, J. P.

J. T. Walsh and J. P. Cummings, “Effect of the dynamic optical properties of water on midinfrared laser ablation,” Lasers Surg. Med. 15(3), 295–305 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

de Groot, J. C.

M. J. Agterberg, H. Versnel, J. C. de Groot, G. F. Smoorenburg, F. W. Albers, and S. F. Klis, “Morphological changes in spiral ganglion cells after intracochlear application of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in deafened guinea pigs,” Hear. Res. 244(1-2), 25–34 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Versnel, M. J. Agterberg, J. C. de Groot, G. F. Smoorenburg, and S. F. Klis, “Time course of cochlear electrophysiology and morphology after combined administration of kanamycin and furosemide,” Hear. Res. 231(1-2), 1–12 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ding, D.

S. L. McFadden, D. Ding, H. Jiang, and R. J. Salvi, “Time course of efferent fiber and spiral ganglion cell degeneration following complete hair cell loss in the chinchilla,” Brain Res. 997(1), 40–51 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dittami, G. M.

S. M. Rajguru, C. P. Richter, A. I. Matic, G. R. Holstein, S. M. Highstein, G. M. Dittami, and R. D. Rabbitt, “Infrared photostimulation of the crista ampullaris,” J. Physiol. 589(6), 1283–1294 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Duke, A. R.

M. W. Jenkins, A. R. Duke, S. Gu, H. J. Chiel, H. Fujioka, M. Watanabe, E. D. Jansen, and A. M. Rollins, “Optical pacing of the embryonic heart,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 623–626 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Durakovic, N.

R. U. Verma, A. A. Guex, K. E. Hancock, N. Durakovic, C. M. McKay, M. C. C. Slama, M. C. Brown, and D. J. Lee, “Auditory responses to electric and infrared neural stimulation of the rat cochlear nucleus,” Hear. Res. 310, 69–75 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Epp, S. B.

A. Coco, S. B. Epp, J. B. Fallon, J. Xu, R. E. Millard, and R. K. Shepherd, “Does cochlear implantation and electrical stimulation affect residual hair cells and spiral ganglion neurons?” Hear. Res. 225(1-2), 60–70 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fallon, J. B.

A. Coco, S. B. Epp, J. B. Fallon, J. Xu, R. E. Millard, and R. K. Shepherd, “Does cochlear implantation and electrical stimulation affect residual hair cells and spiral ganglion neurons?” Hear. Res. 225(1-2), 60–70 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fishman, A. J.

S. M. Rajguru, A. I. Matic, A. M. Robinson, A. J. Fishman, L. E. Moreno, A. Bradley, I. Vujanovic, J. Breen, J. D. Wells, M. Bendett, and C. P. Richter, “Optical cochlear implants: evaluation of surgical approach and laser parameters in cats,” Hear. Res. 269(1-2), 102–111 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fujioka, H.

M. W. Jenkins, A. R. Duke, S. Gu, H. J. Chiel, H. Fujioka, M. Watanabe, E. D. Jansen, and A. M. Rollins, “Optical pacing of the embryonic heart,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 623–626 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gantz, B. J.

C. W. Turner, L. A. Reiss, and B. J. Gantz, “Combined acoustic and electric hearing: preserving residual acoustic hearing,” Hear. Res. 242(1-2), 164–171 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gillespie, L. N.

L. N. Gillespie, G. M. Clark, P. F. Bartlett, and P. L. Marzella, “BDNF-induced survival of auditory neurons in vivo: Cessation of treatment leads to accelerated loss of survival effects,” J. Neurosci. Res. 71(6), 785–790 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Goyal, S.

C. P. Richter, R. Bayon, A. D. Izzo, M. Otting, E. Suh, S. Goyal, J. Hotaling, and J. T. Walsh., “Optical stimulation of auditory neurons: effects of acute and chronic deafening,” Hear. Res. 242(1-2), 42–51 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Goyal, V.

V. Goyal, S. Rajguru, A. I. Matic, S. R. Stock, and C. P. Richter, “Acute damage threshold for infrared neural stimulation of the cochlea: functional and histological evaluation,” Anat. Rec. (Hoboken) 295(11), 1987–1999 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gu, S.

M. W. Jenkins, A. R. Duke, S. Gu, H. J. Chiel, H. Fujioka, M. Watanabe, E. D. Jansen, and A. M. Rollins, “Optical pacing of the embryonic heart,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 623–626 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gu, X.

N. Xia, X. Y. Wu, X. Wang, Z. X. Mou, M. Q. Wang, X. Gu, X. L. Zheng, and W. S. Hou, “Pulsed 808-nm infrared laser stimulation of the auditory nerve in guinea pig cochlea,” Lasers Med. Sci. 29(1), 343–349 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guex, A. A.

R. U. Verma, A. A. Guex, K. E. Hancock, N. Durakovic, C. M. McKay, M. C. C. Slama, M. C. Brown, and D. J. Lee, “Auditory responses to electric and infrared neural stimulation of the rat cochlear nucleus,” Hear. Res. 310, 69–75 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hancock, K. E.

R. U. Verma, A. A. Guex, K. E. Hancock, N. Durakovic, C. M. McKay, M. C. C. Slama, M. C. Brown, and D. J. Lee, “Auditory responses to electric and infrared neural stimulation of the rat cochlear nucleus,” Hear. Res. 310, 69–75 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hartmann, R.

A. Kral, R. Hartmann, D. Mortazavi, and R. Klinke, “Spatial resolution of cochlear implants: the electrical field and excitation of auditory afferents,” Hear. Res. 121(1-2), 11–28 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Highstein, S. M.

S. M. Rajguru, C. P. Richter, A. I. Matic, G. R. Holstein, S. M. Highstein, G. M. Dittami, and R. D. Rabbitt, “Infrared photostimulation of the crista ampullaris,” J. Physiol. 589(6), 1283–1294 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Holstein, G. R.

S. M. Rajguru, C. P. Richter, A. I. Matic, G. R. Holstein, S. M. Highstein, G. M. Dittami, and R. D. Rabbitt, “Infrared photostimulation of the crista ampullaris,” J. Physiol. 589(6), 1283–1294 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Homma, K.

M. G. Shapiro, K. Homma, S. Villarreal, C. P. Richter, and F. Bezanilla, “Infrared light excites cells by changing their electrical capacitance,” Nat. Commun. 3(736), 736 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hotaling, J.

C. P. Richter, R. Bayon, A. D. Izzo, M. Otting, E. Suh, S. Goyal, J. Hotaling, and J. T. Walsh., “Optical stimulation of auditory neurons: effects of acute and chronic deafening,” Hear. Res. 242(1-2), 42–51 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hou, W. S.

N. Xia, X. Y. Wu, X. Wang, Z. X. Mou, M. Q. Wang, X. Gu, X. L. Zheng, and W. S. Hou, “Pulsed 808-nm infrared laser stimulation of the auditory nerve in guinea pig cochlea,” Lasers Med. Sci. 29(1), 343–349 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hwang, M.

L. E. Moreno, S. M. Rajguru, A. I. Matic, N. Yerram, A. M. Robinson, M. Hwang, S. Stock, and C. P. Richter, “Infrared neural stimulation: beam path in the guinea pig cochlea,” Hear. Res. 282(1-2), 289–302 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Izzo, A. D.

