Abstract

Clinically, gonioscopy is used to provide en face views of the ocular angle. The angle has been imaged with optical coherence tomography (OCT) through the corneoscleral limbus but is currently unable to image the angle from within the ocular anterior chamber. We developed a novel gonioscopic OCT system that images the angle circumferentially from inside the eye through a custom, radially symmetric, gonioscopic contact lens. We present, to our knowledge, the first 360° circumferential volumes (two normal subjects, two subjects with pathology) of peripheral iris and iridocorneal angle structures obtained via an internal approach not typically available in the clinic.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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2013 (3)

2012 (5)

2011 (1)

W. L. M. Alward, “A History of Gonioscopy,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 88(1), 29–35 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

L. Kagemann, G. Wollstein, H. Ishikawa, R. A. Bilonick, P. M. Brennen, L. S. Folio, M. L. Gabriele, and J. S. Schuman, “Identification and Assessment of Schlemm’s Canal by Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(8), 4054–4059 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Yasuno, M. Yamanari, K. Kawana, M. Miura, S. Fukuda, S. Makita, S. Sakai, and T. Oshika, “Visibility of trabecular meshwork by standard and polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 061705 (2010).

M. C. Grieshaber, A. Pienaar, J. Olivier, and R. Stegmann, “Canaloplasty for primary open-angle glaucoma: long-term outcome,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 94(11), 1478–1482 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

H.-T. Wong, M. C. Lim, L. M. Sakata, H. T. Aung, N. Amerasinghe, D. S. Friedman, and T. Aung, “High-Definition Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging of the Iridocorneal Angle of the Eye,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 127(3), 256–260 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

S. Asrani, M. Sarunic, C. Santiago, and J. Izatt, “Detailed Visualization of the Anterior Segment Using Fourier-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 126(6), 765–771 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. V. Sarunic, S. Asrani, and J. A. Izatt, “Imaging the Ocular Anterior Segment With Real-Time, Full-Range Fourier-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 126(4), 537–542 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

A. V. Goncharov and C. Dainty, “Wide-field schematic eye models with gradient-index lens,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24(8), 2157–2174 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. A. Lewis, K. von Wolff, M. Tetz, N. Korber, J. R. Kearney, B. Shingleton, and T. W. Samuelson, “Canaloplasty: Circumferential viscodilation and tensioning of Schlemm’s canal using a flexible microcatheter for the treatment of open-angle glaucoma in adults: Interim clinical study analysis,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 33(7), 1217–1226 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

K. F. Damji, A. M. Bovell, W. G. Hodge, W. Rock, K. Shah, R. Buhrmann, and Y. I. Pan, “Selective laser trabeculoplasty versus argon laser trabeculoplasty: results from a 1-year randomised clinical trial,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 90(12), 1490–1494 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

2003 (1)

S. Melamed, G. J. Ben Simon, and H. Levkovitch-Verbin, “Selective laser trabeculoplasty as primary treatment for open-angle glaucoma: A prospective, nonrandomized pilot study,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 121(7), 957–960 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

H. Hoerauf, C. Scholz, P. Koch, R. Engelhardt, H. Laqua, and R. Birngruber, “Transscleral optical coherence tomography: A new imaging method for the anterior segment of the eye,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 120(6), 816–819 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

S. Radhakrishnan, A. M. Rollins, J. E. Roth, S. Yazdanfar, V. Westphal, D. S. Bardenstein, and J. A. Izatt, “Real-time optical coherence tomography of the anterior segment at 1310 nm,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 119(8), 1179–1185 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

R. R. Allingham, A. W. de Kater, and C. R. Ethier, “Schlemm’s Canal and Primary Open Angle Glaucoma: Correlation Between Schlemm’s Canal Dimensions and Outflow Facility,” Exp. Eye Res. 62(1), 101–110 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Micrometer-Scale Resolution Imaging of the Anterior Eye In Vivo With Optical Coherence Tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 112(12), 1584–1589 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1979 (1)

J. B. Wise and S. L. Witter, “Argon laser therapy for open-angle glaucoma. A pilot study,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 97(2), 319–322 (1979).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Agnifili, L.

L. Mastropasqua, L. Agnifili, M. L. Salvetat, M. Ciancaglini, V. Fasanella, M. Nubile, R. Mastropasqua, M. Zeppieri, and P. Brusini, “In vivo analysis of conjunctiva in canaloplasty for glaucoma,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 96(5), 634–639 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Akiba, M.

Allingham, R. R.

