Abstract

Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant pediatric brain tumor. Standard treatment consists of surgical resection, followed by radiation and high-dose chemotherapy. Despite these efforts, recurrence is common, leading to reduced patient survival. Even with successful treatment, there are often severe long-term neurologic impacts on the developing nervous system. We present two quantitative techniques that use a high-resolution optical imaging modality: optical coherence tomography (OCT) to measure refractive index, and the optical attenuation coefficient. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to demonstrate OCT analysis of medulloblastoma. Refractive index and optical attenuation coefficient were able to differentiate between normal brain tissue and medulloblastoma in mouse models. More specifically, optical attenuation coefficient imaging of normal cerebellum displayed layers of grey matter and white matter, which were indistinguishable in the structural OCT image. The morphology of the tumor was distinct in the optical attenuation coefficient imaging. These inherent properties may be useful during neurosurgical intervention to better delineate tumor boundaries and minimize resection of normal tissue.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]

2014 (3)

T. Gudrunardottir, B. Lannering, M. Remke, M. D. Taylor, E. M. Wells, R. F. Keating, and R. J. Packer, “Treatment developments and the unfolding of the quality of life discussion in childhood medulloblastoma: a review,” Child’s Nervous System 1, 1–12 (2014).

P. Gong, R. A. McLaughlin, Y. M. Liew, P. R. Munro, F. M. Wood, and D. D. Sampson, “Assessment of human burn scars with optical coherence tomography by imaging the attenuation coefficient of tissue after vascular masking,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19, 021111 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. R. Klyen, L. Scolaro, T. Shavlakadze, M. D. Grounds, and D. D. Sampson, “Optical coherence tomography can assess skeletal muscle tissue from mouse models of muscular dystrophy by parametric imaging of the attenuation coefficient,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5, 1217–1232 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (3)

C. P. Fleming, J. Eckert, E. F. Halpern, J. A. Gardecki, and G. J. Tearney, “Depth resolved detection of lipid using spectroscopic optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4, 1269–1284 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Sun, B. Standish, B. Vuong, X.-Y. Wen, and V. X.D. Yang, “Digital image correlation–based optical coherence elastography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 121515 (2013).
[Crossref]

O. Assayag, K. Grieve, B. Devaux, F. Harms, J. Pallud, F. Chretien, C. Boccara, and P. Varlet, “Imaging of non-tumorous and tumorous human brain tissues with full-field optical coherence tomography,” NeuroImage: Clinical 2, 549–557 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (5)

P. A. Northcott, D. T. Jones, M. Kool, G. W. Robinson, R. J. Gilbertson, Y.-J. Cho, S. L. Pomeroy, A. Korshunov, P. Lichter, M. D. Taylor, and S. M. Pfister, “Medulloblastomics: the end of the beginning,” Nat. Rev. Cancer 12, 818–834 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Wu, P. A. Northcott, A. Dubuc, A. J. Dupuy, D. J. Shih, H. Witt, S. Croul, E. Bouffet, D. W. Fults, C. G. Eberhart, J. Majewski, T. E. Scheetz, S. M. Pfister, A. Korshunov, X. Li, S. W. Scherer, Y. Cho, K. Akagi, T. J. MacDonald, J. Koster, M. G. McCabe, A L. Sarver, P. Collins, W. A. Weiss, D. A. Largaespada, L. S. Collier, and M. D. Taylor, “Clonal selection drives genetic divergence of metastatic medulloblastoma,” Nature (London) 482, 529–533 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. van Soest, M. Villiger, E. Regar, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, and A. F. van der Steen, “Frequency domain multiplexing for speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 0760181 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Sun, S. J. Lee, L. Wu, M. Sarntinoranont, and H. Xie, “Refractive index measurement of acute rat brain tissue slices using optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 20, 1084–1095 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Scolaro, R. A. McLaughlin, B. R. Klyen, B. A. Wood, P. D. Robbins, C. M. Saunders, S. L. Jacques, and D. D. Sampson, “Parametric imaging of the local attenuation coefficient in human axillary lymph nodes assessed using optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3, 366–379 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

C.-H. Pui, A. J. Gajjar, J. R. Kane, I. A. Qaddoumi, and A. S. Pappo, “Challenging issues in pediatric oncology,” Nat. Rev. Clin. Oncol. 8, 540–549 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Barwari, D. M. de Bruin, E. C. Cauberg, D. J. Faber, T. G. van Leeuwen, H. Wijkstra, J. de la Rosette, and M. P. Laguna, “Advanced diagnostics in renal mass using optical coherence tomography: a preliminary report,” J. Endourol. 25, 311–315 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

G. Van Soest, S. KoljenoviÄ, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, J. W. Oosterhuis, P. W. Serruys, A. F. van der Steen, N. Gonzalo, S. van Noorden, G. L. van Leenders, and et al., “Atherosclerotic tissue characterization in vivo by optical coherence tomography attenuation imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 011105 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. M. Dubuc, P. A. Northcott, A. M. Kenney, and M. D. Taylor, “Calculating a cure for cancer: managing medulloblastoma math1-ematically,” Expert Rev. Neurother. 10, 1489–1492 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

H. Böhringer, E. Lankenau, F. Stellmacher, E. Reusche, G. Hüttmann, and A. Giese, “Imaging of human brain tumor tissue by near-infrared laser coherence tomography,” Acta Neurochir. 151, 507–517 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

C. Xu, S. G. Carlier, R. Virmani, and J. M. Schmitt, “Characterization of atherosclerosis plaques by measuring both backscattering and attenuation coefficients in optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 034003 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

W. Tao, H. Jin, and Y. Zhang, “Color image segmentation based on mean shift and normalized cuts,” IEEE Trans. Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, Part B: Cybernetics,  37, 1382–1389 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (3)

S. W. Jeon, M. A. Shure, K. B. Baker, D. Huang, A. M. Rollins, A. Chahlavi, and A. R. Rezai, “A feasibility study of optical coherence tomography for guiding deep brain probes,” J. Neurosci. Meth. 154, 96–110 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. W. Jeon, M. A. Shure, K. B. Baker, D. Huang, A. M. Rollins, A. Chahlavi, and A. R. Rezai, “A feasibility study of optical coherence tomography for guiding deep brain probes,” J. Neurosci. Methods 154, 96–101 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Böhringer, D. Boller, J. Leppert, U. Knopp, E. Lankenau, E. Reusche, G. Hüttmann, and A. Giese, “Time-domain and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography in the analysis of brain tumor tissue,” Lasers Surg. Med. 38, 588–597 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

I. V. Turchin, R. Richards-Kortum, E. A. Sergeeva, L. S. Dolin, V. A. Kamensky, and N. M. Shakhova, “Novel algorithm of processing optical coherence tomography images for differentiation of biological tissue pathologies,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 064024 (2005).
[Crossref]

F. J. van der Meer, D. J. Faber, D. B. Sassoon, M. C. Aalders, G. Pasterkamp, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “Localized measurement of optical attenuation coefficients of atherosclerotic plaque constituents by quantitative optical coherence tomography,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 24, 1369–1376 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

R. J. Gilbertson, “Medulloblastoma: signalling a change in treatment,” The Lancet Oncology 5, 209–218 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Gajjar, R. Hernan, M. Kocak, C. Fuller, Y. Lee, P. J. McKinnon, D. Wallace, C. Lau, M. Chintagumpala, D. M. Ashley, S. J. Kellie, L. Kun, and R. J. Gilbertson, “Clinical, histopathologic, and molecular markers of prognosis: toward a new disease risk stratification system for medulloblastoma,” J. Clin. Oncol. 22, 984–993 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

D. Comaniciu and P. Meer, “Mean shift: A robust approach toward feature space analysis,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence on 24, 603–619 (2002).
[Crossref]

1999 (2)

F. Bevilacqua, D. Piguet, P. Marquet, J. D. Gross, B J. Tromberg, and C. Depeursinge, “In vivo local determination of tissue optical properties: applications to human brain,” Appl. Opt. 38, 4939–4950 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. M. Legler, L. A. G. Ries, M. A. Smith, J. L. Warren, E. F. Heineman, R. S. Kaplan, and M. S. Linet, “Brain and other central nervous system cancers: recent trends in incidence and mortality,” J. Nat. Cancer Inst. 91, 1382–1390 (1999).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

M. Dennis, B. J. Spiegler, C. R. Hetherington, and M. L. Greenberg, “Neuropsychological sequelae of the treatment of children with medulloblastoma,” J. Neuro-Oncol. 29, 91–101 (1996).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

1983 (1)

T. S. Park, H. J. Hoffman, E. B. Hendrick, R. P. Humphreys, and L. E. Becker, “Medulloblastoma: Clinical presentation and management: Experience at the hospital for sick children, toronto, 1950–1980,” J. Neurosurg. 58, 543–552 (1983).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aalders, M. C.

F. J. van der Meer, D. J. Faber, D. B. Sassoon, M. C. Aalders, G. Pasterkamp, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “Localized measurement of optical attenuation coefficients of atherosclerotic plaque constituents by quantitative optical coherence tomography,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 24, 1369–1376 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Abbas, A. K.

V. Kumar, A. K. Abbas, N. Fausto, and J. C. Aster, Robbins and Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease, Professional Edition: Expert Consult-Online, 8. (Elsevier Health Sciences, 2009).

Akagi, K.

