Abstract

We use our previously developed adaptive optics (AO) scanning laser ophthalmoscope (SLO)/ optical coherence tomography (OCT) instrument to investigate its capability for imaging retinal vasculature. The system records SLO and OCT images simultaneously with a pixel to pixel correspondence which allows a direct comparison between those imaging modalities. Different field of views ranging from 0.8°x0.8° up to 4°x4° are supported by the instrument. In addition a dynamic focus scheme was developed for the AO-SLO/OCT system in order to maintain the high transverse resolution throughout imaging depth. The active axial eye tracking that is implemented in the OCT channel allows time resolved measurements of the retinal vasculature in the en-face imaging plane. Vessel walls and structures that we believe correspond to individual erythrocytes could be visualized with the system.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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    [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (7)

O. P. Kocaoglu, R. D. Ferguson, R. S. Jonnal, Z. Liu, Q. Wang, D. X. Hammer, and D. T. Miller, “Adaptive optics optical coherence tomography with dynamic retinal tracking,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(7), 2262–2284 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. P. Kocaoglu, T. L. Turner, Z. Liu, and D. T. Miller, “Adaptive optics optical coherence tomography at 1 MHz,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(12), 4186–4200 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Felberer, J. S. Kroisamer, B. Baumann, S. Zotter, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, C. K. Hitzenberger, and M. Pircher, “Adaptive optics SLO/OCT for 3D imaging of human photoreceptors in vivo,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(2), 439–456 (2014).
[PubMed]

Y. N. Sulai, D. Scoles, Z. Harvey, and A. Dubra, “Visualization of retinal vascular structure and perfusion with a nonconfocal adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscope,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 31(3), 569–579 (2014).
[PubMed]

S. A. Burns, A. E. Elsner, T. Y. Chui, D. A. Vannasdale, C. A. Clark, T. J. Gast, V. E. Malinovsky, and A. D. T. Phan, “In vivo adaptive optics microvascular imaging in diabetic patients without clinically severe diabetic retinopathy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(3), 961–974 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. M. Schwartz, J. Fingler, D. Y. Kim, R. J. Zawadzki, L. S. Morse, S. S. Park, S. E. Fraser, and J. S. Werner, “Phase-Variance Optical Coherence Tomography: A Technique for Noninvasive Angiography,” Ophthalmology 121(1), 180–187 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. S. Jonnal, O. P. Kocaoglu, R. J. Zawadzki, S. H. Lee, J. S. Werner, and D. T. Miller, “The Cellular Origins of the Outer Retinal Bands in Optical Coherence Tomography Images,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 55(12), 7904–7918 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (4)

2012 (2)

2011 (9)

J. Tam and A. Roorda, “Speed quantification and tracking of moving objects in adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(3), 036002 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Tam, P. Tiruveedhula, and A. Roorda, “Characterization of single-file flow through human retinal parafoveal capillaries using an adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(4), 781–793 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Zhong, H. Song, T. Y. P. Chui, B. L. Petrig, and S. A. Burns, “Noninvasive Measurements and Analysis of Blood Velocity Profiles in Human Retinal Vessels,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(7), 4151–4157 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. J. Zawadzki, S. M. Jones, S. Pilli, S. Balderas-Mata, D. Y. Kim, S. S. Olivier, and J. S. Werner, “Integrated adaptive optics optical coherence tomography and adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope system for simultaneous cellular resolution in vivo retinal imaging,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(6), 1674–1686 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Dubra and Y. Sulai, “Reflective afocal broadband adaptive optics scanning ophthalmoscope,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(6), 1757–1768 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Dubra, Y. Sulai, J. L. Norris, R. F. Cooper, A. M. Dubis, D. R. Williams, and J. Carroll, “Noninvasive imaging of the human rod photoreceptor mosaic using a confocal adaptive optics scanning ophthalmoscope,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(7), 1864–1876 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Schmoll, A. S. G. Singh, C. Blatter, S. Schriefl, C. Ahlers, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Imaging of the parafoveal capillary network and its integrity analysis using fractal dimension,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(5), 1159–1168 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. T. Miller, O. P. Kocaoglu, Q. Wang, and S. Lee, “Adaptive optics and the eye (super resolution OCT),” Eye (Lond.) 25(3), 321–330 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. R. Williams, “Imaging single cells in the living retina,” Vision Res. 51(13), 1379–1396 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