R. R. Allingham, A. W. de Kater, and C. R. Ethier, “Schlemm’s Canal and Primary Open Angle Glaucoma: Correlation Between Schlemm’s Canal Dimensions and Outflow Facility,” Exp. Eye Res. 62(1), 101–110 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alward, W. L. M.

W. L. M. Alward, “A History of Gonioscopy,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 88(1), 29–35 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Amerasinghe, N.

H.-T. Wong, M. C. Lim, L. M. Sakata, H. T. Aung, N. Amerasinghe, D. S. Friedman, and T. Aung, “High-Definition Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging of the Iridocorneal Angle of the Eye,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 127(3), 256–260 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ammar, D. A.

O. Masihzadeh, D. A. Ammar, M. Y. Kahook, E. A. Gibson, and T. C. Lei, “Direct trabecular meshwork imaging in porcine eyes through multiphoton gonioscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(3), 036009 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Asrani, S.

M. V. Sarunic, S. Asrani, and J. A. Izatt, “Imaging the Ocular Anterior Segment With Real-Time, Full-Range Fourier-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 126(4), 537–542 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Asrani, M. Sarunic, C. Santiago, and J. Izatt, “Detailed Visualization of the Anterior Segment Using Fourier-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 126(6), 765–771 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aung, H. T.

H.-T. Wong, M. C. Lim, L. M. Sakata, H. T. Aung, N. Amerasinghe, D. S. Friedman, and T. Aung, “High-Definition Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging of the Iridocorneal Angle of the Eye,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 127(3), 256–260 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aung, T.

H.-T. Wong, M. C. Lim, L. M. Sakata, H. T. Aung, N. Amerasinghe, D. S. Friedman, and T. Aung, “High-Definition Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging of the Iridocorneal Angle of the Eye,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 127(3), 256–260 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bardenstein, D. S.

S. Radhakrishnan, A. M. Rollins, J. E. Roth, S. Yazdanfar, V. Westphal, D. S. Bardenstein, and J. A. Izatt, “Real-time optical coherence tomography of the anterior segment at 1310 nm,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 119(8), 1179–1185 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ben Simon, G. J.

S. Melamed, G. J. Ben Simon, and H. Levkovitch-Verbin, “Selective laser trabeculoplasty as primary treatment for open-angle glaucoma: A prospective, nonrandomized pilot study,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 121(7), 957–960 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bilonick, R. A.

L. Kagemann, G. Wollstein, H. Ishikawa, R. A. Bilonick, P. M. Brennen, L. S. Folio, M. L. Gabriele, and J. S. Schuman, “Identification and Assessment of Schlemm’s Canal by Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(8), 4054–4059 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Birngruber, R.

H. Hoerauf, C. Scholz, P. Koch, R. Engelhardt, H. Laqua, and R. Birngruber, “Transscleral optical coherence tomography: A new imaging method for the anterior segment of the eye,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 120(6), 816–819 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bovell, A. M.

K. F. Damji, A. M. Bovell, W. G. Hodge, W. Rock, K. Shah, R. Buhrmann, and Y. I. Pan, “Selective laser trabeculoplasty versus argon laser trabeculoplasty: results from a 1-year randomised clinical trial,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 90(12), 1490–1494 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brennen, P. M.

L. Kagemann, G. Wollstein, H. Ishikawa, R. A. Bilonick, P. M. Brennen, L. S. Folio, M. L. Gabriele, and J. S. Schuman, “Identification and Assessment of Schlemm’s Canal by Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(8), 4054–4059 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brusini, P.

L. Mastropasqua, L. Agnifili, M. L. Salvetat, M. Ciancaglini, V. Fasanella, M. Nubile, R. Mastropasqua, M. Zeppieri, and P. Brusini, “In vivo analysis of conjunctiva in canaloplasty for glaucoma,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 96(5), 634–639 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Buhrmann, R.

K. F. Damji, A. M. Bovell, W. G. Hodge, W. Rock, K. Shah, R. Buhrmann, and Y. I. Pan, “Selective laser trabeculoplasty versus argon laser trabeculoplasty: results from a 1-year randomised clinical trial,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 90(12), 1490–1494 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bustamante, T.

Cable, A. E.

Chan, K.-P.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chong, C.

Chong, S. P.

Ciancaglini, M.

L. Mastropasqua, L. Agnifili, M. L. Salvetat, M. Ciancaglini, V. Fasanella, M. Nubile, R. Mastropasqua, M. Zeppieri, and P. Brusini, “In vivo analysis of conjunctiva in canaloplasty for glaucoma,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 96(5), 634–639 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dainty, C.

Damji, K. F.