P. Littlefield, A. D. Izzo, J. Mundi, J. T. Walsh, E. D. Jansen, M. Bendett, J. Webb, H. Ralph, and C. P. Richter, “Characterization of Single Auditory Nerve Fibers in response to Laser Stimulation,” Optical Interactions with Tissue and Cells XIX. 6854, 68540F (2008).
[Crossref]

C. P. Richter, R. Bayon, A. D. Izzo, M. Otting, E. Suh, S. Goyal, J. Hotaling, and J. T. Walsh., “Optical stimulation of auditory neurons: effects of acute and chronic deafening,” Hear. Res. 242(1-2), 42–51 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. D. Izzo, J. T. Walsh, H. Ralph, J. Webb, M. Bendett, J. Wells, and C. P. Richter, “Laser stimulation of auditory neurons: effect of shorter pulse duration and penetration depth,” Biophys. J. 94(8), 3159–3166 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. U. Teudt, A. E. Nevel, A. D. Izzo, J. T. Walsh, and C. P. Richter, “Optical stimulation of the facial nerve: a new monitoring technique?” Laryngoscope 117(9), 1641–1647 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. D. Izzo, J. T. Walsh, E. D. Jansen, M. Bendett, J. Webb, H. Ralph, and C. P. Richter, “Optical parameter variability in laser nerve stimulation: a study of pulse duration, repetition rate, and wavelength,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 54(6), 1108–1114 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. D. Izzo, E. Suh, J. Pathria, J. T. Walsh, D. S. Whitlon, and C. P. Richter, “Selectivity of neural stimulation in the auditory system: a comparison of optic and electric stimuli,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(2), 021008 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. D. Izzo, C. P. Richter, E. D. Jansen, and J. T. Walsh., “Laser stimulation of the auditory nerve,” Lasers Surg. Med. 38(8), 745–753 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jansen, E. D.

C. P. Richter, A. I. Matic, J. D. Wells, E. D. Jansen, and J. T. Walsh., “Neural stimulation with optical radiation,” Laser Photon. Rev. 5(1), 68–80 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. W. Jenkins, A. R. Duke, S. Gu, H. J. Chiel, H. Fujioka, M. Watanabe, E. D. Jansen, and A. M. Rollins, “Optical pacing of the embryonic heart,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 623–626 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Littlefield, A. D. Izzo, J. Mundi, J. T. Walsh, E. D. Jansen, M. Bendett, J. Webb, H. Ralph, and C. P. Richter, “Characterization of Single Auditory Nerve Fibers in response to Laser Stimulation,” Optical Interactions with Tissue and Cells XIX. 6854, 68540F (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Wells, C. Kao, P. Konrad, T. Milner, J. Kim, A. Mahadevan-Jansen, and E. D. Jansen, “Biophysical mechanisms of transient optical stimulation of peripheral nerve,” Biophys. J. 93(7), 2567–2580 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. D. Izzo, J. T. Walsh, E. D. Jansen, M. Bendett, J. Webb, H. Ralph, and C. P. Richter, “Optical parameter variability in laser nerve stimulation: a study of pulse duration, repetition rate, and wavelength,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 54(6), 1108–1114 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. D. Izzo, C. P. Richter, E. D. Jansen, and J. T. Walsh., “Laser stimulation of the auditory nerve,” Lasers Surg. Med. 38(8), 745–753 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wells, C. Kao, K. Mariappan, J. Albea, E. D. Jansen, P. Konrad, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “Optical stimulation of neural tissue in vivo,” Opt. Lett. 30(5), 504–506 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jenkins, M. W.

M. W. Jenkins, A. R. Duke, S. Gu, H. J. Chiel, H. Fujioka, M. Watanabe, E. D. Jansen, and A. M. Rollins, “Optical pacing of the embryonic heart,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 623–626 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jiang, H.

S. L. McFadden, D. Ding, H. Jiang, and R. J. Salvi, “Time course of efferent fiber and spiral ganglion cell degeneration following complete hair cell loss in the chinchilla,” Brain Res. 997(1), 40–51 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kao, C.

J. Wells, C. Kao, P. Konrad, T. Milner, J. Kim, A. Mahadevan-Jansen, and E. D. Jansen, “Biophysical mechanisms of transient optical stimulation of peripheral nerve,” Biophys. J. 93(7), 2567–2580 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wells, C. Kao, K. Mariappan, J. Albea, E. D. Jansen, P. Konrad, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “Optical stimulation of neural tissue in vivo,” Opt. Lett. 30(5), 504–506 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, J.

J. Wells, C. Kao, P. Konrad, T. Milner, J. Kim, A. Mahadevan-Jansen, and E. D. Jansen, “Biophysical mechanisms of transient optical stimulation of peripheral nerve,” Biophys. J. 93(7), 2567–2580 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Klinke, R.

A. Kral, R. Hartmann, D. Mortazavi, and R. Klinke, “Spatial resolution of cochlear implants: the electrical field and excitation of auditory afferents,” Hear. Res. 121(1-2), 11–28 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Klis, S. F.

M. J. Agterberg, H. Versnel, J. C. de Groot, G. F. Smoorenburg, F. W. Albers, and S. F. Klis, “Morphological changes in spiral ganglion cells after intracochlear application of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in deafened guinea pigs,” Hear. Res. 244(1-2), 25–34 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Versnel, M. J. Agterberg, J. C. de Groot, G. F. Smoorenburg, and S. F. Klis, “Time course of cochlear electrophysiology and morphology after combined administration of kanamycin and furosemide,” Hear. Res. 231(1-2), 1–12 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Konrad, P.

J. Wells, C. Kao, P. Konrad, T. Milner, J. Kim, A. Mahadevan-Jansen, and E. D. Jansen, “Biophysical mechanisms of transient optical stimulation of peripheral nerve,” Biophys. J. 93(7), 2567–2580 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wells, C. Kao, K. Mariappan, J. Albea, E. D. Jansen, P. Konrad, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “Optical stimulation of neural tissue in vivo,” Opt. Lett. 30(5), 504–506 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kral, A.

M. Schultz, P. Baumhoff, H. Maier, I. U. Teudt, A. Krüger, T. Lenarz, and A. Kral, “Nanosecond laser pulse stimulation of the inner ear-a wavelength study,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(12), 3332–3345 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. U. Teudt, H. Maier, C. P. Richter, and A. Kral, “Acoustic events and “optophonic” cochlear responses induced by pulsed near-infrared laser,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 58(6), 1648–1655 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Kral, R. Hartmann, D. Mortazavi, and R. Klinke, “Spatial resolution of cochlear implants: the electrical field and excitation of auditory afferents,” Hear. Res. 121(1-2), 11–28 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Krüger, A.

Lee, D. J.

R. U. Verma, A. A. Guex, K. E. Hancock, N. Durakovic, C. M. McKay, M. C. C. Slama, M. C. Brown, and D. J. Lee, “Auditory responses to electric and infrared neural stimulation of the rat cochlear nucleus,” Hear. Res. 310, 69–75 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lenarz, T.

Li, L.

L. Li, C. W. Parkins, and D. B. Webster, “Does electrical stimulation of deaf cochleae prevent spiral ganglion degeneration?” Hear. Res. 133(1-2), 27–39 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Littlefield, P.

