Abstract

We evaluate strategies to maximize the field of view (FOV) of in vivo retinal OCT imaging of human eyes. Three imaging modes are tested: Single volume imaging with 85° FOV as well as with 100° and stitching of five 60° images to a 100° mosaic (measured from the nodal point). We employ a MHz-OCT system based on a 1060nm Fourier domain mode locked (FDML) laser with a depth scan rate of 1.68MHz. The high speed is essential for dense isotropic sampling of the large areas. Challenges caused by the wide FOV are discussed and solutions to most issues are presented. Detailed information on the design and characterization of our sample arm optics is given. We investigate the origin of an angle dependent signal fall-off which we observe towards larger imaging angles. It is present in our 85° and 100° single volume images, but not in the mosaic. Our results suggest that 100° FOV OCT is possible with current swept source OCT technology.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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2015 (1)

2014 (3)

2013 (4)

J. S. Duker, P. K. Kaiser, S. Binder, M. D. de Smet, A. Gaudric, E. Reichel, S. R. Sadda, J. Sebag, R. F. Spaide, and P. Stalmans, “The International Vitreomacular Traction Study Group classification of vitreomacular adhesion, traction, and macular hole,” Ophthalmology 120(12), 2611–2619 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Klein, W. Wieser, L. Reznicek, A. Neubauer, A. Kampik, and R. Huber, “Multi-MHz retinal OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(10), 1890–1908 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Parlitsis, M. Witmer, S. Patel, and S. Kiss, “Comparison of ultra wide-field fluorescein angiography using the Optos(R) P200Tx and Heidelberg Spectralis(R) the non-contact wide-angle lens,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54, 16 (2013).

W. Choi, K. J. Mohler, B. Potsaid, C. D. Lu, J. J. Liu, V. Jayaraman, A. E. Cable, J. S. Duker, R. Huber, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Choriocapillaris and Choroidal Microvasculature Imaging with Ultrahigh Speed OCT Angiography,” PLoS ONE 8(12), e81499 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (5)

M. Kernt, I. Hadi, F. Pinter, F. Seidensticker, C. Hirneiss, C. Haritoglou, A. Kampik, M. W. Ulbig, and A. S. Neubauer, “Assessment of diabetic retinopathy using nonmydriatic ultra-widefield scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (Optomap) compared with ETDRS 7-field stereo photography,” Diabetes Care 35(12), 2459–2463 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Reznicek, T. Wasfy, C. Stumpf, A. Kampik, M. Ulbig, A. S. Neubauer, and M. Kernt, “Peripheral fundus autofluorescence is increased in age-related macular degeneration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53(4), 2193–2198 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Suehira, S. Ooto, M. Hangai, K. Matsumoto, N. Tomatsu, T. Yuasa, K. Yamada, and N. Yoshimura, “Three-beam spectral-domain optical coherence tomography for retinal imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(10), 106001 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. V. Vienola, B. Braaf, C. K. Sheehy, Q. Yang, P. Tiruveedhula, D. W. Arathorn, J. F. de Boer, and A. Roorda, “Real-time eye motion compensation for OCT imaging with tracking SLO,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(11), 2950–2963 (2012).
[PubMed]

I. Grulkowski, J. J. Liu, B. Potsaid, V. Jayaraman, C. D. Lu, J. Jiang, A. E. Cable, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Retinal, anterior segment and full eye imaging using ultrahigh speed swept source OCT with vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(11), 2733–2751 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (5)

2010 (4)

2009 (3)

2008 (4)

B. Povazay, B. Hermann, B. Hofer, V. Kajić, E. Simpson, T. Bridgford, and W. Drexler, “Wide-field optical coherence tomography of the choroid in vivo,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50(4), 1856–1863 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. F. Spaide, H. Koizumi, and M. C. Pozzoni, “Enhanced depth imaging spectral-domain optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 146(4), 496–500 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. S. Neubauer, M. Kernt, C. Haritoglou, S. G. Priglinger, A. Kampik, and M. W. Ulbig, “Nonmydriatic screening for diabetic retinopathy by ultra-widefield scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (Optomap),” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 246(2), 229–235 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. R. Biedermann, W. Wieser, C. M. Eigenwillig, G. Palte, D. C. Adler, V. J. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, and R. Huber, “Real time en face Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography with direct hardware frequency demodulation,” Opt. Lett. 33(21), 2556–2558 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

2005 (4)

R. J. Zawadzki, S. M. Jones, S. S. Olivier, M. T. Zhao, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, S. Choi, S. Laut, and J. S. Werner, “Adaptive-optics optical coherence tomography for high-resolution and high-speed 3D retinal in vivo imaging,” Opt. Express 13(21), 8532–8546 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. S. Neubauer, A. Yu, C. Haritoglou, and M. W. Ulbig, “Peripheral retinal changes in acute retinal necrosis imaged by ultra widefield scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Acta Ophthalmol. Scand. 83(6), 758–760 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Wiesauer, M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, S. Bauer, R. Engelke, G. Ahrens, G. Grützner, C. K. Hitzenberger, and D. Stifter, “En-face scanning optical coherence tomography with ultra-high resolution for material investigation,” Opt. Express 13(3), 1015–1024 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Hanna, D. Saltzman, D. Mukai, Z. Chen, S. Sasse, J. Milliken, S. Guo, W. Jung, H. Colt, and M. Brenner, “Two-dimensional and 3-dimensional optical coherence tomographic imaging of the airway, lung, and pleura,” J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. 129(3), 615–622 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (3)