P. Godara, A. M. Dubis, A. Roorda, J. L. Duncan, and J. Carroll, “Adaptive Optics Retinal Imaging: Emerging Clinical Applications,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 87(12), 930–941 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. S. Jonnal, J. R. Besecker, J. C. Derby, O. P. Kocaoglu, B. Cense, W. Gao, Q. Wang, and D. T. Miller, “Imaging outer segment renewal in living human cone photoreceptors,” Opt. Express 18(5), 5257–5270 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Tam, J. A. Martin, and A. Roorda, “Noninvasive Visualization and Analysis of Parafoveal Capillaries in Humans,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(3), 1691–1698 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (5)

2007 (5)

2006 (7)

2005 (3)

R. J. Zawadzki, S. M. Jones, S. S. Olivier, M. Zhao, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, S. Choi, S. Laut, and J. S. Werner, “Adaptive-optics optical coherence tomography for high-resolution and high-speed 3D retinal in vivo imaging,” Opt. Express 13(21), 8532–8546 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Pallikaris, “Adaptive optics ophthalmoscopy: Results and applications,” J. Refract. Surg. 21(5), S570–S574 (2005).
[PubMed]

N. Doble, “High-resolution, in vivo retinal imaging using adaptive optics and its future role in ophthalmology,” Expert Rev. Med. Devices 2(2), 205–216 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (3)

2003 (2)

C. Hitzenberger, P. Trost, P. W. Lo, and Q. Zhou, “Three-dimensional imaging of the human retina by high-speed optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 11(21), 2753–2761 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. S. Jonnal, J. Qu, K. Thorn, and D. T. Miller, “En-face coherence gating of the retina with adaptive optics,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 44, U275 (2003).

2002 (1)

1999 (2)

A. Roorda and D. R. Williams, “The arrangement of the three cone classes in the living human eye,” Nature 397(6719), 520–522 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. G. Podoleanu, J. A. Rogers, and D. A. Jackson, “OCT en-face images from the retina with adjustable depth resolution in real time,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(4), 1176–1184 (1999).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

1996 (1)

Ahlers, C.

An, L.

Arathorn, D. W.

Artal, P.

Balderas-Mata, S.

Baumann, B.

Besecker, J. R.

Bigelow, C. E.

Blatter, C.

Bloom, B.

Bower, B. A.

Bradu, A.

Burns, S. A.

S. A. Burns, A. E. Elsner, T. Y. Chui, D. A. Vannasdale, C. A. Clark, T. J. Gast, V. E. Malinovsky, and A. D. T. Phan, “In vivo adaptive optics microvascular imaging in diabetic patients without clinically severe diabetic retinopathy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(3), 961–974 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Y. P. Chui, D. A. Vannasdale, and S. A. Burns, “The use of forward scatter to improve retinal vascular imaging with an adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(10), 2537–2549 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Zhong, H. Song, T. Y. P. Chui, B. L. Petrig, and S. A. Burns, “Noninvasive Measurements and Analysis of Blood Velocity Profiles in Human Retinal Vessels,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(7), 4151–4157 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Y. P. Chui, H. Song, and S. A. Burns, “Adaptive-optics imaging of human cone photoreceptor distribution,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25(12), 3021–3029 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Zhong, B. L. Petrig, X. Qi, and S. A. Burns, “In vivo measurement of erythrocyte velocity and retinal blood flow using adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Opt. Express 16(17), 12746–12756 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. A. Burns, R. Tumbar, A. E. Elsner, D. Ferguson, and D. X. Hammer, “Large-field-of-view, modular, stabilized, adaptive-optics-based scanning laser ophthalmoscope,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24(5), 1313–1326 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. X. Hammer, R. D. Ferguson, C. E. Bigelow, N. V. Iftimia, T. E. Ustun, and S. A. Burns, “Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope for stabilized retinal imaging,” Opt. Express 14(8), 3354–3367 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Campbell, M.

Carroll, J.

Cense, B.

Chen, D. C.

Choi, S.

Chui, T. Y.

Chui, T. Y. P.

Clark, C. A.

Cooper, R. F.

Dainty, C.

Derby, J. C.

Devaney, N.

M. Lombardo, S. Serrao, N. Devaney, M. Parravano, and G. Lombardo, “Adaptive Optics Technology for High-Resolution Retinal Imaging,” Sensors (Basel) 13(1), 334–366 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Doble, N.

N. Doble, “High-resolution, in vivo retinal imaging using adaptive optics and its future role in ophthalmology,” Expert Rev. Med. Devices 2(2), 205–216 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dobre, G. M.