K. F. Damji, A. M. Bovell, W. G. Hodge, W. Rock, K. Shah, R. Buhrmann, and Y. I. Pan, “Selective laser trabeculoplasty versus argon laser trabeculoplasty: results from a 1-year randomised clinical trial,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 90(12), 1490–1494 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

de Kater, A. W.

R. R. Allingham, A. W. de Kater, and C. R. Ethier, “Schlemm’s Canal and Primary Open Angle Glaucoma: Correlation Between Schlemm’s Canal Dimensions and Outflow Facility,” Exp. Eye Res. 62(1), 101–110 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dhalla, A.-H.

Duker, J. S.

Engelhardt, R.

H. Hoerauf, C. Scholz, P. Koch, R. Engelhardt, H. Laqua, and R. Birngruber, “Transscleral optical coherence tomography: A new imaging method for the anterior segment of the eye,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 120(6), 816–819 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ethier, C. R.

R. R. Allingham, A. W. de Kater, and C. R. Ethier, “Schlemm’s Canal and Primary Open Angle Glaucoma: Correlation Between Schlemm’s Canal Dimensions and Outflow Facility,” Exp. Eye Res. 62(1), 101–110 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fasanella, V.

L. Mastropasqua, L. Agnifili, M. L. Salvetat, M. Ciancaglini, V. Fasanella, M. Nubile, R. Mastropasqua, M. Zeppieri, and P. Brusini, “In vivo analysis of conjunctiva in canaloplasty for glaucoma,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 96(5), 634–639 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Folio, L. S.

L. Kagemann, G. Wollstein, H. Ishikawa, Z. Nadler, I. A. Sigal, L. S. Folio, and J. S. Schuman, “Visualization of the Conventional Outflow Pathway in the Living Human Eye,” Ophthalmology 119(8), 1563–1568 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Kagemann, G. Wollstein, H. Ishikawa, R. A. Bilonick, P. M. Brennen, L. S. Folio, M. L. Gabriele, and J. S. Schuman, “Identification and Assessment of Schlemm’s Canal by Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(8), 4054–4059 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Friedman, D. S.

H.-T. Wong, M. C. Lim, L. M. Sakata, H. T. Aung, N. Amerasinghe, D. S. Friedman, and T. Aung, “High-Definition Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging of the Iridocorneal Angle of the Eye,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 127(3), 256–260 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

I. Grulkowski, J. J. Liu, B. Potsaid, V. Jayaraman, C. D. Lu, J. Jiang, A. E. Cable, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Retinal, anterior segment and full eye imaging using ultrahigh speed swept source OCT with vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(11), 2733–2751 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Micrometer-Scale Resolution Imaging of the Anterior Eye In Vivo With Optical Coherence Tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 112(12), 1584–1589 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. A. Swanson, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, D. Huang, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo retinal imaging by optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 18(21), 1864–1866 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fukuda, S.

Y. Yasuno, M. Yamanari, K. Kawana, M. Miura, S. Fukuda, S. Makita, S. Sakai, and T. Oshika, “Visibility of trabecular meshwork by standard and polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 061705 (2010).

Gabriele, M. L.

L. Kagemann, G. Wollstein, H. Ishikawa, R. A. Bilonick, P. M. Brennen, L. S. Folio, M. L. Gabriele, and J. S. Schuman, “Identification and Assessment of Schlemm’s Canal by Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(8), 4054–4059 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gibson, E. A.

O. Masihzadeh, D. A. Ammar, M. Y. Kahook, E. A. Gibson, and T. C. Lei, “Direct trabecular meshwork imaging in porcine eyes through multiphoton gonioscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(3), 036009 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Goncharov, A. V.

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grieshaber, M. C.

M. C. Grieshaber, A. Pienaar, J. Olivier, and R. Stegmann, “Canaloplasty for primary open-angle glaucoma: long-term outcome,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 94(11), 1478–1482 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grulkowski, I.

Hee, M. R.

J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Micrometer-Scale Resolution Imaging of the Anterior Eye In Vivo With Optical Coherence Tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 112(12), 1584–1589 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. A. Swanson, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, D. Huang, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo retinal imaging by optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 18(21), 1864–1866 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hodge, W. G.

K. F. Damji, A. M. Bovell, W. G. Hodge, W. Rock, K. Shah, R. Buhrmann, and Y. I. Pan, “Selective laser trabeculoplasty versus argon laser trabeculoplasty: results from a 1-year randomised clinical trial,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 90(12), 1490–1494 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hoerauf, H.

H. Hoerauf, C. Scholz, P. Koch, R. Engelhardt, H. Laqua, and R. Birngruber, “Transscleral optical coherence tomography: A new imaging method for the anterior segment of the eye,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 120(6), 816–819 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, D.