P. Littlefield, A. D. Izzo, J. Mundi, J. T. Walsh, E. D. Jansen, M. Bendett, J. Webb, H. Ralph, and C. P. Richter, “Characterization of Single Auditory Nerve Fibers in response to Laser Stimulation,” Optical Interactions with Tissue and Cells XIX. 6854, 68540F (2008).
[Crossref]

Littlefield, P. D.

P. D. Littlefield, I. Vujanovic, J. Mundi, A. I. Matic, and C. P. Richter, “Laser stimulation of single auditory nerve fibers,” Laryngoscope 120(10), 2071–2082 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mahadevan-Jansen, A.

J. Wells, C. Kao, P. Konrad, T. Milner, J. Kim, A. Mahadevan-Jansen, and E. D. Jansen, “Biophysical mechanisms of transient optical stimulation of peripheral nerve,” Biophys. J. 93(7), 2567–2580 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wells, C. Kao, K. Mariappan, J. Albea, E. D. Jansen, P. Konrad, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “Optical stimulation of neural tissue in vivo,” Opt. Lett. 30(5), 504–506 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maier, H.

M. Schultz, P. Baumhoff, H. Maier, I. U. Teudt, A. Krüger, T. Lenarz, and A. Kral, “Nanosecond laser pulse stimulation of the inner ear-a wavelength study,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(12), 3332–3345 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. U. Teudt, H. Maier, C. P. Richter, and A. Kral, “Acoustic events and “optophonic” cochlear responses induced by pulsed near-infrared laser,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 58(6), 1648–1655 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mariappan, K.

Marzella, P. L.

L. N. Gillespie, G. M. Clark, P. F. Bartlett, and P. L. Marzella, “BDNF-induced survival of auditory neurons in vivo: Cessation of treatment leads to accelerated loss of survival effects,” J. Neurosci. Res. 71(6), 785–790 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Matic, A. I.

A. I. Matic, A. M. Robinson, H. K. Young, B. Badofsky, S. M. Rajguru, S. Stock, and C. P. Richter, “Behavioral and electrophysiological responses evoked by chronic infrared neural stimulation of the cochlea,” PLoS ONE 8(3), e58189 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Goyal, S. Rajguru, A. I. Matic, S. R. Stock, and C. P. Richter, “Acute damage threshold for infrared neural stimulation of the cochlea: functional and histological evaluation,” Anat. Rec. (Hoboken) 295(11), 1987–1999 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. E. Moreno, S. M. Rajguru, A. I. Matic, N. Yerram, A. M. Robinson, M. Hwang, S. Stock, and C. P. Richter, “Infrared neural stimulation: beam path in the guinea pig cochlea,” Hear. Res. 282(1-2), 289–302 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. M. Banakis, A. I. Matic, S. M. Rajguru, and C. Richter, “Optical stimulation of the auditory nerve: effects of pulse shape,” Proc. SPIE 7883(1), 788358 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. P. Richter, A. I. Matic, J. D. Wells, E. D. Jansen, and J. T. Walsh., “Neural stimulation with optical radiation,” Laser Photon. Rev. 5(1), 68–80 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. M. Rajguru, C. P. Richter, A. I. Matic, G. R. Holstein, S. M. Highstein, G. M. Dittami, and R. D. Rabbitt, “Infrared photostimulation of the crista ampullaris,” J. Physiol. 589(6), 1283–1294 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. M. Rajguru, A. I. Matic, A. M. Robinson, A. J. Fishman, L. E. Moreno, A. Bradley, I. Vujanovic, J. Breen, J. D. Wells, M. Bendett, and C. P. Richter, “Optical cochlear implants: evaluation of surgical approach and laser parameters in cats,” Hear. Res. 269(1-2), 102–111 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. D. Littlefield, I. Vujanovic, J. Mundi, A. I. Matic, and C. P. Richter, “Laser stimulation of single auditory nerve fibers,” Laryngoscope 120(10), 2071–2082 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McFadden, S. L.

S. L. McFadden, D. Ding, H. Jiang, and R. J. Salvi, “Time course of efferent fiber and spiral ganglion cell degeneration following complete hair cell loss in the chinchilla,” Brain Res. 997(1), 40–51 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McKay, C. M.

R. U. Verma, A. A. Guex, K. E. Hancock, N. Durakovic, C. M. McKay, M. C. C. Slama, M. C. Brown, and D. J. Lee, “Auditory responses to electric and infrared neural stimulation of the rat cochlear nucleus,” Hear. Res. 310, 69–75 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Millard, R. E.

A. Coco, S. B. Epp, J. B. Fallon, J. Xu, R. E. Millard, and R. K. Shepherd, “Does cochlear implantation and electrical stimulation affect residual hair cells and spiral ganglion neurons?” Hear. Res. 225(1-2), 60–70 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Milner, T.

J. Wells, C. Kao, P. Konrad, T. Milner, J. Kim, A. Mahadevan-Jansen, and E. D. Jansen, “Biophysical mechanisms of transient optical stimulation of peripheral nerve,” Biophys. J. 93(7), 2567–2580 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moreno, L. E.

L. E. Moreno, S. M. Rajguru, A. I. Matic, N. Yerram, A. M. Robinson, M. Hwang, S. Stock, and C. P. Richter, “Infrared neural stimulation: beam path in the guinea pig cochlea,” Hear. Res. 282(1-2), 289–302 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. M. Rajguru, A. I. Matic, A. M. Robinson, A. J. Fishman, L. E. Moreno, A. Bradley, I. Vujanovic, J. Breen, J. D. Wells, M. Bendett, and C. P. Richter, “Optical cochlear implants: evaluation of surgical approach and laser parameters in cats,” Hear. Res. 269(1-2), 102–111 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mortazavi, D.

A. Kral, R. Hartmann, D. Mortazavi, and R. Klinke, “Spatial resolution of cochlear implants: the electrical field and excitation of auditory afferents,” Hear. Res. 121(1-2), 11–28 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mou, Z. X.

N. Xia, X. Y. Wu, X. Wang, Z. X. Mou, M. Q. Wang, X. Gu, X. L. Zheng, and W. S. Hou, “Pulsed 808-nm infrared laser stimulation of the auditory nerve in guinea pig cochlea,” Lasers Med. Sci. 29(1), 343–349 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mundi, J.

P. D. Littlefield, I. Vujanovic, J. Mundi, A. I. Matic, and C. P. Richter, “Laser stimulation of single auditory nerve fibers,” Laryngoscope 120(10), 2071–2082 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Littlefield, A. D. Izzo, J. Mundi, J. T. Walsh, E. D. Jansen, M. Bendett, J. Webb, H. Ralph, and C. P. Richter, “Characterization of Single Auditory Nerve Fibers in response to Laser Stimulation,” Optical Interactions with Tissue and Cells XIX. 6854, 68540F (2008).
[Crossref]

Nevel, A. E.

I. U. Teudt, A. E. Nevel, A. D. Izzo, J. T. Walsh, and C. P. Richter, “Optical stimulation of the facial nerve: a new monitoring technique?” Laryngoscope 117(9), 1641–1647 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Otting, M.

C. P. Richter, R. Bayon, A. D. Izzo, M. Otting, E. Suh, S. Goyal, J. Hotaling, and J. T. Walsh., “Optical stimulation of auditory neurons: effects of acute and chronic deafening,” Hear. Res. 242(1-2), 42–51 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Parkins, C. W.

L. Li, C. W. Parkins, and D. B. Webster, “Does electrical stimulation of deaf cochleae prevent spiral ganglion degeneration?” Hear. Res. 133(1-2), 27–39 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pathria, J.

