Abstract

We have developed a novel optical approach to determine pulsatile ocular volume changes using automated segmentation of the choroid, which, together with Dynamic Contour Tonometry (DCT) measurements of intraocular pressure (IOP), allows estimation of the ocular rigidity (OR) coefficient. Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) videos were acquired with Enhanced Depth Imaging (EDI) at 7Hz during ~50 seconds at the fundus. A novel segmentation algorithm based on graph search with an edge-probability weighting scheme was developed to measure choroidal thickness (CT) at each frame. Global ocular volume fluctuations were derived from frame-to-frame CT variations using an approximate eye model. Immediately after imaging, IOP and ocular pulse amplitude (OPA) were measured using DCT. OR was calculated from these peak pressure and volume changes. Our automated segmentation algorithm provides the first non-invasive method for determining ocular volume change due to pulsatile choroidal filling, and the estimation of the OR constant. Future applications of this method offer an important avenue to understanding the biomechanical basis of ocular pathophysiology.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
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References

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  1. C. F. Burgoyne, J. C. Downs, A. J. Bellezza, J. K. Suh, and R. T. Hart, “The optic nerve head as a biomechanical structure: a new paradigm for understanding the role of IOP-related stress and strain in the pathophysiology of glaucomatous optic nerve head damage,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 24(1), 39–73 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. I. A. Sigal and C. R. Ethier, “Biomechanics of the optic nerve head,” Exp. Eye Res. 88(4), 799–807 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. I. A. Sigal, J. G. Flanagan, I. Tertinegg, and C. R. Ethier, “Modeling individual-specific human optic nerve head biomechanics. Part I: IOP-induced deformations and influence of geometry,” Biomech. Model. Mechanobiol. 8(2), 85–98 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. J. Albon, P. P. Purslow, W. S. Karwatowski, and D. L. Easty, “Age related compliance of the lamina cribrosa in human eyes,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 84(3), 318–323 (2000).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. A. J. Bellezza, C. J. Rintalan, H. W. Thompson, J. C. Downs, R. T. Hart, and C. F. Burgoyne, “Deformation of the lamina cribrosa and anterior scleral canal wall in early experimental glaucoma,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 44(2), 623–637 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. M. R. Lesk, A. S. Hafez, and D. Descovich, “Relationship between central corneal thickness and changes of optic nerve head topography and blood flow after intraocular pressure reduction in open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 124(11), 1568–1572 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. W. H. Morgan, B. C. Chauhan, D. Y. Yu, S. J. Cringle, V. A. Alder, and P. H. House, “Optic disc movement with variations in intraocular and cerebrospinal fluid pressure,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 43(10), 3236–3242 (2002).
    [PubMed]
  8. J. Albon, P. P. Purslow, W. S. S. Karwatowski, and D. L. Easty, “Age related compliance of the lamina cribrosa in human eyes,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 84(3), 318–323 (2000).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. A. J. Bellezza, C. J. Rintalan, H. W. Thompson, J. C. Downs, R. T. Hart, and C. F. Burgoyne, “Deformation of the lamina cribrosa and anterior scleral canal wall in early experimental glaucoma,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 44(2), 623–637 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. M. R. Lesk, A. S. Hafez, and D. Descovich, “Relationship between central corneal thickness and changes of optic nerve head topography and blood flow after intraocular pressure reduction in open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 124(11), 1568–1572 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. M. R. Lesk, G. L. Spaeth, A. Azuara-Blanco, S. V. Araujo, L. J. Katz, A. K. Terebuh, R. P. Wilson, M. R. Moster, and C. M. Schmidt, “Reversal of optic disc cupping after glaucoma surgery analyzed with a scanning laser tomograph,” Ophthalmology 106(5), 1013–1018 (1999).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. N. S. Levy and E. E. Crapps, “Displacement of optic nerve head in response to short-term intraocular pressure elevation in human eyes,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 102(5), 782–786 (1984).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. W. H. Morgan, B. C. Chauhan, D. Y. Yu, S. J. Cringle, V. A. Alder, and P. H. House, “Optic disc movement with variations in intraocular and cerebrospinal fluid pressure,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 43(10), 3236–3242 (2002).
    [PubMed]
  14. I. A. Sigal and C. R. Ethier, “Biomechanics of the optic nerve head,” Exp. Eye Res. 88(4), 799–807 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. I. A. Sigal, J. G. Flanagan, I. Tertinegg, and C. R. Ethier, “Modeling individual-specific human optic nerve head biomechanics. Part I: IOP-induced deformations and influence of geometry,” Biomech. Model. Mechanobiol. 8(2), 85–98 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. D. B. Yan, F. M. Coloma, A. Metheetrairut, G. E. Trope, J. G. Heathcote, and C. R. Ethier, “Deformation of the lamina cribrosa by elevated intraocular pressure,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 78(8), 643–648 (1994).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. R. C. Zeimer and Y. Ogura, “The Relation between Glaucomatous Damage and Optic Nerve Head Mechanical Compliance,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 107(8), 1232–1234 (1989).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. I. A. Sigal, J. G. Flanagan, and C. R. Ethier, “Factors influencing optic nerve head biomechanics,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46(11), 4189–4199 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. A. I. Dastiridou, H. Ginis, M. Tsilimbaris, N. Karyotakis, E. Detorakis, C. Siganos, P. Cholevas, E. E. Tsironi, and I. G. Pallikaris, “Ocular rigidity, ocular pulse amplitude, and pulsatile ocular blood flow: the effect of axial length,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(3), 2087–2092 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. E. Friedman, M. Ivry, E. Ebert, R. Glynn, E. Gragoudas, and J. Seddon, “Increased scleral rigidity and age-related macular degeneration,” Ophthalmology 96(1), 104–108 (1989).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. I. G. Pallikaris, G. D. Kymionis, H. S. Ginis, G. A. Kounis, E. Christodoulakis, and M. K. Tsilimbaris, “Ocular rigidity in patients with age-related macular degeneration,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 141(4), 611–615 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. J. Friedenwald, “Contribution to the theory and practice of tonometry,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 20(10), 985–1024 (1937).
    [Crossref]
  23. C. R. Ethier, M. Johnson, and J. Ruberti, “Ocular biomechanics and biotransport,” Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 6(1), 249–273 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. P. R. Greene, “Closed-form ametropic pressure-volume and ocular rigidity solutions,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 62(12), 870–878 (1985).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  25. A. Alm and A. Bill, “Ocular and optic nerve blood flow at normal and increased intraocular pressures in monkeys (Macaca irus): a study with radioactively labelled microspheres including flow determinations in brain and some other tissues,” Exp. Eye Res. 15(1), 15–29 (1973).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. J. Wang, E. E. Freeman, D. Descovich, P. J. Harasymowycz, A. Kamdeu Fansi, G. Li, and M. R. Lesk, “Estimation of ocular rigidity in glaucoma using ocular pulse amplitude and pulsatile choroidal blood flow,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(3), 1706–1711 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  27. A. Hommer, G. Fuchsjäger-Mayrl, H. Resch, C. Vass, G. Garhofer, and L. Schmetterer, “Estimation of ocular rigidity based on measurement of pulse amplitude using pneumotonometry and fundus pulse using laser interferometry in glaucoma,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(9), 4046–4050 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  28. S. M. Drance, “The coefficient of scleral rigidity in normal and glaucomatous eyes,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 63(4), 668–674 (1960).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  29. D. Alonso-Caneiro, S. A. Read, and M. J. Collins, “Automatic segmentation of choroidal thickness in optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(12), 2795–2812 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  30. S. Lee, N. Fallah, F. Forooghian, A. Ko, K. Pakzad-Vaezi, A. B. Merkur, A. W. Kirker, D. A. Albiani, M. Young, M. V. Sarunic, and M. F. Beg, “Comparative analysis of repeatability of manual and automated choroidal thickness measurements in nonneovascular age-related macular degeneration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(4), 2864–2871 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  31. J. Tian, P. Marziliano, M. Baskaran, T. A. Tun, and T. Aung, “Automatic segmentation of the choroid in enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography images,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(3), 397–411 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  32. S. J. Chiu, X. T. Li, P. Nicholas, C. A. Toth, J. A. Izatt, and S. Farsiu, “Automatic segmentation of seven retinal layers in SDOCT images congruent with expert manual segmentation,” Opt. Express 18(18), 19413–19428 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  33. A. G. Boehm, A. Weber, L. E. Pillunat, R. Koch, and E. Spoerl, “Dynamic contour tonometry in comparison to intracameral IOP measurements,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(6), 2472–2477 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  34. P. Arbeláez, M. Maire, C. Fowlkes, and J. Malik, “Contour Detection and Hierarchical Image Segmentation,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 33(5), 898–916 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  35. J. M. Mari, N. G. Strouthidis, S. C. Park, and M. J. Girard, “Enhancement of lamina cribrosa visibility in optical coherence tomography images using adaptive compensation,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(3), 2238–2247 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  36. E. W. Dijkstra, “A note on two problems in connexion with graphs,” Numerische Mathematik 1(1), 269–271 (1959).
    [Crossref]
  37. N. K. K. Hocke and N. Kämpfer, “Gap filling and noise reduction of unevenly sampled data by means of the Lomb-Scargle periodogram,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 9(12), 4197–4206 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  38. A. I. Dastiridou, H. S. Ginis, D. De Brouwere, M. K. Tsilimbaris, and I. G. Pallikaris, “Ocular rigidity, ocular pulse amplitude, and pulsatile ocular blood flow: the effect of intraocular pressure,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50(12), 5718–5722 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  39. V. Manjunath, M. Taha, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Duker, “Choroidal thickness in normal eyes measured using Cirrus HD optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 150(3), 325–329 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  40. G. Barteselli, J. Chhablani, S. El-Emam, H. Wang, J. Chuang, I. Kozak, L. Cheng, D. U. Bartsch, and W. R. Freeman, “Choroidal volume variations with age, axial length, and sex in healthy subjects: a three-dimensional analysis,” Ophthalmology 119(12), 2572–2578 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  41. F. Berisha, O. Findl, M. Lasta, B. Kiss, and L. Schmetterer, “A study comparing ocular pressure pulse and ocular fundus pulse in dependence of axial eye length and ocular volume,” Acta Ophthalmol. (Copenh.) 88(7), 766–772 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (6)