J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Micrometer-Scale Resolution Imaging of the Anterior Eye In Vivo With Optical Coherence Tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 112(12), 1584–1589 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. A. Swanson, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, D. Huang, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo retinal imaging by optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 18(21), 1864–1866 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ishikawa, H.

L. Kagemann, G. Wollstein, H. Ishikawa, Z. Nadler, I. A. Sigal, L. S. Folio, and J. S. Schuman, “Visualization of the Conventional Outflow Pathway in the Living Human Eye,” Ophthalmology 119(8), 1563–1568 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Kagemann, G. Wollstein, H. Ishikawa, R. A. Bilonick, P. M. Brennen, L. S. Folio, M. L. Gabriele, and J. S. Schuman, “Identification and Assessment of Schlemm’s Canal by Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(8), 4054–4059 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Itoh, M.

Izatt, J.

S. Asrani, M. Sarunic, C. Santiago, and J. Izatt, “Detailed Visualization of the Anterior Segment Using Fourier-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 126(6), 765–771 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Izatt, J. A.

A.-H. Dhalla, D. Nankivil, T. Bustamante, A. Kuo, and J. A. Izatt, “Simultaneous swept source optical coherence tomography of the anterior segment and retina using coherence revival,” Opt. Lett. 37(11), 1883–1885 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A.-H. Dhalla, K. Shia, and J. A. Izatt, “Efficient sweep buffering in swept source optical coherence tomography using a fast optical switch,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(12), 3054–3066 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. V. Sarunic, S. Asrani, and J. A. Izatt, “Imaging the Ocular Anterior Segment With Real-Time, Full-Range Fourier-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 126(4), 537–542 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Radhakrishnan, A. M. Rollins, J. E. Roth, S. Yazdanfar, V. Westphal, D. S. Bardenstein, and J. A. Izatt, “Real-time optical coherence tomography of the anterior segment at 1310 nm,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 119(8), 1179–1185 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Micrometer-Scale Resolution Imaging of the Anterior Eye In Vivo With Optical Coherence Tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 112(12), 1584–1589 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. A. Swanson, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, D. Huang, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo retinal imaging by optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 18(21), 1864–1866 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jayaraman, V.

Jiang, J.

Johnstone, M.

Kagemann, L.

L. Kagemann, G. Wollstein, H. Ishikawa, Z. Nadler, I. A. Sigal, L. S. Folio, and J. S. Schuman, “Visualization of the Conventional Outflow Pathway in the Living Human Eye,” Ophthalmology 119(8), 1563–1568 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Kagemann, G. Wollstein, H. Ishikawa, R. A. Bilonick, P. M. Brennen, L. S. Folio, M. L. Gabriele, and J. S. Schuman, “Identification and Assessment of Schlemm’s Canal by Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(8), 4054–4059 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kahook, M. Y.

O. Masihzadeh, D. A. Ammar, M. Y. Kahook, E. A. Gibson, and T. C. Lei, “Direct trabecular meshwork imaging in porcine eyes through multiphoton gonioscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(3), 036009 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kawana, K.

Y. Yasuno, M. Yamanari, K. Kawana, M. Miura, S. Fukuda, S. Makita, S. Sakai, and T. Oshika, “Visibility of trabecular meshwork by standard and polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 061705 (2010).

Kearney, J. R.

R. A. Lewis, K. von Wolff, M. Tetz, N. Korber, J. R. Kearney, B. Shingleton, and T. W. Samuelson, “Canaloplasty: Circumferential viscodilation and tensioning of Schlemm’s canal using a flexible microcatheter for the treatment of open-angle glaucoma in adults: Interim clinical study analysis,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 33(7), 1217–1226 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Koch, P.

H. Hoerauf, C. Scholz, P. Koch, R. Engelhardt, H. Laqua, and R. Birngruber, “Transscleral optical coherence tomography: A new imaging method for the anterior segment of the eye,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 120(6), 816–819 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Korber, N.

R. A. Lewis, K. von Wolff, M. Tetz, N. Korber, J. R. Kearney, B. Shingleton, and T. W. Samuelson, “Canaloplasty: Circumferential viscodilation and tensioning of Schlemm’s canal using a flexible microcatheter for the treatment of open-angle glaucoma in adults: Interim clinical study analysis,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 33(7), 1217–1226 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kuo, A.

Lai, T.

Laqua, H.

H. Hoerauf, C. Scholz, P. Koch, R. Engelhardt, H. Laqua, and R. Birngruber, “Transscleral optical coherence tomography: A new imaging method for the anterior segment of the eye,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 120(6), 816–819 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lei, T. C.