2003 (1)

1998 (3)

1997 (3)

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276(5321), 2037–2039 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. M. Sergeev, V. M. Gelikonov, G. V. Gelikonov, F. I. Feldchtein, R. V. Kuranov, N. D. Gladkova, N. M. Shakhova, L. B. Snopova, A. V. Shakhov, I. A. Kuznetzova, A. N. Denisenko, V. V. Pochinko, Y. P. Chumakov, and O. S. Streltzova, “In vivo endoscopic OCT imaging of precancer and cancer states of human mucosa,” Opt. Express 1(13), 432–440 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, J. F. Southern, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical biopsy in human gastrointestinal tissue using optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 92(10), 1800–1804 (1997).
[PubMed]

1995 (2)

J. M. Schmitt, M. J. Yadlowsky, and R. F. Bonner, “SUBSURFACE IMAGING OF LIVING SKIN WITH OPTICAL COHERENCE MICROSCOPY,” Dermatology (Basel) 191(2), 93–98 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. A. Puliafito, M. R. Hee, C. P. Lin, E. Reichel, J. S. Schuman, J. S. Duker, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Imaging of macular diseases with optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 102(2), 217–229 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

B. Winn, D. Whitaker, D. B. Elliott, and N. J. Phillips, “Factors affecting light-adapted pupil size in normal human subjects,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 35(3), 1132–1137 (1994).
[PubMed]

1993 (2)

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
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W. Choi, K. J. Mohler, B. Potsaid, C. D. Lu, J. J. Liu, V. Jayaraman, A. E. Cable, J. S. Duker, R. Huber, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Choriocapillaris and Choroidal Microvasculature Imaging with Ultrahigh Speed OCT Angiography,” PLoS ONE 8(12), e81499 (2013).
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N. Hanna, D. Saltzman, D. Mukai, Z. Chen, S. Sasse, J. Milliken, S. Guo, W. Jung, H. Colt, and M. Brenner, “Two-dimensional and 3-dimensional optical coherence tomographic imaging of the airway, lung, and pleura,” J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. 129(3), 615–622 (2005).
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J. S. Duker, P. K. Kaiser, S. Binder, M. D. de Smet, A. Gaudric, E. Reichel, S. R. Sadda, J. Sebag, R. F. Spaide, and P. Stalmans, “The International Vitreomacular Traction Study Group classification of vitreomacular adhesion, traction, and macular hole,” Ophthalmology 120(12), 2611–2619 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kajic, V.

B. Povazay, B. Hermann, B. Hofer, V. Kajić, E. Simpson, T. Bridgford, and W. Drexler, “Wide-field optical coherence tomography of the choroid in vivo,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50(4), 1856–1863 (2008).
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Kamp, G.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, G. Kamp, and H. Sattmann, “In vivo optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 116(1), 113–114 (1993).
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Kampik, A.

T. Klein, W. Wieser, L. Reznicek, A. Neubauer, A. Kampik, and R. Huber, “Multi-MHz retinal OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(10), 1890–1908 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Reznicek, T. Wasfy, C. Stumpf, A. Kampik, M. Ulbig, A. S. Neubauer, and M. Kernt, “Peripheral fundus autofluorescence is increased in age-related macular degeneration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53(4), 2193–2198 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Kernt, I. Hadi, F. Pinter, F. Seidensticker, C. Hirneiss, C. Haritoglou, A. Kampik, M. W. Ulbig, and A. S. Neubauer, “Assessment of diabetic retinopathy using nonmydriatic ultra-widefield scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (Optomap) compared with ETDRS 7-field stereo photography,” Diabetes Care 35(12), 2459–2463 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Kernt, U. C. Schaller, C. Stumpf, M. W. Ulbig, A. Kampik, and A. S. Neubauer, “Choroidal pigmented lesions imaged by ultra-wide-field scanning laser ophthalmoscopy with two laser wavelengths (Optomap),” Clin. Ophthalmol. 4, 829–836 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. S. Neubauer, M. Kernt, C. Haritoglou, S. G. Priglinger, A. Kampik, and M. W. Ulbig, “Nonmydriatic screening for diabetic retinopathy by ultra-widefield scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (Optomap),” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 246(2), 229–235 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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M. Kernt, I. Hadi, F. Pinter, F. Seidensticker, C. Hirneiss, C. Haritoglou, A. Kampik, M. W. Ulbig, and A. S. Neubauer, “Assessment of diabetic retinopathy using nonmydriatic ultra-widefield scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (Optomap) compared with ETDRS 7-field stereo photography,” Diabetes Care 35(12), 2459–2463 (2012).
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L. Reznicek, T. Wasfy, C. Stumpf, A. Kampik, M. Ulbig, A. S. Neubauer, and M. Kernt, “Peripheral fundus autofluorescence is increased in age-related macular degeneration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53(4), 2193–2198 (2012).
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M. Kernt, U. C. Schaller, C. Stumpf, M. W. Ulbig, A. Kampik, and A. S. Neubauer, “Choroidal pigmented lesions imaged by ultra-wide-field scanning laser ophthalmoscopy with two laser wavelengths (Optomap),” Clin. Ophthalmol. 4, 829–836 (2010).
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A. S. Neubauer, M. Kernt, C. Haritoglou, S. G. Priglinger, A. Kampik, and M. W. Ulbig, “Nonmydriatic screening for diabetic retinopathy by ultra-widefield scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (Optomap),” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 246(2), 229–235 (2008).
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Khinast, J. G.