X. Wu, P. A. Northcott, A. Dubuc, A. J. Dupuy, D. J. Shih, H. Witt, S. Croul, E. Bouffet, D. W. Fults, C. G. Eberhart, J. Majewski, T. E. Scheetz, S. M. Pfister, A. Korshunov, X. Li, S. W. Scherer, Y. Cho, K. Akagi, T. J. MacDonald, J. Koster, M. G. McCabe, A L. Sarver, P. Collins, W. A. Weiss, D. A. Largaespada, L. S. Collier, and M. D. Taylor, “Clonal selection drives genetic divergence of metastatic medulloblastoma,” Nature (London) 482, 529–533 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ashley, D. M.

A. Gajjar, R. Hernan, M. Kocak, C. Fuller, Y. Lee, P. J. McKinnon, D. Wallace, C. Lau, M. Chintagumpala, D. M. Ashley, S. J. Kellie, L. Kun, and R. J. Gilbertson, “Clinical, histopathologic, and molecular markers of prognosis: toward a new disease risk stratification system for medulloblastoma,” J. Clin. Oncol. 22, 984–993 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Assayag, O.

O. Assayag, K. Grieve, B. Devaux, F. Harms, J. Pallud, F. Chretien, C. Boccara, and P. Varlet, “Imaging of non-tumorous and tumorous human brain tissues with full-field optical coherence tomography,” NeuroImage: Clinical 2, 549–557 (2013).
[Crossref]

Aster, J. C.

V. Kumar, A. K. Abbas, N. Fausto, and J. C. Aster, Robbins and Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease, Professional Edition: Expert Consult-Online, 8. (Elsevier Health Sciences, 2009).

Baker, K. B.

S. W. Jeon, M. A. Shure, K. B. Baker, D. Huang, A. M. Rollins, A. Chahlavi, and A. R. Rezai, “A feasibility study of optical coherence tomography for guiding deep brain probes,” J. Neurosci. Methods 154, 96–101 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. W. Jeon, M. A. Shure, K. B. Baker, D. Huang, A. M. Rollins, A. Chahlavi, and A. R. Rezai, “A feasibility study of optical coherence tomography for guiding deep brain probes,” J. Neurosci. Meth. 154, 96–110 (2006).
[Crossref]

Barwari, K.

K. Barwari, D. M. de Bruin, E. C. Cauberg, D. J. Faber, T. G. van Leeuwen, H. Wijkstra, J. de la Rosette, and M. P. Laguna, “Advanced diagnostics in renal mass using optical coherence tomography: a preliminary report,” J. Endourol. 25, 311–315 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Becker, L. E.

T. S. Park, H. J. Hoffman, E. B. Hendrick, R. P. Humphreys, and L. E. Becker, “Medulloblastoma: Clinical presentation and management: Experience at the hospital for sick children, toronto, 1950–1980,” J. Neurosurg. 58, 543–552 (1983).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bevilacqua, F.

Boccara, C.

O. Assayag, K. Grieve, B. Devaux, F. Harms, J. Pallud, F. Chretien, C. Boccara, and P. Varlet, “Imaging of non-tumorous and tumorous human brain tissues with full-field optical coherence tomography,” NeuroImage: Clinical 2, 549–557 (2013).
[Crossref]

Böhringer, H.

H. Böhringer, E. Lankenau, F. Stellmacher, E. Reusche, G. Hüttmann, and A. Giese, “Imaging of human brain tumor tissue by near-infrared laser coherence tomography,” Acta Neurochir. 151, 507–517 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Böhringer, D. Boller, J. Leppert, U. Knopp, E. Lankenau, E. Reusche, G. Hüttmann, and A. Giese, “Time-domain and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography in the analysis of brain tumor tissue,” Lasers Surg. Med. 38, 588–597 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boller, D.

H. Böhringer, D. Boller, J. Leppert, U. Knopp, E. Lankenau, E. Reusche, G. Hüttmann, and A. Giese, “Time-domain and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography in the analysis of brain tumor tissue,” Lasers Surg. Med. 38, 588–597 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bouffet, E.

X. Wu, P. A. Northcott, A. Dubuc, A. J. Dupuy, D. J. Shih, H. Witt, S. Croul, E. Bouffet, D. W. Fults, C. G. Eberhart, J. Majewski, T. E. Scheetz, S. M. Pfister, A. Korshunov, X. Li, S. W. Scherer, Y. Cho, K. Akagi, T. J. MacDonald, J. Koster, M. G. McCabe, A L. Sarver, P. Collins, W. A. Weiss, D. A. Largaespada, L. S. Collier, and M. D. Taylor, “Clonal selection drives genetic divergence of metastatic medulloblastoma,” Nature (London) 482, 529–533 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bouma, B.

Bouma, B. E.

G. van Soest, M. Villiger, E. Regar, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, and A. F. van der Steen, “Frequency domain multiplexing for speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 0760181 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Van Soest, S. KoljenoviÄ, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, J. W. Oosterhuis, P. W. Serruys, A. F. van der Steen, N. Gonzalo, S. van Noorden, G. L. van Leenders, and et al., “Atherosclerotic tissue characterization in vivo by optical coherence tomography attenuation imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 011105 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brezinski, M.

Carlier, S. G.

C. Xu, S. G. Carlier, R. Virmani, and J. M. Schmitt, “Characterization of atherosclerosis plaques by measuring both backscattering and attenuation coefficients in optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 034003 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cauberg, E. C.

K. Barwari, D. M. de Bruin, E. C. Cauberg, D. J. Faber, T. G. van Leeuwen, H. Wijkstra, J. de la Rosette, and M. P. Laguna, “Advanced diagnostics in renal mass using optical coherence tomography: a preliminary report,” J. Endourol. 25, 311–315 (2011).
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Chahlavi, A.

S. W. Jeon, M. A. Shure, K. B. Baker, D. Huang, A. M. Rollins, A. Chahlavi, and A. R. Rezai, “A feasibility study of optical coherence tomography for guiding deep brain probes,” J. Neurosci. Meth. 154, 96–110 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. W. Jeon, M. A. Shure, K. B. Baker, D. Huang, A. M. Rollins, A. Chahlavi, and A. R. Rezai, “A feasibility study of optical coherence tomography for guiding deep brain probes,” J. Neurosci. Methods 154, 96–101 (2006).
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Chintagumpala, M.

A. Gajjar, R. Hernan, M. Kocak, C. Fuller, Y. Lee, P. J. McKinnon, D. Wallace, C. Lau, M. Chintagumpala, D. M. Ashley, S. J. Kellie, L. Kun, and R. J. Gilbertson, “Clinical, histopathologic, and molecular markers of prognosis: toward a new disease risk stratification system for medulloblastoma,” J. Clin. Oncol. 22, 984–993 (2004).
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X. Wu, P. A. Northcott, A. Dubuc, A. J. Dupuy, D. J. Shih, H. Witt, S. Croul, E. Bouffet, D. W. Fults, C. G. Eberhart, J. Majewski, T. E. Scheetz, S. M. Pfister, A. Korshunov, X. Li, S. W. Scherer, Y. Cho, K. Akagi, T. J. MacDonald, J. Koster, M. G. McCabe, A L. Sarver, P. Collins, W. A. Weiss, D. A. Largaespada, L. S. Collier, and M. D. Taylor, “Clonal selection drives genetic divergence of metastatic medulloblastoma,” Nature (London) 482, 529–533 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cho, Y.-J.

P. A. Northcott, D. T. Jones, M. Kool, G. W. Robinson, R. J. Gilbertson, Y.-J. Cho, S. L. Pomeroy, A. Korshunov, P. Lichter, M. D. Taylor, and S. M. Pfister, “Medulloblastomics: the end of the beginning,” Nat. Rev. Cancer 12, 818–834 (2012).
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Chretien, F.

O. Assayag, K. Grieve, B. Devaux, F. Harms, J. Pallud, F. Chretien, C. Boccara, and P. Varlet, “Imaging of non-tumorous and tumorous human brain tissues with full-field optical coherence tomography,” NeuroImage: Clinical 2, 549–557 (2013).
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Collier, L. S.

X. Wu, P. A. Northcott, A. Dubuc, A. J. Dupuy, D. J. Shih, H. Witt, S. Croul, E. Bouffet, D. W. Fults, C. G. Eberhart, J. Majewski, T. E. Scheetz, S. M. Pfister, A. Korshunov, X. Li, S. W. Scherer, Y. Cho, K. Akagi, T. J. MacDonald, J. Koster, M. G. McCabe, A L. Sarver, P. Collins, W. A. Weiss, D. A. Largaespada, L. S. Collier, and M. D. Taylor, “Clonal selection drives genetic divergence of metastatic medulloblastoma,” Nature (London) 482, 529–533 (2012).
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X. Wu, P. A. Northcott, A. Dubuc, A. J. Dupuy, D. J. Shih, H. Witt, S. Croul, E. Bouffet, D. W. Fults, C. G. Eberhart, J. Majewski, T. E. Scheetz, S. M. Pfister, A. Korshunov, X. Li, S. W. Scherer, Y. Cho, K. Akagi, T. J. MacDonald, J. Koster, M. G. McCabe, A L. Sarver, P. Collins, W. A. Weiss, D. A. Largaespada, L. S. Collier, and M. D. Taylor, “Clonal selection drives genetic divergence of metastatic medulloblastoma,” Nature (London) 482, 529–533 (2012).
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D. Comaniciu and P. Meer, “Mean shift: A robust approach toward feature space analysis,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence on 24, 603–619 (2002).
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X. Wu, P. A. Northcott, A. Dubuc, A. J. Dupuy, D. J. Shih, H. Witt, S. Croul, E. Bouffet, D. W. Fults, C. G. Eberhart, J. Majewski, T. E. Scheetz, S. M. Pfister, A. Korshunov, X. Li, S. W. Scherer, Y. Cho, K. Akagi, T. J. MacDonald, J. Koster, M. G. McCabe, A L. Sarver, P. Collins, W. A. Weiss, D. A. Largaespada, L. S. Collier, and M. D. Taylor, “Clonal selection drives genetic divergence of metastatic medulloblastoma,” Nature (London) 482, 529–533 (2012).
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K. Barwari, D. M. de Bruin, E. C. Cauberg, D. J. Faber, T. G. van Leeuwen, H. Wijkstra, J. de la Rosette, and M. P. Laguna, “Advanced diagnostics in renal mass using optical coherence tomography: a preliminary report,” J. Endourol. 25, 311–315 (2011).
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de la Rosette, J.