A. D. Izzo, E. Suh, J. Pathria, J. T. Walsh, D. S. Whitlon, and C. P. Richter, “Selectivity of neural stimulation in the auditory system: a comparison of optic and electric stimuli,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(2), 021008 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Perreau, A. E.

L. A. Reiss, A. E. Perreau, and C. W. Turner, “Effects of lower frequency-to-electrode allocations on speech and pitch perception with the hybrid short-electrode cochlear implant,” Audiol. Neurootol. 17(6), 357–372 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pfingst, B. E.

J. A. Chikar, S. A. Batts, B. E. Pfingst, and Y. Raphael, “Visualization of spiral ganglion neurites within the scala tympani with a cochlear implant in situ,” J. Neurosci. Methods 179(2), 201–207 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rabbitt, R. D.

S. M. Rajguru, C. P. Richter, A. I. Matic, G. R. Holstein, S. M. Highstein, G. M. Dittami, and R. D. Rabbitt, “Infrared photostimulation of the crista ampullaris,” J. Physiol. 589(6), 1283–1294 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rajguru, S.

V. Goyal, S. Rajguru, A. I. Matic, S. R. Stock, and C. P. Richter, “Acute damage threshold for infrared neural stimulation of the cochlea: functional and histological evaluation,” Anat. Rec. (Hoboken) 295(11), 1987–1999 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rajguru, S. M.

A. I. Matic, A. M. Robinson, H. K. Young, B. Badofsky, S. M. Rajguru, S. Stock, and C. P. Richter, “Behavioral and electrophysiological responses evoked by chronic infrared neural stimulation of the cochlea,” PLoS ONE 8(3), e58189 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. M. Rajguru, C. P. Richter, A. I. Matic, G. R. Holstein, S. M. Highstein, G. M. Dittami, and R. D. Rabbitt, “Infrared photostimulation of the crista ampullaris,” J. Physiol. 589(6), 1283–1294 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. E. Moreno, S. M. Rajguru, A. I. Matic, N. Yerram, A. M. Robinson, M. Hwang, S. Stock, and C. P. Richter, “Infrared neural stimulation: beam path in the guinea pig cochlea,” Hear. Res. 282(1-2), 289–302 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. M. Banakis, A. I. Matic, S. M. Rajguru, and C. Richter, “Optical stimulation of the auditory nerve: effects of pulse shape,” Proc. SPIE 7883(1), 788358 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. M. Rajguru, A. I. Matic, A. M. Robinson, A. J. Fishman, L. E. Moreno, A. Bradley, I. Vujanovic, J. Breen, J. D. Wells, M. Bendett, and C. P. Richter, “Optical cochlear implants: evaluation of surgical approach and laser parameters in cats,” Hear. Res. 269(1-2), 102–111 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ralph, H.

A. D. Izzo, J. T. Walsh, H. Ralph, J. Webb, M. Bendett, J. Wells, and C. P. Richter, “Laser stimulation of auditory neurons: effect of shorter pulse duration and penetration depth,” Biophys. J. 94(8), 3159–3166 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Littlefield, A. D. Izzo, J. Mundi, J. T. Walsh, E. D. Jansen, M. Bendett, J. Webb, H. Ralph, and C. P. Richter, “Characterization of Single Auditory Nerve Fibers in response to Laser Stimulation,” Optical Interactions with Tissue and Cells XIX. 6854, 68540F (2008).
[Crossref]

A. D. Izzo, J. T. Walsh, E. D. Jansen, M. Bendett, J. Webb, H. Ralph, and C. P. Richter, “Optical parameter variability in laser nerve stimulation: a study of pulse duration, repetition rate, and wavelength,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 54(6), 1108–1114 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Raphael, Y.

J. A. Chikar, S. A. Batts, B. E. Pfingst, and Y. Raphael, “Visualization of spiral ganglion neurites within the scala tympani with a cochlear implant in situ,” J. Neurosci. Methods 179(2), 201–207 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ray, B.

B. Ray, T. S. Roy, S. Wadhwa, and K. K. Roy, “Development of the human fetal cochlear nerve: a morphometric study,” Hear. Res. 202(1-2), 74–86 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reiss, L. A.

L. A. Reiss, A. E. Perreau, and C. W. Turner, “Effects of lower frequency-to-electrode allocations on speech and pitch perception with the hybrid short-electrode cochlear implant,” Audiol. Neurootol. 17(6), 357–372 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. W. Turner, L. A. Reiss, and B. J. Gantz, “Combined acoustic and electric hearing: preserving residual acoustic hearing,” Hear. Res. 242(1-2), 164–171 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Richter, C.

R. M. Banakis, A. I. Matic, S. M. Rajguru, and C. Richter, “Optical stimulation of the auditory nerve: effects of pulse shape,” Proc. SPIE 7883(1), 788358 (2011).
[Crossref]

Richter, C. P.

C. P. Richter and X. Tan, “Photons and neurons,” Hear. Res. 311, 72–88 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. I. Matic, A. M. Robinson, H. K. Young, B. Badofsky, S. M. Rajguru, S. Stock, and C. P. Richter, “Behavioral and electrophysiological responses evoked by chronic infrared neural stimulation of the cochlea,” PLoS ONE 8(3), e58189 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Goyal, S. Rajguru, A. I. Matic, S. R. Stock, and C. P. Richter, “Acute damage threshold for infrared neural stimulation of the cochlea: functional and histological evaluation,” Anat. Rec. (Hoboken) 295(11), 1987–1999 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. G. Shapiro, K. Homma, S. Villarreal, C. P. Richter, and F. Bezanilla, “Infrared light excites cells by changing their electrical capacitance,” Nat. Commun. 3(736), 736 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. P. Richter, A. I. Matic, J. D. Wells, E. D. Jansen, and J. T. Walsh., “Neural stimulation with optical radiation,” Laser Photon. Rev. 5(1), 68–80 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. E. Moreno, S. M. Rajguru, A. I. Matic, N. Yerram, A. M. Robinson, M. Hwang, S. Stock, and C. P. Richter, “Infrared neural stimulation: beam path in the guinea pig cochlea,” Hear. Res. 282(1-2), 289–302 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. U. Teudt, H. Maier, C. P. Richter, and A. Kral, “Acoustic events and “optophonic” cochlear responses induced by pulsed near-infrared laser,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 58(6), 1648–1655 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. M. Rajguru, C. P. Richter, A. I. Matic, G. R. Holstein, S. M. Highstein, G. M. Dittami, and R. D. Rabbitt, “Infrared photostimulation of the crista ampullaris,” J. Physiol. 589(6), 1283–1294 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. M. Rajguru, A. I. Matic, A. M. Robinson, A. J. Fishman, L. E. Moreno, A. Bradley, I. Vujanovic, J. Breen, J. D. Wells, M. Bendett, and C. P. Richter, “Optical cochlear implants: evaluation of surgical approach and laser parameters in cats,” Hear. Res. 269(1-2), 102–111 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. D. Littlefield, I. Vujanovic, J. Mundi, A. I. Matic, and C. P. Richter, “Laser stimulation of single auditory nerve fibers,” Laryngoscope 120(10), 2071–2082 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Littlefield, A. D. Izzo, J. Mundi, J. T. Walsh, E. D. Jansen, M. Bendett, J. Webb, H. Ralph, and C. P. Richter, “Characterization of Single Auditory Nerve Fibers in response to Laser Stimulation,” Optical Interactions with Tissue and Cells XIX. 6854, 68540F (2008).
[Crossref]