D. M. Koller, G. Hannesschläger, M. Leitner, and J. G. Khinast, “Non-destructive analysis of tablet coatings with optical coherence tomography,” Eur. J. Pharm. Sci. 44(1-2), 142–148 (2011).
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Kiss, S.

G. Parlitsis, M. Witmer, S. Patel, and S. Kiss, “Comparison of ultra wide-field fluorescein angiography using the Optos(R) P200Tx and Heidelberg Spectralis(R) the non-contact wide-angle lens,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54, 16 (2013).

Klein, T.

Kocaoglu, O. P.

Koch, P.

Koizumi, H.

R. F. Spaide, H. Koizumi, and M. C. Pozzoni, “Enhanced depth imaging spectral-domain optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 146(4), 496–500 (2008).
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D. M. Koller, G. Hannesschläger, M. Leitner, and J. G. Khinast, “Non-destructive analysis of tablet coatings with optical coherence tomography,” Eur. J. Pharm. Sci. 44(1-2), 142–148 (2011).
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Kraus, M. F.

J. J. Liu, A. J. Witkin, M. Adhi, I. Grulkowski, M. F. Kraus, A. H. Dhalla, C. D. Lu, J. Hornegger, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Enhanced vitreous imaging in healthy eyes using swept source optical coherence tomography,” PLoS ONE 9(7), e102950 (2014).
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Kuznetzova, I. A.

Lam, B. L.

Laut, S.

Lebec, M.

Leitgeb, R. A.

Leitner, M.

D. M. Koller, G. Hannesschläger, M. Leitner, and J. G. Khinast, “Non-destructive analysis of tablet coatings with optical coherence tomography,” Eur. J. Pharm. Sci. 44(1-2), 142–148 (2011).
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Li, Y.

Lin, C. P.

C. A. Puliafito, M. R. Hee, C. P. Lin, E. Reichel, J. S. Schuman, J. S. Duker, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Imaging of macular diseases with optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 102(2), 217–229 (1995).
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E. A. Swanson, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, D. Huang, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo retinal imaging by optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 18(21), 1864–1866 (1993).
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D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
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J. J. Liu, A. J. Witkin, M. Adhi, I. Grulkowski, M. F. Kraus, A. H. Dhalla, C. D. Lu, J. Hornegger, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Enhanced vitreous imaging in healthy eyes using swept source optical coherence tomography,” PLoS ONE 9(7), e102950 (2014).
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W. Choi, K. J. Mohler, B. Potsaid, C. D. Lu, J. J. Liu, V. Jayaraman, A. E. Cable, J. S. Duker, R. Huber, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Choriocapillaris and Choroidal Microvasculature Imaging with Ultrahigh Speed OCT Angiography,” PLoS ONE 8(12), e81499 (2013).
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Lu, C. D.

J. J. Liu, A. J. Witkin, M. Adhi, I. Grulkowski, M. F. Kraus, A. H. Dhalla, C. D. Lu, J. Hornegger, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Enhanced vitreous imaging in healthy eyes using swept source optical coherence tomography,” PLoS ONE 9(7), e102950 (2014).
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W. Choi, K. J. Mohler, B. Potsaid, C. D. Lu, J. J. Liu, V. Jayaraman, A. E. Cable, J. S. Duker, R. Huber, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Choriocapillaris and Choroidal Microvasculature Imaging with Ultrahigh Speed OCT Angiography,” PLoS ONE 8(12), e81499 (2013).
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I. Grulkowski, J. J. Liu, B. Potsaid, V. Jayaraman, C. D. Lu, J. Jiang, A. E. Cable, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Retinal, anterior segment and full eye imaging using ultrahigh speed swept source OCT with vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(11), 2733–2751 (2012).
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S. Martinez-Conde, S. L. Macknik, X. G. Troncoso, and D. H. Hubel, “Microsaccades: a neurophysiological analysis,” Trends Neurosci. 32(9), 463–475 (2009).
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N. Suehira, S. Ooto, M. Hangai, K. Matsumoto, N. Tomatsu, T. Yuasa, K. Yamada, and N. Yoshimura, “Three-beam spectral-domain optical coherence tomography for retinal imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(10), 106001 (2012).
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McNabb, R. P.

Miller, D. T.

Milliken, J.

N. Hanna, D. Saltzman, D. Mukai, Z. Chen, S. Sasse, J. Milliken, S. Guo, W. Jung, H. Colt, and M. Brenner, “Two-dimensional and 3-dimensional optical coherence tomographic imaging of the airway, lung, and pleura,” J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. 129(3), 615–622 (2005).
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Miura, M.

Mohler, K. J.

W. Choi, K. J. Mohler, B. Potsaid, C. D. Lu, J. J. Liu, V. Jayaraman, A. E. Cable, J. S. Duker, R. Huber, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Choriocapillaris and Choroidal Microvasculature Imaging with Ultrahigh Speed OCT Angiography,” PLoS ONE 8(12), e81499 (2013).
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N. Hanna, D. Saltzman, D. Mukai, Z. Chen, S. Sasse, J. Milliken, S. Guo, W. Jung, H. Colt, and M. Brenner, “Two-dimensional and 3-dimensional optical coherence tomographic imaging of the airway, lung, and pleura,” J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. 129(3), 615–622 (2005).
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Neubauer, A.