O. Masihzadeh, D. A. Ammar, M. Y. Kahook, E. A. Gibson, and T. C. Lei, “Direct trabecular meshwork imaging in porcine eyes through multiphoton gonioscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(3), 036009 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Levkovitch-Verbin, H.

S. Melamed, G. J. Ben Simon, and H. Levkovitch-Verbin, “Selective laser trabeculoplasty as primary treatment for open-angle glaucoma: A prospective, nonrandomized pilot study,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 121(7), 957–960 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lewis, R. A.

R. A. Lewis, K. von Wolff, M. Tetz, N. Korber, J. R. Kearney, B. Shingleton, and T. W. Samuelson, “Canaloplasty: Circumferential viscodilation and tensioning of Schlemm’s canal using a flexible microcatheter for the treatment of open-angle glaucoma in adults: Interim clinical study analysis,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 33(7), 1217–1226 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, P.

Lim, M. C.

H.-T. Wong, M. C. Lim, L. M. Sakata, H. T. Aung, N. Amerasinghe, D. S. Friedman, and T. Aung, “High-Definition Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging of the Iridocorneal Angle of the Eye,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 127(3), 256–260 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, C. P.

J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Micrometer-Scale Resolution Imaging of the Anterior Eye In Vivo With Optical Coherence Tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 112(12), 1584–1589 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. A. Swanson, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, D. Huang, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo retinal imaging by optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 18(21), 1864–1866 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, J. J.

Lu, C. D.

Madjarova, V. D.

Makita, S.

Y. Yasuno, M. Yamanari, K. Kawana, M. Miura, S. Fukuda, S. Makita, S. Sakai, and T. Oshika, “Visibility of trabecular meshwork by standard and polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 061705 (2010).

Y. Yasuno, V. D. Madjarova, S. Makita, M. Akiba, A. Morosawa, C. Chong, T. Sakai, K.-P. Chan, M. Itoh, and T. Yatagai, “Three-dimensional and high-speed swept-source optical coherence tomography for in vivo investigation of human anterior eye segments,” Opt. Express 13(26), 10652–10664 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Masihzadeh, O.

O. Masihzadeh, D. A. Ammar, M. Y. Kahook, E. A. Gibson, and T. C. Lei, “Direct trabecular meshwork imaging in porcine eyes through multiphoton gonioscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(3), 036009 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mastropasqua, L.

L. Mastropasqua, L. Agnifili, M. L. Salvetat, M. Ciancaglini, V. Fasanella, M. Nubile, R. Mastropasqua, M. Zeppieri, and P. Brusini, “In vivo analysis of conjunctiva in canaloplasty for glaucoma,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 96(5), 634–639 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mastropasqua, R.

L. Mastropasqua, L. Agnifili, M. L. Salvetat, M. Ciancaglini, V. Fasanella, M. Nubile, R. Mastropasqua, M. Zeppieri, and P. Brusini, “In vivo analysis of conjunctiva in canaloplasty for glaucoma,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 96(5), 634–639 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Melamed, S.

S. Melamed, G. J. Ben Simon, and H. Levkovitch-Verbin, “Selective laser trabeculoplasty as primary treatment for open-angle glaucoma: A prospective, nonrandomized pilot study,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 121(7), 957–960 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Miura, M.

Y. Yasuno, M. Yamanari, K. Kawana, M. Miura, S. Fukuda, S. Makita, S. Sakai, and T. Oshika, “Visibility of trabecular meshwork by standard and polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 061705 (2010).

Morosawa, A.

Nadler, Z.

L. Kagemann, G. Wollstein, H. Ishikawa, Z. Nadler, I. A. Sigal, L. S. Folio, and J. S. Schuman, “Visualization of the Conventional Outflow Pathway in the Living Human Eye,” Ophthalmology 119(8), 1563–1568 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nankivil, D.

Nubile, M.

L. Mastropasqua, L. Agnifili, M. L. Salvetat, M. Ciancaglini, V. Fasanella, M. Nubile, R. Mastropasqua, M. Zeppieri, and P. Brusini, “In vivo analysis of conjunctiva in canaloplasty for glaucoma,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 96(5), 634–639 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Olivier, J.

M. C. Grieshaber, A. Pienaar, J. Olivier, and R. Stegmann, “Canaloplasty for primary open-angle glaucoma: long-term outcome,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 94(11), 1478–1482 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Oshika, T.

