Abstract

Light is a powerful tool to non-invasively probe highly scattering media for clinical applications ranging from oncology to neurology, but also for molecular imaging, and quality assessment of food, wood and pharmaceuticals. Here we show that, for a paradigmatic case of diffuse optical imaging, ideal yet realistic time-domain systems yield more than 2-fold higher depth penetration and many decades higher contrast as compared to ideal continuous-wave systems, by adopting a dense source-detector distribution with picosecond time-gating. Towards this aim, we demonstrate the first building block made of a source-detector pair directly embedded into the probe based on a pulsed Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser (VCSEL) to allow parallelization for dense coverage, a Silicon Photomultiplier (SiPM) to maximize light harvesting, and a Single-Photon Avalanche Diode (SPAD) to demonstrate the time-gating capability on the basic SiPM element. This paves the way to a dramatic advancement in terms of increased performances, new high impact applications, and availability of devices with orders of magnitude reduction in size and cost for widespread use, including quantitative wearable imaging.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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2015 (1)

2014 (9)

L. Di Sieno, A. Dalla Mora, G. Boso, A. Tosi, A. Pifferi, R. Cubeddu, and D. Contini, “Diffuse optics using a dual window fast-gated counter,” Appl. Opt. 53, 7394–7401 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Wabnitz, A. Jelzow, M. Mazurenka, O. Steinkellner, R. Macdonald, D. Milej, N. Zolek, M. Kacprzak, P. Sawosz, R. Maniewski, A. Liebert, S. Magazov, J. Hebden, F. Martelli, P. Di Ninni, G. Zaccanti, A. Torricelli, D. Contini, R. Re, L. Zucchelli, L. Spinelli, R. Cubeddu, and A. Pifferi, “Performance assessment of time-domain optical brain imagers, part 2: nEUROPt protocol,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19, 086012 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Villa, D. Bronzi, Y. Zou, C. Scarcella, G. Boso, S. Tisa, A. Tosi, F. Zappa, D. Durini, S. Weyers, U. Paschen, and W. Brockherde, “CMOS SPADs with up to 500 μm diameter and 55% detection efficiency at 420 nm,” J. Mod. Opt. 61, 102–115 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Spinelli, M. Botwicz, N. Zolek, M. Kacprzak, D. Milej, P. Sawosz, A. Liebert, U. Weigel, T. Durduran, F. Foschum, A. Kienle, F. Baribeau, S. Leclair, J.-P. Bouchard, I. Noiseux, P. Gallant, O. Mermut, A. Farina, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, R. Cubeddu, H.-C. Ho, M. Mazurenka, H. Wabnitz, K. Klauenberg, O. Bodnar, C. Elster, M. Bénazech-Lavoué, Y. Bérubé-Lauzière, F. Lesage, D. Khoptyar, a. a. Subash, S. Andersson-Engels, P. Di Ninni, F. Martelli, and G. Zaccanti, “Determination of reference values for optical properties of liquid phantoms based on Intralipid and India ink,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5, 2037–2053 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Torricelli, D. Contini, A. Pifferi, M. Caffini, R. Re, L. Zucchelli, and L. Spinelli, “Time domain functional NIRS imaging for human brain mapping,” Neuroimage 85, 28–50 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. R. Busch, R. Choe, T. Durduran, D. H. Friedman, W. B. Baker, A. D. Maidment, M. A. Rosen, M. D. Schnall, and A. G. Yodh, “Blood Flow Reduction in Breast Tissue due to Mammographic Compression,” Acad. Radiol. 21, 151–161 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. T. Eggebrecht, S. L. Ferradal, A. Robichaux-Viehoever, M. S. Hassanpour, H. Dehghani, A. Z. Snyder, T. Hershey, and J. P. Culver, “Mapping distributed brain function and networks with diffuse optical tomography,” Nat. Photonics 8, 448–454 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Farina, I. Bargigia, E.-R. Janeček, Z. Walsh, C. D’Andrea, A. Nevin, M. Ramage, O. A. Scherman, and A. Pifferi, “Nondestructive optical detection of monomer uptake in wood polymer composites,” Opt. Lett. 39, 228–231 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Villa, R. Lussana, D. Bronzi, S. Tisa, A. Tosi, F. Zappa, A. Dalla Mora, D. Contini, D. Durini, S. Weyers, and W. Brockherde, “CMOS Imager With 1024 SPADs and TDCs for Single-Photon Timing and 3-D Time-of-Flight,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 364–373 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (6)

2012 (4)

E. Lapointe, J. Pichette, and Y. Bérubé-Lauzière, “A multi-view time-domain non-contact diffuse optical tomography scanner with dual wavelength detection for intrinsic and fluorescence small animal imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 063703 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Dalla Mora, D. Contini, A. Pifferi, R. Cubeddu, A. Tosi, and F. Zappa, “Afterpulse-like noise limits dynamic range in time-gated applications of thin-junction silicon single-photon avalanche diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 241111 (2012).
[Crossref]

E. Kirilina, A. Jelzow, A. Heine, M. Niessing, H. Wabnitz, R. Brühl, B. Ittermann, A. M. Jacobs, and I. Tachtsidis, “The physiological origin of task-evoked systemic artefacts in functional near infrared spectroscopy,” Neuroimage 61, 70–81 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Sawosz, N. Zolek, M. Kacprzak, R. Maniewski, and A. Liebert, “Application of time-gated CCD camera with image intensifier in contactless detection of absorbing inclusions buried in optically turbid medium which mimics local changes in oxygenation of the brain tissue,” Opto-Electronics Rev. 20, 309–314 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

2010 (5)

A. Dalla Mora, A. Tosi, F. Zappa, S. Cova, D. Contini, A. Pifferi, L. Spinelli, A. Torricelli, and R. Cubeddu, “Fast-Gated Single-Photon Avalanche Diode for Wide Dynamic Range Near Infrared Spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 1023–1030 (2010).
[Crossref]

V. Venugopal, J. Chen, and X. Intes, “Development of an optical imaging platform for functional imaging of small animals using wide- field excitation,” Biomed. Opt. Express 1, 143–156 (2010).
[Crossref]

P. Sawosz, M. Kacprzak, N. Zolek, W. Weigl, S. Wojtkiewicz, R. Maniewski, and A. Liebert, “Optical system based on time-gated, intensified charge-coupled device camera for brain imaging studies,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 066025 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. Durduran, R. Choe, W. B. Baker, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optics for tissue monitoring and tomography,” Reports Prog. Phys. 73, 076701 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. D. OSullivan, A. E. Cerussi, D. J. Cuccia, and B. J. Tromberg, “Diffuse optical imaging using spatially and temporally modulated light,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 071311 (2010).

2008 (2)

A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, L. Spinelli, D. Contini, R. Cubeddu, F. Martelli, G. Zaccanti, A. Tosi, A. Dalla Mora, F. Zappa, and S. Cova, “Time-resolved diffuse reflectance using small source-detector separation and fast single-photon gating,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 138101 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Svensson, E. Alerstam, M. Einarsdóttír, K. Svanberg, and S. Andersson-Engels, “Towards accurate in vivo spectroscopy of the human prostate,” J. Biophotonics 1, 200–203 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

H. Zhao, F. Gao, Y. Tanikawa, and Y. Yamada, “Time-resolved diffuse optical tomography and its application to in vitro and in vivo imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 062107 (2007).
[Crossref]

B. W. Zeff, B. R. White, H. Dehghani, B. L. Schlaggar, and J. P. Culver, “Retinotopic mapping of adult human visual cortex with high-density diffuse optical tomography,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 104, 12169–12174 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

B. Dolgoshein, V. Balagura, P. Buzhan, M. Danilov, L. Filatov, E. Garutti, M. Groll, A. Ilyin, V. Kantserov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, F. Kayumov, S. Klemin, V. Korbel, H. Meyer, R. Mizuk, V. Morgunov, E. Novikov, P. Pakhlov, E. Popova, V. Rusinov, F. Sefkow, E. Tarkovsky, and I. Tikhomirov, “Status report on silicon photo-multiplier development and its applications,” Nucl. Instruments Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A Accel. Spectrometers, Detect. Assoc. Equip. 563, 368–376 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Selb, D. K. Joseph, and D. A. Boas, “Time-gated optical system for depth-resolved functional brain imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 044008 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Koyama, “Recent Advances of VCSEL Photonics,” J. Light. Technol. 24, 4502–4513 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

A. Torricelli, A. Pifferi, L. Spinelli, R. Cubeddu, F. Martelli, S. Del Bianco, and G. Zaccanti, “Time-Resolved Reflectance at Null Source-Detector Separation: Improving Contrast and Resolution in Diffuse Optical Imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 078101 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

H. Obrig and A. Villringer, “Beyond the visible–imaging the human brain with light,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 23, 1–18 (2003).
[Crossref]

Z. Sun, S. Torrance, F. K. McNeil-Watson, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Application of frequency domain photon migration to particle size analysis and monitoring of pharmaceutical powders,” Anal. Chem. 75, 1720–1725 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (2)

J. Steinbrink, H. Wabnitz, H. Obrig, A. Villringer, and H. Rinneberg, “Determining changes in NIR absorption using a layered model of the human head,” Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 879–896 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Carraresi, T. S. Shatir, F. Martelli, and G. Zaccanti, “Accuracy of a perturbation model to predict the effect of scattering and absorbing inhomogeneities on photon migration,” Appl. Opt. 40, 4622–4632 (2001).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

S. R. Arridge, “Optical tomography in medical imaging,” Inverse Probl. 15, R41–R93 (1999).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

1993 (1)

1989 (1)

1988 (1)

D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, P. van der Zee, S. Arridge, S. Wray, and J. Wyatt, “Estimation of optical pathlength through tissue from direct time of flight measurement,” Phys. Med. Biol. 33, 1433–1442 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Abbate, F.

P. Taroni, G. Quarto, A. Pifferi, F. Ieva, A. M. Paganoni, F. Abbate, N. Balestreri, S. Menna, E. Cassano, and R. Cubeddu, “Optical identification of subjects at high risk for developing breast cancer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 060507 (2013).
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Alerstam, E.