Neubauer, A. S.

L. Reznicek, T. Wasfy, C. Stumpf, A. Kampik, M. Ulbig, A. S. Neubauer, and M. Kernt, “Peripheral fundus autofluorescence is increased in age-related macular degeneration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53(4), 2193–2198 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Kernt, I. Hadi, F. Pinter, F. Seidensticker, C. Hirneiss, C. Haritoglou, A. Kampik, M. W. Ulbig, and A. S. Neubauer, “Assessment of diabetic retinopathy using nonmydriatic ultra-widefield scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (Optomap) compared with ETDRS 7-field stereo photography,” Diabetes Care 35(12), 2459–2463 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Kernt, U. C. Schaller, C. Stumpf, M. W. Ulbig, A. Kampik, and A. S. Neubauer, “Choroidal pigmented lesions imaged by ultra-wide-field scanning laser ophthalmoscopy with two laser wavelengths (Optomap),” Clin. Ophthalmol. 4, 829–836 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. S. Neubauer, M. Kernt, C. Haritoglou, S. G. Priglinger, A. Kampik, and M. W. Ulbig, “Nonmydriatic screening for diabetic retinopathy by ultra-widefield scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (Optomap),” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 246(2), 229–235 (2008).
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A. S. Neubauer, A. Yu, C. Haritoglou, and M. W. Ulbig, “Peripheral retinal changes in acute retinal necrosis imaged by ultra widefield scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Acta Ophthalmol. Scand. 83(6), 758–760 (2005).
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Ooto, S.

N. Suehira, S. Ooto, M. Hangai, K. Matsumoto, N. Tomatsu, T. Yuasa, K. Yamada, and N. Yoshimura, “Three-beam spectral-domain optical coherence tomography for retinal imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(10), 106001 (2012).
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Otis, L. L.

Palte, G.

Parlitsis, G.

G. Parlitsis, M. Witmer, S. Patel, and S. Kiss, “Comparison of ultra wide-field fluorescein angiography using the Optos(R) P200Tx and Heidelberg Spectralis(R) the non-contact wide-angle lens,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54, 16 (2013).

Patel, S.

G. Parlitsis, M. Witmer, S. Patel, and S. Kiss, “Comparison of ultra wide-field fluorescein angiography using the Optos(R) P200Tx and Heidelberg Spectralis(R) the non-contact wide-angle lens,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54, 16 (2013).

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B. Winn, D. Whitaker, D. B. Elliott, and N. J. Phillips, “Factors affecting light-adapted pupil size in normal human subjects,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 35(3), 1132–1137 (1994).
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M. Kernt, I. Hadi, F. Pinter, F. Seidensticker, C. Hirneiss, C. Haritoglou, A. Kampik, M. W. Ulbig, and A. S. Neubauer, “Assessment of diabetic retinopathy using nonmydriatic ultra-widefield scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (Optomap) compared with ETDRS 7-field stereo photography,” Diabetes Care 35(12), 2459–2463 (2012).
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Pircher, M.

Pitris, C.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276(5321), 2037–2039 (1997).
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Podoleanu, A. G.

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B. Povazay, B. Hermann, B. Hofer, V. Kajić, E. Simpson, T. Bridgford, and W. Drexler, “Wide-field optical coherence tomography of the choroid in vivo,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50(4), 1856–1863 (2008).
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Pozzoni, M. C.

R. F. Spaide, H. Koizumi, and M. C. Pozzoni, “Enhanced depth imaging spectral-domain optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 146(4), 496–500 (2008).
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Priglinger, S. G.

A. S. Neubauer, M. Kernt, C. Haritoglou, S. G. Priglinger, A. Kampik, and M. W. Ulbig, “Nonmydriatic screening for diabetic retinopathy by ultra-widefield scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (Optomap),” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 246(2), 229–235 (2008).
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Puliafito, C. A.

C. A. Puliafito, M. R. Hee, C. P. Lin, E. Reichel, J. S. Schuman, J. S. Duker, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Imaging of macular diseases with optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 102(2), 217–229 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. A. Swanson, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, D. Huang, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo retinal imaging by optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 18(21), 1864–1866 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reichel, E.

J. S. Duker, P. K. Kaiser, S. Binder, M. D. de Smet, A. Gaudric, E. Reichel, S. R. Sadda, J. Sebag, R. F. Spaide, and P. Stalmans, “The International Vitreomacular Traction Study Group classification of vitreomacular adhesion, traction, and macular hole,” Ophthalmology 120(12), 2611–2619 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. A. Puliafito, M. R. Hee, C. P. Lin, E. Reichel, J. S. Schuman, J. S. Duker, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Imaging of macular diseases with optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 102(2), 217–229 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reznicek, L.

T. Klein, W. Wieser, L. Reznicek, A. Neubauer, A. Kampik, and R. Huber, “Multi-MHz retinal OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(10), 1890–1908 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Reznicek, T. Wasfy, C. Stumpf, A. Kampik, M. Ulbig, A. S. Neubauer, and M. Kernt, “Peripheral fundus autofluorescence is increased in age-related macular degeneration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53(4), 2193–2198 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Roorda, A.