C. P. Richter, R. Bayon, A. D. Izzo, M. Otting, E. Suh, S. Goyal, J. Hotaling, and J. T. Walsh., “Optical stimulation of auditory neurons: effects of acute and chronic deafening,” Hear. Res. 242(1-2), 42–51 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. D. Izzo, J. T. Walsh, H. Ralph, J. Webb, M. Bendett, J. Wells, and C. P. Richter, “Laser stimulation of auditory neurons: effect of shorter pulse duration and penetration depth,” Biophys. J. 94(8), 3159–3166 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. U. Teudt, A. E. Nevel, A. D. Izzo, J. T. Walsh, and C. P. Richter, “Optical stimulation of the facial nerve: a new monitoring technique?” Laryngoscope 117(9), 1641–1647 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. D. Izzo, J. T. Walsh, E. D. Jansen, M. Bendett, J. Webb, H. Ralph, and C. P. Richter, “Optical parameter variability in laser nerve stimulation: a study of pulse duration, repetition rate, and wavelength,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 54(6), 1108–1114 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. D. Izzo, E. Suh, J. Pathria, J. T. Walsh, D. S. Whitlon, and C. P. Richter, “Selectivity of neural stimulation in the auditory system: a comparison of optic and electric stimuli,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(2), 021008 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. D. Izzo, C. P. Richter, E. D. Jansen, and J. T. Walsh., “Laser stimulation of the auditory nerve,” Lasers Surg. Med. 38(8), 745–753 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Robinson, A. M.

A. I. Matic, A. M. Robinson, H. K. Young, B. Badofsky, S. M. Rajguru, S. Stock, and C. P. Richter, “Behavioral and electrophysiological responses evoked by chronic infrared neural stimulation of the cochlea,” PLoS ONE 8(3), e58189 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. E. Moreno, S. M. Rajguru, A. I. Matic, N. Yerram, A. M. Robinson, M. Hwang, S. Stock, and C. P. Richter, “Infrared neural stimulation: beam path in the guinea pig cochlea,” Hear. Res. 282(1-2), 289–302 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. M. Rajguru, A. I. Matic, A. M. Robinson, A. J. Fishman, L. E. Moreno, A. Bradley, I. Vujanovic, J. Breen, J. D. Wells, M. Bendett, and C. P. Richter, “Optical cochlear implants: evaluation of surgical approach and laser parameters in cats,” Hear. Res. 269(1-2), 102–111 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rollins, A. M.

M. W. Jenkins, A. R. Duke, S. Gu, H. J. Chiel, H. Fujioka, M. Watanabe, E. D. Jansen, and A. M. Rollins, “Optical pacing of the embryonic heart,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 623–626 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Roy, K. K.

B. Ray, T. S. Roy, S. Wadhwa, and K. K. Roy, “Development of the human fetal cochlear nerve: a morphometric study,” Hear. Res. 202(1-2), 74–86 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Roy, T. S.

B. Ray, T. S. Roy, S. Wadhwa, and K. K. Roy, “Development of the human fetal cochlear nerve: a morphometric study,” Hear. Res. 202(1-2), 74–86 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Salvi, R. J.

S. L. McFadden, D. Ding, H. Jiang, and R. J. Salvi, “Time course of efferent fiber and spiral ganglion cell degeneration following complete hair cell loss in the chinchilla,” Brain Res. 997(1), 40–51 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schultz, M.

Shapiro, M. G.

M. G. Shapiro, K. Homma, S. Villarreal, C. P. Richter, and F. Bezanilla, “Infrared light excites cells by changing their electrical capacitance,” Nat. Commun. 3(736), 736 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shepherd, R. K.

A. Coco, S. B. Epp, J. B. Fallon, J. Xu, R. E. Millard, and R. K. Shepherd, “Does cochlear implantation and electrical stimulation affect residual hair cells and spiral ganglion neurons?” Hear. Res. 225(1-2), 60–70 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Slama, M. C. C.

R. U. Verma, A. A. Guex, K. E. Hancock, N. Durakovic, C. M. McKay, M. C. C. Slama, M. C. Brown, and D. J. Lee, “Auditory responses to electric and infrared neural stimulation of the rat cochlear nucleus,” Hear. Res. 310, 69–75 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Smoorenburg, G. F.

M. J. Agterberg, H. Versnel, J. C. de Groot, G. F. Smoorenburg, F. W. Albers, and S. F. Klis, “Morphological changes in spiral ganglion cells after intracochlear application of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in deafened guinea pigs,” Hear. Res. 244(1-2), 25–34 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Versnel, M. J. Agterberg, J. C. de Groot, G. F. Smoorenburg, and S. F. Klis, “Time course of cochlear electrophysiology and morphology after combined administration of kanamycin and furosemide,” Hear. Res. 231(1-2), 1–12 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stock, S.

A. I. Matic, A. M. Robinson, H. K. Young, B. Badofsky, S. M. Rajguru, S. Stock, and C. P. Richter, “Behavioral and electrophysiological responses evoked by chronic infrared neural stimulation of the cochlea,” PLoS ONE 8(3), e58189 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. E. Moreno, S. M. Rajguru, A. I. Matic, N. Yerram, A. M. Robinson, M. Hwang, S. Stock, and C. P. Richter, “Infrared neural stimulation: beam path in the guinea pig cochlea,” Hear. Res. 282(1-2), 289–302 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stock, S. R.

V. Goyal, S. Rajguru, A. I. Matic, S. R. Stock, and C. P. Richter, “Acute damage threshold for infrared neural stimulation of the cochlea: functional and histological evaluation,” Anat. Rec. (Hoboken) 295(11), 1987–1999 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Suh, E.

C. P. Richter, R. Bayon, A. D. Izzo, M. Otting, E. Suh, S. Goyal, J. Hotaling, and J. T. Walsh., “Optical stimulation of auditory neurons: effects of acute and chronic deafening,” Hear. Res. 242(1-2), 42–51 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. D. Izzo, E. Suh, J. Pathria, J. T. Walsh, D. S. Whitlon, and C. P. Richter, “Selectivity of neural stimulation in the auditory system: a comparison of optic and electric stimuli,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(2), 021008 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tan, X.

C. P. Richter and X. Tan, “Photons and neurons,” Hear. Res. 311, 72–88 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Teudt, I. U.

M. Schultz, P. Baumhoff, H. Maier, I. U. Teudt, A. Krüger, T. Lenarz, and A. Kral, “Nanosecond laser pulse stimulation of the inner ear-a wavelength study,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(12), 3332–3345 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. U. Teudt, H. Maier, C. P. Richter, and A. Kral, “Acoustic events and “optophonic” cochlear responses induced by pulsed near-infrared laser,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 58(6), 1648–1655 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. U. Teudt, A. E. Nevel, A. D. Izzo, J. T. Walsh, and C. P. Richter, “Optical stimulation of the facial nerve: a new monitoring technique?” Laryngoscope 117(9), 1641–1647 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Turner, C. W.

L. A. Reiss, A. E. Perreau, and C. W. Turner, “Effects of lower frequency-to-electrode allocations on speech and pitch perception with the hybrid short-electrode cochlear implant,” Audiol. Neurootol. 17(6), 357–372 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. W. Turner, L. A. Reiss, and B. J. Gantz, “Combined acoustic and electric hearing: preserving residual acoustic hearing,” Hear. Res. 242(1-2), 164–171 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Verma, R. U.