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A. Tosi, A. Dalla Mora, F. Zappa, A. Gulinatti, D. Contini, A. Pifferi, L. Spinelli, A. Torricelli, and R. Cubeddu, “Fast-gated single-photon counting technique widens dynamic range and speeds up acquisition time in time-resolved measurements,” Opt. Express 19, 10735–10746 (2011).
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B. Dolgoshein, V. Balagura, P. Buzhan, M. Danilov, L. Filatov, E. Garutti, M. Groll, A. Ilyin, V. Kantserov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, F. Kayumov, S. Klemin, V. Korbel, H. Meyer, R. Mizuk, V. Morgunov, E. Novikov, P. Pakhlov, E. Popova, V. Rusinov, F. Sefkow, E. Tarkovsky, and I. Tikhomirov, “Status report on silicon photo-multiplier development and its applications,” Nucl. Instruments Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A Accel. Spectrometers, Detect. Assoc. Equip. 563, 368–376 (2006).
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B. Dolgoshein, V. Balagura, P. Buzhan, M. Danilov, L. Filatov, E. Garutti, M. Groll, A. Ilyin, V. Kantserov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, F. Kayumov, S. Klemin, V. Korbel, H. Meyer, R. Mizuk, V. Morgunov, E. Novikov, P. Pakhlov, E. Popova, V. Rusinov, F. Sefkow, E. Tarkovsky, and I. Tikhomirov, “Status report on silicon photo-multiplier development and its applications,” Nucl. Instruments Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A Accel. Spectrometers, Detect. Assoc. Equip. 563, 368–376 (2006).
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Hassanpour, M. S.

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H. Wabnitz, A. Jelzow, M. Mazurenka, O. Steinkellner, R. Macdonald, D. Milej, N. Zolek, M. Kacprzak, P. Sawosz, R. Maniewski, A. Liebert, S. Magazov, J. Hebden, F. Martelli, P. Di Ninni, G. Zaccanti, A. Torricelli, D. Contini, R. Re, L. Zucchelli, L. Spinelli, R. Cubeddu, and A. Pifferi, “Performance assessment of time-domain optical brain imagers, part 2: nEUROPt protocol,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19, 086012 (2014).
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Heine, A.

E. Kirilina, A. Jelzow, A. Heine, M. Niessing, H. Wabnitz, R. Brühl, B. Ittermann, A. M. Jacobs, and I. Tachtsidis, “The physiological origin of task-evoked systemic artefacts in functional near infrared spectroscopy,” Neuroimage 61, 70–81 (2012).
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Hershey, T.

A. T. Eggebrecht, S. L. Ferradal, A. Robichaux-Viehoever, M. S. Hassanpour, H. Dehghani, A. Z. Snyder, T. Hershey, and J. P. Culver, “Mapping distributed brain function and networks with diffuse optical tomography,” Nat. Photonics 8, 448–454 (2014).
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Ho, H.-C.

Ieva, F.

P. Taroni, G. Quarto, A. Pifferi, F. Ieva, A. M. Paganoni, F. Abbate, N. Balestreri, S. Menna, E. Cassano, and R. Cubeddu, “Optical identification of subjects at high risk for developing breast cancer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 060507 (2013).
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B. Dolgoshein, V. Balagura, P. Buzhan, M. Danilov, L. Filatov, E. Garutti, M. Groll, A. Ilyin, V. Kantserov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, F. Kayumov, S. Klemin, V. Korbel, H. Meyer, R. Mizuk, V. Morgunov, E. Novikov, P. Pakhlov, E. Popova, V. Rusinov, F. Sefkow, E. Tarkovsky, and I. Tikhomirov, “Status report on silicon photo-multiplier development and its applications,” Nucl. Instruments Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A Accel. Spectrometers, Detect. Assoc. Equip. 563, 368–376 (2006).
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Intes, X.

Ismaelli, A.

F. Martelli, S. Del Bianco, A. Ismaelli, and G. Zaccanti, Light Propagation through Biological Tissue and Other Diffusive Media, Press Monographs (SPIE Press, 2010).
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Ittermann, B.

E. Kirilina, A. Jelzow, A. Heine, M. Niessing, H. Wabnitz, R. Brühl, B. Ittermann, A. M. Jacobs, and I. Tachtsidis, “The physiological origin of task-evoked systemic artefacts in functional near infrared spectroscopy,” Neuroimage 61, 70–81 (2012).
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Jacobs, A. M.

E. Kirilina, A. Jelzow, A. Heine, M. Niessing, H. Wabnitz, R. Brühl, B. Ittermann, A. M. Jacobs, and I. Tachtsidis, “The physiological origin of task-evoked systemic artefacts in functional near infrared spectroscopy,” Neuroimage 61, 70–81 (2012).
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Janecek, E.-R.

Jelzow, A.

H. Wabnitz, A. Jelzow, M. Mazurenka, O. Steinkellner, R. Macdonald, D. Milej, N. Zolek, M. Kacprzak, P. Sawosz, R. Maniewski, A. Liebert, S. Magazov, J. Hebden, F. Martelli, P. Di Ninni, G. Zaccanti, A. Torricelli, D. Contini, R. Re, L. Zucchelli, L. Spinelli, R. Cubeddu, and A. Pifferi, “Performance assessment of time-domain optical brain imagers, part 2: nEUROPt protocol,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19, 086012 (2014).
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E. Kirilina, A. Jelzow, A. Heine, M. Niessing, H. Wabnitz, R. Brühl, B. Ittermann, A. M. Jacobs, and I. Tachtsidis, “The physiological origin of task-evoked systemic artefacts in functional near infrared spectroscopy,” Neuroimage 61, 70–81 (2012).
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Johansson, J.

Johansson, S.

Joseph, D. K.

J. Selb, D. K. Joseph, and D. A. Boas, “Time-gated optical system for depth-resolved functional brain imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 044008 (2006).
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Kacprzak, M.

H. Wabnitz, A. Jelzow, M. Mazurenka, O. Steinkellner, R. Macdonald, D. Milej, N. Zolek, M. Kacprzak, P. Sawosz, R. Maniewski, A. Liebert, S. Magazov, J. Hebden, F. Martelli, P. Di Ninni, G. Zaccanti, A. Torricelli, D. Contini, R. Re, L. Zucchelli, L. Spinelli, R. Cubeddu, and A. Pifferi, “Performance assessment of time-domain optical brain imagers, part 2: nEUROPt protocol,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19, 086012 (2014).
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L. Spinelli, M. Botwicz, N. Zolek, M. Kacprzak, D. Milej, P. Sawosz, A. Liebert, U. Weigel, T. Durduran, F. Foschum, A. Kienle, F. Baribeau, S. Leclair, J.-P. Bouchard, I. Noiseux, P. Gallant, O. Mermut, A. Farina, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, R. Cubeddu, H.-C. Ho, M. Mazurenka, H. Wabnitz, K. Klauenberg, O. Bodnar, C. Elster, M. Bénazech-Lavoué, Y. Bérubé-Lauzière, F. Lesage, D. Khoptyar, a. a. Subash, S. Andersson-Engels, P. Di Ninni, F. Martelli, and G. Zaccanti, “Determination of reference values for optical properties of liquid phantoms based on Intralipid and India ink,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5, 2037–2053 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Sawosz, N. Zolek, M. Kacprzak, R. Maniewski, and A. Liebert, “Application of time-gated CCD camera with image intensifier in contactless detection of absorbing inclusions buried in optically turbid medium which mimics local changes in oxygenation of the brain tissue,” Opto-Electronics Rev. 20, 309–314 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. Sawosz, M. Kacprzak, N. Zolek, W. Weigl, S. Wojtkiewicz, R. Maniewski, and A. Liebert, “Optical system based on time-gated, intensified charge-coupled device camera for brain imaging studies,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 066025 (2010).
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Kantserov, V.

B. Dolgoshein, V. Balagura, P. Buzhan, M. Danilov, L. Filatov, E. Garutti, M. Groll, A. Ilyin, V. Kantserov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, F. Kayumov, S. Klemin, V. Korbel, H. Meyer, R. Mizuk, V. Morgunov, E. Novikov, P. Pakhlov, E. Popova, V. Rusinov, F. Sefkow, E. Tarkovsky, and I. Tikhomirov, “Status report on silicon photo-multiplier development and its applications,” Nucl. Instruments Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A Accel. Spectrometers, Detect. Assoc. Equip. 563, 368–376 (2006).
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Kaplin, V.

B. Dolgoshein, V. Balagura, P. Buzhan, M. Danilov, L. Filatov, E. Garutti, M. Groll, A. Ilyin, V. Kantserov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, F. Kayumov, S. Klemin, V. Korbel, H. Meyer, R. Mizuk, V. Morgunov, E. Novikov, P. Pakhlov, E. Popova, V. Rusinov, F. Sefkow, E. Tarkovsky, and I. Tikhomirov, “Status report on silicon photo-multiplier development and its applications,” Nucl. Instruments Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A Accel. Spectrometers, Detect. Assoc. Equip. 563, 368–376 (2006).
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Karakash, A.

B. Dolgoshein, V. Balagura, P. Buzhan, M. Danilov, L. Filatov, E. Garutti, M. Groll, A. Ilyin, V. Kantserov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, F. Kayumov, S. Klemin, V. Korbel, H. Meyer, R. Mizuk, V. Morgunov, E. Novikov, P. Pakhlov, E. Popova, V. Rusinov, F. Sefkow, E. Tarkovsky, and I. Tikhomirov, “Status report on silicon photo-multiplier development and its applications,” Nucl. Instruments Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A Accel. Spectrometers, Detect. Assoc. Equip. 563, 368–376 (2006).
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B. Dolgoshein, V. Balagura, P. Buzhan, M. Danilov, L. Filatov, E. Garutti, M. Groll, A. Ilyin, V. Kantserov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, F. Kayumov, S. Klemin, V. Korbel, H. Meyer, R. Mizuk, V. Morgunov, E. Novikov, P. Pakhlov, E. Popova, V. Rusinov, F. Sefkow, E. Tarkovsky, and I. Tikhomirov, “Status report on silicon photo-multiplier development and its applications,” Nucl. Instruments Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A Accel. Spectrometers, Detect. Assoc. Equip. 563, 368–376 (2006).
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Khoptyar, D.

Kienle, A.

Kirilina, E.