K. Barwari, D. M. de Bruin, E. C. Cauberg, D. J. Faber, T. G. van Leeuwen, H. Wijkstra, J. de la Rosette, and M. P. Laguna, “Advanced diagnostics in renal mass using optical coherence tomography: a preliminary report,” J. Endourol. 25, 311–315 (2011).
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M. Dennis, B. J. Spiegler, C. R. Hetherington, and M. L. Greenberg, “Neuropsychological sequelae of the treatment of children with medulloblastoma,” J. Neuro-Oncol. 29, 91–101 (1996).
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Depeursinge, C.

Devaux, B.

O. Assayag, K. Grieve, B. Devaux, F. Harms, J. Pallud, F. Chretien, C. Boccara, and P. Varlet, “Imaging of non-tumorous and tumorous human brain tissues with full-field optical coherence tomography,” NeuroImage: Clinical 2, 549–557 (2013).
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Dolin, L. S.

I. V. Turchin, R. Richards-Kortum, E. A. Sergeeva, L. S. Dolin, V. A. Kamensky, and N. M. Shakhova, “Novel algorithm of processing optical coherence tomography images for differentiation of biological tissue pathologies,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 064024 (2005).
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Dubuc, A.

X. Wu, P. A. Northcott, A. Dubuc, A. J. Dupuy, D. J. Shih, H. Witt, S. Croul, E. Bouffet, D. W. Fults, C. G. Eberhart, J. Majewski, T. E. Scheetz, S. M. Pfister, A. Korshunov, X. Li, S. W. Scherer, Y. Cho, K. Akagi, T. J. MacDonald, J. Koster, M. G. McCabe, A L. Sarver, P. Collins, W. A. Weiss, D. A. Largaespada, L. S. Collier, and M. D. Taylor, “Clonal selection drives genetic divergence of metastatic medulloblastoma,” Nature (London) 482, 529–533 (2012).
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Dubuc, A. M.

A. M. Dubuc, P. A. Northcott, A. M. Kenney, and M. D. Taylor, “Calculating a cure for cancer: managing medulloblastoma math1-ematically,” Expert Rev. Neurother. 10, 1489–1492 (2010).
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Dupuy, A. J.

X. Wu, P. A. Northcott, A. Dubuc, A. J. Dupuy, D. J. Shih, H. Witt, S. Croul, E. Bouffet, D. W. Fults, C. G. Eberhart, J. Majewski, T. E. Scheetz, S. M. Pfister, A. Korshunov, X. Li, S. W. Scherer, Y. Cho, K. Akagi, T. J. MacDonald, J. Koster, M. G. McCabe, A L. Sarver, P. Collins, W. A. Weiss, D. A. Largaespada, L. S. Collier, and M. D. Taylor, “Clonal selection drives genetic divergence of metastatic medulloblastoma,” Nature (London) 482, 529–533 (2012).
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Eberhart, C. G.

X. Wu, P. A. Northcott, A. Dubuc, A. J. Dupuy, D. J. Shih, H. Witt, S. Croul, E. Bouffet, D. W. Fults, C. G. Eberhart, J. Majewski, T. E. Scheetz, S. M. Pfister, A. Korshunov, X. Li, S. W. Scherer, Y. Cho, K. Akagi, T. J. MacDonald, J. Koster, M. G. McCabe, A L. Sarver, P. Collins, W. A. Weiss, D. A. Largaespada, L. S. Collier, and M. D. Taylor, “Clonal selection drives genetic divergence of metastatic medulloblastoma,” Nature (London) 482, 529–533 (2012).
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Eckert, J.

Faber, D. J.

K. Barwari, D. M. de Bruin, E. C. Cauberg, D. J. Faber, T. G. van Leeuwen, H. Wijkstra, J. de la Rosette, and M. P. Laguna, “Advanced diagnostics in renal mass using optical coherence tomography: a preliminary report,” J. Endourol. 25, 311–315 (2011).
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F. J. van der Meer, D. J. Faber, D. B. Sassoon, M. C. Aalders, G. Pasterkamp, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “Localized measurement of optical attenuation coefficients of atherosclerotic plaque constituents by quantitative optical coherence tomography,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 24, 1369–1376 (2005).
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Fausto, N.

V. Kumar, A. K. Abbas, N. Fausto, and J. C. Aster, Robbins and Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease, Professional Edition: Expert Consult-Online, 8. (Elsevier Health Sciences, 2009).

Fleming, C. P.

Fujimoto, J.

Fuller, C.

A. Gajjar, R. Hernan, M. Kocak, C. Fuller, Y. Lee, P. J. McKinnon, D. Wallace, C. Lau, M. Chintagumpala, D. M. Ashley, S. J. Kellie, L. Kun, and R. J. Gilbertson, “Clinical, histopathologic, and molecular markers of prognosis: toward a new disease risk stratification system for medulloblastoma,” J. Clin. Oncol. 22, 984–993 (2004).
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Fults, D. W.

X. Wu, P. A. Northcott, A. Dubuc, A. J. Dupuy, D. J. Shih, H. Witt, S. Croul, E. Bouffet, D. W. Fults, C. G. Eberhart, J. Majewski, T. E. Scheetz, S. M. Pfister, A. Korshunov, X. Li, S. W. Scherer, Y. Cho, K. Akagi, T. J. MacDonald, J. Koster, M. G. McCabe, A L. Sarver, P. Collins, W. A. Weiss, D. A. Largaespada, L. S. Collier, and M. D. Taylor, “Clonal selection drives genetic divergence of metastatic medulloblastoma,” Nature (London) 482, 529–533 (2012).
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Gajjar, A.

A. Gajjar, R. Hernan, M. Kocak, C. Fuller, Y. Lee, P. J. McKinnon, D. Wallace, C. Lau, M. Chintagumpala, D. M. Ashley, S. J. Kellie, L. Kun, and R. J. Gilbertson, “Clinical, histopathologic, and molecular markers of prognosis: toward a new disease risk stratification system for medulloblastoma,” J. Clin. Oncol. 22, 984–993 (2004).
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Gajjar, A. J.

C.-H. Pui, A. J. Gajjar, J. R. Kane, I. A. Qaddoumi, and A. S. Pappo, “Challenging issues in pediatric oncology,” Nat. Rev. Clin. Oncol. 8, 540–549 (2011).
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Gardecki, J. A.

Giese, A.

H. Böhringer, E. Lankenau, F. Stellmacher, E. Reusche, G. Hüttmann, and A. Giese, “Imaging of human brain tumor tissue by near-infrared laser coherence tomography,” Acta Neurochir. 151, 507–517 (2009).
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H. Böhringer, D. Boller, J. Leppert, U. Knopp, E. Lankenau, E. Reusche, G. Hüttmann, and A. Giese, “Time-domain and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography in the analysis of brain tumor tissue,” Lasers Surg. Med. 38, 588–597 (2006).
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Gilbertson, R. J.

P. A. Northcott, D. T. Jones, M. Kool, G. W. Robinson, R. J. Gilbertson, Y.-J. Cho, S. L. Pomeroy, A. Korshunov, P. Lichter, M. D. Taylor, and S. M. Pfister, “Medulloblastomics: the end of the beginning,” Nat. Rev. Cancer 12, 818–834 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Gajjar, R. Hernan, M. Kocak, C. Fuller, Y. Lee, P. J. McKinnon, D. Wallace, C. Lau, M. Chintagumpala, D. M. Ashley, S. J. Kellie, L. Kun, and R. J. Gilbertson, “Clinical, histopathologic, and molecular markers of prognosis: toward a new disease risk stratification system for medulloblastoma,” J. Clin. Oncol. 22, 984–993 (2004).
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R. J. Gilbertson, “Medulloblastoma: signalling a change in treatment,” The Lancet Oncology 5, 209–218 (2004).
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P. Gong, R. A. McLaughlin, Y. M. Liew, P. R. Munro, F. M. Wood, and D. D. Sampson, “Assessment of human burn scars with optical coherence tomography by imaging the attenuation coefficient of tissue after vascular masking,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19, 021111 (2014).
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G. Van Soest, S. KoljenoviÄ, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, J. W. Oosterhuis, P. W. Serruys, A. F. van der Steen, N. Gonzalo, S. van Noorden, G. L. van Leenders, and et al., “Atherosclerotic tissue characterization in vivo by optical coherence tomography attenuation imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 011105 (2010).
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Greenberg, M. L.