A. I. Dastiridou, H. Ginis, M. Tsilimbaris, N. Karyotakis, E. Detorakis, C. Siganos, P. Cholevas, E. E. Tsironi, and I. G. Pallikaris, “Ocular rigidity, ocular pulse amplitude, and pulsatile ocular blood flow: the effect of axial length,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(3), 2087–2092 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Alonso-Caneiro, S. A. Read, and M. J. Collins, “Automatic segmentation of choroidal thickness in optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(12), 2795–2812 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Lee, N. Fallah, F. Forooghian, A. Ko, K. Pakzad-Vaezi, A. B. Merkur, A. W. Kirker, D. A. Albiani, M. Young, M. V. Sarunic, and M. F. Beg, “Comparative analysis of repeatability of manual and automated choroidal thickness measurements in nonneovascular age-related macular degeneration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(4), 2864–2871 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Tian, P. Marziliano, M. Baskaran, T. A. Tun, and T. Aung, “Automatic segmentation of the choroid in enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography images,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(3), 397–411 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, E. E. Freeman, D. Descovich, P. J. Harasymowycz, A. Kamdeu Fansi, G. Li, and M. R. Lesk, “Estimation of ocular rigidity in glaucoma using ocular pulse amplitude and pulsatile choroidal blood flow,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(3), 1706–1711 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Mari, N. G. Strouthidis, S. C. Park, and M. J. Girard, “Enhancement of lamina cribrosa visibility in optical coherence tomography images using adaptive compensation,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(3), 2238–2247 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

G. Barteselli, J. Chhablani, S. El-Emam, H. Wang, J. Chuang, I. Kozak, L. Cheng, D. U. Bartsch, and W. R. Freeman, “Choroidal volume variations with age, axial length, and sex in healthy subjects: a three-dimensional analysis,” Ophthalmology 119(12), 2572–2578 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

P. Arbeláez, M. Maire, C. Fowlkes, and J. Malik, “Contour Detection and Hierarchical Image Segmentation,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 33(5), 898–916 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

S. J. Chiu, X. T. Li, P. Nicholas, C. A. Toth, J. A. Izatt, and S. Farsiu, “Automatic segmentation of seven retinal layers in SDOCT images congruent with expert manual segmentation,” Opt. Express 18(18), 19413–19428 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Berisha, O. Findl, M. Lasta, B. Kiss, and L. Schmetterer, “A study comparing ocular pressure pulse and ocular fundus pulse in dependence of axial eye length and ocular volume,” Acta Ophthalmol. (Copenh.) 88(7), 766–772 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Manjunath, M. Taha, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Duker, “Choroidal thickness in normal eyes measured using Cirrus HD optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 150(3), 325–329 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (6)

N. K. K. Hocke and N. Kämpfer, “Gap filling and noise reduction of unevenly sampled data by means of the Lomb-Scargle periodogram,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 9(12), 4197–4206 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. I. Dastiridou, H. S. Ginis, D. De Brouwere, M. K. Tsilimbaris, and I. G. Pallikaris, “Ocular rigidity, ocular pulse amplitude, and pulsatile ocular blood flow: the effect of intraocular pressure,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50(12), 5718–5722 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. A. Sigal and C. R. Ethier, “Biomechanics of the optic nerve head,” Exp. Eye Res. 88(4), 799–807 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. A. Sigal, J. G. Flanagan, I. Tertinegg, and C. R. Ethier, “Modeling individual-specific human optic nerve head biomechanics. Part I: IOP-induced deformations and influence of geometry,” Biomech. Model. Mechanobiol. 8(2), 85–98 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. A. Sigal and C. R. Ethier, “Biomechanics of the optic nerve head,” Exp. Eye Res. 88(4), 799–807 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. A. Sigal, J. G. Flanagan, I. Tertinegg, and C. R. Ethier, “Modeling individual-specific human optic nerve head biomechanics. Part I: IOP-induced deformations and influence of geometry,” Biomech. Model. Mechanobiol. 8(2), 85–98 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