R. U. Verma, A. A. Guex, K. E. Hancock, N. Durakovic, C. M. McKay, M. C. C. Slama, M. C. Brown, and D. J. Lee, “Auditory responses to electric and infrared neural stimulation of the rat cochlear nucleus,” Hear. Res. 310, 69–75 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Versnel, H.

M. J. Agterberg, H. Versnel, J. C. de Groot, G. F. Smoorenburg, F. W. Albers, and S. F. Klis, “Morphological changes in spiral ganglion cells after intracochlear application of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in deafened guinea pigs,” Hear. Res. 244(1-2), 25–34 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Versnel, M. J. Agterberg, J. C. de Groot, G. F. Smoorenburg, and S. F. Klis, “Time course of cochlear electrophysiology and morphology after combined administration of kanamycin and furosemide,” Hear. Res. 231(1-2), 1–12 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Viberg, A.

A. Viberg and B. Canlon, “The guide to plotting a cochleogram,” Hear. Res. 197(1-2), 1–10 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Villarreal, S.

M. G. Shapiro, K. Homma, S. Villarreal, C. P. Richter, and F. Bezanilla, “Infrared light excites cells by changing their electrical capacitance,” Nat. Commun. 3(736), 736 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vujanovic, I.

P. D. Littlefield, I. Vujanovic, J. Mundi, A. I. Matic, and C. P. Richter, “Laser stimulation of single auditory nerve fibers,” Laryngoscope 120(10), 2071–2082 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. M. Rajguru, A. I. Matic, A. M. Robinson, A. J. Fishman, L. E. Moreno, A. Bradley, I. Vujanovic, J. Breen, J. D. Wells, M. Bendett, and C. P. Richter, “Optical cochlear implants: evaluation of surgical approach and laser parameters in cats,” Hear. Res. 269(1-2), 102–111 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wadhwa, S.

B. Ray, T. S. Roy, S. Wadhwa, and K. K. Roy, “Development of the human fetal cochlear nerve: a morphometric study,” Hear. Res. 202(1-2), 74–86 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Walsh, J. T.

C. P. Richter, A. I. Matic, J. D. Wells, E. D. Jansen, and J. T. Walsh., “Neural stimulation with optical radiation,” Laser Photon. Rev. 5(1), 68–80 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Littlefield, A. D. Izzo, J. Mundi, J. T. Walsh, E. D. Jansen, M. Bendett, J. Webb, H. Ralph, and C. P. Richter, “Characterization of Single Auditory Nerve Fibers in response to Laser Stimulation,” Optical Interactions with Tissue and Cells XIX. 6854, 68540F (2008).
[Crossref]

C. P. Richter, R. Bayon, A. D. Izzo, M. Otting, E. Suh, S. Goyal, J. Hotaling, and J. T. Walsh., “Optical stimulation of auditory neurons: effects of acute and chronic deafening,” Hear. Res. 242(1-2), 42–51 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. D. Izzo, J. T. Walsh, H. Ralph, J. Webb, M. Bendett, J. Wells, and C. P. Richter, “Laser stimulation of auditory neurons: effect of shorter pulse duration and penetration depth,” Biophys. J. 94(8), 3159–3166 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. U. Teudt, A. E. Nevel, A. D. Izzo, J. T. Walsh, and C. P. Richter, “Optical stimulation of the facial nerve: a new monitoring technique?” Laryngoscope 117(9), 1641–1647 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. D. Izzo, J. T. Walsh, E. D. Jansen, M. Bendett, J. Webb, H. Ralph, and C. P. Richter, “Optical parameter variability in laser nerve stimulation: a study of pulse duration, repetition rate, and wavelength,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 54(6), 1108–1114 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. D. Izzo, E. Suh, J. Pathria, J. T. Walsh, D. S. Whitlon, and C. P. Richter, “Selectivity of neural stimulation in the auditory system: a comparison of optic and electric stimuli,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(2), 021008 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. D. Izzo, C. P. Richter, E. D. Jansen, and J. T. Walsh., “Laser stimulation of the auditory nerve,” Lasers Surg. Med. 38(8), 745–753 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. T. Walsh and J. P. Cummings, “Effect of the dynamic optical properties of water on midinfrared laser ablation,” Lasers Surg. Med. 15(3), 295–305 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, M. Q.

N. Xia, X. Y. Wu, X. Wang, Z. X. Mou, M. Q. Wang, X. Gu, X. L. Zheng, and W. S. Hou, “Pulsed 808-nm infrared laser stimulation of the auditory nerve in guinea pig cochlea,” Lasers Med. Sci. 29(1), 343–349 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, X.

N. Xia, X. Y. Wu, X. Wang, Z. X. Mou, M. Q. Wang, X. Gu, X. L. Zheng, and W. S. Hou, “Pulsed 808-nm infrared laser stimulation of the auditory nerve in guinea pig cochlea,” Lasers Med. Sci. 29(1), 343–349 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Watanabe, M.

M. W. Jenkins, A. R. Duke, S. Gu, H. J. Chiel, H. Fujioka, M. Watanabe, E. D. Jansen, and A. M. Rollins, “Optical pacing of the embryonic heart,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 623–626 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Webb, J.

A. D. Izzo, J. T. Walsh, H. Ralph, J. Webb, M. Bendett, J. Wells, and C. P. Richter, “Laser stimulation of auditory neurons: effect of shorter pulse duration and penetration depth,” Biophys. J. 94(8), 3159–3166 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Littlefield, A. D. Izzo, J. Mundi, J. T. Walsh, E. D. Jansen, M. Bendett, J. Webb, H. Ralph, and C. P. Richter, “Characterization of Single Auditory Nerve Fibers in response to Laser Stimulation,” Optical Interactions with Tissue and Cells XIX. 6854, 68540F (2008).
[Crossref]

A. D. Izzo, J. T. Walsh, E. D. Jansen, M. Bendett, J. Webb, H. Ralph, and C. P. Richter, “Optical parameter variability in laser nerve stimulation: a study of pulse duration, repetition rate, and wavelength,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 54(6), 1108–1114 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Webster, D. B.

L. Li, C. W. Parkins, and D. B. Webster, “Does electrical stimulation of deaf cochleae prevent spiral ganglion degeneration?” Hear. Res. 133(1-2), 27–39 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wells, J.

A. D. Izzo, J. T. Walsh, H. Ralph, J. Webb, M. Bendett, J. Wells, and C. P. Richter, “Laser stimulation of auditory neurons: effect of shorter pulse duration and penetration depth,” Biophys. J. 94(8), 3159–3166 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wells, C. Kao, P. Konrad, T. Milner, J. Kim, A. Mahadevan-Jansen, and E. D. Jansen, “Biophysical mechanisms of transient optical stimulation of peripheral nerve,” Biophys. J. 93(7), 2567–2580 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wells, C. Kao, K. Mariappan, J. Albea, E. D. Jansen, P. Konrad, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “Optical stimulation of neural tissue in vivo,” Opt. Lett. 30(5), 504–506 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wells, J. D.