Rosa, C. C.

Rosenfeld, P. J.

Sadda, S. R.

J. S. Duker, P. K. Kaiser, S. Binder, M. D. de Smet, A. Gaudric, E. Reichel, S. R. Sadda, J. Sebag, R. F. Spaide, and P. Stalmans, “The International Vitreomacular Traction Study Group classification of vitreomacular adhesion, traction, and macular hole,” Ophthalmology 120(12), 2611–2619 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Saint-Jalmes, H.

Saltzman, D.

N. Hanna, D. Saltzman, D. Mukai, Z. Chen, S. Sasse, J. Milliken, S. Guo, W. Jung, H. Colt, and M. Brenner, “Two-dimensional and 3-dimensional optical coherence tomographic imaging of the airway, lung, and pleura,” J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. 129(3), 615–622 (2005).
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Sasse, S.

N. Hanna, D. Saltzman, D. Mukai, Z. Chen, S. Sasse, J. Milliken, S. Guo, W. Jung, H. Colt, and M. Brenner, “Two-dimensional and 3-dimensional optical coherence tomographic imaging of the airway, lung, and pleura,” J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. 129(3), 615–622 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sathyam, U. S.

Sattmann, H.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, G. Kamp, and H. Sattmann, “In vivo optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 116(1), 113–114 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schaller, U. C.

M. Kernt, U. C. Schaller, C. Stumpf, M. W. Ulbig, A. Kampik, and A. S. Neubauer, “Choroidal pigmented lesions imaged by ultra-wide-field scanning laser ophthalmoscopy with two laser wavelengths (Optomap),” Clin. Ophthalmol. 4, 829–836 (2010).
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J. M. Schmitt, M. J. Yadlowsky, and R. F. Bonner, “SUBSURFACE IMAGING OF LIVING SKIN WITH OPTICAL COHERENCE MICROSCOPY,” Dermatology (Basel) 191(2), 93–98 (1995).
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Schuman, J. S.

Sebag, J.

J. S. Duker, P. K. Kaiser, S. Binder, M. D. de Smet, A. Gaudric, E. Reichel, S. R. Sadda, J. Sebag, R. F. Spaide, and P. Stalmans, “The International Vitreomacular Traction Study Group classification of vitreomacular adhesion, traction, and macular hole,” Ophthalmology 120(12), 2611–2619 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Seidensticker, F.

M. Kernt, I. Hadi, F. Pinter, F. Seidensticker, C. Hirneiss, C. Haritoglou, A. Kampik, M. W. Ulbig, and A. S. Neubauer, “Assessment of diabetic retinopathy using nonmydriatic ultra-widefield scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (Optomap) compared with ETDRS 7-field stereo photography,” Diabetes Care 35(12), 2459–2463 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sergeev, A. M.

Shakhov, A. V.

Shakhova, N. M.

Sheehy, C. K.

Simpson, E.

B. Povazay, B. Hermann, B. Hofer, V. Kajić, E. Simpson, T. Bridgford, and W. Drexler, “Wide-field optical coherence tomography of the choroid in vivo,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50(4), 1856–1863 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Snopova, L. B.

Southern, J. F.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276(5321), 2037–2039 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, J. F. Southern, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical biopsy in human gastrointestinal tissue using optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 92(10), 1800–1804 (1997).
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Spaide, R. F.

J. S. Duker, P. K. Kaiser, S. Binder, M. D. de Smet, A. Gaudric, E. Reichel, S. R. Sadda, J. Sebag, R. F. Spaide, and P. Stalmans, “The International Vitreomacular Traction Study Group classification of vitreomacular adhesion, traction, and macular hole,” Ophthalmology 120(12), 2611–2619 (2013).
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R. F. Spaide, “Peripheral areas of nonperfusion in treated central retinal vein occlusion as imaged by wide-field fluorescein angiography,” Retina 31(5), 829–837 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. F. Spaide, H. Koizumi, and M. C. Pozzoni, “Enhanced depth imaging spectral-domain optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 146(4), 496–500 (2008).
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Srinivasan, V. J.

Stalmans, P.

J. S. Duker, P. K. Kaiser, S. Binder, M. D. de Smet, A. Gaudric, E. Reichel, S. R. Sadda, J. Sebag, R. F. Spaide, and P. Stalmans, “The International Vitreomacular Traction Study Group classification of vitreomacular adhesion, traction, and macular hole,” Ophthalmology 120(12), 2611–2619 (2013).
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Stifter, D.

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Streltzova, O. S.

Stroeve, P.

Stumpf, C.

L. Reznicek, T. Wasfy, C. Stumpf, A. Kampik, M. Ulbig, A. S. Neubauer, and M. Kernt, “Peripheral fundus autofluorescence is increased in age-related macular degeneration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53(4), 2193–2198 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Kernt, U. C. Schaller, C. Stumpf, M. W. Ulbig, A. Kampik, and A. S. Neubauer, “Choroidal pigmented lesions imaged by ultra-wide-field scanning laser ophthalmoscopy with two laser wavelengths (Optomap),” Clin. Ophthalmol. 4, 829–836 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Suehira, N.