Donnelly Iii, W.

Drexler, W.

Dubis, A. M.

Dubow, M.

Dubra, A.

Duncan, J. L.

P. Godara, A. M. Dubis, A. Roorda, J. L. Duncan, and J. Carroll, “Adaptive Optics Retinal Imaging: Emerging Clinical Applications,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 87(12), 930–941 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Elsner, A. E.

Evans, J. W.

Felberer, F.

Fercher, A. F.

Ferguson, D.

Ferguson, R. D.

Fernández, E. J.

Findl, O.

Fingler, J.

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D. M. Schwartz, J. Fingler, D. Y. Kim, R. J. Zawadzki, L. S. Morse, S. S. Park, S. E. Fraser, and J. S. Werner, “Phase-Variance Optical Coherence Tomography: A Technique for Noninvasive Angiography,” Ophthalmology 121(1), 180–187 (2014).
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S. H. Lee, J. S. Werner, and R. J. Zawadzki, “Improved visualization of outer retinal morphology with aberration cancelling reflective optical design for adaptive optics - optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(11), 2508–2517 (2013).
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O. P. Kocaoglu, R. D. Ferguson, R. S. Jonnal, Z. Liu, Q. Wang, D. X. Hammer, and D. T. Miller, “Adaptive optics optical coherence tomography with dynamic retinal tracking,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(7), 2262–2284 (2014).
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O. P. Kocaoglu, T. L. Turner, Z. Liu, and D. T. Miller, “Adaptive optics optical coherence tomography at 1 MHz,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(12), 4186–4200 (2014).
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R. S. Jonnal, J. R. Besecker, J. C. Derby, O. P. Kocaoglu, B. Cense, W. Gao, Q. Wang, and D. T. Miller, “Imaging outer segment renewal in living human cone photoreceptors,” Opt. Express 18(5), 5257–5270 (2010).
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M. Lombardo, S. Serrao, N. Devaney, M. Parravano, and G. Lombardo, “Adaptive Optics Technology for High-Resolution Retinal Imaging,” Sensors (Basel) 13(1), 334–366 (2013).
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Z. Zhong, H. Song, T. Y. P. Chui, B. L. Petrig, and S. A. Burns, “Noninvasive Measurements and Analysis of Blood Velocity Profiles in Human Retinal Vessels,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 52(7), 4151–4157 (2011).
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Z. Zhong, B. L. Petrig, X. Qi, and S. A. Burns, “In vivo measurement of erythrocyte velocity and retinal blood flow using adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Opt. Express 16(17), 12746–12756 (2008).
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Pilli, S.

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A. G. Podoleanu, J. A. Rogers, and D. A. Jackson, “OCT en-face images from the retina with adjustable depth resolution in real time,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(4), 1176–1184 (1999).
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J. Tam, P. Tiruveedhula, and A. Roorda, “Characterization of single-file flow through human retinal parafoveal capillaries using an adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(4), 781–793 (2011).
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J. Tam, J. A. Martin, and A. Roorda, “Noninvasive Visualization and Analysis of Parafoveal Capillaries in Humans,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(3), 1691–1698 (2010).
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J. Tam, P. Tiruveedhula, and A. Roorda, “Characterization of single-file flow through human retinal parafoveal capillaries using an adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(4), 781–793 (2011).
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J. Tam, J. A. Martin, and A. Roorda, “Noninvasive Visualization and Analysis of Parafoveal Capillaries in Humans,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(3), 1691–1698 (2010).
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R. S. Jonnal, J. Qu, K. Thorn, and D. T. Miller, “En-face coherence gating of the retina with adaptive optics,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 44, U275 (2003).

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R. S. Jonnal, O. P. Kocaoglu, R. J. Zawadzki, S. H. Lee, J. S. Werner, and D. T. Miller, “The Cellular Origins of the Outer Retinal Bands in Optical Coherence Tomography Images,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 55(12), 7904–7918 (2014).
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D. M. Schwartz, J. Fingler, D. Y. Kim, R. J. Zawadzki, L. S. Morse, S. S. Park, S. E. Fraser, and J. S. Werner, “Phase-Variance Optical Coherence Tomography: A Technique for Noninvasive Angiography,” Ophthalmology 121(1), 180–187 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. H. Lee, J. S. Werner, and R. J. Zawadzki, “Improved visualization of outer retinal morphology with aberration cancelling reflective optical design for adaptive optics - optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(11), 2508–2517 (2013).
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R. J. Zawadzki, S. M. Jones, S. Pilli, S. Balderas-Mata, D. Y. Kim, S. S. Olivier, and J. S. Werner, “Integrated adaptive optics optical coherence tomography and adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope system for simultaneous cellular resolution in vivo retinal imaging,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(6), 1674–1686 (2011).
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R. J. Zawadzki, S. M. Jones, S. S. Olivier, M. Zhao, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, S. Choi, S. Laut, and J. S. Werner, “Adaptive-optics optical coherence tomography for high-resolution and high-speed 3D retinal in vivo imaging,” Opt. Express 13(21), 8532–8546 (2005).
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Zawadzki, R. J.