C. P. Richter, A. I. Matic, J. D. Wells, E. D. Jansen, and J. T. Walsh., “Neural stimulation with optical radiation,” Laser Photon. Rev. 5(1), 68–80 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. M. Rajguru, A. I. Matic, A. M. Robinson, A. J. Fishman, L. E. Moreno, A. Bradley, I. Vujanovic, J. Breen, J. D. Wells, M. Bendett, and C. P. Richter, “Optical cochlear implants: evaluation of surgical approach and laser parameters in cats,” Hear. Res. 269(1-2), 102–111 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Whitlon, D. S.

A. D. Izzo, E. Suh, J. Pathria, J. T. Walsh, D. S. Whitlon, and C. P. Richter, “Selectivity of neural stimulation in the auditory system: a comparison of optic and electric stimuli,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(2), 021008 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, X. Y.

N. Xia, X. Y. Wu, X. Wang, Z. X. Mou, M. Q. Wang, X. Gu, X. L. Zheng, and W. S. Hou, “Pulsed 808-nm infrared laser stimulation of the auditory nerve in guinea pig cochlea,” Lasers Med. Sci. 29(1), 343–349 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xia, N.

N. Xia, X. Y. Wu, X. Wang, Z. X. Mou, M. Q. Wang, X. Gu, X. L. Zheng, and W. S. Hou, “Pulsed 808-nm infrared laser stimulation of the auditory nerve in guinea pig cochlea,” Lasers Med. Sci. 29(1), 343–349 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, J.

A. Coco, S. B. Epp, J. B. Fallon, J. Xu, R. E. Millard, and R. K. Shepherd, “Does cochlear implantation and electrical stimulation affect residual hair cells and spiral ganglion neurons?” Hear. Res. 225(1-2), 60–70 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yerram, N.

L. E. Moreno, S. M. Rajguru, A. I. Matic, N. Yerram, A. M. Robinson, M. Hwang, S. Stock, and C. P. Richter, “Infrared neural stimulation: beam path in the guinea pig cochlea,” Hear. Res. 282(1-2), 289–302 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Young, H. K.

A. I. Matic, A. M. Robinson, H. K. Young, B. Badofsky, S. M. Rajguru, S. Stock, and C. P. Richter, “Behavioral and electrophysiological responses evoked by chronic infrared neural stimulation of the cochlea,” PLoS ONE 8(3), e58189 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zheng, X. L.

N. Xia, X. Y. Wu, X. Wang, Z. X. Mou, M. Q. Wang, X. Gu, X. L. Zheng, and W. S. Hou, “Pulsed 808-nm infrared laser stimulation of the auditory nerve in guinea pig cochlea,” Lasers Med. Sci. 29(1), 343–349 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anat. Rec. (Hoboken) (1)

V. Goyal, S. Rajguru, A. I. Matic, S. R. Stock, and C. P. Richter, “Acute damage threshold for infrared neural stimulation of the cochlea: functional and histological evaluation,” Anat. Rec. (Hoboken) 295(11), 1987–1999 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Audiol. Neurootol. (1)

L. A. Reiss, A. E. Perreau, and C. W. Turner, “Effects of lower frequency-to-electrode allocations on speech and pitch perception with the hybrid short-electrode cochlear implant,” Audiol. Neurootol. 17(6), 357–372 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

Biophys. J. (2)

A. D. Izzo, J. T. Walsh, H. Ralph, J. Webb, M. Bendett, J. Wells, and C. P. Richter, “Laser stimulation of auditory neurons: effect of shorter pulse duration and penetration depth,” Biophys. J. 94(8), 3159–3166 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wells, C. Kao, P. Konrad, T. Milner, J. Kim, A. Mahadevan-Jansen, and E. D. Jansen, “Biophysical mechanisms of transient optical stimulation of peripheral nerve,” Biophys. J. 93(7), 2567–2580 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brain Res. (1)

S. L. McFadden, D. Ding, H. Jiang, and R. J. Salvi, “Time course of efferent fiber and spiral ganglion cell degeneration following complete hair cell loss in the chinchilla,” Brain Res. 997(1), 40–51 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hear. Res. (13)

L. Li, C. W. Parkins, and D. B. Webster, “Does electrical stimulation of deaf cochleae prevent spiral ganglion degeneration?” Hear. Res. 133(1-2), 27–39 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Viberg and B. Canlon, “The guide to plotting a cochleogram,” Hear. Res. 197(1-2), 1–10 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Ray, T. S. Roy, S. Wadhwa, and K. K. Roy, “Development of the human fetal cochlear nerve: a morphometric study,” Hear. Res. 202(1-2), 74–86 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. E. Moreno, S. M. Rajguru, A. I. Matic, N. Yerram, A. M. Robinson, M. Hwang, S. Stock, and C. P. Richter, “Infrared neural stimulation: beam path in the guinea pig cochlea,” Hear. Res. 282(1-2), 289–302 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Coco, S. B. Epp, J. B. Fallon, J. Xu, R. E. Millard, and R. K. Shepherd, “Does cochlear implantation and electrical stimulation affect residual hair cells and spiral ganglion neurons?” Hear. Res. 225(1-2), 60–70 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Kral, R. Hartmann, D. Mortazavi, and R. Klinke, “Spatial resolution of cochlear implants: the electrical field and excitation of auditory afferents,” Hear. Res. 121(1-2), 11–28 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Agterberg, H. Versnel, J. C. de Groot, G. F. Smoorenburg, F. W. Albers, and S. F. Klis, “Morphological changes in spiral ganglion cells after intracochlear application of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in deafened guinea pigs,” Hear. Res. 244(1-2), 25–34 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Versnel, M. J. Agterberg, J. C. de Groot, G. F. Smoorenburg, and S. F. Klis, “Time course of cochlear electrophysiology and morphology after combined administration of kanamycin and furosemide,” Hear. Res. 231(1-2), 1–12 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. U. Verma, A. A. Guex, K. E. Hancock, N. Durakovic, C. M. McKay, M. C. C. Slama, M. C. Brown, and D. J. Lee, “Auditory responses to electric and infrared neural stimulation of the rat cochlear nucleus,” Hear. Res. 310, 69–75 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. P. Richter and X. Tan, “Photons and neurons,” Hear. Res. 311, 72–88 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. P. Richter, R. Bayon, A. D. Izzo, M. Otting, E. Suh, S. Goyal, J. Hotaling, and J. T. Walsh., “Optical stimulation of auditory neurons: effects of acute and chronic deafening,” Hear. Res. 242(1-2), 42–51 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. M. Rajguru, A. I. Matic, A. M. Robinson, A. J. Fishman, L. E. Moreno, A. Bradley, I. Vujanovic, J. Breen, J. D. Wells, M. Bendett, and C. P. Richter, “Optical cochlear implants: evaluation of surgical approach and laser parameters in cats,” Hear. Res. 269(1-2), 102–111 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. W. Turner, L. A. Reiss, and B. J. Gantz, “Combined acoustic and electric hearing: preserving residual acoustic hearing,” Hear. Res. 242(1-2), 164–171 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. (2)

A. D. Izzo, J. T. Walsh, E. D. Jansen, M. Bendett, J. Webb, H. Ralph, and C. P. Richter, “Optical parameter variability in laser nerve stimulation: a study of pulse duration, repetition rate, and wavelength,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 54(6), 1108–1114 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. U. Teudt, H. Maier, C. P. Richter, and A. Kral, “Acoustic events and “optophonic” cochlear responses induced by pulsed near-infrared laser,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 58(6), 1648–1655 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