A. Hommer, G. Fuchsjäger-Mayrl, H. Resch, C. Vass, G. Garhofer, and L. Schmetterer, “Estimation of ocular rigidity based on measurement of pulse amplitude using pneumotonometry and fundus pulse using laser interferometry in glaucoma,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(9), 4046–4050 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. G. Boehm, A. Weber, L. E. Pillunat, R. Koch, and E. Spoerl, “Dynamic contour tonometry in comparison to intracameral IOP measurements,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(6), 2472–2477 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

I. G. Pallikaris, G. D. Kymionis, H. S. Ginis, G. A. Kounis, E. Christodoulakis, and M. K. Tsilimbaris, “Ocular rigidity in patients with age-related macular degeneration,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 141(4), 611–615 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. R. Lesk, A. S. Hafez, and D. Descovich, “Relationship between central corneal thickness and changes of optic nerve head topography and blood flow after intraocular pressure reduction in open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 124(11), 1568–1572 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. R. Lesk, A. S. Hafez, and D. Descovich, “Relationship between central corneal thickness and changes of optic nerve head topography and blood flow after intraocular pressure reduction in open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 124(11), 1568–1572 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

C. F. Burgoyne, J. C. Downs, A. J. Bellezza, J. K. Suh, and R. T. Hart, “The optic nerve head as a biomechanical structure: a new paradigm for understanding the role of IOP-related stress and strain in the pathophysiology of glaucomatous optic nerve head damage,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 24(1), 39–73 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. A. Sigal, J. G. Flanagan, and C. R. Ethier, “Factors influencing optic nerve head biomechanics,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46(11), 4189–4199 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

C. R. Ethier, M. Johnson, and J. Ruberti, “Ocular biomechanics and biotransport,” Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 6(1), 249–273 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

A. J. Bellezza, C. J. Rintalan, H. W. Thompson, J. C. Downs, R. T. Hart, and C. F. Burgoyne, “Deformation of the lamina cribrosa and anterior scleral canal wall in early experimental glaucoma,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 44(2), 623–637 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. J. Bellezza, C. J. Rintalan, H. W. Thompson, J. C. Downs, R. T. Hart, and C. F. Burgoyne, “Deformation of the lamina cribrosa and anterior scleral canal wall in early experimental glaucoma,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 44(2), 623–637 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

W. H. Morgan, B. C. Chauhan, D. Y. Yu, S. J. Cringle, V. A. Alder, and P. H. House, “Optic disc movement with variations in intraocular and cerebrospinal fluid pressure,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 43(10), 3236–3242 (2002).
[PubMed]

W. H. Morgan, B. C. Chauhan, D. Y. Yu, S. J. Cringle, V. A. Alder, and P. H. House, “Optic disc movement with variations in intraocular and cerebrospinal fluid pressure,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 43(10), 3236–3242 (2002).
[PubMed]

2000 (2)

J. Albon, P. P. Purslow, W. S. S. Karwatowski, and D. L. Easty, “Age related compliance of the lamina cribrosa in human eyes,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 84(3), 318–323 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Albon, P. P. Purslow, W. S. Karwatowski, and D. L. Easty, “Age related compliance of the lamina cribrosa in human eyes,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 84(3), 318–323 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

M. R. Lesk, G. L. Spaeth, A. Azuara-Blanco, S. V. Araujo, L. J. Katz, A. K. Terebuh, R. P. Wilson, M. R. Moster, and C. M. Schmidt, “Reversal of optic disc cupping after glaucoma surgery analyzed with a scanning laser tomograph,” Ophthalmology 106(5), 1013–1018 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

D. B. Yan, F. M. Coloma, A. Metheetrairut, G. E. Trope, J. G. Heathcote, and C. R. Ethier, “Deformation of the lamina cribrosa by elevated intraocular pressure,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 78(8), 643–648 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1989 (2)

R. C. Zeimer and Y. Ogura, “The Relation between Glaucomatous Damage and Optic Nerve Head Mechanical Compliance,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 107(8), 1232–1234 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Friedman, M. Ivry, E. Ebert, R. Glynn, E. Gragoudas, and J. Seddon, “Increased scleral rigidity and age-related macular degeneration,” Ophthalmology 96(1), 104–108 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1985 (1)

P. R. Greene, “Closed-form ametropic pressure-volume and ocular rigidity solutions,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 62(12), 870–878 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1984 (1)

N. S. Levy and E. E. Crapps, “Displacement of optic nerve head in response to short-term intraocular pressure elevation in human eyes,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 102(5), 782–786 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1973 (1)

A. Alm and A. Bill, “Ocular and optic nerve blood flow at normal and increased intraocular pressures in monkeys (Macaca irus): a study with radioactively labelled microspheres including flow determinations in brain and some other tissues,” Exp. Eye Res. 15(1), 15–29 (1973).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1960 (1)

S. M. Drance, “The coefficient of scleral rigidity in normal and glaucomatous eyes,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 63(4), 668–674 (1960).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1959 (1)

E. W. Dijkstra, “A note on two problems in connexion with graphs,” Numerische Mathematik 1(1), 269–271 (1959).
[Crossref]

1937 (1)

J. Friedenwald, “Contribution to the theory and practice of tonometry,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 20(10), 985–1024 (1937).
[Crossref]

Albiani, D. A.

S. Lee, N. Fallah, F. Forooghian, A. Ko, K. Pakzad-Vaezi, A. B. Merkur, A. W. Kirker, D. A. Albiani, M. Young, M. V. Sarunic, and M. F. Beg, “Comparative analysis of repeatability of manual and automated choroidal thickness measurements in nonneovascular age-related macular degeneration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(4), 2864–2871 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Albon, J.

J. Albon, P. P. Purslow, W. S. Karwatowski, and D. L. Easty, “Age related compliance of the lamina cribrosa in human eyes,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 84(3), 318–323 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Albon, P. P. Purslow, W. S. S. Karwatowski, and D. L. Easty, “Age related compliance of the lamina cribrosa in human eyes,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 84(3), 318–323 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alder, V. A.

W. H. Morgan, B. C. Chauhan, D. Y. Yu, S. J. Cringle, V. A. Alder, and P. H. House, “Optic disc movement with variations in intraocular and cerebrospinal fluid pressure,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 43(10), 3236–3242 (2002).
[PubMed]

W. H. Morgan, B. C. Chauhan, D. Y. Yu, S. J. Cringle, V. A. Alder, and P. H. House, “Optic disc movement with variations in intraocular and cerebrospinal fluid pressure,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 43(10), 3236–3242 (2002).
[PubMed]

Alm, A.