E. Kirilina, A. Jelzow, A. Heine, M. Niessing, H. Wabnitz, R. Brühl, B. Ittermann, A. M. Jacobs, and I. Tachtsidis, “The physiological origin of task-evoked systemic artefacts in functional near infrared spectroscopy,” Neuroimage 61, 70–81 (2012).
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Klauenberg, K.

Klemin, S.

B. Dolgoshein, V. Balagura, P. Buzhan, M. Danilov, L. Filatov, E. Garutti, M. Groll, A. Ilyin, V. Kantserov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, F. Kayumov, S. Klemin, V. Korbel, H. Meyer, R. Mizuk, V. Morgunov, E. Novikov, P. Pakhlov, E. Popova, V. Rusinov, F. Sefkow, E. Tarkovsky, and I. Tikhomirov, “Status report on silicon photo-multiplier development and its applications,” Nucl. Instruments Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A Accel. Spectrometers, Detect. Assoc. Equip. 563, 368–376 (2006).
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B. Dolgoshein, V. Balagura, P. Buzhan, M. Danilov, L. Filatov, E. Garutti, M. Groll, A. Ilyin, V. Kantserov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, F. Kayumov, S. Klemin, V. Korbel, H. Meyer, R. Mizuk, V. Morgunov, E. Novikov, P. Pakhlov, E. Popova, V. Rusinov, F. Sefkow, E. Tarkovsky, and I. Tikhomirov, “Status report on silicon photo-multiplier development and its applications,” Nucl. Instruments Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A Accel. Spectrometers, Detect. Assoc. Equip. 563, 368–376 (2006).
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Leclair, S.

Lesage, F.

Liebert, A.

L. Spinelli, M. Botwicz, N. Zolek, M. Kacprzak, D. Milej, P. Sawosz, A. Liebert, U. Weigel, T. Durduran, F. Foschum, A. Kienle, F. Baribeau, S. Leclair, J.-P. Bouchard, I. Noiseux, P. Gallant, O. Mermut, A. Farina, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, R. Cubeddu, H.-C. Ho, M. Mazurenka, H. Wabnitz, K. Klauenberg, O. Bodnar, C. Elster, M. Bénazech-Lavoué, Y. Bérubé-Lauzière, F. Lesage, D. Khoptyar, a. a. Subash, S. Andersson-Engels, P. Di Ninni, F. Martelli, and G. Zaccanti, “Determination of reference values for optical properties of liquid phantoms based on Intralipid and India ink,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5, 2037–2053 (2014).
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H. Wabnitz, A. Jelzow, M. Mazurenka, O. Steinkellner, R. Macdonald, D. Milej, N. Zolek, M. Kacprzak, P. Sawosz, R. Maniewski, A. Liebert, S. Magazov, J. Hebden, F. Martelli, P. Di Ninni, G. Zaccanti, A. Torricelli, D. Contini, R. Re, L. Zucchelli, L. Spinelli, R. Cubeddu, and A. Pifferi, “Performance assessment of time-domain optical brain imagers, part 2: nEUROPt protocol,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19, 086012 (2014).
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P. Sawosz, N. Zolek, M. Kacprzak, R. Maniewski, and A. Liebert, “Application of time-gated CCD camera with image intensifier in contactless detection of absorbing inclusions buried in optically turbid medium which mimics local changes in oxygenation of the brain tissue,” Opto-Electronics Rev. 20, 309–314 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. Sawosz, M. Kacprzak, N. Zolek, W. Weigl, S. Wojtkiewicz, R. Maniewski, and A. Liebert, “Optical system based on time-gated, intensified charge-coupled device camera for brain imaging studies,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 066025 (2010).
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F. Villa, R. Lussana, D. Bronzi, S. Tisa, A. Tosi, F. Zappa, A. Dalla Mora, D. Contini, D. Durini, S. Weyers, and W. Brockherde, “CMOS Imager With 1024 SPADs and TDCs for Single-Photon Timing and 3-D Time-of-Flight,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 364–373 (2014).
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M. Mazurenka, L. Di Sieno, G. Boso, D. Contini, A. Pifferi, A. Dalla Mora, A. Tosi, H. Wabnitz, and R. Macdonald, “Non-contact in vivo diffuse optical imaging using a time-gated scanning system,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4, 2257–2268 (2013).
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F. Martelli, A. Pifferi, D. Contini, L. Spinelli, A. Torricelli, H. Wabnitz, R. Macdonald, A. Sassaroli, and G. Zaccanti, “Phantoms for diffuse optical imaging based on totally absorbing objects, part 1: Basic concepts,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 066014 (2013).
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Magazov, S.

H. Wabnitz, A. Jelzow, M. Mazurenka, O. Steinkellner, R. Macdonald, D. Milej, N. Zolek, M. Kacprzak, P. Sawosz, R. Maniewski, A. Liebert, S. Magazov, J. Hebden, F. Martelli, P. Di Ninni, G. Zaccanti, A. Torricelli, D. Contini, R. Re, L. Zucchelli, L. Spinelli, R. Cubeddu, and A. Pifferi, “Performance assessment of time-domain optical brain imagers, part 2: nEUROPt protocol,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19, 086012 (2014).
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Maidment, A. D.

D. R. Busch, R. Choe, T. Durduran, D. H. Friedman, W. B. Baker, A. D. Maidment, M. A. Rosen, M. D. Schnall, and A. G. Yodh, “Blood Flow Reduction in Breast Tissue due to Mammographic Compression,” Acad. Radiol. 21, 151–161 (2014).
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Maniewski, R.

H. Wabnitz, A. Jelzow, M. Mazurenka, O. Steinkellner, R. Macdonald, D. Milej, N. Zolek, M. Kacprzak, P. Sawosz, R. Maniewski, A. Liebert, S. Magazov, J. Hebden, F. Martelli, P. Di Ninni, G. Zaccanti, A. Torricelli, D. Contini, R. Re, L. Zucchelli, L. Spinelli, R. Cubeddu, and A. Pifferi, “Performance assessment of time-domain optical brain imagers, part 2: nEUROPt protocol,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19, 086012 (2014).
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P. Sawosz, N. Zolek, M. Kacprzak, R. Maniewski, and A. Liebert, “Application of time-gated CCD camera with image intensifier in contactless detection of absorbing inclusions buried in optically turbid medium which mimics local changes in oxygenation of the brain tissue,” Opto-Electronics Rev. 20, 309–314 (2012).
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P. Sawosz, M. Kacprzak, N. Zolek, W. Weigl, S. Wojtkiewicz, R. Maniewski, and A. Liebert, “Optical system based on time-gated, intensified charge-coupled device camera for brain imaging studies,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 066025 (2010).
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Martelli, F.

H. Wabnitz, A. Jelzow, M. Mazurenka, O. Steinkellner, R. Macdonald, D. Milej, N. Zolek, M. Kacprzak, P. Sawosz, R. Maniewski, A. Liebert, S. Magazov, J. Hebden, F. Martelli, P. Di Ninni, G. Zaccanti, A. Torricelli, D. Contini, R. Re, L. Zucchelli, L. Spinelli, R. Cubeddu, and A. Pifferi, “Performance assessment of time-domain optical brain imagers, part 2: nEUROPt protocol,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19, 086012 (2014).
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L. Spinelli, M. Botwicz, N. Zolek, M. Kacprzak, D. Milej, P. Sawosz, A. Liebert, U. Weigel, T. Durduran, F. Foschum, A. Kienle, F. Baribeau, S. Leclair, J.-P. Bouchard, I. Noiseux, P. Gallant, O. Mermut, A. Farina, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, R. Cubeddu, H.-C. Ho, M. Mazurenka, H. Wabnitz, K. Klauenberg, O. Bodnar, C. Elster, M. Bénazech-Lavoué, Y. Bérubé-Lauzière, F. Lesage, D. Khoptyar, a. a. Subash, S. Andersson-Engels, P. Di Ninni, F. Martelli, and G. Zaccanti, “Determination of reference values for optical properties of liquid phantoms based on Intralipid and India ink,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5, 2037–2053 (2014).
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F. Martelli, A. Pifferi, D. Contini, L. Spinelli, A. Torricelli, H. Wabnitz, R. Macdonald, A. Sassaroli, and G. Zaccanti, “Phantoms for diffuse optical imaging based on totally absorbing objects, part 1: Basic concepts,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 066014 (2013).
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Q. Zhao, L. Spinelli, A. Bassi, G. Valentini, D. Contini, A. Torricelli, R. Cubeddu, G. Zaccanti, F. Martelli, and A. Pifferi, “Functional tomography using a time-gated ICCD camera.,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2, 705–716 (2011).
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A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, L. Spinelli, D. Contini, R. Cubeddu, F. Martelli, G. Zaccanti, A. Tosi, A. Dalla Mora, F. Zappa, and S. Cova, “Time-resolved diffuse reflectance using small source-detector separation and fast single-photon gating,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 138101 (2008).
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A. Torricelli, A. Pifferi, L. Spinelli, R. Cubeddu, F. Martelli, S. Del Bianco, and G. Zaccanti, “Time-Resolved Reflectance at Null Source-Detector Separation: Improving Contrast and Resolution in Diffuse Optical Imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 078101 (2005).
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S. Carraresi, T. S. Shatir, F. Martelli, and G. Zaccanti, “Accuracy of a perturbation model to predict the effect of scattering and absorbing inhomogeneities on photon migration,” Appl. Opt. 40, 4622–4632 (2001).
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D. Contini, F. Martelli, and G. Zaccanti, “Photon migration through a turbid slab described by a model based on diffusion approximation. I. Theory,” Appl. Opt. 36, 4587–4599 (1997).
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F. Martelli, S. Del Bianco, A. Ismaelli, and G. Zaccanti, Light Propagation through Biological Tissue and Other Diffusive Media, Press Monographs (SPIE Press, 2010).
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Mazurenka, M.

McNeil-Watson, F. K.

Z. Sun, S. Torrance, F. K. McNeil-Watson, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Application of frequency domain photon migration to particle size analysis and monitoring of pharmaceutical powders,” Anal. Chem. 75, 1720–1725 (2003).
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Menna, S.