R. S. Jonnal, O. P. Kocaoglu, R. J. Zawadzki, S. H. Lee, J. S. Werner, and D. T. Miller, “The Cellular Origins of the Outer Retinal Bands in Optical Coherence Tomography Images,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 55(12), 7904–7918 (2014).
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D. M. Schwartz, J. Fingler, D. Y. Kim, R. J. Zawadzki, L. S. Morse, S. S. Park, S. E. Fraser, and J. S. Werner, “Phase-Variance Optical Coherence Tomography: A Technique for Noninvasive Angiography,” Ophthalmology 121(1), 180–187 (2014).
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S. H. Lee, J. S. Werner, and R. J. Zawadzki, “Improved visualization of outer retinal morphology with aberration cancelling reflective optical design for adaptive optics - optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(11), 2508–2517 (2013).
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R. J. Zawadzki, S. M. Jones, S. Pilli, S. Balderas-Mata, D. Y. Kim, S. S. Olivier, and J. S. Werner, “Integrated adaptive optics optical coherence tomography and adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope system for simultaneous cellular resolution in vivo retinal imaging,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(6), 1674–1686 (2011).
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Y. Zhang, B. Cense, J. Rha, R. S. Jonnal, W. Gao, R. J. Zawadzki, J. S. Werner, S. Jones, S. Olivier, and D. T. Miller, “High-speed volumetric imaging of cone photoreceptors with adaptive optics spectral-domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 14(10), 4380–4394 (2006).
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R. J. Zawadzki, S. M. Jones, S. S. Olivier, M. Zhao, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, S. Choi, S. Laut, and J. S. Werner, “Adaptive-optics optical coherence tomography for high-resolution and high-speed 3D retinal in vivo imaging,” Opt. Express 13(21), 8532–8546 (2005).
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Zhao, M.

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Z. Zhong, B. L. Petrig, X. Qi, and S. A. Burns, “In vivo measurement of erythrocyte velocity and retinal blood flow using adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Opt. Express 16(17), 12746–12756 (2008).
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Biomed. Opt. Express (12)

T. Schmoll, A. S. G. Singh, C. Blatter, S. Schriefl, C. Ahlers, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Imaging of the parafoveal capillary network and its integrity analysis using fractal dimension,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(5), 1159–1168 (2011).
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A. Dubra and Y. Sulai, “Reflective afocal broadband adaptive optics scanning ophthalmoscope,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(6), 1757–1768 (2011).
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A. Dubra, Y. Sulai, J. L. Norris, R. F. Cooper, A. M. Dubis, D. R. Williams, and J. Carroll, “Noninvasive imaging of the human rod photoreceptor mosaic using a confocal adaptive optics scanning ophthalmoscope,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(7), 1864–1876 (2011).
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O. P. Kocaoglu, R. D. Ferguson, R. S. Jonnal, Z. Liu, Q. Wang, D. X. Hammer, and D. T. Miller, “Adaptive optics optical coherence tomography with dynamic retinal tracking,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(7), 2262–2284 (2014).
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T. Y. P. Chui, D. A. Vannasdale, and S. A. Burns, “The use of forward scatter to improve retinal vascular imaging with an adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(10), 2537–2549 (2012).
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A. Pinhas, M. Dubow, N. Shah, T. Y. Chui, D. Scoles, Y. N. Sulai, R. Weitz, J. B. Walsh, J. Carroll, A. Dubra, and R. B. Rosen, “In vivo imaging of human retinal microvasculature using adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscope fluorescein angiography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(8), 1305–1317 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. J. Zawadzki, S. M. Jones, S. Pilli, S. Balderas-Mata, D. Y. Kim, S. S. Olivier, and J. S. Werner, “Integrated adaptive optics optical coherence tomography and adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope system for simultaneous cellular resolution in vivo retinal imaging,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(6), 1674–1686 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. H. Lee, J. S. Werner, and R. J. Zawadzki, “Improved visualization of outer retinal morphology with aberration cancelling reflective optical design for adaptive optics - optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(11), 2508–2517 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. P. Kocaoglu, T. L. Turner, Z. Liu, and D. T. Miller, “Adaptive optics optical coherence tomography at 1 MHz,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(12), 4186–4200 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Felberer, J. S. Kroisamer, B. Baumann, S. Zotter, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, C. K. Hitzenberger, and M. Pircher, “Adaptive optics SLO/OCT for 3D imaging of human photoreceptors in vivo,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(2), 439–456 (2014).
[PubMed]