M. Dennis, B. J. Spiegler, C. R. Hetherington, and M. L. Greenberg, “Neuropsychological sequelae of the treatment of children with medulloblastoma,” J. Neuro-Oncol. 29, 91–101 (1996).
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Grieve, K.

O. Assayag, K. Grieve, B. Devaux, F. Harms, J. Pallud, F. Chretien, C. Boccara, and P. Varlet, “Imaging of non-tumorous and tumorous human brain tissues with full-field optical coherence tomography,” NeuroImage: Clinical 2, 549–557 (2013).
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Gross, J. D.

Grounds, M. D.

Gudrunardottir, T.

T. Gudrunardottir, B. Lannering, M. Remke, M. D. Taylor, E. M. Wells, R. F. Keating, and R. J. Packer, “Treatment developments and the unfolding of the quality of life discussion in childhood medulloblastoma: a review,” Child’s Nervous System 1, 1–12 (2014).

Halpern, E. F.

Harms, F.

O. Assayag, K. Grieve, B. Devaux, F. Harms, J. Pallud, F. Chretien, C. Boccara, and P. Varlet, “Imaging of non-tumorous and tumorous human brain tissues with full-field optical coherence tomography,” NeuroImage: Clinical 2, 549–557 (2013).
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Hee, M.

Heineman, E. F.

J. M. Legler, L. A. G. Ries, M. A. Smith, J. L. Warren, E. F. Heineman, R. S. Kaplan, and M. S. Linet, “Brain and other central nervous system cancers: recent trends in incidence and mortality,” J. Nat. Cancer Inst. 91, 1382–1390 (1999).
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T. S. Park, H. J. Hoffman, E. B. Hendrick, R. P. Humphreys, and L. E. Becker, “Medulloblastoma: Clinical presentation and management: Experience at the hospital for sick children, toronto, 1950–1980,” J. Neurosurg. 58, 543–552 (1983).
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A. Gajjar, R. Hernan, M. Kocak, C. Fuller, Y. Lee, P. J. McKinnon, D. Wallace, C. Lau, M. Chintagumpala, D. M. Ashley, S. J. Kellie, L. Kun, and R. J. Gilbertson, “Clinical, histopathologic, and molecular markers of prognosis: toward a new disease risk stratification system for medulloblastoma,” J. Clin. Oncol. 22, 984–993 (2004).
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Hetherington, C. R.

M. Dennis, B. J. Spiegler, C. R. Hetherington, and M. L. Greenberg, “Neuropsychological sequelae of the treatment of children with medulloblastoma,” J. Neuro-Oncol. 29, 91–101 (1996).
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Hoffman, H. J.

T. S. Park, H. J. Hoffman, E. B. Hendrick, R. P. Humphreys, and L. E. Becker, “Medulloblastoma: Clinical presentation and management: Experience at the hospital for sick children, toronto, 1950–1980,” J. Neurosurg. 58, 543–552 (1983).
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Huang, D.

S. W. Jeon, M. A. Shure, K. B. Baker, D. Huang, A. M. Rollins, A. Chahlavi, and A. R. Rezai, “A feasibility study of optical coherence tomography for guiding deep brain probes,” J. Neurosci. Methods 154, 96–101 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. W. Jeon, M. A. Shure, K. B. Baker, D. Huang, A. M. Rollins, A. Chahlavi, and A. R. Rezai, “A feasibility study of optical coherence tomography for guiding deep brain probes,” J. Neurosci. Meth. 154, 96–110 (2006).
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Humphreys, R. P.

T. S. Park, H. J. Hoffman, E. B. Hendrick, R. P. Humphreys, and L. E. Becker, “Medulloblastoma: Clinical presentation and management: Experience at the hospital for sick children, toronto, 1950–1980,” J. Neurosurg. 58, 543–552 (1983).
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Hüttmann, G.

H. Böhringer, E. Lankenau, F. Stellmacher, E. Reusche, G. Hüttmann, and A. Giese, “Imaging of human brain tumor tissue by near-infrared laser coherence tomography,” Acta Neurochir. 151, 507–517 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Böhringer, D. Boller, J. Leppert, U. Knopp, E. Lankenau, E. Reusche, G. Hüttmann, and A. Giese, “Time-domain and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography in the analysis of brain tumor tissue,” Lasers Surg. Med. 38, 588–597 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jacques, S. L.

Jeon, S. W.

S. W. Jeon, M. A. Shure, K. B. Baker, D. Huang, A. M. Rollins, A. Chahlavi, and A. R. Rezai, “A feasibility study of optical coherence tomography for guiding deep brain probes,” J. Neurosci. Methods 154, 96–101 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. W. Jeon, M. A. Shure, K. B. Baker, D. Huang, A. M. Rollins, A. Chahlavi, and A. R. Rezai, “A feasibility study of optical coherence tomography for guiding deep brain probes,” J. Neurosci. Meth. 154, 96–110 (2006).
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W. Tao, H. Jin, and Y. Zhang, “Color image segmentation based on mean shift and normalized cuts,” IEEE Trans. Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, Part B: Cybernetics,  37, 1382–1389 (2007).
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Jones, D. T.

P. A. Northcott, D. T. Jones, M. Kool, G. W. Robinson, R. J. Gilbertson, Y.-J. Cho, S. L. Pomeroy, A. Korshunov, P. Lichter, M. D. Taylor, and S. M. Pfister, “Medulloblastomics: the end of the beginning,” Nat. Rev. Cancer 12, 818–834 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kamensky, V. A.

I. V. Turchin, R. Richards-Kortum, E. A. Sergeeva, L. S. Dolin, V. A. Kamensky, and N. M. Shakhova, “Novel algorithm of processing optical coherence tomography images for differentiation of biological tissue pathologies,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 064024 (2005).
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Kane, J. R.

C.-H. Pui, A. J. Gajjar, J. R. Kane, I. A. Qaddoumi, and A. S. Pappo, “Challenging issues in pediatric oncology,” Nat. Rev. Clin. Oncol. 8, 540–549 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kaplan, R. S.

J. M. Legler, L. A. G. Ries, M. A. Smith, J. L. Warren, E. F. Heineman, R. S. Kaplan, and M. S. Linet, “Brain and other central nervous system cancers: recent trends in incidence and mortality,” J. Nat. Cancer Inst. 91, 1382–1390 (1999).
[Crossref]

Keating, R. F.

T. Gudrunardottir, B. Lannering, M. Remke, M. D. Taylor, E. M. Wells, R. F. Keating, and R. J. Packer, “Treatment developments and the unfolding of the quality of life discussion in childhood medulloblastoma: a review,” Child’s Nervous System 1, 1–12 (2014).

Kellie, S. J.

A. Gajjar, R. Hernan, M. Kocak, C. Fuller, Y. Lee, P. J. McKinnon, D. Wallace, C. Lau, M. Chintagumpala, D. M. Ashley, S. J. Kellie, L. Kun, and R. J. Gilbertson, “Clinical, histopathologic, and molecular markers of prognosis: toward a new disease risk stratification system for medulloblastoma,” J. Clin. Oncol. 22, 984–993 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kenney, A. M.

A. M. Dubuc, P. A. Northcott, A. M. Kenney, and M. D. Taylor, “Calculating a cure for cancer: managing medulloblastoma math1-ematically,” Expert Rev. Neurother. 10, 1489–1492 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Klyen, B. R.

Knopp, U.

H. Böhringer, D. Boller, J. Leppert, U. Knopp, E. Lankenau, E. Reusche, G. Hüttmann, and A. Giese, “Time-domain and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography in the analysis of brain tumor tissue,” Lasers Surg. Med. 38, 588–597 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kocak, M.

A. Gajjar, R. Hernan, M. Kocak, C. Fuller, Y. Lee, P. J. McKinnon, D. Wallace, C. Lau, M. Chintagumpala, D. M. Ashley, S. J. Kellie, L. Kun, and R. J. Gilbertson, “Clinical, histopathologic, and molecular markers of prognosis: toward a new disease risk stratification system for medulloblastoma,” J. Clin. Oncol. 22, 984–993 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

KoljenoviÄ, S.

G. Van Soest, S. KoljenoviÄ, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, J. W. Oosterhuis, P. W. Serruys, A. F. van der Steen, N. Gonzalo, S. van Noorden, G. L. van Leenders, and et al., “Atherosclerotic tissue characterization in vivo by optical coherence tomography attenuation imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 011105 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kool, M.

P. A. Northcott, D. T. Jones, M. Kool, G. W. Robinson, R. J. Gilbertson, Y.-J. Cho, S. L. Pomeroy, A. Korshunov, P. Lichter, M. D. Taylor, and S. M. Pfister, “Medulloblastomics: the end of the beginning,” Nat. Rev. Cancer 12, 818–834 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Korshunov, A.

P. A. Northcott, D. T. Jones, M. Kool, G. W. Robinson, R. J. Gilbertson, Y.-J. Cho, S. L. Pomeroy, A. Korshunov, P. Lichter, M. D. Taylor, and S. M. Pfister, “Medulloblastomics: the end of the beginning,” Nat. Rev. Cancer 12, 818–834 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Wu, P. A. Northcott, A. Dubuc, A. J. Dupuy, D. J. Shih, H. Witt, S. Croul, E. Bouffet, D. W. Fults, C. G. Eberhart, J. Majewski, T. E. Scheetz, S. M. Pfister, A. Korshunov, X. Li, S. W. Scherer, Y. Cho, K. Akagi, T. J. MacDonald, J. Koster, M. G. McCabe, A L. Sarver, P. Collins, W. A. Weiss, D. A. Largaespada, L. S. Collier, and M. D. Taylor, “Clonal selection drives genetic divergence of metastatic medulloblastoma,” Nature (London) 482, 529–533 (2012).
[Crossref]

Koster, J.