A. Alm and A. Bill, “Ocular and optic nerve blood flow at normal and increased intraocular pressures in monkeys (Macaca irus): a study with radioactively labelled microspheres including flow determinations in brain and some other tissues,” Exp. Eye Res. 15(1), 15–29 (1973).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alonso-Caneiro, D.

Araujo, S. V.

M. R. Lesk, G. L. Spaeth, A. Azuara-Blanco, S. V. Araujo, L. J. Katz, A. K. Terebuh, R. P. Wilson, M. R. Moster, and C. M. Schmidt, “Reversal of optic disc cupping after glaucoma surgery analyzed with a scanning laser tomograph,” Ophthalmology 106(5), 1013–1018 (1999).
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W. H. Morgan, B. C. Chauhan, D. Y. Yu, S. J. Cringle, V. A. Alder, and P. H. House, “Optic disc movement with variations in intraocular and cerebrospinal fluid pressure,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 43(10), 3236–3242 (2002).
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M. R. Lesk, A. S. Hafez, and D. Descovich, “Relationship between central corneal thickness and changes of optic nerve head topography and blood flow after intraocular pressure reduction in open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 124(11), 1568–1572 (2006).
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A. I. Dastiridou, H. Ginis, M. Tsilimbaris, N. Karyotakis, E. Detorakis, C. Siganos, P. Cholevas, E. E. Tsironi, and I. G. Pallikaris, “Ocular rigidity, ocular pulse amplitude, and pulsatile ocular blood flow: the effect of axial length,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(3), 2087–2092 (2013).
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C. F. Burgoyne, J. C. Downs, A. J. Bellezza, J. K. Suh, and R. T. Hart, “The optic nerve head as a biomechanical structure: a new paradigm for understanding the role of IOP-related stress and strain in the pathophysiology of glaucomatous optic nerve head damage,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 24(1), 39–73 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. J. Bellezza, C. J. Rintalan, H. W. Thompson, J. C. Downs, R. T. Hart, and C. F. Burgoyne, “Deformation of the lamina cribrosa and anterior scleral canal wall in early experimental glaucoma,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 44(2), 623–637 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. J. Bellezza, C. J. Rintalan, H. W. Thompson, J. C. Downs, R. T. Hart, and C. F. Burgoyne, “Deformation of the lamina cribrosa and anterior scleral canal wall in early experimental glaucoma,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 44(2), 623–637 (2003).
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G. Barteselli, J. Chhablani, S. El-Emam, H. Wang, J. Chuang, I. Kozak, L. Cheng, D. U. Bartsch, and W. R. Freeman, “Choroidal volume variations with age, axial length, and sex in healthy subjects: a three-dimensional analysis,” Ophthalmology 119(12), 2572–2578 (2012).
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I. A. Sigal and C. R. Ethier, “Biomechanics of the optic nerve head,” Exp. Eye Res. 88(4), 799–807 (2009).
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I. A. Sigal, J. G. Flanagan, and C. R. Ethier, “Factors influencing optic nerve head biomechanics,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46(11), 4189–4199 (2005).
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C. R. Ethier, M. Johnson, and J. Ruberti, “Ocular biomechanics and biotransport,” Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 6(1), 249–273 (2004).
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D. B. Yan, F. M. Coloma, A. Metheetrairut, G. E. Trope, J. G. Heathcote, and C. R. Ethier, “Deformation of the lamina cribrosa by elevated intraocular pressure,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 78(8), 643–648 (1994).
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Findl, O.

F. Berisha, O. Findl, M. Lasta, B. Kiss, and L. Schmetterer, “A study comparing ocular pressure pulse and ocular fundus pulse in dependence of axial eye length and ocular volume,” Acta Ophthalmol. (Copenh.) 88(7), 766–772 (2010).
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I. A. Sigal, J. G. Flanagan, I. Tertinegg, and C. R. Ethier, “Modeling individual-specific human optic nerve head biomechanics. Part I: IOP-induced deformations and influence of geometry,” Biomech. Model. Mechanobiol. 8(2), 85–98 (2009).
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I. A. Sigal, J. G. Flanagan, I. Tertinegg, and C. R. Ethier, “Modeling individual-specific human optic nerve head biomechanics. Part I: IOP-induced deformations and influence of geometry,” Biomech. Model. Mechanobiol. 8(2), 85–98 (2009).
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I. A. Sigal, J. G. Flanagan, and C. R. Ethier, “Factors influencing optic nerve head biomechanics,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46(11), 4189–4199 (2005).
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P. Arbeláez, M. Maire, C. Fowlkes, and J. Malik, “Contour Detection and Hierarchical Image Segmentation,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 33(5), 898–916 (2011).
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J. Wang, E. E. Freeman, D. Descovich, P. J. Harasymowycz, A. Kamdeu Fansi, G. Li, and M. R. Lesk, “Estimation of ocular rigidity in glaucoma using ocular pulse amplitude and pulsatile choroidal blood flow,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(3), 1706–1711 (2013).
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G. Barteselli, J. Chhablani, S. El-Emam, H. Wang, J. Chuang, I. Kozak, L. Cheng, D. U. Bartsch, and W. R. Freeman, “Choroidal volume variations with age, axial length, and sex in healthy subjects: a three-dimensional analysis,” Ophthalmology 119(12), 2572–2578 (2012).
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A. Hommer, G. Fuchsjäger-Mayrl, H. Resch, C. Vass, G. Garhofer, and L. Schmetterer, “Estimation of ocular rigidity based on measurement of pulse amplitude using pneumotonometry and fundus pulse using laser interferometry in glaucoma,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(9), 4046–4050 (2008).
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V. Manjunath, M. Taha, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Duker, “Choroidal thickness in normal eyes measured using Cirrus HD optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 150(3), 325–329 (2010).
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A. Hommer, G. Fuchsjäger-Mayrl, H. Resch, C. Vass, G. Garhofer, and L. Schmetterer, “Estimation of ocular rigidity based on measurement of pulse amplitude using pneumotonometry and fundus pulse using laser interferometry in glaucoma,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(9), 4046–4050 (2008).
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A. I. Dastiridou, H. Ginis, M. Tsilimbaris, N. Karyotakis, E. Detorakis, C. Siganos, P. Cholevas, E. E. Tsironi, and I. G. Pallikaris, “Ocular rigidity, ocular pulse amplitude, and pulsatile ocular blood flow: the effect of axial length,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(3), 2087–2092 (2013).
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Ginis, H. S.

A. I. Dastiridou, H. S. Ginis, D. De Brouwere, M. K. Tsilimbaris, and I. G. Pallikaris, “Ocular rigidity, ocular pulse amplitude, and pulsatile ocular blood flow: the effect of intraocular pressure,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50(12), 5718–5722 (2009).
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I. G. Pallikaris, G. D. Kymionis, H. S. Ginis, G. A. Kounis, E. Christodoulakis, and M. K. Tsilimbaris, “Ocular rigidity in patients with age-related macular degeneration,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 141(4), 611–615 (2006).
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[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. R. Lesk, A. S. Hafez, and D. Descovich, “Relationship between central corneal thickness and changes of optic nerve head topography and blood flow after intraocular pressure reduction in open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 124(11), 1568–1572 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Harasymowycz, P. J.