N. Suehira, S. Ooto, M. Hangai, K. Matsumoto, N. Tomatsu, T. Yuasa, K. Yamada, and N. Yoshimura, “Three-beam spectral-domain optical coherence tomography for retinal imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(10), 106001 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

C. A. Puliafito, M. R. Hee, C. P. Lin, E. Reichel, J. S. Schuman, J. S. Duker, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Imaging of macular diseases with optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 102(2), 217–229 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. A. Swanson, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, D. Huang, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo retinal imaging by optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 18(21), 1864–1866 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tearney, G.

Tearney, G. J.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276(5321), 2037–2039 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, J. F. Southern, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical biopsy in human gastrointestinal tissue using optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 92(10), 1800–1804 (1997).
[PubMed]

Tiruveedhula, P.

Tomatsu, N.

N. Suehira, S. Ooto, M. Hangai, K. Matsumoto, N. Tomatsu, T. Yuasa, K. Yamada, and N. Yoshimura, “Three-beam spectral-domain optical coherence tomography for retinal imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(10), 106001 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Torti, C.

Troncoso, X. G.

S. Martinez-Conde, S. L. Macknik, X. G. Troncoso, and D. H. Hubel, “Microsaccades: a neurophysiological analysis,” Trends Neurosci. 32(9), 463–475 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tumlinson, A. R.

Turner, T. L.

Ulbig, M.

L. Reznicek, T. Wasfy, C. Stumpf, A. Kampik, M. Ulbig, A. S. Neubauer, and M. Kernt, “Peripheral fundus autofluorescence is increased in age-related macular degeneration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53(4), 2193–2198 (2012).
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Ulbig, M. W.

M. Kernt, I. Hadi, F. Pinter, F. Seidensticker, C. Hirneiss, C. Haritoglou, A. Kampik, M. W. Ulbig, and A. S. Neubauer, “Assessment of diabetic retinopathy using nonmydriatic ultra-widefield scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (Optomap) compared with ETDRS 7-field stereo photography,” Diabetes Care 35(12), 2459–2463 (2012).
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M. Kernt, U. C. Schaller, C. Stumpf, M. W. Ulbig, A. Kampik, and A. S. Neubauer, “Choroidal pigmented lesions imaged by ultra-wide-field scanning laser ophthalmoscopy with two laser wavelengths (Optomap),” Clin. Ophthalmol. 4, 829–836 (2010).
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A. S. Neubauer, M. Kernt, C. Haritoglou, S. G. Priglinger, A. Kampik, and M. W. Ulbig, “Nonmydriatic screening for diabetic retinopathy by ultra-widefield scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (Optomap),” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 246(2), 229–235 (2008).
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Vienola, K. V.

Wasfy, T.

L. Reznicek, T. Wasfy, C. Stumpf, A. Kampik, M. Ulbig, A. S. Neubauer, and M. Kernt, “Peripheral fundus autofluorescence is increased in age-related macular degeneration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53(4), 2193–2198 (2012).
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A. S. Neubauer, A. Yu, C. Haritoglou, and M. W. Ulbig, “Peripheral retinal changes in acute retinal necrosis imaged by ultra widefield scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Acta Ophthalmol. Scand. 83(6), 758–760 (2005).
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N. Suehira, S. Ooto, M. Hangai, K. Matsumoto, N. Tomatsu, T. Yuasa, K. Yamada, and N. Yoshimura, “Three-beam spectral-domain optical coherence tomography for retinal imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(10), 106001 (2012).
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Zawadzki, R. J.

Zeylikovich, I.

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Acta Ophthalmol. Scand. (1)

A. S. Neubauer, A. Yu, C. Haritoglou, and M. W. Ulbig, “Peripheral retinal changes in acute retinal necrosis imaged by ultra widefield scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Acta Ophthalmol. Scand. 83(6), 758–760 (2005).
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Am. J. Gastroenterol. (1)

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, J. F. Southern, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical biopsy in human gastrointestinal tissue using optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 92(10), 1800–1804 (1997).
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M. Kernt, U. C. Schaller, C. Stumpf, M. W. Ulbig, A. Kampik, and A. S. Neubauer, “Choroidal pigmented lesions imaged by ultra-wide-field scanning laser ophthalmoscopy with two laser wavelengths (Optomap),” Clin. Ophthalmol. 4, 829–836 (2010).
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Dermatology (Basel) (1)

J. M. Schmitt, M. J. Yadlowsky, and R. F. Bonner, “SUBSURFACE IMAGING OF LIVING SKIN WITH OPTICAL COHERENCE MICROSCOPY,” Dermatology (Basel) 191(2), 93–98 (1995).
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Diabetes Care (1)

M. Kernt, I. Hadi, F. Pinter, F. Seidensticker, C. Hirneiss, C. Haritoglou, A. Kampik, M. W. Ulbig, and A. S. Neubauer, “Assessment of diabetic retinopathy using nonmydriatic ultra-widefield scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (Optomap) compared with ETDRS 7-field stereo photography,” Diabetes Care 35(12), 2459–2463 (2012).
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Eur. J. Pharm. Sci. (1)