X. Wu, P. A. Northcott, A. Dubuc, A. J. Dupuy, D. J. Shih, H. Witt, S. Croul, E. Bouffet, D. W. Fults, C. G. Eberhart, J. Majewski, T. E. Scheetz, S. M. Pfister, A. Korshunov, X. Li, S. W. Scherer, Y. Cho, K. Akagi, T. J. MacDonald, J. Koster, M. G. McCabe, A L. Sarver, P. Collins, W. A. Weiss, D. A. Largaespada, L. S. Collier, and M. D. Taylor, “Clonal selection drives genetic divergence of metastatic medulloblastoma,” Nature (London) 482, 529–533 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kumar, V.

V. Kumar, A. K. Abbas, N. Fausto, and J. C. Aster, Robbins and Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease, Professional Edition: Expert Consult-Online, 8. (Elsevier Health Sciences, 2009).

Kun, L.

A. Gajjar, R. Hernan, M. Kocak, C. Fuller, Y. Lee, P. J. McKinnon, D. Wallace, C. Lau, M. Chintagumpala, D. M. Ashley, S. J. Kellie, L. Kun, and R. J. Gilbertson, “Clinical, histopathologic, and molecular markers of prognosis: toward a new disease risk stratification system for medulloblastoma,” J. Clin. Oncol. 22, 984–993 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Laguna, M. P.

K. Barwari, D. M. de Bruin, E. C. Cauberg, D. J. Faber, T. G. van Leeuwen, H. Wijkstra, J. de la Rosette, and M. P. Laguna, “Advanced diagnostics in renal mass using optical coherence tomography: a preliminary report,” J. Endourol. 25, 311–315 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lankenau, E.

H. Böhringer, E. Lankenau, F. Stellmacher, E. Reusche, G. Hüttmann, and A. Giese, “Imaging of human brain tumor tissue by near-infrared laser coherence tomography,” Acta Neurochir. 151, 507–517 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Böhringer, D. Boller, J. Leppert, U. Knopp, E. Lankenau, E. Reusche, G. Hüttmann, and A. Giese, “Time-domain and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography in the analysis of brain tumor tissue,” Lasers Surg. Med. 38, 588–597 (2006).
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Lannering, B.

T. Gudrunardottir, B. Lannering, M. Remke, M. D. Taylor, E. M. Wells, R. F. Keating, and R. J. Packer, “Treatment developments and the unfolding of the quality of life discussion in childhood medulloblastoma: a review,” Child’s Nervous System 1, 1–12 (2014).

Largaespada, D. A.

X. Wu, P. A. Northcott, A. Dubuc, A. J. Dupuy, D. J. Shih, H. Witt, S. Croul, E. Bouffet, D. W. Fults, C. G. Eberhart, J. Majewski, T. E. Scheetz, S. M. Pfister, A. Korshunov, X. Li, S. W. Scherer, Y. Cho, K. Akagi, T. J. MacDonald, J. Koster, M. G. McCabe, A L. Sarver, P. Collins, W. A. Weiss, D. A. Largaespada, L. S. Collier, and M. D. Taylor, “Clonal selection drives genetic divergence of metastatic medulloblastoma,” Nature (London) 482, 529–533 (2012).
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A. Gajjar, R. Hernan, M. Kocak, C. Fuller, Y. Lee, P. J. McKinnon, D. Wallace, C. Lau, M. Chintagumpala, D. M. Ashley, S. J. Kellie, L. Kun, and R. J. Gilbertson, “Clinical, histopathologic, and molecular markers of prognosis: toward a new disease risk stratification system for medulloblastoma,” J. Clin. Oncol. 22, 984–993 (2004).
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Lee, S. J.

Lee, Y.

A. Gajjar, R. Hernan, M. Kocak, C. Fuller, Y. Lee, P. J. McKinnon, D. Wallace, C. Lau, M. Chintagumpala, D. M. Ashley, S. J. Kellie, L. Kun, and R. J. Gilbertson, “Clinical, histopathologic, and molecular markers of prognosis: toward a new disease risk stratification system for medulloblastoma,” J. Clin. Oncol. 22, 984–993 (2004).
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J. M. Legler, L. A. G. Ries, M. A. Smith, J. L. Warren, E. F. Heineman, R. S. Kaplan, and M. S. Linet, “Brain and other central nervous system cancers: recent trends in incidence and mortality,” J. Nat. Cancer Inst. 91, 1382–1390 (1999).
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Leppert, J.

H. Böhringer, D. Boller, J. Leppert, U. Knopp, E. Lankenau, E. Reusche, G. Hüttmann, and A. Giese, “Time-domain and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography in the analysis of brain tumor tissue,” Lasers Surg. Med. 38, 588–597 (2006).
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Li, X.

X. Wu, P. A. Northcott, A. Dubuc, A. J. Dupuy, D. J. Shih, H. Witt, S. Croul, E. Bouffet, D. W. Fults, C. G. Eberhart, J. Majewski, T. E. Scheetz, S. M. Pfister, A. Korshunov, X. Li, S. W. Scherer, Y. Cho, K. Akagi, T. J. MacDonald, J. Koster, M. G. McCabe, A L. Sarver, P. Collins, W. A. Weiss, D. A. Largaespada, L. S. Collier, and M. D. Taylor, “Clonal selection drives genetic divergence of metastatic medulloblastoma,” Nature (London) 482, 529–533 (2012).
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Lichter, P.

P. A. Northcott, D. T. Jones, M. Kool, G. W. Robinson, R. J. Gilbertson, Y.-J. Cho, S. L. Pomeroy, A. Korshunov, P. Lichter, M. D. Taylor, and S. M. Pfister, “Medulloblastomics: the end of the beginning,” Nat. Rev. Cancer 12, 818–834 (2012).
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Liew, Y. M.

P. Gong, R. A. McLaughlin, Y. M. Liew, P. R. Munro, F. M. Wood, and D. D. Sampson, “Assessment of human burn scars with optical coherence tomography by imaging the attenuation coefficient of tissue after vascular masking,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19, 021111 (2014).
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J. M. Legler, L. A. G. Ries, M. A. Smith, J. L. Warren, E. F. Heineman, R. S. Kaplan, and M. S. Linet, “Brain and other central nervous system cancers: recent trends in incidence and mortality,” J. Nat. Cancer Inst. 91, 1382–1390 (1999).
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MacDonald, T. J.

X. Wu, P. A. Northcott, A. Dubuc, A. J. Dupuy, D. J. Shih, H. Witt, S. Croul, E. Bouffet, D. W. Fults, C. G. Eberhart, J. Majewski, T. E. Scheetz, S. M. Pfister, A. Korshunov, X. Li, S. W. Scherer, Y. Cho, K. Akagi, T. J. MacDonald, J. Koster, M. G. McCabe, A L. Sarver, P. Collins, W. A. Weiss, D. A. Largaespada, L. S. Collier, and M. D. Taylor, “Clonal selection drives genetic divergence of metastatic medulloblastoma,” Nature (London) 482, 529–533 (2012).
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Majewski, J.

X. Wu, P. A. Northcott, A. Dubuc, A. J. Dupuy, D. J. Shih, H. Witt, S. Croul, E. Bouffet, D. W. Fults, C. G. Eberhart, J. Majewski, T. E. Scheetz, S. M. Pfister, A. Korshunov, X. Li, S. W. Scherer, Y. Cho, K. Akagi, T. J. MacDonald, J. Koster, M. G. McCabe, A L. Sarver, P. Collins, W. A. Weiss, D. A. Largaespada, L. S. Collier, and M. D. Taylor, “Clonal selection drives genetic divergence of metastatic medulloblastoma,” Nature (London) 482, 529–533 (2012).
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McCabe, M. G.

X. Wu, P. A. Northcott, A. Dubuc, A. J. Dupuy, D. J. Shih, H. Witt, S. Croul, E. Bouffet, D. W. Fults, C. G. Eberhart, J. Majewski, T. E. Scheetz, S. M. Pfister, A. Korshunov, X. Li, S. W. Scherer, Y. Cho, K. Akagi, T. J. MacDonald, J. Koster, M. G. McCabe, A L. Sarver, P. Collins, W. A. Weiss, D. A. Largaespada, L. S. Collier, and M. D. Taylor, “Clonal selection drives genetic divergence of metastatic medulloblastoma,” Nature (London) 482, 529–533 (2012).
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McKinnon, P. J.

A. Gajjar, R. Hernan, M. Kocak, C. Fuller, Y. Lee, P. J. McKinnon, D. Wallace, C. Lau, M. Chintagumpala, D. M. Ashley, S. J. Kellie, L. Kun, and R. J. Gilbertson, “Clinical, histopathologic, and molecular markers of prognosis: toward a new disease risk stratification system for medulloblastoma,” J. Clin. Oncol. 22, 984–993 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McLaughlin, R. A.