P. Taroni, G. Quarto, A. Pifferi, F. Ieva, A. M. Paganoni, F. Abbate, N. Balestreri, S. Menna, E. Cassano, and R. Cubeddu, “Optical identification of subjects at high risk for developing breast cancer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 060507 (2013).
[Crossref]

Mermut, O.

Meyer, H.

B. Dolgoshein, V. Balagura, P. Buzhan, M. Danilov, L. Filatov, E. Garutti, M. Groll, A. Ilyin, V. Kantserov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, F. Kayumov, S. Klemin, V. Korbel, H. Meyer, R. Mizuk, V. Morgunov, E. Novikov, P. Pakhlov, E. Popova, V. Rusinov, F. Sefkow, E. Tarkovsky, and I. Tikhomirov, “Status report on silicon photo-multiplier development and its applications,” Nucl. Instruments Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A Accel. Spectrometers, Detect. Assoc. Equip. 563, 368–376 (2006).
[Crossref]

Milej, D.

Mizuk, R.

B. Dolgoshein, V. Balagura, P. Buzhan, M. Danilov, L. Filatov, E. Garutti, M. Groll, A. Ilyin, V. Kantserov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, F. Kayumov, S. Klemin, V. Korbel, H. Meyer, R. Mizuk, V. Morgunov, E. Novikov, P. Pakhlov, E. Popova, V. Rusinov, F. Sefkow, E. Tarkovsky, and I. Tikhomirov, “Status report on silicon photo-multiplier development and its applications,” Nucl. Instruments Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A Accel. Spectrometers, Detect. Assoc. Equip. 563, 368–376 (2006).
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Morgunov, V.

B. Dolgoshein, V. Balagura, P. Buzhan, M. Danilov, L. Filatov, E. Garutti, M. Groll, A. Ilyin, V. Kantserov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, F. Kayumov, S. Klemin, V. Korbel, H. Meyer, R. Mizuk, V. Morgunov, E. Novikov, P. Pakhlov, E. Popova, V. Rusinov, F. Sefkow, E. Tarkovsky, and I. Tikhomirov, “Status report on silicon photo-multiplier development and its applications,” Nucl. Instruments Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A Accel. Spectrometers, Detect. Assoc. Equip. 563, 368–376 (2006).
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Nevin, A.

Niessing, M.

E. Kirilina, A. Jelzow, A. Heine, M. Niessing, H. Wabnitz, R. Brühl, B. Ittermann, A. M. Jacobs, and I. Tachtsidis, “The physiological origin of task-evoked systemic artefacts in functional near infrared spectroscopy,” Neuroimage 61, 70–81 (2012).
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Noiseux, I.

Novikov, E.

B. Dolgoshein, V. Balagura, P. Buzhan, M. Danilov, L. Filatov, E. Garutti, M. Groll, A. Ilyin, V. Kantserov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, F. Kayumov, S. Klemin, V. Korbel, H. Meyer, R. Mizuk, V. Morgunov, E. Novikov, P. Pakhlov, E. Popova, V. Rusinov, F. Sefkow, E. Tarkovsky, and I. Tikhomirov, “Status report on silicon photo-multiplier development and its applications,” Nucl. Instruments Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A Accel. Spectrometers, Detect. Assoc. Equip. 563, 368–376 (2006).
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H. Obrig and A. Villringer, “Beyond the visible–imaging the human brain with light,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 23, 1–18 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Steinbrink, H. Wabnitz, H. Obrig, A. Villringer, and H. Rinneberg, “Determining changes in NIR absorption using a layered model of the human head,” Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 879–896 (2001).
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OSullivan, T. D.

T. D. OSullivan, A. E. Cerussi, D. J. Cuccia, and B. J. Tromberg, “Diffuse optical imaging using spatially and temporally modulated light,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 071311 (2010).

Paganoni, A. M.

P. Taroni, G. Quarto, A. Pifferi, F. Ieva, A. M. Paganoni, F. Abbate, N. Balestreri, S. Menna, E. Cassano, and R. Cubeddu, “Optical identification of subjects at high risk for developing breast cancer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 060507 (2013).
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Pakhlov, P.

B. Dolgoshein, V. Balagura, P. Buzhan, M. Danilov, L. Filatov, E. Garutti, M. Groll, A. Ilyin, V. Kantserov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, F. Kayumov, S. Klemin, V. Korbel, H. Meyer, R. Mizuk, V. Morgunov, E. Novikov, P. Pakhlov, E. Popova, V. Rusinov, F. Sefkow, E. Tarkovsky, and I. Tikhomirov, “Status report on silicon photo-multiplier development and its applications,” Nucl. Instruments Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A Accel. Spectrometers, Detect. Assoc. Equip. 563, 368–376 (2006).
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Paschen, U.

F. Villa, D. Bronzi, Y. Zou, C. Scarcella, G. Boso, S. Tisa, A. Tosi, F. Zappa, D. Durini, S. Weyers, U. Paschen, and W. Brockherde, “CMOS SPADs with up to 500 μm diameter and 55% detection efficiency at 420 nm,” J. Mod. Opt. 61, 102–115 (2014).
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Patterson, M. S.

Persson, A.

Pian, Q.

Pichette, J.

E. Lapointe, J. Pichette, and Y. Bérubé-Lauzière, “A multi-view time-domain non-contact diffuse optical tomography scanner with dual wavelength detection for intrinsic and fluorescence small animal imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 063703 (2012).
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Pifferi, A.

H. Wabnitz, A. Jelzow, M. Mazurenka, O. Steinkellner, R. Macdonald, D. Milej, N. Zolek, M. Kacprzak, P. Sawosz, R. Maniewski, A. Liebert, S. Magazov, J. Hebden, F. Martelli, P. Di Ninni, G. Zaccanti, A. Torricelli, D. Contini, R. Re, L. Zucchelli, L. Spinelli, R. Cubeddu, and A. Pifferi, “Performance assessment of time-domain optical brain imagers, part 2: nEUROPt protocol,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19, 086012 (2014).
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A. Torricelli, D. Contini, A. Pifferi, M. Caffini, R. Re, L. Zucchelli, and L. Spinelli, “Time domain functional NIRS imaging for human brain mapping,” Neuroimage 85, 28–50 (2014).
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L. Di Sieno, A. Dalla Mora, G. Boso, A. Tosi, A. Pifferi, R. Cubeddu, and D. Contini, “Diffuse optics using a dual window fast-gated counter,” Appl. Opt. 53, 7394–7401 (2014).
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A. Farina, I. Bargigia, E.-R. Janeček, Z. Walsh, C. D’Andrea, A. Nevin, M. Ramage, O. A. Scherman, and A. Pifferi, “Nondestructive optical detection of monomer uptake in wood polymer composites,” Opt. Lett. 39, 228–231 (2014).
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L. Spinelli, M. Botwicz, N. Zolek, M. Kacprzak, D. Milej, P. Sawosz, A. Liebert, U. Weigel, T. Durduran, F. Foschum, A. Kienle, F. Baribeau, S. Leclair, J.-P. Bouchard, I. Noiseux, P. Gallant, O. Mermut, A. Farina, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, R. Cubeddu, H.-C. Ho, M. Mazurenka, H. Wabnitz, K. Klauenberg, O. Bodnar, C. Elster, M. Bénazech-Lavoué, Y. Bérubé-Lauzière, F. Lesage, D. Khoptyar, a. a. Subash, S. Andersson-Engels, P. Di Ninni, F. Martelli, and G. Zaccanti, “Determination of reference values for optical properties of liquid phantoms based on Intralipid and India ink,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5, 2037–2053 (2014).
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M. Mazurenka, L. Di Sieno, G. Boso, D. Contini, A. Pifferi, A. Dalla Mora, A. Tosi, H. Wabnitz, and R. Macdonald, “Non-contact in vivo diffuse optical imaging using a time-gated scanning system,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4, 2257–2268 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Taroni, G. Quarto, A. Pifferi, F. Ieva, A. M. Paganoni, F. Abbate, N. Balestreri, S. Menna, E. Cassano, and R. Cubeddu, “Optical identification of subjects at high risk for developing breast cancer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 060507 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. Martelli, A. Pifferi, D. Contini, L. Spinelli, A. Torricelli, H. Wabnitz, R. Macdonald, A. Sassaroli, and G. Zaccanti, “Phantoms for diffuse optical imaging based on totally absorbing objects, part 1: Basic concepts,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 066014 (2013).
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A. Dalla Mora, D. Contini, A. Pifferi, R. Cubeddu, A. Tosi, and F. Zappa, “Afterpulse-like noise limits dynamic range in time-gated applications of thin-junction silicon single-photon avalanche diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 241111 (2012).
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A. Tosi, A. Dalla Mora, F. Zappa, A. Gulinatti, D. Contini, A. Pifferi, L. Spinelli, A. Torricelli, and R. Cubeddu, “Fast-gated single-photon counting technique widens dynamic range and speeds up acquisition time in time-resolved measurements,” Opt. Express 19, 10735–10746 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Zhao, L. Spinelli, A. Bassi, G. Valentini, D. Contini, A. Torricelli, R. Cubeddu, G. Zaccanti, F. Martelli, and A. Pifferi, “Functional tomography using a time-gated ICCD camera.,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2, 705–716 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Dalla Mora, A. Tosi, F. Zappa, S. Cova, D. Contini, A. Pifferi, L. Spinelli, A. Torricelli, and R. Cubeddu, “Fast-Gated Single-Photon Avalanche Diode for Wide Dynamic Range Near Infrared Spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 1023–1030 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, L. Spinelli, D. Contini, R. Cubeddu, F. Martelli, G. Zaccanti, A. Tosi, A. Dalla Mora, F. Zappa, and S. Cova, “Time-resolved diffuse reflectance using small source-detector separation and fast single-photon gating,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 138101 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Torricelli, A. Pifferi, L. Spinelli, R. Cubeddu, F. Martelli, S. Del Bianco, and G. Zaccanti, “Time-Resolved Reflectance at Null Source-Detector Separation: Improving Contrast and Resolution in Diffuse Optical Imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 078101 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Popova, E.