S. A. Burns, A. E. Elsner, T. Y. Chui, D. A. Vannasdale, C. A. Clark, T. J. Gast, V. E. Malinovsky, and A. D. T. Phan, “In vivo adaptive optics microvascular imaging in diabetic patients without clinically severe diabetic retinopathy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(3), 961–974 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Tam, P. Tiruveedhula, and A. Roorda, “Characterization of single-file flow through human retinal parafoveal capillaries using an adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(4), 781–793 (2011).
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Curr. Eye Res. (1)

J. Carroll, D. B. Kay, D. Scoles, A. Dubra, and M. Lombardo, “Adaptive Optics Retinal Imaging - Clinical Opportunities and Challenges,” Curr. Eye Res. 38(7), 709–721 (2013).
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Expert Rev. Med. Devices (1)

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Supplementary Material (3)

» Media 1: AVI (9492 KB)     
» Media 2: AVI (7094 KB)     
» Media 3: AVI (12782 KB)     

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Frame No. 102 of an AO-SLO/OCT data set recorded with dynamic focus in the right eye of a healthy volunteer (age 26, absolute refractive error <0.25) shown in Media 1. The imaged location is approximately 8° nasal from the fovea (Left: OCT displayed on a logarithmic grey scale, right: SLO) Field of view: 0.8°x0.8°. Media 2 shows a fly through of extracted B-scans starting from left to right in the figure. Scale bar = 10µm.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Averaged en-face OCT image (a) and SLO image (b) of the same location as in Fig. 1. The focus and coherence gate are set on the large vessel. The whole data set is shown in Media 3. The field of view is 0.8°x0.8°. Scale bar = 10µm.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Frame No. 17 of the OCT data set shown in Media 3. The white circle indicates particles that appear elongated due to flow in the direction parallel to the slow scanning axis. The red circle indicates particles that appear compressed because of flow anti-parallel to the slow scanning direction. The direction of flow in the main vessel is indicated with the red arrow. The field of view is 0.8°x0.8°. Scale bar = 10µm.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Images of the left eye of a healthy volunteer (age 26, absolute refractive error <0.25). (a) Overview fundus image. (The imaged location of the AO-OCT/SLO is marked with a black square). (b) En-face OCT image with the coherence gate located at the large vessel (c) SLO image with the focus set on the vessel. Field of view of the AO-OCT/SLO images: ~4°x4°. Scale bar = 100µm.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Averaged images of the left eye of a volunteer. Images were recorded with a smaller field of view and shows an enlarged view of the large bifurcation of the central vessel displayed in Fig. 4. (a) En-face OCT image with the coherence gate located at the large vessel (b) SLO image with the focus set on the vessel. Field of view of the AO-OCT/SLO images: ~2°x2°. Scale bar = 50µm.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Images of the vessel structure recorded with a 0.8°x0.8° field of view. (a) Averaged SLO image with focus on the large vessel. (b) En-face OCT image with the coherence gate set at the top vessel wall (located in the ganglion cell layer), (c) en-face OCT image with the coherence gate set at the top part of the vessel (located in the ganglion cell layer), (d) en-face OCT image with the coherence gate set at the center of the vessel (located in the inner plexiform layer), (e) en-face OCT image with the coherence gate set at the bottom vessel wall (located at the border between inner plexiform layer and inner nuclear layer). Scale bar = 10µm.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Images demonstrating the effect of amplitude vs intensity display on the appearance of the vessel. (a) Averaged en-face OCT image displayed on a logarithmic intensity scale, (b) en-face OCT image displayed on a linear amplitude scale. (c) En-face OCT image displayed on a linear intensity scale (d) SLO image displayed on a linear scale. (Field of view: 0.8°x0.8°). Scale bar = 10µm.

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