P. Gong, R. A. McLaughlin, Y. M. Liew, P. R. Munro, F. M. Wood, and D. D. Sampson, “Assessment of human burn scars with optical coherence tomography by imaging the attenuation coefficient of tissue after vascular masking,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19, 021111 (2014).
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L. Scolaro, R. A. McLaughlin, B. R. Klyen, B. A. Wood, P. D. Robbins, C. M. Saunders, S. L. Jacques, and D. D. Sampson, “Parametric imaging of the local attenuation coefficient in human axillary lymph nodes assessed using optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3, 366–379 (2012).
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P. Gong, R. A. McLaughlin, Y. M. Liew, P. R. Munro, F. M. Wood, and D. D. Sampson, “Assessment of human burn scars with optical coherence tomography by imaging the attenuation coefficient of tissue after vascular masking,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19, 021111 (2014).
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Northcott, P. A.

X. Wu, P. A. Northcott, A. Dubuc, A. J. Dupuy, D. J. Shih, H. Witt, S. Croul, E. Bouffet, D. W. Fults, C. G. Eberhart, J. Majewski, T. E. Scheetz, S. M. Pfister, A. Korshunov, X. Li, S. W. Scherer, Y. Cho, K. Akagi, T. J. MacDonald, J. Koster, M. G. McCabe, A L. Sarver, P. Collins, W. A. Weiss, D. A. Largaespada, L. S. Collier, and M. D. Taylor, “Clonal selection drives genetic divergence of metastatic medulloblastoma,” Nature (London) 482, 529–533 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. A. Northcott, D. T. Jones, M. Kool, G. W. Robinson, R. J. Gilbertson, Y.-J. Cho, S. L. Pomeroy, A. Korshunov, P. Lichter, M. D. Taylor, and S. M. Pfister, “Medulloblastomics: the end of the beginning,” Nat. Rev. Cancer 12, 818–834 (2012).
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A. M. Dubuc, P. A. Northcott, A. M. Kenney, and M. D. Taylor, “Calculating a cure for cancer: managing medulloblastoma math1-ematically,” Expert Rev. Neurother. 10, 1489–1492 (2010).
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G. Van Soest, S. KoljenoviÄ, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, J. W. Oosterhuis, P. W. Serruys, A. F. van der Steen, N. Gonzalo, S. van Noorden, G. L. van Leenders, and et al., “Atherosclerotic tissue characterization in vivo by optical coherence tomography attenuation imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 011105 (2010).
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T. Gudrunardottir, B. Lannering, M. Remke, M. D. Taylor, E. M. Wells, R. F. Keating, and R. J. Packer, “Treatment developments and the unfolding of the quality of life discussion in childhood medulloblastoma: a review,” Child’s Nervous System 1, 1–12 (2014).

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Pfister, S. M.

P. A. Northcott, D. T. Jones, M. Kool, G. W. Robinson, R. J. Gilbertson, Y.-J. Cho, S. L. Pomeroy, A. Korshunov, P. Lichter, M. D. Taylor, and S. M. Pfister, “Medulloblastomics: the end of the beginning,” Nat. Rev. Cancer 12, 818–834 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Wu, P. A. Northcott, A. Dubuc, A. J. Dupuy, D. J. Shih, H. Witt, S. Croul, E. Bouffet, D. W. Fults, C. G. Eberhart, J. Majewski, T. E. Scheetz, S. M. Pfister, A. Korshunov, X. Li, S. W. Scherer, Y. Cho, K. Akagi, T. J. MacDonald, J. Koster, M. G. McCabe, A L. Sarver, P. Collins, W. A. Weiss, D. A. Largaespada, L. S. Collier, and M. D. Taylor, “Clonal selection drives genetic divergence of metastatic medulloblastoma,” Nature (London) 482, 529–533 (2012).
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Pomeroy, S. L.

P. A. Northcott, D. T. Jones, M. Kool, G. W. Robinson, R. J. Gilbertson, Y.-J. Cho, S. L. Pomeroy, A. Korshunov, P. Lichter, M. D. Taylor, and S. M. Pfister, “Medulloblastomics: the end of the beginning,” Nat. Rev. Cancer 12, 818–834 (2012).
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C.-H. Pui, A. J. Gajjar, J. R. Kane, I. A. Qaddoumi, and A. S. Pappo, “Challenging issues in pediatric oncology,” Nat. Rev. Clin. Oncol. 8, 540–549 (2011).
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C.-H. Pui, A. J. Gajjar, J. R. Kane, I. A. Qaddoumi, and A. S. Pappo, “Challenging issues in pediatric oncology,” Nat. Rev. Clin. Oncol. 8, 540–549 (2011).
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G. van Soest, M. Villiger, E. Regar, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, and A. F. van der Steen, “Frequency domain multiplexing for speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 0760181 (2012).
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T. Gudrunardottir, B. Lannering, M. Remke, M. D. Taylor, E. M. Wells, R. F. Keating, and R. J. Packer, “Treatment developments and the unfolding of the quality of life discussion in childhood medulloblastoma: a review,” Child’s Nervous System 1, 1–12 (2014).

Reusche, E.

H. Böhringer, E. Lankenau, F. Stellmacher, E. Reusche, G. Hüttmann, and A. Giese, “Imaging of human brain tumor tissue by near-infrared laser coherence tomography,” Acta Neurochir. 151, 507–517 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Böhringer, D. Boller, J. Leppert, U. Knopp, E. Lankenau, E. Reusche, G. Hüttmann, and A. Giese, “Time-domain and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography in the analysis of brain tumor tissue,” Lasers Surg. Med. 38, 588–597 (2006).
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Rezai, A. R.

S. W. Jeon, M. A. Shure, K. B. Baker, D. Huang, A. M. Rollins, A. Chahlavi, and A. R. Rezai, “A feasibility study of optical coherence tomography for guiding deep brain probes,” J. Neurosci. Methods 154, 96–101 (2006).
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S. W. Jeon, M. A. Shure, K. B. Baker, D. Huang, A. M. Rollins, A. Chahlavi, and A. R. Rezai, “A feasibility study of optical coherence tomography for guiding deep brain probes,” J. Neurosci. Meth. 154, 96–110 (2006).
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Richards-Kortum, R.

I. V. Turchin, R. Richards-Kortum, E. A. Sergeeva, L. S. Dolin, V. A. Kamensky, and N. M. Shakhova, “Novel algorithm of processing optical coherence tomography images for differentiation of biological tissue pathologies,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 064024 (2005).
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Ries, L. A. G.

J. M. Legler, L. A. G. Ries, M. A. Smith, J. L. Warren, E. F. Heineman, R. S. Kaplan, and M. S. Linet, “Brain and other central nervous system cancers: recent trends in incidence and mortality,” J. Nat. Cancer Inst. 91, 1382–1390 (1999).
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Robbins, P. D.

Robinson, G. W.

P. A. Northcott, D. T. Jones, M. Kool, G. W. Robinson, R. J. Gilbertson, Y.-J. Cho, S. L. Pomeroy, A. Korshunov, P. Lichter, M. D. Taylor, and S. M. Pfister, “Medulloblastomics: the end of the beginning,” Nat. Rev. Cancer 12, 818–834 (2012).
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Rollins, A. M.

S. W. Jeon, M. A. Shure, K. B. Baker, D. Huang, A. M. Rollins, A. Chahlavi, and A. R. Rezai, “A feasibility study of optical coherence tomography for guiding deep brain probes,” J. Neurosci. Meth. 154, 96–110 (2006).
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S. W. Jeon, M. A. Shure, K. B. Baker, D. Huang, A. M. Rollins, A. Chahlavi, and A. R. Rezai, “A feasibility study of optical coherence tomography for guiding deep brain probes,” J. Neurosci. Methods 154, 96–101 (2006).
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Sampson, D. D.

Sarntinoranont, M.

Sarver, A L.

X. Wu, P. A. Northcott, A. Dubuc, A. J. Dupuy, D. J. Shih, H. Witt, S. Croul, E. Bouffet, D. W. Fults, C. G. Eberhart, J. Majewski, T. E. Scheetz, S. M. Pfister, A. Korshunov, X. Li, S. W. Scherer, Y. Cho, K. Akagi, T. J. MacDonald, J. Koster, M. G. McCabe, A L. Sarver, P. Collins, W. A. Weiss, D. A. Largaespada, L. S. Collier, and M. D. Taylor, “Clonal selection drives genetic divergence of metastatic medulloblastoma,” Nature (London) 482, 529–533 (2012).
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Sassoon, D. B.

F. J. van der Meer, D. J. Faber, D. B. Sassoon, M. C. Aalders, G. Pasterkamp, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “Localized measurement of optical attenuation coefficients of atherosclerotic plaque constituents by quantitative optical coherence tomography,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 24, 1369–1376 (2005).
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Saunders, C. M.

Scheetz, T. E.

X. Wu, P. A. Northcott, A. Dubuc, A. J. Dupuy, D. J. Shih, H. Witt, S. Croul, E. Bouffet, D. W. Fults, C. G. Eberhart, J. Majewski, T. E. Scheetz, S. M. Pfister, A. Korshunov, X. Li, S. W. Scherer, Y. Cho, K. Akagi, T. J. MacDonald, J. Koster, M. G. McCabe, A L. Sarver, P. Collins, W. A. Weiss, D. A. Largaespada, L. S. Collier, and M. D. Taylor, “Clonal selection drives genetic divergence of metastatic medulloblastoma,” Nature (London) 482, 529–533 (2012).
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Scherer, S. W.