Y. Yasuno, M. Yamanari, K. Kawana, M. Miura, S. Fukuda, S. Makita, S. Sakai, and T. Oshika, “Visibility of trabecular meshwork by standard and polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 061705 (2010).

Pan, Y. I.

K. F. Damji, A. M. Bovell, W. G. Hodge, W. Rock, K. Shah, R. Buhrmann, and Y. I. Pan, “Selective laser trabeculoplasty versus argon laser trabeculoplasty: results from a 1-year randomised clinical trial,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 90(12), 1490–1494 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pienaar, A.

M. C. Grieshaber, A. Pienaar, J. Olivier, and R. Stegmann, “Canaloplasty for primary open-angle glaucoma: long-term outcome,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 94(11), 1478–1482 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Potsaid, B.

Puliafito, C. A.

J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Micrometer-Scale Resolution Imaging of the Anterior Eye In Vivo With Optical Coherence Tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 112(12), 1584–1589 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. A. Swanson, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, D. Huang, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo retinal imaging by optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 18(21), 1864–1866 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Radhakrishnan, S.

S. Radhakrishnan, A. M. Rollins, J. E. Roth, S. Yazdanfar, V. Westphal, D. S. Bardenstein, and J. A. Izatt, “Real-time optical coherence tomography of the anterior segment at 1310 nm,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 119(8), 1179–1185 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rock, W.

K. F. Damji, A. M. Bovell, W. G. Hodge, W. Rock, K. Shah, R. Buhrmann, and Y. I. Pan, “Selective laser trabeculoplasty versus argon laser trabeculoplasty: results from a 1-year randomised clinical trial,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 90(12), 1490–1494 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rollins, A. M.

S. Radhakrishnan, A. M. Rollins, J. E. Roth, S. Yazdanfar, V. Westphal, D. S. Bardenstein, and J. A. Izatt, “Real-time optical coherence tomography of the anterior segment at 1310 nm,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 119(8), 1179–1185 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Roth, J. E.

S. Radhakrishnan, A. M. Rollins, J. E. Roth, S. Yazdanfar, V. Westphal, D. S. Bardenstein, and J. A. Izatt, “Real-time optical coherence tomography of the anterior segment at 1310 nm,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 119(8), 1179–1185 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sakai, S.

Y. Yasuno, M. Yamanari, K. Kawana, M. Miura, S. Fukuda, S. Makita, S. Sakai, and T. Oshika, “Visibility of trabecular meshwork by standard and polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 061705 (2010).

Sakai, T.

Sakata, L. M.

H.-T. Wong, M. C. Lim, L. M. Sakata, H. T. Aung, N. Amerasinghe, D. S. Friedman, and T. Aung, “High-Definition Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging of the Iridocorneal Angle of the Eye,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 127(3), 256–260 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Salvetat, M. L.

L. Mastropasqua, L. Agnifili, M. L. Salvetat, M. Ciancaglini, V. Fasanella, M. Nubile, R. Mastropasqua, M. Zeppieri, and P. Brusini, “In vivo analysis of conjunctiva in canaloplasty for glaucoma,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 96(5), 634–639 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Samuelson, T. W.

R. A. Lewis, K. von Wolff, M. Tetz, N. Korber, J. R. Kearney, B. Shingleton, and T. W. Samuelson, “Canaloplasty: Circumferential viscodilation and tensioning of Schlemm’s canal using a flexible microcatheter for the treatment of open-angle glaucoma in adults: Interim clinical study analysis,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 33(7), 1217–1226 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Santiago, C.

S. Asrani, M. Sarunic, C. Santiago, and J. Izatt, “Detailed Visualization of the Anterior Segment Using Fourier-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 126(6), 765–771 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sarunic, M.

S. Asrani, M. Sarunic, C. Santiago, and J. Izatt, “Detailed Visualization of the Anterior Segment Using Fourier-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 126(6), 765–771 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sarunic, M. V.

M. V. Sarunic, S. Asrani, and J. A. Izatt, “Imaging the Ocular Anterior Segment With Real-Time, Full-Range Fourier-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 126(4), 537–542 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Scholz, C.

H. Hoerauf, C. Scholz, P. Koch, R. Engelhardt, H. Laqua, and R. Birngruber, “Transscleral optical coherence tomography: A new imaging method for the anterior segment of the eye,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 120(6), 816–819 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schuman, J. S.