D. M. Koller, G. Hannesschläger, M. Leitner, and J. G. Khinast, “Non-destructive analysis of tablet coatings with optical coherence tomography,” Eur. J. Pharm. Sci. 44(1-2), 142–148 (2011).
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A. S. Neubauer, M. Kernt, C. Haritoglou, S. G. Priglinger, A. Kampik, and M. W. Ulbig, “Nonmydriatic screening for diabetic retinopathy by ultra-widefield scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (Optomap),” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 246(2), 229–235 (2008).
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L. Reznicek, T. Wasfy, C. Stumpf, A. Kampik, M. Ulbig, A. S. Neubauer, and M. Kernt, “Peripheral fundus autofluorescence is increased in age-related macular degeneration,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53(4), 2193–2198 (2012).
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B. Povazay, B. Hermann, B. Hofer, V. Kajić, E. Simpson, T. Bridgford, and W. Drexler, “Wide-field optical coherence tomography of the choroid in vivo,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50(4), 1856–1863 (2008).
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B. Winn, D. Whitaker, D. B. Elliott, and N. J. Phillips, “Factors affecting light-adapted pupil size in normal human subjects,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 35(3), 1132–1137 (1994).
[PubMed]

G. Parlitsis, M. Witmer, S. Patel, and S. Kiss, “Comparison of ultra wide-field fluorescein angiography using the Optos(R) P200Tx and Heidelberg Spectralis(R) the non-contact wide-angle lens,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54, 16 (2013).

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

N. Suehira, S. Ooto, M. Hangai, K. Matsumoto, N. Tomatsu, T. Yuasa, K. Yamada, and N. Yoshimura, “Three-beam spectral-domain optical coherence tomography for retinal imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(10), 106001 (2012).
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A. M. Sergeev, V. M. Gelikonov, G. V. Gelikonov, F. I. Feldchtein, R. V. Kuranov, N. D. Gladkova, N. M. Shakhova, L. B. Snopova, A. V. Shakhov, I. A. Kuznetzova, A. N. Denisenko, V. V. Pochinko, Y. P. Chumakov, and O. S. Streltzova, “In vivo endoscopic OCT imaging of precancer and cancer states of human mucosa,” Opt. Express 1(13), 432–440 (1997).
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S. Makita, F. Jaillon, M. Yamanari, M. Miura, and Y. Yasuno, “Comprehensive in vivo micro-vascular imaging of the human eye by dual-beam-scan Doppler optical coherence angiography,” Opt. Express 19(2), 1271–1283 (2011).
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T. Klein, W. Wieser, C. M. Eigenwillig, B. R. Biedermann, and R. Huber, “Megahertz OCT for ultrawide-field retinal imaging with a 1050 nm Fourier domain mode-locked laser,” Opt. Express 19(4), 3044–3062 (2011).
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Y. Li, G. Gregori, B. L. Lam, and P. J. Rosenfeld, “Automatic montage of SD-OCT data sets,” Opt. Express 19(27), 26239–26248 (2011).
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S. Yun, G. Tearney, J. de Boer, and B. Bouma, “Removing the depth-degeneracy in optical frequency domain imaging with frequency shifting,” Opt. Express 12(20), 4822–4828 (2004).
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K. Wiesauer, M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, S. Bauer, R. Engelke, G. Ahrens, G. Grützner, C. K. Hitzenberger, and D. Stifter, “En-face scanning optical coherence tomography with ultra-high resolution for material investigation,” Opt. Express 13(3), 1015–1024 (2005).
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R. J. Zawadzki, S. M. Jones, S. S. Olivier, M. T. Zhao, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, S. Choi, S. Laut, and J. S. Werner, “Adaptive-optics optical coherence tomography for high-resolution and high-speed 3D retinal in vivo imaging,” Opt. Express 13(21), 8532–8546 (2005).
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R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Fourier Domain Mode Locking (FDML): A new laser operating regime and applications for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 14(8), 3225–3237 (2006).
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S. Makita, Y. Hong, M. Yamanari, T. Yatagai, and Y. Yasuno, “Optical coherence angiography,” Opt. Express 14(17), 7821–7840 (2006).
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R. J. Zawadzki, S. S. Choi, A. R. Fuller, J. W. Evans, B. Hamann, and J. S. Werner, “Cellular resolution volumetric in vivo retinal imaging with adaptive optics-optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 17(5), 4084–4094 (2009).
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B. Povazay, B. Hofer, C. Torti, B. Hermann, A. R. Tumlinson, M. Esmaeelpour, C. A. Egan, A. C. Bird, and W. Drexler, “Impact of enhanced resolution, speed and penetration on three-dimensional retinal optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 17(5), 4134–4150 (2009).
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W. Wieser, B. R. Biedermann, T. Klein, C. M. Eigenwillig, and R. Huber, “Multi-megahertz OCT: High quality 3D imaging at 20 million A-scans and 4.5 GVoxels per second,” Opt. Express 18(14), 14685–14704 (2010).
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B. Potsaid, B. Baumann, D. Huang, S. Barry, A. E. Cable, J. S. Schuman, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh speed 1050nm swept source/Fourier domain OCT retinal and anterior segment imaging at 100,000 to 400,000 axial scans per second,” Opt. Express 18(19), 20029–20048 (2010).
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Opt. Lett. (8)

T. Bonin, G. Franke, M. Hagen-Eggert, P. Koch, and G. Hüttmann, “In vivo Fourier-domain full-field OCT of the human retina with 1.5 million A-lines/s,” Opt. Lett. 35(20), 3432–3434 (2010).
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R. Huber, D. C. Adler, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Buffered Fourier domain mode locking: unidirectional swept laser sources for optical coherence tomography imaging at 370,000 lines/s,” Opt. Lett. 31(20), 2975–2977 (2006).
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Optica (1)