J. Wang, E. E. Freeman, D. Descovich, P. J. Harasymowycz, A. Kamdeu Fansi, G. Li, and M. R. Lesk, “Estimation of ocular rigidity in glaucoma using ocular pulse amplitude and pulsatile choroidal blood flow,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(3), 1706–1711 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hart, R. T.

C. F. Burgoyne, J. C. Downs, A. J. Bellezza, J. K. Suh, and R. T. Hart, “The optic nerve head as a biomechanical structure: a new paradigm for understanding the role of IOP-related stress and strain in the pathophysiology of glaucomatous optic nerve head damage,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 24(1), 39–73 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. J. Bellezza, C. J. Rintalan, H. W. Thompson, J. C. Downs, R. T. Hart, and C. F. Burgoyne, “Deformation of the lamina cribrosa and anterior scleral canal wall in early experimental glaucoma,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 44(2), 623–637 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. J. Bellezza, C. J. Rintalan, H. W. Thompson, J. C. Downs, R. T. Hart, and C. F. Burgoyne, “Deformation of the lamina cribrosa and anterior scleral canal wall in early experimental glaucoma,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 44(2), 623–637 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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D. B. Yan, F. M. Coloma, A. Metheetrairut, G. E. Trope, J. G. Heathcote, and C. R. Ethier, “Deformation of the lamina cribrosa by elevated intraocular pressure,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 78(8), 643–648 (1994).
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A. Hommer, G. Fuchsjäger-Mayrl, H. Resch, C. Vass, G. Garhofer, and L. Schmetterer, “Estimation of ocular rigidity based on measurement of pulse amplitude using pneumotonometry and fundus pulse using laser interferometry in glaucoma,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(9), 4046–4050 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

House, P. H.

W. H. Morgan, B. C. Chauhan, D. Y. Yu, S. J. Cringle, V. A. Alder, and P. H. House, “Optic disc movement with variations in intraocular and cerebrospinal fluid pressure,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 43(10), 3236–3242 (2002).
[PubMed]

W. H. Morgan, B. C. Chauhan, D. Y. Yu, S. J. Cringle, V. A. Alder, and P. H. House, “Optic disc movement with variations in intraocular and cerebrospinal fluid pressure,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 43(10), 3236–3242 (2002).
[PubMed]

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E. Friedman, M. Ivry, E. Ebert, R. Glynn, E. Gragoudas, and J. Seddon, “Increased scleral rigidity and age-related macular degeneration,” Ophthalmology 96(1), 104–108 (1989).
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Izatt, J. A.

Johnson, M.

C. R. Ethier, M. Johnson, and J. Ruberti, “Ocular biomechanics and biotransport,” Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 6(1), 249–273 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kamdeu Fansi, A.

J. Wang, E. E. Freeman, D. Descovich, P. J. Harasymowycz, A. Kamdeu Fansi, G. Li, and M. R. Lesk, “Estimation of ocular rigidity in glaucoma using ocular pulse amplitude and pulsatile choroidal blood flow,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(3), 1706–1711 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kämpfer, N.

N. K. K. Hocke and N. Kämpfer, “Gap filling and noise reduction of unevenly sampled data by means of the Lomb-Scargle periodogram,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 9(12), 4197–4206 (2009).
[Crossref]

Karwatowski, W. S.

J. Albon, P. P. Purslow, W. S. Karwatowski, and D. L. Easty, “Age related compliance of the lamina cribrosa in human eyes,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 84(3), 318–323 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Karwatowski, W. S. S.

J. Albon, P. P. Purslow, W. S. S. Karwatowski, and D. L. Easty, “Age related compliance of the lamina cribrosa in human eyes,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 84(3), 318–323 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Karyotakis, N.

A. I. Dastiridou, H. Ginis, M. Tsilimbaris, N. Karyotakis, E. Detorakis, C. Siganos, P. Cholevas, E. E. Tsironi, and I. G. Pallikaris, “Ocular rigidity, ocular pulse amplitude, and pulsatile ocular blood flow: the effect of axial length,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(3), 2087–2092 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Katz, L. J.

M. R. Lesk, G. L. Spaeth, A. Azuara-Blanco, S. V. Araujo, L. J. Katz, A. K. Terebuh, R. P. Wilson, M. R. Moster, and C. M. Schmidt, “Reversal of optic disc cupping after glaucoma surgery analyzed with a scanning laser tomograph,” Ophthalmology 106(5), 1013–1018 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kirker, A. W.

S. Lee, N. Fallah, F. Forooghian, A. Ko, K. Pakzad-Vaezi, A. B. Merkur, A. W. Kirker, D. A. Albiani, M. Young, M. V. Sarunic, and M. F. Beg, “Comparative analysis of repeatability of manual and automated choroidal thickness measurements in nonneovascular age-related macular degeneration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(4), 2864–2871 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kiss, B.

F. Berisha, O. Findl, M. Lasta, B. Kiss, and L. Schmetterer, “A study comparing ocular pressure pulse and ocular fundus pulse in dependence of axial eye length and ocular volume,” Acta Ophthalmol. (Copenh.) 88(7), 766–772 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ko, A.

S. Lee, N. Fallah, F. Forooghian, A. Ko, K. Pakzad-Vaezi, A. B. Merkur, A. W. Kirker, D. A. Albiani, M. Young, M. V. Sarunic, and M. F. Beg, “Comparative analysis of repeatability of manual and automated choroidal thickness measurements in nonneovascular age-related macular degeneration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(4), 2864–2871 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Koch, R.

A. G. Boehm, A. Weber, L. E. Pillunat, R. Koch, and E. Spoerl, “Dynamic contour tonometry in comparison to intracameral IOP measurements,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(6), 2472–2477 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kounis, G. A.

I. G. Pallikaris, G. D. Kymionis, H. S. Ginis, G. A. Kounis, E. Christodoulakis, and M. K. Tsilimbaris, “Ocular rigidity in patients with age-related macular degeneration,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 141(4), 611–615 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kozak, I.

G. Barteselli, J. Chhablani, S. El-Emam, H. Wang, J. Chuang, I. Kozak, L. Cheng, D. U. Bartsch, and W. R. Freeman, “Choroidal volume variations with age, axial length, and sex in healthy subjects: a three-dimensional analysis,” Ophthalmology 119(12), 2572–2578 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kymionis, G. D.

I. G. Pallikaris, G. D. Kymionis, H. S. Ginis, G. A. Kounis, E. Christodoulakis, and M. K. Tsilimbaris, “Ocular rigidity in patients with age-related macular degeneration,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 141(4), 611–615 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lasta, M.

F. Berisha, O. Findl, M. Lasta, B. Kiss, and L. Schmetterer, “A study comparing ocular pressure pulse and ocular fundus pulse in dependence of axial eye length and ocular volume,” Acta Ophthalmol. (Copenh.) 88(7), 766–772 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, S.