L. Kagemann, G. Wollstein, H. Ishikawa, Z. Nadler, I. A. Sigal, L. S. Folio, and J. S. Schuman, “Visualization of the Conventional Outflow Pathway in the Living Human Eye,” Ophthalmology 119(8), 1563–1568 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Kagemann, G. Wollstein, H. Ishikawa, R. A. Bilonick, P. M. Brennen, L. S. Folio, M. L. Gabriele, and J. S. Schuman, “Identification and Assessment of Schlemm’s Canal by Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(8), 4054–4059 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Micrometer-Scale Resolution Imaging of the Anterior Eye In Vivo With Optical Coherence Tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 112(12), 1584–1589 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. A. Swanson, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, D. Huang, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo retinal imaging by optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 18(21), 1864–1866 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shah, K.

K. F. Damji, A. M. Bovell, W. G. Hodge, W. Rock, K. Shah, R. Buhrmann, and Y. I. Pan, “Selective laser trabeculoplasty versus argon laser trabeculoplasty: results from a 1-year randomised clinical trial,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 90(12), 1490–1494 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shen, T. T.

Shia, K.

Shingleton, B.

R. A. Lewis, K. von Wolff, M. Tetz, N. Korber, J. R. Kearney, B. Shingleton, and T. W. Samuelson, “Canaloplasty: Circumferential viscodilation and tensioning of Schlemm’s canal using a flexible microcatheter for the treatment of open-angle glaucoma in adults: Interim clinical study analysis,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 33(7), 1217–1226 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sigal, I. A.

L. Kagemann, G. Wollstein, H. Ishikawa, Z. Nadler, I. A. Sigal, L. S. Folio, and J. S. Schuman, “Visualization of the Conventional Outflow Pathway in the Living Human Eye,” Ophthalmology 119(8), 1563–1568 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stegmann, R.

M. C. Grieshaber, A. Pienaar, J. Olivier, and R. Stegmann, “Canaloplasty for primary open-angle glaucoma: long-term outcome,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 94(11), 1478–1482 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Micrometer-Scale Resolution Imaging of the Anterior Eye In Vivo With Optical Coherence Tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 112(12), 1584–1589 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. A. Swanson, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, D. Huang, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo retinal imaging by optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 18(21), 1864–1866 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tang, S.

Tetz, M.

R. A. Lewis, K. von Wolff, M. Tetz, N. Korber, J. R. Kearney, B. Shingleton, and T. W. Samuelson, “Canaloplasty: Circumferential viscodilation and tensioning of Schlemm’s canal using a flexible microcatheter for the treatment of open-angle glaucoma in adults: Interim clinical study analysis,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 33(7), 1217–1226 (2007).
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von Wolff, K.

R. A. Lewis, K. von Wolff, M. Tetz, N. Korber, J. R. Kearney, B. Shingleton, and T. W. Samuelson, “Canaloplasty: Circumferential viscodilation and tensioning of Schlemm’s canal using a flexible microcatheter for the treatment of open-angle glaucoma in adults: Interim clinical study analysis,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 33(7), 1217–1226 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, R. K.

Westphal, V.

S. Radhakrishnan, A. M. Rollins, J. E. Roth, S. Yazdanfar, V. Westphal, D. S. Bardenstein, and J. A. Izatt, “Real-time optical coherence tomography of the anterior segment at 1310 nm,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 119(8), 1179–1185 (2001).
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J. B. Wise and S. L. Witter, “Argon laser therapy for open-angle glaucoma. A pilot study,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 97(2), 319–322 (1979).
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J. B. Wise and S. L. Witter, “Argon laser therapy for open-angle glaucoma. A pilot study,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 97(2), 319–322 (1979).
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Wollstein, G.

L. Kagemann, G. Wollstein, H. Ishikawa, Z. Nadler, I. A. Sigal, L. S. Folio, and J. S. Schuman, “Visualization of the Conventional Outflow Pathway in the Living Human Eye,” Ophthalmology 119(8), 1563–1568 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Kagemann, G. Wollstein, H. Ishikawa, R. A. Bilonick, P. M. Brennen, L. S. Folio, M. L. Gabriele, and J. S. Schuman, “Identification and Assessment of Schlemm’s Canal by Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(8), 4054–4059 (2010).
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Wong, H.-T.

H.-T. Wong, M. C. Lim, L. M. Sakata, H. T. Aung, N. Amerasinghe, D. S. Friedman, and T. Aung, “High-Definition Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging of the Iridocorneal Angle of the Eye,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 127(3), 256–260 (2009).
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Yasuno, Y.

Y. Yasuno, M. Yamanari, K. Kawana, M. Miura, S. Fukuda, S. Makita, S. Sakai, and T. Oshika, “Visibility of trabecular meshwork by standard and polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 061705 (2010).