B. Dolgoshein, V. Balagura, P. Buzhan, M. Danilov, L. Filatov, E. Garutti, M. Groll, A. Ilyin, V. Kantserov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, F. Kayumov, S. Klemin, V. Korbel, H. Meyer, R. Mizuk, V. Morgunov, E. Novikov, P. Pakhlov, E. Popova, V. Rusinov, F. Sefkow, E. Tarkovsky, and I. Tikhomirov, “Status report on silicon photo-multiplier development and its applications,” Nucl. Instruments Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A Accel. Spectrometers, Detect. Assoc. Equip. 563, 368–376 (2006).
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Press, W. H.

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, and B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes: The Art of Scientific Computing (Cambridge University Press, 1988).

Quarto, G.

P. Taroni, G. Quarto, A. Pifferi, F. Ieva, A. M. Paganoni, F. Abbate, N. Balestreri, S. Menna, E. Cassano, and R. Cubeddu, “Optical identification of subjects at high risk for developing breast cancer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 060507 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ramage, M.

Re, R.

H. Wabnitz, A. Jelzow, M. Mazurenka, O. Steinkellner, R. Macdonald, D. Milej, N. Zolek, M. Kacprzak, P. Sawosz, R. Maniewski, A. Liebert, S. Magazov, J. Hebden, F. Martelli, P. Di Ninni, G. Zaccanti, A. Torricelli, D. Contini, R. Re, L. Zucchelli, L. Spinelli, R. Cubeddu, and A. Pifferi, “Performance assessment of time-domain optical brain imagers, part 2: nEUROPt protocol,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19, 086012 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Torricelli, D. Contini, A. Pifferi, M. Caffini, R. Re, L. Zucchelli, and L. Spinelli, “Time domain functional NIRS imaging for human brain mapping,” Neuroimage 85, 28–50 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Re, D. Contini, M. Turola, L. Spinelli, L. Zucchelli, M. Caffini, R. Cubeddu, and A. Torricelli, “Multi-channel medical device for time domain functional near infrared spectroscopy based on wavelength space multiplexing,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4, 2231–2246 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rinneberg, H.

J. Steinbrink, H. Wabnitz, H. Obrig, A. Villringer, and H. Rinneberg, “Determining changes in NIR absorption using a layered model of the human head,” Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 879–896 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Robichaux-Viehoever, A.

A. T. Eggebrecht, S. L. Ferradal, A. Robichaux-Viehoever, M. S. Hassanpour, H. Dehghani, A. Z. Snyder, T. Hershey, and J. P. Culver, “Mapping distributed brain function and networks with diffuse optical tomography,” Nat. Photonics 8, 448–454 (2014).
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Rosen, M. A.

D. R. Busch, R. Choe, T. Durduran, D. H. Friedman, W. B. Baker, A. D. Maidment, M. A. Rosen, M. D. Schnall, and A. G. Yodh, “Blood Flow Reduction in Breast Tissue due to Mammographic Compression,” Acad. Radiol. 21, 151–161 (2014).
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Rusinov, V.

B. Dolgoshein, V. Balagura, P. Buzhan, M. Danilov, L. Filatov, E. Garutti, M. Groll, A. Ilyin, V. Kantserov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, F. Kayumov, S. Klemin, V. Korbel, H. Meyer, R. Mizuk, V. Morgunov, E. Novikov, P. Pakhlov, E. Popova, V. Rusinov, F. Sefkow, E. Tarkovsky, and I. Tikhomirov, “Status report on silicon photo-multiplier development and its applications,” Nucl. Instruments Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A Accel. Spectrometers, Detect. Assoc. Equip. 563, 368–376 (2006).
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Saleem, M.

Sassaroli, A.

F. Martelli, A. Pifferi, D. Contini, L. Spinelli, A. Torricelli, H. Wabnitz, R. Macdonald, A. Sassaroli, and G. Zaccanti, “Phantoms for diffuse optical imaging based on totally absorbing objects, part 1: Basic concepts,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 066014 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sawosz, P.

H. Wabnitz, A. Jelzow, M. Mazurenka, O. Steinkellner, R. Macdonald, D. Milej, N. Zolek, M. Kacprzak, P. Sawosz, R. Maniewski, A. Liebert, S. Magazov, J. Hebden, F. Martelli, P. Di Ninni, G. Zaccanti, A. Torricelli, D. Contini, R. Re, L. Zucchelli, L. Spinelli, R. Cubeddu, and A. Pifferi, “Performance assessment of time-domain optical brain imagers, part 2: nEUROPt protocol,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19, 086012 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Spinelli, M. Botwicz, N. Zolek, M. Kacprzak, D. Milej, P. Sawosz, A. Liebert, U. Weigel, T. Durduran, F. Foschum, A. Kienle, F. Baribeau, S. Leclair, J.-P. Bouchard, I. Noiseux, P. Gallant, O. Mermut, A. Farina, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, R. Cubeddu, H.-C. Ho, M. Mazurenka, H. Wabnitz, K. Klauenberg, O. Bodnar, C. Elster, M. Bénazech-Lavoué, Y. Bérubé-Lauzière, F. Lesage, D. Khoptyar, a. a. Subash, S. Andersson-Engels, P. Di Ninni, F. Martelli, and G. Zaccanti, “Determination of reference values for optical properties of liquid phantoms based on Intralipid and India ink,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5, 2037–2053 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Sawosz, N. Zolek, M. Kacprzak, R. Maniewski, and A. Liebert, “Application of time-gated CCD camera with image intensifier in contactless detection of absorbing inclusions buried in optically turbid medium which mimics local changes in oxygenation of the brain tissue,” Opto-Electronics Rev. 20, 309–314 (2012).
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P. Sawosz, M. Kacprzak, N. Zolek, W. Weigl, S. Wojtkiewicz, R. Maniewski, and A. Liebert, “Optical system based on time-gated, intensified charge-coupled device camera for brain imaging studies,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 066025 (2010).
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Scarcella, C.

F. Villa, D. Bronzi, Y. Zou, C. Scarcella, G. Boso, S. Tisa, A. Tosi, F. Zappa, D. Durini, S. Weyers, U. Paschen, and W. Brockherde, “CMOS SPADs with up to 500 μm diameter and 55% detection efficiency at 420 nm,” J. Mod. Opt. 61, 102–115 (2014).
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Scherman, O. A.

Schlaggar, B. L.

B. W. Zeff, B. R. White, H. Dehghani, B. L. Schlaggar, and J. P. Culver, “Retinotopic mapping of adult human visual cortex with high-density diffuse optical tomography,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 104, 12169–12174 (2007).
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Schnall, M. D.

D. R. Busch, R. Choe, T. Durduran, D. H. Friedman, W. B. Baker, A. D. Maidment, M. A. Rosen, M. D. Schnall, and A. G. Yodh, “Blood Flow Reduction in Breast Tissue due to Mammographic Compression,” Acad. Radiol. 21, 151–161 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sefkow, F.

B. Dolgoshein, V. Balagura, P. Buzhan, M. Danilov, L. Filatov, E. Garutti, M. Groll, A. Ilyin, V. Kantserov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, F. Kayumov, S. Klemin, V. Korbel, H. Meyer, R. Mizuk, V. Morgunov, E. Novikov, P. Pakhlov, E. Popova, V. Rusinov, F. Sefkow, E. Tarkovsky, and I. Tikhomirov, “Status report on silicon photo-multiplier development and its applications,” Nucl. Instruments Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A Accel. Spectrometers, Detect. Assoc. Equip. 563, 368–376 (2006).
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Selb, J.

J. Selb, D. K. Joseph, and D. A. Boas, “Time-gated optical system for depth-resolved functional brain imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 044008 (2006).
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Sevick-Muraca, E. M.

Z. Sun, S. Torrance, F. K. McNeil-Watson, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Application of frequency domain photon migration to particle size analysis and monitoring of pharmaceutical powders,” Anal. Chem. 75, 1720–1725 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shatir, T. S.

Snyder, A. Z.

A. T. Eggebrecht, S. L. Ferradal, A. Robichaux-Viehoever, M. S. Hassanpour, H. Dehghani, A. Z. Snyder, T. Hershey, and J. P. Culver, “Mapping distributed brain function and networks with diffuse optical tomography,” Nat. Photonics 8, 448–454 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sparén, A.

Spinelli, L.

A. Torricelli, D. Contini, A. Pifferi, M. Caffini, R. Re, L. Zucchelli, and L. Spinelli, “Time domain functional NIRS imaging for human brain mapping,” Neuroimage 85, 28–50 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Wabnitz, A. Jelzow, M. Mazurenka, O. Steinkellner, R. Macdonald, D. Milej, N. Zolek, M. Kacprzak, P. Sawosz, R. Maniewski, A. Liebert, S. Magazov, J. Hebden, F. Martelli, P. Di Ninni, G. Zaccanti, A. Torricelli, D. Contini, R. Re, L. Zucchelli, L. Spinelli, R. Cubeddu, and A. Pifferi, “Performance assessment of time-domain optical brain imagers, part 2: nEUROPt protocol,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19, 086012 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Spinelli, M. Botwicz, N. Zolek, M. Kacprzak, D. Milej, P. Sawosz, A. Liebert, U. Weigel, T. Durduran, F. Foschum, A. Kienle, F. Baribeau, S. Leclair, J.-P. Bouchard, I. Noiseux, P. Gallant, O. Mermut, A. Farina, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, R. Cubeddu, H.-C. Ho, M. Mazurenka, H. Wabnitz, K. Klauenberg, O. Bodnar, C. Elster, M. Bénazech-Lavoué, Y. Bérubé-Lauzière, F. Lesage, D. Khoptyar, a. a. Subash, S. Andersson-Engels, P. Di Ninni, F. Martelli, and G. Zaccanti, “Determination of reference values for optical properties of liquid phantoms based on Intralipid and India ink,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5, 2037–2053 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Re, D. Contini, M. Turola, L. Spinelli, L. Zucchelli, M. Caffini, R. Cubeddu, and A. Torricelli, “Multi-channel medical device for time domain functional near infrared spectroscopy based on wavelength space multiplexing,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4, 2231–2246 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Martelli, A. Pifferi, D. Contini, L. Spinelli, A. Torricelli, H. Wabnitz, R. Macdonald, A. Sassaroli, and G. Zaccanti, “Phantoms for diffuse optical imaging based on totally absorbing objects, part 1: Basic concepts,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 066014 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Tosi, A. Dalla Mora, F. Zappa, A. Gulinatti, D. Contini, A. Pifferi, L. Spinelli, A. Torricelli, and R. Cubeddu, “Fast-gated single-photon counting technique widens dynamic range and speeds up acquisition time in time-resolved measurements,” Opt. Express 19, 10735–10746 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Zhao, L. Spinelli, A. Bassi, G. Valentini, D. Contini, A. Torricelli, R. Cubeddu, G. Zaccanti, F. Martelli, and A. Pifferi, “Functional tomography using a time-gated ICCD camera.,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2, 705–716 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Dalla Mora, A. Tosi, F. Zappa, S. Cova, D. Contini, A. Pifferi, L. Spinelli, A. Torricelli, and R. Cubeddu, “Fast-Gated Single-Photon Avalanche Diode for Wide Dynamic Range Near Infrared Spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 1023–1030 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, L. Spinelli, D. Contini, R. Cubeddu, F. Martelli, G. Zaccanti, A. Tosi, A. Dalla Mora, F. Zappa, and S. Cova, “Time-resolved diffuse reflectance using small source-detector separation and fast single-photon gating,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 138101 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Torricelli, A. Pifferi, L. Spinelli, R. Cubeddu, F. Martelli, S. Del Bianco, and G. Zaccanti, “Time-Resolved Reflectance at Null Source-Detector Separation: Improving Contrast and Resolution in Diffuse Optical Imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 078101 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Steinbrink, J.