PLoS ONE (2)

J. J. Liu, A. J. Witkin, M. Adhi, I. Grulkowski, M. F. Kraus, A. H. Dhalla, C. D. Lu, J. Hornegger, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Enhanced vitreous imaging in healthy eyes using swept source optical coherence tomography,” PLoS ONE 9(7), e102950 (2014).
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W. Choi, K. J. Mohler, B. Potsaid, C. D. Lu, J. J. Liu, V. Jayaraman, A. E. Cable, J. S. Duker, R. Huber, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Choriocapillaris and Choroidal Microvasculature Imaging with Ultrahigh Speed OCT Angiography,” PLoS ONE 8(12), e81499 (2013).
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R. F. Spaide, “Peripheral areas of nonperfusion in treated central retinal vein occlusion as imaged by wide-field fluorescein angiography,” Retina 31(5), 829–837 (2011).
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Science (2)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
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G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276(5321), 2037–2039 (1997).
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B. Potsaid, V. Jayaraman, J. G. Fujimoto, J. Jiang, P. J. S. Heim, and A. E. Cable, “MEMS tunable VCSEL light source for ultrahigh speed 60kHz-1MHz axial scan rate and long range centimeter class OCT imaging,” in Optical Coherence Tomography and Coherence Domain Optical Methods in Biomedicine Xvi, Proceedings of SPIE 2012), 82130M.

T. Bonin, M. Hagen-Eggert, G. Franke, P. Koch, and G. Hüttmann, “Ultra highspeed in-vivo Fourier domain full-field OCT of the human retina,” in Optical Coherence Tomography and Coherence Domain Optical Methods in Biomedicine XV, SPIE Proceedings 2011), 788906.
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Supplementary Material (3)

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

A) Schematic illustrating artificially introduced interbeam optical path length differences (iOPD) in retinal OCT imaging between the central ray with the length d = 2r-d’ and the most extreme ray with the length x. P is the pivot point of the scanning optics, C the center of the eye, p the distance between P and the front of the sphere and r the radius of the eye. The scanned beam is illustrated in red. 2ε correspond to the FOV. B) iOPD between d and x plotted as a function of the FOV for various values of the parameter d’.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Interferometer and sample arm layout. Black connections are electrical wires, blue connections are Hi1060 fibers and free space beams are red. BPD: Balanced photo detector, 50/50: fiber coupler with symmetric splitting ratio, PC: polarization controller, DC: dispersion compensation, C: collimator lens with 18.4mm focal length, L1: ophthalmic lens (either four spherical lenses with 300mm focal length each, Volk 78D or Volk SPXL), L2: four spherical lenses with either 300 mm or 200mm focal length each, DM: dichroic mirror with >99.9% reflectivity for 1000nm-1090nm wavelength, BS: 50/50 beam splitter for 400nm-700nm, TG: fixation target (video projector with OD3 neutral density filter), the signal from the BPD is attenuated, then amplified and low pass filtered before acquisition

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Lens configurations for A) 60°, B) 85° and C) 100° imaging. Table 1 gives details on the respective lenses. Grey boxes represent retaining rings, which are 2.5mm (A and B) and 2mm thick (C). The collimated beam is deflected by two galvo mirrors, which are mounted with rotation axes ~12mm apart. Distance of L1 and L2 is varied for focusing. Exemplary beam path for central and the two most extreme galvo positions is shown in A).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Transmission of A) Volk 78D and B) Volk SPXL without and with AR-coating as a function of the angle α (measured from the optical axis). Solid line drawn between data points.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Spot pattern in the pivot point for multiple galvo positions for A) 60°, B) 85° and C) 100° imaging configuration.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Measurement of the angle dependent backcoupling efficiency. A) Schematic of the measurement procedure: A mirror mounted to a lens was rotated around the pivot point P. Backcoupling efficiency vs. angle α for the B) 60° imaging configuration C) 85° imaging configuration and D) 100° imaging configuration. Solid line drawn between datapoints.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Maximum optical angle vs. frequency for the Cambridge Technologies 6215H x-galvo with sinusoidal and triangular driving signal. Solid line drawn between datapoints.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Data from 85° ultra-widefield retinal in vivo OCT imaging. En face projections from imaging with a non-dilated and dilated pupil are displayed in subfigure A and B, respectively. A selected corresponding B-frame with six times moving frame averaging is given in subfigure C and D. A flythrough of all six times averaged B-frames is supplied in these two movies with 60 frames/s playback: Non-dilated (Media 1) and dilated case (Media 2). Subfigure E shows a B-frame without averaging from the dilated case. Subfigures F and G display magnifications of subfigure D at the indicated locations to visualize the angle dependent sensitivity decrease.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Results of 100° ultra wide field in vivo retinal OCT imaging. A) En face projection from single volume imaging with the Volk SPXL. B) En face projections from 100° mosaicking with the stitched image (top) and the single volumes (bottom). C) Selected B-frame from 100° single volume imaging. A flythrough of all B-frames can be found in Media 3. The imaging depth is 6.8mm (in air). D) Selected B-frame for 100° mosaicking composed of two single B-frames. The total imaging depth is 4.8mm (in air).

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Imaging setups

Equations (1)

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iOPD=n[dx]=n[(2cosε)r(1cosε)d' r 2 (rd') 2 sin 2 ε ]

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