X. Wu, P. A. Northcott, A. Dubuc, A. J. Dupuy, D. J. Shih, H. Witt, S. Croul, E. Bouffet, D. W. Fults, C. G. Eberhart, J. Majewski, T. E. Scheetz, S. M. Pfister, A. Korshunov, X. Li, S. W. Scherer, Y. Cho, K. Akagi, T. J. MacDonald, J. Koster, M. G. McCabe, A L. Sarver, P. Collins, W. A. Weiss, D. A. Largaespada, L. S. Collier, and M. D. Taylor, “Clonal selection drives genetic divergence of metastatic medulloblastoma,” Nature (London) 482, 529–533 (2012).
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C. Xu, S. G. Carlier, R. Virmani, and J. M. Schmitt, “Characterization of atherosclerosis plaques by measuring both backscattering and attenuation coefficients in optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 034003 (2008).
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Sergeeva, E. A.

I. V. Turchin, R. Richards-Kortum, E. A. Sergeeva, L. S. Dolin, V. A. Kamensky, and N. M. Shakhova, “Novel algorithm of processing optical coherence tomography images for differentiation of biological tissue pathologies,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 064024 (2005).
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Serruys, P. W.

G. Van Soest, S. KoljenoviÄ, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, J. W. Oosterhuis, P. W. Serruys, A. F. van der Steen, N. Gonzalo, S. van Noorden, G. L. van Leenders, and et al., “Atherosclerotic tissue characterization in vivo by optical coherence tomography attenuation imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 011105 (2010).
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I. V. Turchin, R. Richards-Kortum, E. A. Sergeeva, L. S. Dolin, V. A. Kamensky, and N. M. Shakhova, “Novel algorithm of processing optical coherence tomography images for differentiation of biological tissue pathologies,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 064024 (2005).
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Shavlakadze, T.

Shih, D. J.

X. Wu, P. A. Northcott, A. Dubuc, A. J. Dupuy, D. J. Shih, H. Witt, S. Croul, E. Bouffet, D. W. Fults, C. G. Eberhart, J. Majewski, T. E. Scheetz, S. M. Pfister, A. Korshunov, X. Li, S. W. Scherer, Y. Cho, K. Akagi, T. J. MacDonald, J. Koster, M. G. McCabe, A L. Sarver, P. Collins, W. A. Weiss, D. A. Largaespada, L. S. Collier, and M. D. Taylor, “Clonal selection drives genetic divergence of metastatic medulloblastoma,” Nature (London) 482, 529–533 (2012).
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Shure, M. A.

S. W. Jeon, M. A. Shure, K. B. Baker, D. Huang, A. M. Rollins, A. Chahlavi, and A. R. Rezai, “A feasibility study of optical coherence tomography for guiding deep brain probes,” J. Neurosci. Meth. 154, 96–110 (2006).
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S. W. Jeon, M. A. Shure, K. B. Baker, D. Huang, A. M. Rollins, A. Chahlavi, and A. R. Rezai, “A feasibility study of optical coherence tomography for guiding deep brain probes,” J. Neurosci. Methods 154, 96–101 (2006).
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J. M. Legler, L. A. G. Ries, M. A. Smith, J. L. Warren, E. F. Heineman, R. S. Kaplan, and M. S. Linet, “Brain and other central nervous system cancers: recent trends in incidence and mortality,” J. Nat. Cancer Inst. 91, 1382–1390 (1999).
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H. Böhringer, E. Lankenau, F. Stellmacher, E. Reusche, G. Hüttmann, and A. Giese, “Imaging of human brain tumor tissue by near-infrared laser coherence tomography,” Acta Neurochir. 151, 507–517 (2009).
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T. Gudrunardottir, B. Lannering, M. Remke, M. D. Taylor, E. M. Wells, R. F. Keating, and R. J. Packer, “Treatment developments and the unfolding of the quality of life discussion in childhood medulloblastoma: a review,” Child’s Nervous System 1, 1–12 (2014).

X. Wu, P. A. Northcott, A. Dubuc, A. J. Dupuy, D. J. Shih, H. Witt, S. Croul, E. Bouffet, D. W. Fults, C. G. Eberhart, J. Majewski, T. E. Scheetz, S. M. Pfister, A. Korshunov, X. Li, S. W. Scherer, Y. Cho, K. Akagi, T. J. MacDonald, J. Koster, M. G. McCabe, A L. Sarver, P. Collins, W. A. Weiss, D. A. Largaespada, L. S. Collier, and M. D. Taylor, “Clonal selection drives genetic divergence of metastatic medulloblastoma,” Nature (London) 482, 529–533 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. A. Northcott, D. T. Jones, M. Kool, G. W. Robinson, R. J. Gilbertson, Y.-J. Cho, S. L. Pomeroy, A. Korshunov, P. Lichter, M. D. Taylor, and S. M. Pfister, “Medulloblastomics: the end of the beginning,” Nat. Rev. Cancer 12, 818–834 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. M. Dubuc, P. A. Northcott, A. M. Kenney, and M. D. Taylor, “Calculating a cure for cancer: managing medulloblastoma math1-ematically,” Expert Rev. Neurother. 10, 1489–1492 (2010).
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Tearney, G. J.

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[Crossref]

G. Van Soest, S. KoljenoviÄ, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, J. W. Oosterhuis, P. W. Serruys, A. F. van der Steen, N. Gonzalo, S. van Noorden, G. L. van Leenders, and et al., “Atherosclerotic tissue characterization in vivo by optical coherence tomography attenuation imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 011105 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tromberg, B J.

Turchin, I. V.

I. V. Turchin, R. Richards-Kortum, E. A. Sergeeva, L. S. Dolin, V. A. Kamensky, and N. M. Shakhova, “Novel algorithm of processing optical coherence tomography images for differentiation of biological tissue pathologies,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 064024 (2005).
[Crossref]

van der Meer, F. J.

F. J. van der Meer, D. J. Faber, D. B. Sassoon, M. C. Aalders, G. Pasterkamp, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “Localized measurement of optical attenuation coefficients of atherosclerotic plaque constituents by quantitative optical coherence tomography,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 24, 1369–1376 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

van der Steen, A. F.

G. van Soest, M. Villiger, E. Regar, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, and A. F. van der Steen, “Frequency domain multiplexing for speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 0760181 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Van Soest, S. KoljenoviÄ, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, J. W. Oosterhuis, P. W. Serruys, A. F. van der Steen, N. Gonzalo, S. van Noorden, G. L. van Leenders, and et al., “Atherosclerotic tissue characterization in vivo by optical coherence tomography attenuation imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 011105 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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G. Van Soest, S. KoljenoviÄ, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, J. W. Oosterhuis, P. W. Serruys, A. F. van der Steen, N. Gonzalo, S. van Noorden, G. L. van Leenders, and et al., “Atherosclerotic tissue characterization in vivo by optical coherence tomography attenuation imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 011105 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

van Leeuwen, T. G.

K. Barwari, D. M. de Bruin, E. C. Cauberg, D. J. Faber, T. G. van Leeuwen, H. Wijkstra, J. de la Rosette, and M. P. Laguna, “Advanced diagnostics in renal mass using optical coherence tomography: a preliminary report,” J. Endourol. 25, 311–315 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. J. van der Meer, D. J. Faber, D. B. Sassoon, M. C. Aalders, G. Pasterkamp, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “Localized measurement of optical attenuation coefficients of atherosclerotic plaque constituents by quantitative optical coherence tomography,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 24, 1369–1376 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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G. Van Soest, S. KoljenoviÄ, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, J. W. Oosterhuis, P. W. Serruys, A. F. van der Steen, N. Gonzalo, S. van Noorden, G. L. van Leenders, and et al., “Atherosclerotic tissue characterization in vivo by optical coherence tomography attenuation imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 011105 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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G. van Soest, M. Villiger, E. Regar, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, and A. F. van der Steen, “Frequency domain multiplexing for speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 0760181 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Van Soest, S. KoljenoviÄ, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, J. W. Oosterhuis, P. W. Serruys, A. F. van der Steen, N. Gonzalo, S. van Noorden, G. L. van Leenders, and et al., “Atherosclerotic tissue characterization in vivo by optical coherence tomography attenuation imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 011105 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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O. Assayag, K. Grieve, B. Devaux, F. Harms, J. Pallud, F. Chretien, C. Boccara, and P. Varlet, “Imaging of non-tumorous and tumorous human brain tissues with full-field optical coherence tomography,” NeuroImage: Clinical 2, 549–557 (2013).
[Crossref]

Villiger, M.

G. van Soest, M. Villiger, E. Regar, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, and A. F. van der Steen, “Frequency domain multiplexing for speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 0760181 (2012).
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Wen, X.-Y.

C. Sun, B. Standish, B. Vuong, X.-Y. Wen, and V. X.D. Yang, “Digital image correlation–based optical coherence elastography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 121515 (2013).
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K. Barwari, D. M. de Bruin, E. C. Cauberg, D. J. Faber, T. G. van Leeuwen, H. Wijkstra, J. de la Rosette, and M. P. Laguna, “Advanced diagnostics in renal mass using optical coherence tomography: a preliminary report,” J. Endourol. 25, 311–315 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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X. Wu, P. A. Northcott, A. Dubuc, A. J. Dupuy, D. J. Shih, H. Witt, S. Croul, E. Bouffet, D. W. Fults, C. G. Eberhart, J. Majewski, T. E. Scheetz, S. M. Pfister, A. Korshunov, X. Li, S. W. Scherer, Y. Cho, K. Akagi, T. J. MacDonald, J. Koster, M. G. McCabe, A L. Sarver, P. Collins, W. A. Weiss, D. A. Largaespada, L. S. Collier, and M. D. Taylor, “Clonal selection drives genetic divergence of metastatic medulloblastoma,” Nature (London) 482, 529–533 (2012).
[Crossref]

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Wood, F. M.