S. Lee, N. Fallah, F. Forooghian, A. Ko, K. Pakzad-Vaezi, A. B. Merkur, A. W. Kirker, D. A. Albiani, M. Young, M. V. Sarunic, and M. F. Beg, “Comparative analysis of repeatability of manual and automated choroidal thickness measurements in nonneovascular age-related macular degeneration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(4), 2864–2871 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lesk, M. R.

J. Wang, E. E. Freeman, D. Descovich, P. J. Harasymowycz, A. Kamdeu Fansi, G. Li, and M. R. Lesk, “Estimation of ocular rigidity in glaucoma using ocular pulse amplitude and pulsatile choroidal blood flow,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(3), 1706–1711 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. R. Lesk, A. S. Hafez, and D. Descovich, “Relationship between central corneal thickness and changes of optic nerve head topography and blood flow after intraocular pressure reduction in open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 124(11), 1568–1572 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. R. Lesk, A. S. Hafez, and D. Descovich, “Relationship between central corneal thickness and changes of optic nerve head topography and blood flow after intraocular pressure reduction in open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 124(11), 1568–1572 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. R. Lesk, G. L. Spaeth, A. Azuara-Blanco, S. V. Araujo, L. J. Katz, A. K. Terebuh, R. P. Wilson, M. R. Moster, and C. M. Schmidt, “Reversal of optic disc cupping after glaucoma surgery analyzed with a scanning laser tomograph,” Ophthalmology 106(5), 1013–1018 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Levy, N. S.

N. S. Levy and E. E. Crapps, “Displacement of optic nerve head in response to short-term intraocular pressure elevation in human eyes,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 102(5), 782–786 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, G.

J. Wang, E. E. Freeman, D. Descovich, P. J. Harasymowycz, A. Kamdeu Fansi, G. Li, and M. R. Lesk, “Estimation of ocular rigidity in glaucoma using ocular pulse amplitude and pulsatile choroidal blood flow,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(3), 1706–1711 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, X. T.

Maire, M.

P. Arbeláez, M. Maire, C. Fowlkes, and J. Malik, “Contour Detection and Hierarchical Image Segmentation,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 33(5), 898–916 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Malik, J.

P. Arbeláez, M. Maire, C. Fowlkes, and J. Malik, “Contour Detection and Hierarchical Image Segmentation,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 33(5), 898–916 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Manjunath, V.

V. Manjunath, M. Taha, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Duker, “Choroidal thickness in normal eyes measured using Cirrus HD optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 150(3), 325–329 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mari, J. M.

J. M. Mari, N. G. Strouthidis, S. C. Park, and M. J. Girard, “Enhancement of lamina cribrosa visibility in optical coherence tomography images using adaptive compensation,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(3), 2238–2247 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Marziliano, P.

Merkur, A. B.

S. Lee, N. Fallah, F. Forooghian, A. Ko, K. Pakzad-Vaezi, A. B. Merkur, A. W. Kirker, D. A. Albiani, M. Young, M. V. Sarunic, and M. F. Beg, “Comparative analysis of repeatability of manual and automated choroidal thickness measurements in nonneovascular age-related macular degeneration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(4), 2864–2871 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Metheetrairut, A.

D. B. Yan, F. M. Coloma, A. Metheetrairut, G. E. Trope, J. G. Heathcote, and C. R. Ethier, “Deformation of the lamina cribrosa by elevated intraocular pressure,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 78(8), 643–648 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Morgan, W. H.

W. H. Morgan, B. C. Chauhan, D. Y. Yu, S. J. Cringle, V. A. Alder, and P. H. House, “Optic disc movement with variations in intraocular and cerebrospinal fluid pressure,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 43(10), 3236–3242 (2002).
[PubMed]

W. H. Morgan, B. C. Chauhan, D. Y. Yu, S. J. Cringle, V. A. Alder, and P. H. House, “Optic disc movement with variations in intraocular and cerebrospinal fluid pressure,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 43(10), 3236–3242 (2002).
[PubMed]

Moster, M. R.

M. R. Lesk, G. L. Spaeth, A. Azuara-Blanco, S. V. Araujo, L. J. Katz, A. K. Terebuh, R. P. Wilson, M. R. Moster, and C. M. Schmidt, “Reversal of optic disc cupping after glaucoma surgery analyzed with a scanning laser tomograph,” Ophthalmology 106(5), 1013–1018 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nicholas, P.

Ogura, Y.

R. C. Zeimer and Y. Ogura, “The Relation between Glaucomatous Damage and Optic Nerve Head Mechanical Compliance,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 107(8), 1232–1234 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pakzad-Vaezi, K.

S. Lee, N. Fallah, F. Forooghian, A. Ko, K. Pakzad-Vaezi, A. B. Merkur, A. W. Kirker, D. A. Albiani, M. Young, M. V. Sarunic, and M. F. Beg, “Comparative analysis of repeatability of manual and automated choroidal thickness measurements in nonneovascular age-related macular degeneration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(4), 2864–2871 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pallikaris, I. G.

A. I. Dastiridou, H. Ginis, M. Tsilimbaris, N. Karyotakis, E. Detorakis, C. Siganos, P. Cholevas, E. E. Tsironi, and I. G. Pallikaris, “Ocular rigidity, ocular pulse amplitude, and pulsatile ocular blood flow: the effect of axial length,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(3), 2087–2092 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. I. Dastiridou, H. S. Ginis, D. De Brouwere, M. K. Tsilimbaris, and I. G. Pallikaris, “Ocular rigidity, ocular pulse amplitude, and pulsatile ocular blood flow: the effect of intraocular pressure,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50(12), 5718–5722 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. G. Pallikaris, G. D. Kymionis, H. S. Ginis, G. A. Kounis, E. Christodoulakis, and M. K. Tsilimbaris, “Ocular rigidity in patients with age-related macular degeneration,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 141(4), 611–615 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, S. C.

J. M. Mari, N. G. Strouthidis, S. C. Park, and M. J. Girard, “Enhancement of lamina cribrosa visibility in optical coherence tomography images using adaptive compensation,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(3), 2238–2247 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pillunat, L. E.

A. G. Boehm, A. Weber, L. E. Pillunat, R. Koch, and E. Spoerl, “Dynamic contour tonometry in comparison to intracameral IOP measurements,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(6), 2472–2477 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Purslow, P. P.

J. Albon, P. P. Purslow, W. S. S. Karwatowski, and D. L. Easty, “Age related compliance of the lamina cribrosa in human eyes,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 84(3), 318–323 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Albon, P. P. Purslow, W. S. Karwatowski, and D. L. Easty, “Age related compliance of the lamina cribrosa in human eyes,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 84(3), 318–323 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Read, S. A.

Resch, H.

A. Hommer, G. Fuchsjäger-Mayrl, H. Resch, C. Vass, G. Garhofer, and L. Schmetterer, “Estimation of ocular rigidity based on measurement of pulse amplitude using pneumotonometry and fundus pulse using laser interferometry in glaucoma,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(9), 4046–4050 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rintalan, C. J.