A. D. Izzo, E. Suh, J. Pathria, J. T. Walsh, D. S. Whitlon, and C. P. Richter, “Selectivity of neural stimulation in the auditory system: a comparison of optic and electric stimuli,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(2), 021008 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Neurosci. Methods (1)

J. A. Chikar, S. A. Batts, B. E. Pfingst, and Y. Raphael, “Visualization of spiral ganglion neurites within the scala tympani with a cochlear implant in situ,” J. Neurosci. Methods 179(2), 201–207 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Neurosci. Res. (1)

L. N. Gillespie, G. M. Clark, P. F. Bartlett, and P. L. Marzella, “BDNF-induced survival of auditory neurons in vivo: Cessation of treatment leads to accelerated loss of survival effects,” J. Neurosci. Res. 71(6), 785–790 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Physiol. (1)

S. M. Rajguru, C. P. Richter, A. I. Matic, G. R. Holstein, S. M. Highstein, G. M. Dittami, and R. D. Rabbitt, “Infrared photostimulation of the crista ampullaris,” J. Physiol. 589(6), 1283–1294 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Laryngoscope (2)

I. U. Teudt, A. E. Nevel, A. D. Izzo, J. T. Walsh, and C. P. Richter, “Optical stimulation of the facial nerve: a new monitoring technique?” Laryngoscope 117(9), 1641–1647 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. D. Littlefield, I. Vujanovic, J. Mundi, A. I. Matic, and C. P. Richter, “Laser stimulation of single auditory nerve fibers,” Laryngoscope 120(10), 2071–2082 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Laser Photon. Rev. (1)

C. P. Richter, A. I. Matic, J. D. Wells, E. D. Jansen, and J. T. Walsh., “Neural stimulation with optical radiation,” Laser Photon. Rev. 5(1), 68–80 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lasers Med. Sci. (1)

N. Xia, X. Y. Wu, X. Wang, Z. X. Mou, M. Q. Wang, X. Gu, X. L. Zheng, and W. S. Hou, “Pulsed 808-nm infrared laser stimulation of the auditory nerve in guinea pig cochlea,” Lasers Med. Sci. 29(1), 343–349 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lasers Surg. Med. (2)

J. T. Walsh and J. P. Cummings, “Effect of the dynamic optical properties of water on midinfrared laser ablation,” Lasers Surg. Med. 15(3), 295–305 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. D. Izzo, C. P. Richter, E. D. Jansen, and J. T. Walsh., “Laser stimulation of the auditory nerve,” Lasers Surg. Med. 38(8), 745–753 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Commun. (1)

M. G. Shapiro, K. Homma, S. Villarreal, C. P. Richter, and F. Bezanilla, “Infrared light excites cells by changing their electrical capacitance,” Nat. Commun. 3(736), 736 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

M. W. Jenkins, A. R. Duke, S. Gu, H. J. Chiel, H. Fujioka, M. Watanabe, E. D. Jansen, and A. M. Rollins, “Optical pacing of the embryonic heart,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 623–626 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Optical Interactions with Tissue and Cells XIX. (1)

P. Littlefield, A. D. Izzo, J. Mundi, J. T. Walsh, E. D. Jansen, M. Bendett, J. Webb, H. Ralph, and C. P. Richter, “Characterization of Single Auditory Nerve Fibers in response to Laser Stimulation,” Optical Interactions with Tissue and Cells XIX. 6854, 68540F (2008).
[Crossref]

PLoS ONE (1)

A. I. Matic, A. M. Robinson, H. K. Young, B. Badofsky, S. M. Rajguru, S. Stock, and C. P. Richter, “Behavioral and electrophysiological responses evoked by chronic infrared neural stimulation of the cochlea,” PLoS ONE 8(3), e58189 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (1)

R. M. Banakis, A. I. Matic, S. M. Rajguru, and C. Richter, “Optical stimulation of the auditory nerve: effects of pulse shape,” Proc. SPIE 7883(1), 788358 (2011).
[Crossref]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 a: Image of surgery approach (right ear), showing the round window, rim of the round window (pink star) posterior wall of the external auditory canal (pink triangle) and optical fiber; b: Schematic diagram of the optical fiber inserted into the scala tympanic. c, d: Wave forms of oABR records when the laser located on different site (as the schematic diagram showing as b). Only when the laser located on spiral ganglion region, oABR could be recorded (showing as c).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 The thresholds of aABR in normal hearing and deafened animals. Deafening (gray and red curves) significantly elevated hearing thresholds compared to normal hearing controls (brown and violet curves).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The wave patterns of aABRs and oABRs, all these results were recorded from the right ear of guinea pig. a is the trace of an aABR from a normal hearing guinea pig. b is the wave forms of an oABR from a normal hearing animal, and c is from the deafened guinea pig stimulated with a 100-μs pulse at 10 Hz at 0–35 μJ (the energy detected at the distal of optical fiber in the room temperature air was 0-31.5 μJ / pulse). The amplitudes were smaller in deafened animals (smaller amplitude scale, left axis), and the energy threshold of deafened animals was higher than normal hearing animals.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 a. Energy thresholds of normal hearing (gray curve) and deafened (red curve) animals. Deafened animals require larger stimulation energies at similar pulse durations compared to normal hearing animals. Fig. 4. b Amplitudes of waves III of oABRs at various pulse durations in normal hearing and deafened animals at the same power output of laser device. While amplitudes increased with a shortening of pulse duration in both groups, deafened animals had decreased amplitudes at all pulse durations compared to normal hearing control animals.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Immunofluorescence staining of SGNs (Fig. 5a presented the basal turn, Fig. 5b presented the middle and apical turn). Tuj1 labeling (green, star) was similar between normal hearing and deafened animals. In basal turn of the cochlea, myosin VIIa labeling (red) in normal animals was strong in both inner (D, arrow) and outer hair cells (D, asterisk) but weak in only the inner hair cells (H, arrow) of deafened animals (a). In middle turn, inner hair cells became hyperfluorenscence in deafened animals as the inner hair cells in normal hearing animals (K and I, red arrow), the outer hair cells were still dim (I, red asterisk). Both inner and outer hair cells labeled by myosin VIIa in apical turn in deafened animals (L).
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 TEM images of SGN (type I cell) ultrastructure of both normal hearing and deafened guinea pigs. Normal hearing guinea pigs had normal myelination around SGC axons (a, basal turn) and clear mitochondria, free of swelling or vacuolation (b, basal turn, g, middle turn). Deafening produced myelination abnormalities (c and d, green arrows), including loose lamellae that separated from the cytomembrane, and also led to swollen and vacuolar mitochondria (e and f, red asterisks) in the basal turn. In the middle turn, deafening induced myelination abnormalities, such as the partially uncompacted of myelin (h, red arrows), but no changes were presented on mitochondria (h, green asterisks). In apical turn, no differences could be found between deafened animals (i) and normal hearing animlas. Magnification, a: × 3,000; c: × 5,000; b, d, g, h, i: × 20,000, e, f: × 30,000.

Tables (3)

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Table 1 The hearing threshold of hearing (control) and deafened animals (aABR/dB SPL)

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Table 2 Energy thresholds (μJ) of oABR in normal hearing and deafened guinea pigs (Means ± S.D.)

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Table 3 Amplitudes (μV) of oABR in normal hearing and deafened guinea pigs (Means ± S.D.)

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