P. Gong, R. A. McLaughlin, Y. M. Liew, P. R. Munro, F. M. Wood, and D. D. Sampson, “Assessment of human burn scars with optical coherence tomography by imaging the attenuation coefficient of tissue after vascular masking,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19, 021111 (2014).
[Crossref]

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Wu, X.

X. Wu, P. A. Northcott, A. Dubuc, A. J. Dupuy, D. J. Shih, H. Witt, S. Croul, E. Bouffet, D. W. Fults, C. G. Eberhart, J. Majewski, T. E. Scheetz, S. M. Pfister, A. Korshunov, X. Li, S. W. Scherer, Y. Cho, K. Akagi, T. J. MacDonald, J. Koster, M. G. McCabe, A L. Sarver, P. Collins, W. A. Weiss, D. A. Largaespada, L. S. Collier, and M. D. Taylor, “Clonal selection drives genetic divergence of metastatic medulloblastoma,” Nature (London) 482, 529–533 (2012).
[Crossref]

Xie, H.

Xu, C.

C. Xu, S. G. Carlier, R. Virmani, and J. M. Schmitt, “Characterization of atherosclerosis plaques by measuring both backscattering and attenuation coefficients in optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 034003 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, V. X.D.

C. Sun, B. Standish, B. Vuong, X.-Y. Wen, and V. X.D. Yang, “Digital image correlation–based optical coherence elastography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 121515 (2013).
[Crossref]

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W. Tao, H. Jin, and Y. Zhang, “Color image segmentation based on mean shift and normalized cuts,” IEEE Trans. Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, Part B: Cybernetics,  37, 1382–1389 (2007).
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F. J. van der Meer, D. J. Faber, D. B. Sassoon, M. C. Aalders, G. Pasterkamp, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “Localized measurement of optical attenuation coefficients of atherosclerotic plaque constituents by quantitative optical coherence tomography,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 24, 1369–1376 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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W. Tao, H. Jin, and Y. Zhang, “Color image segmentation based on mean shift and normalized cuts,” IEEE Trans. Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, Part B: Cybernetics,  37, 1382–1389 (2007).
[Crossref]

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C. Sun, B. Standish, B. Vuong, X.-Y. Wen, and V. X.D. Yang, “Digital image correlation–based optical coherence elastography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18, 121515 (2013).
[Crossref]

I. V. Turchin, R. Richards-Kortum, E. A. Sergeeva, L. S. Dolin, V. A. Kamensky, and N. M. Shakhova, “Novel algorithm of processing optical coherence tomography images for differentiation of biological tissue pathologies,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 064024 (2005).
[Crossref]

G. Van Soest, S. KoljenoviÄ, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, J. W. Oosterhuis, P. W. Serruys, A. F. van der Steen, N. Gonzalo, S. van Noorden, G. L. van Leenders, and et al., “Atherosclerotic tissue characterization in vivo by optical coherence tomography attenuation imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 011105 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Xu, S. G. Carlier, R. Virmani, and J. M. Schmitt, “Characterization of atherosclerosis plaques by measuring both backscattering and attenuation coefficients in optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 034003 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. van Soest, M. Villiger, E. Regar, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, and A. F. van der Steen, “Frequency domain multiplexing for speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 0760181 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. Gong, R. A. McLaughlin, Y. M. Liew, P. R. Munro, F. M. Wood, and D. D. Sampson, “Assessment of human burn scars with optical coherence tomography by imaging the attenuation coefficient of tissue after vascular masking,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19, 021111 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Clin. Oncol. (1)

A. Gajjar, R. Hernan, M. Kocak, C. Fuller, Y. Lee, P. J. McKinnon, D. Wallace, C. Lau, M. Chintagumpala, D. M. Ashley, S. J. Kellie, L. Kun, and R. J. Gilbertson, “Clinical, histopathologic, and molecular markers of prognosis: toward a new disease risk stratification system for medulloblastoma,” J. Clin. Oncol. 22, 984–993 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Endourol. (1)

K. Barwari, D. M. de Bruin, E. C. Cauberg, D. J. Faber, T. G. van Leeuwen, H. Wijkstra, J. de la Rosette, and M. P. Laguna, “Advanced diagnostics in renal mass using optical coherence tomography: a preliminary report,” J. Endourol. 25, 311–315 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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J. M. Legler, L. A. G. Ries, M. A. Smith, J. L. Warren, E. F. Heineman, R. S. Kaplan, and M. S. Linet, “Brain and other central nervous system cancers: recent trends in incidence and mortality,” J. Nat. Cancer Inst. 91, 1382–1390 (1999).
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S. W. Jeon, M. A. Shure, K. B. Baker, D. Huang, A. M. Rollins, A. Chahlavi, and A. R. Rezai, “A feasibility study of optical coherence tomography for guiding deep brain probes,” J. Neurosci. Methods 154, 96–101 (2006).
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H. Böhringer, D. Boller, J. Leppert, U. Knopp, E. Lankenau, E. Reusche, G. Hüttmann, and A. Giese, “Time-domain and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography in the analysis of brain tumor tissue,” Lasers Surg. Med. 38, 588–597 (2006).
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O. Assayag, K. Grieve, B. Devaux, F. Harms, J. Pallud, F. Chretien, C. Boccara, and P. Varlet, “Imaging of non-tumorous and tumorous human brain tissues with full-field optical coherence tomography,” NeuroImage: Clinical 2, 549–557 (2013).
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Supplementary Material (1)

» Media 1: MOV (11714 KB)     

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) An OCT image of human fingertips. (b) The result of mean shift segmentation from the OCT image based on clustering. Each color in the mean shift segmentation image represents a segmented area. Scale bar is 1mm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Gross histology of harvested Math1-GFP; Ptch+/− mouse model. (b) The corresponding fluorescence image. (c) The combined gross and fluorescence image. (d) A 500 μm thick section of the fluorescent medulloblastoma (red dashed box) region was imaged by OCT on a planar reflective surface. Refractive index was measured by evaluating the optical thickness of the specimen (z + z′). Scale bar is 1 mm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Structural OCT image of a cortical phantom which consisted of titanium dioxide versa gel (*Ti), silicon tube (*s) and diluted intralipid (*I). (b) The corresponding OCT-OA image of the cortical phantom. Scale bar: 1 mm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Gross histology of harvested Math1-GFP; Ptch+/− mouse model. (b) The corresponding fluorescence image. (c) The combined gross and fluorescence image. Normal cerebellum (cyan line) and an interface of normal/medulloblastoma (red line) scans were taken. (d) H&E section of the cerebellum. Grey matter consisting of molecular layer (*M) and granular layer (*G) was observed. Underneath the granular layer, regions of white matter are present (*W). (e) The associated structural OCT with minimal resolved features. (f) The corresponding OCT-OA image consisted of a layered structure. The shape and location of these layers are similar to the molecular layer (*M) and granular layer (*G). Scale bar 500 μm

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) H&E section of the cerebellum in a Math1-GFP; Ptch+/− model. Grey matter consisting of molecular layer (*M) and granular layer (*G) was observed. Underneath the granular layer, regions of white matter (*W) are present. Regions of medulloblastoma resided on the right side (*T). Within the red dashed box, medulloblastoma regions that were adjacent to normal cerebellum demonstrated very dense cellular proliferation (red arrow). On the right side of the medulloblastoma region, superficial cells appear to be sparsely spaced (green arrow); however a lining of dense cells was located below. (b) The corresponding structural OCT with minimal resolved features. (c) The OCT-OA image consisted of a layered structure and erratic high attenuation region. In normal tissue the layers consisted of the molecular layer (*M) and granular layer (*G). The erratic high attenuation region was where medulloblastoma (*T). Scale bar 500 μm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) H&E section of a normal cerebellum where the molecular layer (*M) and granular layer (*G) are visualized. (b) The associated structural OCT image. (c) The corresponding OCT-OA image consisted of a high optical attenuation coefficient region (granular) and low optical attenuation (molecular). Scale bar 1 mm.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) A surface prospective (transverse plane) from 3D reconstruction of structural OCT. Normal cerebellum (*C) and medulloblastoma (*T) regions were difficult to differentiate. (b) The same perspective was rendered from 3D OCT-OA images. Regions of normal cerebellum and medulloblastoma are clearly visualized. Both 3D OCT and 3D OCT-OA consisted of the visualization of a superficial blood vessel (white arrows). (c) Cross sectional regions in the 3D structural OCT image demonstrated few morphological features. (d) The corresponding 3D OCT-OA image exhibits layered structures. In the cross sectional regions, key morphological features were observed. The molecular layer (green arrow), granular layer (black arrow) and white matter (red arrow) could be resolved. A fly-through of the entire 3D OCT-OA is shown in Media 1. Scale bar 1 mm.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Summary of optical attenuation coefficient by tissue type

Equations (9)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

< I d ( z ) > = I o T ( z ) S ( z ) exp [ μ t z ] ,
T ( z ) = [ ( z z o z R ) 2 + 1 ] 1 2 ,
S ( z ) = exp [ ( z z w ) 2 ] ,
i d = log [ < I d ( z ) > ] log [ T ( z ) ] log [ S ( z ) ] .
i ( z ) = log [ I o ] μ t z .
i c = log [ < I d ( z ) > ] log [ < I p ( z ) > ] ,
i ( z ) = log [ I o I p o ] μ c z ,
μ c = μ t μ p ,
n = z + z z .

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