J. Steinbrink, H. Wabnitz, H. Obrig, A. Villringer, and H. Rinneberg, “Determining changes in NIR absorption using a layered model of the human head,” Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 879–896 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Steinkellner, O.

H. Wabnitz, A. Jelzow, M. Mazurenka, O. Steinkellner, R. Macdonald, D. Milej, N. Zolek, M. Kacprzak, P. Sawosz, R. Maniewski, A. Liebert, S. Magazov, J. Hebden, F. Martelli, P. Di Ninni, G. Zaccanti, A. Torricelli, D. Contini, R. Re, L. Zucchelli, L. Spinelli, R. Cubeddu, and A. Pifferi, “Performance assessment of time-domain optical brain imagers, part 2: nEUROPt protocol,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19, 086012 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Subash, a. a.

Sun, Z.

Z. Sun, S. Torrance, F. K. McNeil-Watson, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Application of frequency domain photon migration to particle size analysis and monitoring of pharmaceutical powders,” Anal. Chem. 75, 1720–1725 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Svanberg, K.

T. Svensson, E. Alerstam, M. Einarsdóttír, K. Svanberg, and S. Andersson-Engels, “Towards accurate in vivo spectroscopy of the human prostate,” J. Biophotonics 1, 200–203 (2008).
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Svanberg, S.

Svensson, T.

T. Svensson, E. Alerstam, M. Einarsdóttír, K. Svanberg, and S. Andersson-Engels, “Towards accurate in vivo spectroscopy of the human prostate,” J. Biophotonics 1, 200–203 (2008).
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Tachtsidis, I.

E. Kirilina, A. Jelzow, A. Heine, M. Niessing, H. Wabnitz, R. Brühl, B. Ittermann, A. M. Jacobs, and I. Tachtsidis, “The physiological origin of task-evoked systemic artefacts in functional near infrared spectroscopy,” Neuroimage 61, 70–81 (2012).
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Tanikawa, Y.

H. Zhao, F. Gao, Y. Tanikawa, and Y. Yamada, “Time-resolved diffuse optical tomography and its application to in vitro and in vivo imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 062107 (2007).
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Tarkovsky, E.

B. Dolgoshein, V. Balagura, P. Buzhan, M. Danilov, L. Filatov, E. Garutti, M. Groll, A. Ilyin, V. Kantserov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, F. Kayumov, S. Klemin, V. Korbel, H. Meyer, R. Mizuk, V. Morgunov, E. Novikov, P. Pakhlov, E. Popova, V. Rusinov, F. Sefkow, E. Tarkovsky, and I. Tikhomirov, “Status report on silicon photo-multiplier development and its applications,” Nucl. Instruments Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A Accel. Spectrometers, Detect. Assoc. Equip. 563, 368–376 (2006).
[Crossref]

Taroni, P.

P. Taroni, G. Quarto, A. Pifferi, F. Ieva, A. M. Paganoni, F. Abbate, N. Balestreri, S. Menna, E. Cassano, and R. Cubeddu, “Optical identification of subjects at high risk for developing breast cancer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 060507 (2013).
[Crossref]

Teukolsky, S. A.

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, and B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes: The Art of Scientific Computing (Cambridge University Press, 1988).

Tikhomirov, I.

B. Dolgoshein, V. Balagura, P. Buzhan, M. Danilov, L. Filatov, E. Garutti, M. Groll, A. Ilyin, V. Kantserov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, F. Kayumov, S. Klemin, V. Korbel, H. Meyer, R. Mizuk, V. Morgunov, E. Novikov, P. Pakhlov, E. Popova, V. Rusinov, F. Sefkow, E. Tarkovsky, and I. Tikhomirov, “Status report on silicon photo-multiplier development and its applications,” Nucl. Instruments Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A Accel. Spectrometers, Detect. Assoc. Equip. 563, 368–376 (2006).
[Crossref]

Tisa, S.

F. Villa, D. Bronzi, Y. Zou, C. Scarcella, G. Boso, S. Tisa, A. Tosi, F. Zappa, D. Durini, S. Weyers, U. Paschen, and W. Brockherde, “CMOS SPADs with up to 500 μm diameter and 55% detection efficiency at 420 nm,” J. Mod. Opt. 61, 102–115 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Villa, R. Lussana, D. Bronzi, S. Tisa, A. Tosi, F. Zappa, A. Dalla Mora, D. Contini, D. Durini, S. Weyers, and W. Brockherde, “CMOS Imager With 1024 SPADs and TDCs for Single-Photon Timing and 3-D Time-of-Flight,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 364–373 (2014).
[Crossref]

Torrance, S.

Z. Sun, S. Torrance, F. K. McNeil-Watson, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Application of frequency domain photon migration to particle size analysis and monitoring of pharmaceutical powders,” Anal. Chem. 75, 1720–1725 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Torricelli, A.

H. Wabnitz, A. Jelzow, M. Mazurenka, O. Steinkellner, R. Macdonald, D. Milej, N. Zolek, M. Kacprzak, P. Sawosz, R. Maniewski, A. Liebert, S. Magazov, J. Hebden, F. Martelli, P. Di Ninni, G. Zaccanti, A. Torricelli, D. Contini, R. Re, L. Zucchelli, L. Spinelli, R. Cubeddu, and A. Pifferi, “Performance assessment of time-domain optical brain imagers, part 2: nEUROPt protocol,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19, 086012 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Torricelli, D. Contini, A. Pifferi, M. Caffini, R. Re, L. Zucchelli, and L. Spinelli, “Time domain functional NIRS imaging for human brain mapping,” Neuroimage 85, 28–50 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Spinelli, M. Botwicz, N. Zolek, M. Kacprzak, D. Milej, P. Sawosz, A. Liebert, U. Weigel, T. Durduran, F. Foschum, A. Kienle, F. Baribeau, S. Leclair, J.-P. Bouchard, I. Noiseux, P. Gallant, O. Mermut, A. Farina, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, R. Cubeddu, H.-C. Ho, M. Mazurenka, H. Wabnitz, K. Klauenberg, O. Bodnar, C. Elster, M. Bénazech-Lavoué, Y. Bérubé-Lauzière, F. Lesage, D. Khoptyar, a. a. Subash, S. Andersson-Engels, P. Di Ninni, F. Martelli, and G. Zaccanti, “Determination of reference values for optical properties of liquid phantoms based on Intralipid and India ink,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5, 2037–2053 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Martelli, A. Pifferi, D. Contini, L. Spinelli, A. Torricelli, H. Wabnitz, R. Macdonald, A. Sassaroli, and G. Zaccanti, “Phantoms for diffuse optical imaging based on totally absorbing objects, part 1: Basic concepts,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 066014 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Re, D. Contini, M. Turola, L. Spinelli, L. Zucchelli, M. Caffini, R. Cubeddu, and A. Torricelli, “Multi-channel medical device for time domain functional near infrared spectroscopy based on wavelength space multiplexing,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4, 2231–2246 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Tosi, A. Dalla Mora, F. Zappa, A. Gulinatti, D. Contini, A. Pifferi, L. Spinelli, A. Torricelli, and R. Cubeddu, “Fast-gated single-photon counting technique widens dynamic range and speeds up acquisition time in time-resolved measurements,” Opt. Express 19, 10735–10746 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Zhao, L. Spinelli, A. Bassi, G. Valentini, D. Contini, A. Torricelli, R. Cubeddu, G. Zaccanti, F. Martelli, and A. Pifferi, “Functional tomography using a time-gated ICCD camera.,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2, 705–716 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Dalla Mora, A. Tosi, F. Zappa, S. Cova, D. Contini, A. Pifferi, L. Spinelli, A. Torricelli, and R. Cubeddu, “Fast-Gated Single-Photon Avalanche Diode for Wide Dynamic Range Near Infrared Spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 1023–1030 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, L. Spinelli, D. Contini, R. Cubeddu, F. Martelli, G. Zaccanti, A. Tosi, A. Dalla Mora, F. Zappa, and S. Cova, “Time-resolved diffuse reflectance using small source-detector separation and fast single-photon gating,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 138101 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Torricelli, A. Pifferi, L. Spinelli, R. Cubeddu, F. Martelli, S. Del Bianco, and G. Zaccanti, “Time-Resolved Reflectance at Null Source-Detector Separation: Improving Contrast and Resolution in Diffuse Optical Imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 078101 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tosi, A.