A. J. Bellezza, C. J. Rintalan, H. W. Thompson, J. C. Downs, R. T. Hart, and C. F. Burgoyne, “Deformation of the lamina cribrosa and anterior scleral canal wall in early experimental glaucoma,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 44(2), 623–637 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. J. Bellezza, C. J. Rintalan, H. W. Thompson, J. C. Downs, R. T. Hart, and C. F. Burgoyne, “Deformation of the lamina cribrosa and anterior scleral canal wall in early experimental glaucoma,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 44(2), 623–637 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ruberti, J.

C. R. Ethier, M. Johnson, and J. Ruberti, “Ocular biomechanics and biotransport,” Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 6(1), 249–273 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sarunic, M. V.

S. Lee, N. Fallah, F. Forooghian, A. Ko, K. Pakzad-Vaezi, A. B. Merkur, A. W. Kirker, D. A. Albiani, M. Young, M. V. Sarunic, and M. F. Beg, “Comparative analysis of repeatability of manual and automated choroidal thickness measurements in nonneovascular age-related macular degeneration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(4), 2864–2871 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schmetterer, L.

F. Berisha, O. Findl, M. Lasta, B. Kiss, and L. Schmetterer, “A study comparing ocular pressure pulse and ocular fundus pulse in dependence of axial eye length and ocular volume,” Acta Ophthalmol. (Copenh.) 88(7), 766–772 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Hommer, G. Fuchsjäger-Mayrl, H. Resch, C. Vass, G. Garhofer, and L. Schmetterer, “Estimation of ocular rigidity based on measurement of pulse amplitude using pneumotonometry and fundus pulse using laser interferometry in glaucoma,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(9), 4046–4050 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schmidt, C. M.

M. R. Lesk, G. L. Spaeth, A. Azuara-Blanco, S. V. Araujo, L. J. Katz, A. K. Terebuh, R. P. Wilson, M. R. Moster, and C. M. Schmidt, “Reversal of optic disc cupping after glaucoma surgery analyzed with a scanning laser tomograph,” Ophthalmology 106(5), 1013–1018 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Seddon, J.

E. Friedman, M. Ivry, E. Ebert, R. Glynn, E. Gragoudas, and J. Seddon, “Increased scleral rigidity and age-related macular degeneration,” Ophthalmology 96(1), 104–108 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sigal, I. A.

I. A. Sigal and C. R. Ethier, “Biomechanics of the optic nerve head,” Exp. Eye Res. 88(4), 799–807 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. A. Sigal, J. G. Flanagan, I. Tertinegg, and C. R. Ethier, “Modeling individual-specific human optic nerve head biomechanics. Part I: IOP-induced deformations and influence of geometry,” Biomech. Model. Mechanobiol. 8(2), 85–98 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. A. Sigal and C. R. Ethier, “Biomechanics of the optic nerve head,” Exp. Eye Res. 88(4), 799–807 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. A. Sigal, J. G. Flanagan, I. Tertinegg, and C. R. Ethier, “Modeling individual-specific human optic nerve head biomechanics. Part I: IOP-induced deformations and influence of geometry,” Biomech. Model. Mechanobiol. 8(2), 85–98 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. A. Sigal, J. G. Flanagan, and C. R. Ethier, “Factors influencing optic nerve head biomechanics,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46(11), 4189–4199 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Siganos, C.

A. I. Dastiridou, H. Ginis, M. Tsilimbaris, N. Karyotakis, E. Detorakis, C. Siganos, P. Cholevas, E. E. Tsironi, and I. G. Pallikaris, “Ocular rigidity, ocular pulse amplitude, and pulsatile ocular blood flow: the effect of axial length,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(3), 2087–2092 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Spaeth, G. L.

M. R. Lesk, G. L. Spaeth, A. Azuara-Blanco, S. V. Araujo, L. J. Katz, A. K. Terebuh, R. P. Wilson, M. R. Moster, and C. M. Schmidt, “Reversal of optic disc cupping after glaucoma surgery analyzed with a scanning laser tomograph,” Ophthalmology 106(5), 1013–1018 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Spoerl, E.

A. G. Boehm, A. Weber, L. E. Pillunat, R. Koch, and E. Spoerl, “Dynamic contour tonometry in comparison to intracameral IOP measurements,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(6), 2472–2477 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Strouthidis, N. G.

J. M. Mari, N. G. Strouthidis, S. C. Park, and M. J. Girard, “Enhancement of lamina cribrosa visibility in optical coherence tomography images using adaptive compensation,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(3), 2238–2247 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Suh, J. K.

C. F. Burgoyne, J. C. Downs, A. J. Bellezza, J. K. Suh, and R. T. Hart, “The optic nerve head as a biomechanical structure: a new paradigm for understanding the role of IOP-related stress and strain in the pathophysiology of glaucomatous optic nerve head damage,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 24(1), 39–73 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Taha, M.

V. Manjunath, M. Taha, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Duker, “Choroidal thickness in normal eyes measured using Cirrus HD optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 150(3), 325–329 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Terebuh, A. K.

M. R. Lesk, G. L. Spaeth, A. Azuara-Blanco, S. V. Araujo, L. J. Katz, A. K. Terebuh, R. P. Wilson, M. R. Moster, and C. M. Schmidt, “Reversal of optic disc cupping after glaucoma surgery analyzed with a scanning laser tomograph,” Ophthalmology 106(5), 1013–1018 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tertinegg, I.

I. A. Sigal, J. G. Flanagan, I. Tertinegg, and C. R. Ethier, “Modeling individual-specific human optic nerve head biomechanics. Part I: IOP-induced deformations and influence of geometry,” Biomech. Model. Mechanobiol. 8(2), 85–98 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. A. Sigal, J. G. Flanagan, I. Tertinegg, and C. R. Ethier, “Modeling individual-specific human optic nerve head biomechanics. Part I: IOP-induced deformations and influence of geometry,” Biomech. Model. Mechanobiol. 8(2), 85–98 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thompson, H. W.

A. J. Bellezza, C. J. Rintalan, H. W. Thompson, J. C. Downs, R. T. Hart, and C. F. Burgoyne, “Deformation of the lamina cribrosa and anterior scleral canal wall in early experimental glaucoma,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 44(2), 623–637 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. J. Bellezza, C. J. Rintalan, H. W. Thompson, J. C. Downs, R. T. Hart, and C. F. Burgoyne, “Deformation of the lamina cribrosa and anterior scleral canal wall in early experimental glaucoma,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 44(2), 623–637 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tian, J.

Toth, C. A.

Trope, G. E.

D. B. Yan, F. M. Coloma, A. Metheetrairut, G. E. Trope, J. G. Heathcote, and C. R. Ethier, “Deformation of the lamina cribrosa by elevated intraocular pressure,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 78(8), 643–648 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tsilimbaris, M.

A. I. Dastiridou, H. Ginis, M. Tsilimbaris, N. Karyotakis, E. Detorakis, C. Siganos, P. Cholevas, E. E. Tsironi, and I. G. Pallikaris, “Ocular rigidity, ocular pulse amplitude, and pulsatile ocular blood flow: the effect of axial length,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(3), 2087–2092 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tsilimbaris, M. K.