F. Villa, R. Lussana, D. Bronzi, S. Tisa, A. Tosi, F. Zappa, A. Dalla Mora, D. Contini, D. Durini, S. Weyers, and W. Brockherde, “CMOS Imager With 1024 SPADs and TDCs for Single-Photon Timing and 3-D Time-of-Flight,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 364–373 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Villa, D. Bronzi, Y. Zou, C. Scarcella, G. Boso, S. Tisa, A. Tosi, F. Zappa, D. Durini, S. Weyers, U. Paschen, and W. Brockherde, “CMOS SPADs with up to 500 μm diameter and 55% detection efficiency at 420 nm,” J. Mod. Opt. 61, 102–115 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Di Sieno, A. Dalla Mora, G. Boso, A. Tosi, A. Pifferi, R. Cubeddu, and D. Contini, “Diffuse optics using a dual window fast-gated counter,” Appl. Opt. 53, 7394–7401 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Mazurenka, L. Di Sieno, G. Boso, D. Contini, A. Pifferi, A. Dalla Mora, A. Tosi, H. Wabnitz, and R. Macdonald, “Non-contact in vivo diffuse optical imaging using a time-gated scanning system,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4, 2257–2268 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Dalla Mora, D. Contini, A. Pifferi, R. Cubeddu, A. Tosi, and F. Zappa, “Afterpulse-like noise limits dynamic range in time-gated applications of thin-junction silicon single-photon avalanche diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 241111 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Tosi, A. Dalla Mora, F. Zappa, A. Gulinatti, D. Contini, A. Pifferi, L. Spinelli, A. Torricelli, and R. Cubeddu, “Fast-gated single-photon counting technique widens dynamic range and speeds up acquisition time in time-resolved measurements,” Opt. Express 19, 10735–10746 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Dalla Mora, A. Tosi, F. Zappa, S. Cova, D. Contini, A. Pifferi, L. Spinelli, A. Torricelli, and R. Cubeddu, “Fast-Gated Single-Photon Avalanche Diode for Wide Dynamic Range Near Infrared Spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 1023–1030 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, L. Spinelli, D. Contini, R. Cubeddu, F. Martelli, G. Zaccanti, A. Tosi, A. Dalla Mora, F. Zappa, and S. Cova, “Time-resolved diffuse reflectance using small source-detector separation and fast single-photon gating,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 138101 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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T. D. OSullivan, A. E. Cerussi, D. J. Cuccia, and B. J. Tromberg, “Diffuse optical imaging using spatially and temporally modulated light,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 071311 (2010).

Turola, M.

Valentini, G.

van der Zee, P.

D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, P. van der Zee, S. Arridge, S. Wray, and J. Wyatt, “Estimation of optical pathlength through tissue from direct time of flight measurement,” Phys. Med. Biol. 33, 1433–1442 (1988).
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Venugopal, V.

Vetterling, W. T.

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F. Villa, R. Lussana, D. Bronzi, S. Tisa, A. Tosi, F. Zappa, A. Dalla Mora, D. Contini, D. Durini, S. Weyers, and W. Brockherde, “CMOS Imager With 1024 SPADs and TDCs for Single-Photon Timing and 3-D Time-of-Flight,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 364–373 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Villa, D. Bronzi, Y. Zou, C. Scarcella, G. Boso, S. Tisa, A. Tosi, F. Zappa, D. Durini, S. Weyers, U. Paschen, and W. Brockherde, “CMOS SPADs with up to 500 μm diameter and 55% detection efficiency at 420 nm,” J. Mod. Opt. 61, 102–115 (2014).
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J. Steinbrink, H. Wabnitz, H. Obrig, A. Villringer, and H. Rinneberg, “Determining changes in NIR absorption using a layered model of the human head,” Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 879–896 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wabnitz, H.

H. Wabnitz, A. Jelzow, M. Mazurenka, O. Steinkellner, R. Macdonald, D. Milej, N. Zolek, M. Kacprzak, P. Sawosz, R. Maniewski, A. Liebert, S. Magazov, J. Hebden, F. Martelli, P. Di Ninni, G. Zaccanti, A. Torricelli, D. Contini, R. Re, L. Zucchelli, L. Spinelli, R. Cubeddu, and A. Pifferi, “Performance assessment of time-domain optical brain imagers, part 2: nEUROPt protocol,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19, 086012 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Spinelli, M. Botwicz, N. Zolek, M. Kacprzak, D. Milej, P. Sawosz, A. Liebert, U. Weigel, T. Durduran, F. Foschum, A. Kienle, F. Baribeau, S. Leclair, J.-P. Bouchard, I. Noiseux, P. Gallant, O. Mermut, A. Farina, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, R. Cubeddu, H.-C. Ho, M. Mazurenka, H. Wabnitz, K. Klauenberg, O. Bodnar, C. Elster, M. Bénazech-Lavoué, Y. Bérubé-Lauzière, F. Lesage, D. Khoptyar, a. a. Subash, S. Andersson-Engels, P. Di Ninni, F. Martelli, and G. Zaccanti, “Determination of reference values for optical properties of liquid phantoms based on Intralipid and India ink,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5, 2037–2053 (2014).
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F. Martelli, A. Pifferi, D. Contini, L. Spinelli, A. Torricelli, H. Wabnitz, R. Macdonald, A. Sassaroli, and G. Zaccanti, “Phantoms for diffuse optical imaging based on totally absorbing objects, part 1: Basic concepts,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 066014 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Mazurenka, L. Di Sieno, G. Boso, D. Contini, A. Pifferi, A. Dalla Mora, A. Tosi, H. Wabnitz, and R. Macdonald, “Non-contact in vivo diffuse optical imaging using a time-gated scanning system,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4, 2257–2268 (2013).
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E. Kirilina, A. Jelzow, A. Heine, M. Niessing, H. Wabnitz, R. Brühl, B. Ittermann, A. M. Jacobs, and I. Tachtsidis, “The physiological origin of task-evoked systemic artefacts in functional near infrared spectroscopy,” Neuroimage 61, 70–81 (2012).
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J. Steinbrink, H. Wabnitz, H. Obrig, A. Villringer, and H. Rinneberg, “Determining changes in NIR absorption using a layered model of the human head,” Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 879–896 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Walsh, Z.

Weigel, U.

Weigl, W.

P. Sawosz, M. Kacprzak, N. Zolek, W. Weigl, S. Wojtkiewicz, R. Maniewski, and A. Liebert, “Optical system based on time-gated, intensified charge-coupled device camera for brain imaging studies,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 066025 (2010).
[Crossref]

Weyers, S.

F. Villa, R. Lussana, D. Bronzi, S. Tisa, A. Tosi, F. Zappa, A. Dalla Mora, D. Contini, D. Durini, S. Weyers, and W. Brockherde, “CMOS Imager With 1024 SPADs and TDCs for Single-Photon Timing and 3-D Time-of-Flight,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 364–373 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Villa, D. Bronzi, Y. Zou, C. Scarcella, G. Boso, S. Tisa, A. Tosi, F. Zappa, D. Durini, S. Weyers, U. Paschen, and W. Brockherde, “CMOS SPADs with up to 500 μm diameter and 55% detection efficiency at 420 nm,” J. Mod. Opt. 61, 102–115 (2014).
[Crossref]

White, B. R.

B. W. Zeff, B. R. White, H. Dehghani, B. L. Schlaggar, and J. P. Culver, “Retinotopic mapping of adult human visual cortex with high-density diffuse optical tomography,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 104, 12169–12174 (2007).
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D. S. Wiersma, “Disordered photonics,” Nat. Photonics 7, 188–196 (2013).
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Wojtkiewicz, S.

P. Sawosz, M. Kacprzak, N. Zolek, W. Weigl, S. Wojtkiewicz, R. Maniewski, and A. Liebert, “Optical system based on time-gated, intensified charge-coupled device camera for brain imaging studies,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 066025 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wray, S.

D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, P. van der Zee, S. Arridge, S. Wray, and J. Wyatt, “Estimation of optical pathlength through tissue from direct time of flight measurement,” Phys. Med. Biol. 33, 1433–1442 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wyatt, J.

D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, P. van der Zee, S. Arridge, S. Wray, and J. Wyatt, “Estimation of optical pathlength through tissue from direct time of flight measurement,” Phys. Med. Biol. 33, 1433–1442 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yamada, Y.

H. Zhao, F. Gao, Y. Tanikawa, and Y. Yamada, “Time-resolved diffuse optical tomography and its application to in vitro and in vivo imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 062107 (2007).
[Crossref]

Yao, R.

Yodh, A. G.

D. R. Busch, R. Choe, T. Durduran, D. H. Friedman, W. B. Baker, A. D. Maidment, M. A. Rosen, M. D. Schnall, and A. G. Yodh, “Blood Flow Reduction in Breast Tissue due to Mammographic Compression,” Acad. Radiol. 21, 151–161 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Durduran, R. Choe, W. B. Baker, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optics for tissue monitoring and tomography,” Reports Prog. Phys. 73, 076701 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zaccanti, G.

H. Wabnitz, A. Jelzow, M. Mazurenka, O. Steinkellner, R. Macdonald, D. Milej, N. Zolek, M. Kacprzak, P. Sawosz, R. Maniewski, A. Liebert, S. Magazov, J. Hebden, F. Martelli, P. Di Ninni, G. Zaccanti, A. Torricelli, D. Contini, R. Re, L. Zucchelli, L. Spinelli, R. Cubeddu, and A. Pifferi, “Performance assessment of time-domain optical brain imagers, part 2: nEUROPt protocol,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19, 086012 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Spinelli, M. Botwicz, N. Zolek, M. Kacprzak, D. Milej, P. Sawosz, A. Liebert, U. Weigel, T. Durduran, F. Foschum, A. Kienle, F. Baribeau, S. Leclair, J.-P. Bouchard, I. Noiseux, P. Gallant, O. Mermut, A. Farina, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, R. Cubeddu, H.-C. Ho, M. Mazurenka, H. Wabnitz, K. Klauenberg, O. Bodnar, C. Elster, M. Bénazech-Lavoué, Y. Bérubé-Lauzière, F. Lesage, D. Khoptyar, a. a. Subash, S. Andersson-Engels, P. Di Ninni, F. Martelli, and G. Zaccanti, “Determination of reference values for optical properties of liquid phantoms based on Intralipid and India ink,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5, 2037–2053 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Martelli, A. Pifferi, D. Contini, L. Spinelli, A. Torricelli, H. Wabnitz, R. Macdonald, A. Sassaroli, and G. Zaccanti, “Phantoms for diffuse optical imaging based on totally absorbing objects, part 1: Basic concepts,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 066014 (2013).
[Crossref]

Q. Zhao, L. Spinelli, A. Bassi, G. Valentini, D. Contini, A. Torricelli, R. Cubeddu, G. Zaccanti, F. Martelli, and A. Pifferi, “Functional tomography using a time-gated ICCD camera.,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2, 705–716 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, L. Spinelli, D. Contini, R. Cubeddu, F. Martelli, G. Zaccanti, A. Tosi, A. Dalla Mora, F. Zappa, and S. Cova, “Time-resolved diffuse reflectance using small source-detector separation and fast single-photon gating,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 138101 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Torricelli, A. Pifferi, L. Spinelli, R. Cubeddu, F. Martelli, S. Del Bianco, and G. Zaccanti, “Time-Resolved Reflectance at Null Source-Detector Separation: Improving Contrast and Resolution in Diffuse Optical Imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 078101 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Carraresi, T. S. Shatir, F. Martelli, and G. Zaccanti, “Accuracy of a perturbation model to predict the effect of scattering and absorbing inhomogeneities on photon migration,” Appl. Opt. 40, 4622–4632 (2001).
[Crossref]

D. Contini, F. Martelli, and G. Zaccanti, “Photon migration through a turbid slab described by a model based on diffusion approximation. I. Theory,” Appl. Opt. 36, 4587–4599 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Martelli, S. Del Bianco, A. Ismaelli, and G. Zaccanti, Light Propagation through Biological Tissue and Other Diffusive Media, Press Monographs (SPIE Press, 2010).
[Crossref]

Zappa, F.

F. Villa, R. Lussana, D. Bronzi, S. Tisa, A. Tosi, F. Zappa, A. Dalla Mora, D. Contini, D. Durini, S. Weyers, and W. Brockherde, “CMOS Imager With 1024 SPADs and TDCs for Single-Photon Timing and 3-D Time-of-Flight,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 364–373 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Villa, D. Bronzi, Y. Zou, C. Scarcella, G. Boso, S. Tisa, A. Tosi, F. Zappa, D. Durini, S. Weyers, U. Paschen, and W. Brockherde, “CMOS SPADs with up to 500 μm diameter and 55% detection efficiency at 420 nm,” J. Mod. Opt. 61, 102–115 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Dalla Mora, D. Contini, A. Pifferi, R. Cubeddu, A. Tosi, and F. Zappa, “Afterpulse-like noise limits dynamic range in time-gated applications of thin-junction silicon single-photon avalanche diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 241111 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Tosi, A. Dalla Mora, F. Zappa, A. Gulinatti, D. Contini, A. Pifferi, L. Spinelli, A. Torricelli, and R. Cubeddu, “Fast-gated single-photon counting technique widens dynamic range and speeds up acquisition time in time-resolved measurements,” Opt. Express 19, 10735–10746 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Dalla Mora, A. Tosi, F. Zappa, S. Cova, D. Contini, A. Pifferi, L. Spinelli, A. Torricelli, and R. Cubeddu, “Fast-Gated Single-Photon Avalanche Diode for Wide Dynamic Range Near Infrared Spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 1023–1030 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, L. Spinelli, D. Contini, R. Cubeddu, F. Martelli, G. Zaccanti, A. Tosi, A. Dalla Mora, F. Zappa, and S. Cova, “Time-resolved diffuse reflectance using small source-detector separation and fast single-photon gating,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 138101 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zeff, B. W.

B. W. Zeff, B. R. White, H. Dehghani, B. L. Schlaggar, and J. P. Culver, “Retinotopic mapping of adult human visual cortex with high-density diffuse optical tomography,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 104, 12169–12174 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, H.

H. Zhao, F. Gao, Y. Tanikawa, and Y. Yamada, “Time-resolved diffuse optical tomography and its application to in vitro and in vivo imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 062107 (2007).
[Crossref]

Zhao, L.

Zhao, Q.

Zolek, N.

H. Wabnitz, A. Jelzow, M. Mazurenka, O. Steinkellner, R. Macdonald, D. Milej, N. Zolek, M. Kacprzak, P. Sawosz, R. Maniewski, A. Liebert, S. Magazov, J. Hebden, F. Martelli, P. Di Ninni, G. Zaccanti, A. Torricelli, D. Contini, R. Re, L. Zucchelli, L. Spinelli, R. Cubeddu, and A. Pifferi, “Performance assessment of time-domain optical brain imagers, part 2: nEUROPt protocol,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19, 086012 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Spinelli, M. Botwicz, N. Zolek, M. Kacprzak, D. Milej, P. Sawosz, A. Liebert, U. Weigel, T. Durduran, F. Foschum, A. Kienle, F. Baribeau, S. Leclair, J.-P. Bouchard, I. Noiseux, P. Gallant, O. Mermut, A. Farina, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, R. Cubeddu, H.-C. Ho, M. Mazurenka, H. Wabnitz, K. Klauenberg, O. Bodnar, C. Elster, M. Bénazech-Lavoué, Y. Bérubé-Lauzière, F. Lesage, D. Khoptyar, a. a. Subash, S. Andersson-Engels, P. Di Ninni, F. Martelli, and G. Zaccanti, “Determination of reference values for optical properties of liquid phantoms based on Intralipid and India ink,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5, 2037–2053 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Sawosz, N. Zolek, M. Kacprzak, R. Maniewski, and A. Liebert, “Application of time-gated CCD camera with image intensifier in contactless detection of absorbing inclusions buried in optically turbid medium which mimics local changes in oxygenation of the brain tissue,” Opto-Electronics Rev. 20, 309–314 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. Sawosz, M. Kacprzak, N. Zolek, W. Weigl, S. Wojtkiewicz, R. Maniewski, and A. Liebert, “Optical system based on time-gated, intensified charge-coupled device camera for brain imaging studies,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 066025 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zou, Y.

F. Villa, D. Bronzi, Y. Zou, C. Scarcella, G. Boso, S. Tisa, A. Tosi, F. Zappa, D. Durini, S. Weyers, U. Paschen, and W. Brockherde, “CMOS SPADs with up to 500 μm diameter and 55% detection efficiency at 420 nm,” J. Mod. Opt. 61, 102–115 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zucchelli, L.

A. Torricelli, D. Contini, A. Pifferi, M. Caffini, R. Re, L. Zucchelli, and L. Spinelli, “Time domain functional NIRS imaging for human brain mapping,” Neuroimage 85, 28–50 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Wabnitz, A. Jelzow, M. Mazurenka, O. Steinkellner, R. Macdonald, D. Milej, N. Zolek, M. Kacprzak, P. Sawosz, R. Maniewski, A. Liebert, S. Magazov, J. Hebden, F. Martelli, P. Di Ninni, G. Zaccanti, A. Torricelli, D. Contini, R. Re, L. Zucchelli, L. Spinelli, R. Cubeddu, and A. Pifferi, “Performance assessment of time-domain optical brain imagers, part 2: nEUROPt protocol,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19, 086012 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Re, D. Contini, M. Turola, L. Spinelli, L. Zucchelli, M. Caffini, R. Cubeddu, and A. Torricelli, “Multi-channel medical device for time domain functional near infrared spectroscopy based on wavelength space multiplexing,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4, 2231–2246 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Acad. Radiol. (1)

D. R. Busch, R. Choe, T. Durduran, D. H. Friedman, W. B. Baker, A. D. Maidment, M. A. Rosen, M. D. Schnall, and A. G. Yodh, “Blood Flow Reduction in Breast Tissue due to Mammographic Compression,” Acad. Radiol. 21, 151–161 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anal. Chem. (1)

Z. Sun, S. Torrance, F. K. McNeil-Watson, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Application of frequency domain photon migration to particle size analysis and monitoring of pharmaceutical powders,” Anal. Chem. 75, 1720–1725 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (4)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

A. Dalla Mora, D. Contini, A. Pifferi, R. Cubeddu, A. Tosi, and F. Zappa, “Afterpulse-like noise limits dynamic range in time-gated applications of thin-junction silicon single-photon avalanche diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 241111 (2012).
[Crossref]

Biomed. Opt. Express (5)

R. Re, D. Contini, M. Turola, L. Spinelli, L. Zucchelli, M. Caffini, R. Cubeddu, and A. Torricelli, “Multi-channel medical device for time domain functional near infrared spectroscopy based on wavelength space multiplexing,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4, 2231–2246 (2013).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Block diagram of data generation. N and P refer to Gaussian and Poisson noise, respectively.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Scheme of the experimental setup employed to operate the TD PROBE2 based on small (5 mm) source-detector separation. (b) Scheme of TD system (using PROBE1) for large (30 mm) source-detector separations.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Simulations of the contrast C produced by a 1 cm3 cubical perturbation set at increasing depths z in a homogeneous medium (μa=0.1 cm−1, μ′s=10 cm−1) and related to an ideal TD (blue continuous lines) or CW (red dashed lines) system. The detectability region (C >1% and σ <1%) is represented in white. TD data are obtained at ρ = 0 cm at increasing delays from 1 to 9 ns. CW data are obtained at ρ=1,2,3,4,5 cm. (b, c) Reconstruction results of the tomography performed using CW (b) and TD (c) simulated data. The represented surfaces correspond to the half of the maximum of the absorption change Δμa obtained in all the volume. The simulated perturbation is also depicted in red as reference. A center-of-mass error of 22.8 mm for CW and 8.8 mm for TD, and a contrast-to-noise ratio of 0.066 for CW and 6.21 for TD are obtained.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Average and standard deviation over 10 repetitions of the contrast produced by a black PCV cylinder (100 mm3 equivalent to Δμa = 0.16 cm−1 over a 1 cm3 volume [35]) set at increasing depths for PROBE1 (red), PROBE2 (green), PROBE2 using 100× more power (black) and a state-of-the-art bulky TD system (blue) [37].
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Time course of the contrast C at 690 nm during the motor task experiment. The shaded vertical area marks the task period. (b) Scheme of the experimental set-up. PROBE2 (shown in photo) was positioned over the sensorimotor area of the left hemisphere centered on C3 according to the 10/20 International System. Source detector distance is 5 mm. (c) Raw photon counts acquired within a time-gate during the right hand finger tapping motor task experiment. The shaded vertical areas mark the task period.

Equations (2)

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T TD = { N MAX N 0 , N 0 N MAX 1 , N 0 < N MAX
( J T J + λ 2 I ) Δ μ a = J T y

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