A. I. Dastiridou, H. S. Ginis, D. De Brouwere, M. K. Tsilimbaris, and I. G. Pallikaris, “Ocular rigidity, ocular pulse amplitude, and pulsatile ocular blood flow: the effect of intraocular pressure,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50(12), 5718–5722 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. G. Pallikaris, G. D. Kymionis, H. S. Ginis, G. A. Kounis, E. Christodoulakis, and M. K. Tsilimbaris, “Ocular rigidity in patients with age-related macular degeneration,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 141(4), 611–615 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tsironi, E. E.

A. I. Dastiridou, H. Ginis, M. Tsilimbaris, N. Karyotakis, E. Detorakis, C. Siganos, P. Cholevas, E. E. Tsironi, and I. G. Pallikaris, “Ocular rigidity, ocular pulse amplitude, and pulsatile ocular blood flow: the effect of axial length,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(3), 2087–2092 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tun, T. A.

Vass, C.

A. Hommer, G. Fuchsjäger-Mayrl, H. Resch, C. Vass, G. Garhofer, and L. Schmetterer, “Estimation of ocular rigidity based on measurement of pulse amplitude using pneumotonometry and fundus pulse using laser interferometry in glaucoma,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(9), 4046–4050 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, H.

G. Barteselli, J. Chhablani, S. El-Emam, H. Wang, J. Chuang, I. Kozak, L. Cheng, D. U. Bartsch, and W. R. Freeman, “Choroidal volume variations with age, axial length, and sex in healthy subjects: a three-dimensional analysis,” Ophthalmology 119(12), 2572–2578 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, J.

J. Wang, E. E. Freeman, D. Descovich, P. J. Harasymowycz, A. Kamdeu Fansi, G. Li, and M. R. Lesk, “Estimation of ocular rigidity in glaucoma using ocular pulse amplitude and pulsatile choroidal blood flow,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(3), 1706–1711 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weber, A.

A. G. Boehm, A. Weber, L. E. Pillunat, R. Koch, and E. Spoerl, “Dynamic contour tonometry in comparison to intracameral IOP measurements,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(6), 2472–2477 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wilson, R. P.

M. R. Lesk, G. L. Spaeth, A. Azuara-Blanco, S. V. Araujo, L. J. Katz, A. K. Terebuh, R. P. Wilson, M. R. Moster, and C. M. Schmidt, “Reversal of optic disc cupping after glaucoma surgery analyzed with a scanning laser tomograph,” Ophthalmology 106(5), 1013–1018 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yan, D. B.

D. B. Yan, F. M. Coloma, A. Metheetrairut, G. E. Trope, J. G. Heathcote, and C. R. Ethier, “Deformation of the lamina cribrosa by elevated intraocular pressure,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 78(8), 643–648 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Young, M.

S. Lee, N. Fallah, F. Forooghian, A. Ko, K. Pakzad-Vaezi, A. B. Merkur, A. W. Kirker, D. A. Albiani, M. Young, M. V. Sarunic, and M. F. Beg, “Comparative analysis of repeatability of manual and automated choroidal thickness measurements in nonneovascular age-related macular degeneration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(4), 2864–2871 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, D. Y.

W. H. Morgan, B. C. Chauhan, D. Y. Yu, S. J. Cringle, V. A. Alder, and P. H. House, “Optic disc movement with variations in intraocular and cerebrospinal fluid pressure,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 43(10), 3236–3242 (2002).
[PubMed]

W. H. Morgan, B. C. Chauhan, D. Y. Yu, S. J. Cringle, V. A. Alder, and P. H. House, “Optic disc movement with variations in intraocular and cerebrospinal fluid pressure,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 43(10), 3236–3242 (2002).
[PubMed]

Zeimer, R. C.

R. C. Zeimer and Y. Ogura, “The Relation between Glaucomatous Damage and Optic Nerve Head Mechanical Compliance,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 107(8), 1232–1234 (1989).
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Acta Ophthalmol. (Copenh.) (1)

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Automated segmentation of retinal layers of interest from OCT images. The image in A is a typical frame from the video series. A) A-scans where the choroid is absent (highlighted in green) are discarded from all frames. B) Segmentation of the outmost layers of the retina: RVI is indicated in green, anterior RPE in red, and posterior RPE in blue. The A-scans are shifted so that the blue layer appears flattened (C).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 A) The uncompensated sub-RPE region. B) The same region, compensated and contrast enhanced, to which the oriented gradient algorithm will be applied. Overlaid is an example disk of radius 30 pixels. The red and green regions correspond to their respectively coloured histograms (D). C) The oriented gradient image, composed of the combination of the X2 images of different scales and orientations, as described. The heat map shows pixels which are very likely to lie on a boundary. Even weak boundaries can be detected while excluding noisy regions with this method. E) Overlay of the oriented gradient image (heatmap), node locations (yellow x’s), and the CSI found using these two inputs to the graph search (redline), onto the flattened B-scan. The green dashed line shows the limit of 585 µm below the Bruchs beyond which nodes are discarded. F) The original B-scan overlaid with the RPE (blue), CSI (yellow) and the mean RPE-CSI distance or CT (red dotted line). This distance CT is what is tracked from frame to frame.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Spectrum analysis of CT fluctuations in time. A) Top: Oximeter signal. Bottom: Raw fluctuations of CT versus time (black). Overlaid in red is the band-pass filtered CT signal (red). B) Frequency spectrum of the oximeter signal (top), and CT signal (bottom), where the offset component has been omitted. The filtered frequency band for the CT spectrum is shown in red..The dashed blue lines indicate the two first harmonics of the measured heart rate which are observed in both signals.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Segmentation results for the proposed method (blue), Tian’s method (red) and manual tracings (green). A set of 25 OCT images was manually segmented by 5 independent specialists and used for benchmarking our method. A, B) Examples illustrating the performance. C) We calculated the average manually segmented CSI and compared the performance of each specialist and both automated methods. Histograms of deviation from the mean trace for every A-scan of all images are shown as violin plots
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Ocular rigidity measurements. A) Correlations of OR with OPA and AL. B) Reproducibility results (4 subjects). Along with ICC value, its lower and upper bonds for alpha = 0.05, are indicated.

Equations (10)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ln( IOP IO P 0 )= k (V- V 0 )
w(a,b)= w Euclid + w Vert + w Horiz + w Affin
w Vert = w V H(Δy T V )| Δy T V | 1+exp( α( Δy T V ) ) ,
w Horiz = w H H(Δx T H )| Δx T H | 1+exp(α(Δx T H )) ,
X 2 (i,j,σ,θ)= 1 2 I ( g(I)h(I) ) 2 g(I)+h(I)
P b (i,j)= 1 K max θ ( σ X 2 (i,j,σ,θ) )
w Affin = w A A
w rerun (a,b)=w(a,b)+ w r H(δyε)| δy | 1+exp(α(δyε))
ΔV=π R 2 ΔCT
IOP IO P 0 = IOP+OPA IOP

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