Y. Yasuno, V. D. Madjarova, S. Makita, M. Akiba, A. Morosawa, C. Chong, T. Sakai, K.-P. Chan, M. Itoh, and T. Yatagai, “Three-dimensional and high-speed swept-source optical coherence tomography for in vivo investigation of human anterior eye segments,” Opt. Express 13(26), 10652–10664 (2005).
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Yazdanfar, S.

S. Radhakrishnan, A. M. Rollins, J. E. Roth, S. Yazdanfar, V. Westphal, D. S. Bardenstein, and J. A. Izatt, “Real-time optical coherence tomography of the anterior segment at 1310 nm,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 119(8), 1179–1185 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zeppieri, M.

L. Mastropasqua, L. Agnifili, M. L. Salvetat, M. Ciancaglini, V. Fasanella, M. Nubile, R. Mastropasqua, M. Zeppieri, and P. Brusini, “In vivo analysis of conjunctiva in canaloplasty for glaucoma,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 96(5), 634–639 (2012).
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Zhou, Y.

Arch. Ophthalmol. (8)

S. Radhakrishnan, A. M. Rollins, J. E. Roth, S. Yazdanfar, V. Westphal, D. S. Bardenstein, and J. A. Izatt, “Real-time optical coherence tomography of the anterior segment at 1310 nm,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 119(8), 1179–1185 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Hoerauf, C. Scholz, P. Koch, R. Engelhardt, H. Laqua, and R. Birngruber, “Transscleral optical coherence tomography: A new imaging method for the anterior segment of the eye,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 120(6), 816–819 (2002).
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M. V. Sarunic, S. Asrani, and J. A. Izatt, “Imaging the Ocular Anterior Segment With Real-Time, Full-Range Fourier-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 126(4), 537–542 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-T. Wong, M. C. Lim, L. M. Sakata, H. T. Aung, N. Amerasinghe, D. S. Friedman, and T. Aung, “High-Definition Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging of the Iridocorneal Angle of the Eye,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 127(3), 256–260 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Micrometer-Scale Resolution Imaging of the Anterior Eye In Vivo With Optical Coherence Tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 112(12), 1584–1589 (1994).
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S. Asrani, M. Sarunic, C. Santiago, and J. Izatt, “Detailed Visualization of the Anterior Segment Using Fourier-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 126(6), 765–771 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. B. Wise and S. L. Witter, “Argon laser therapy for open-angle glaucoma. A pilot study,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 97(2), 319–322 (1979).
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S. Melamed, G. J. Ben Simon, and H. Levkovitch-Verbin, “Selective laser trabeculoplasty as primary treatment for open-angle glaucoma: A prospective, nonrandomized pilot study,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 121(7), 957–960 (2003).
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K. F. Damji, A. M. Bovell, W. G. Hodge, W. Rock, K. Shah, R. Buhrmann, and Y. I. Pan, “Selective laser trabeculoplasty versus argon laser trabeculoplasty: results from a 1-year randomised clinical trial,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 90(12), 1490–1494 (2006).
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M. C. Grieshaber, A. Pienaar, J. Olivier, and R. Stegmann, “Canaloplasty for primary open-angle glaucoma: long-term outcome,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 94(11), 1478–1482 (2010).
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L. Mastropasqua, L. Agnifili, M. L. Salvetat, M. Ciancaglini, V. Fasanella, M. Nubile, R. Mastropasqua, M. Zeppieri, and P. Brusini, “In vivo analysis of conjunctiva in canaloplasty for glaucoma,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 96(5), 634–639 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Exp. Eye Res. (1)

R. R. Allingham, A. W. de Kater, and C. R. Ethier, “Schlemm’s Canal and Primary Open Angle Glaucoma: Correlation Between Schlemm’s Canal Dimensions and Outflow Facility,” Exp. Eye Res. 62(1), 101–110 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1)

L. Kagemann, G. Wollstein, H. Ishikawa, R. A. Bilonick, P. M. Brennen, L. S. Folio, M. L. Gabriele, and J. S. Schuman, “Identification and Assessment of Schlemm’s Canal by Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(8), 4054–4059 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (2)

Y. Yasuno, M. Yamanari, K. Kawana, M. Miura, S. Fukuda, S. Makita, S. Sakai, and T. Oshika, “Visibility of trabecular meshwork by standard and polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 061705 (2010).

O. Masihzadeh, D. A. Ammar, M. Y. Kahook, E. A. Gibson, and T. C. Lei, “Direct trabecular meshwork imaging in porcine eyes through multiphoton gonioscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(3), 036009 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Cataract Refract. Surg. (1)

R. A. Lewis, K. von Wolff, M. Tetz, N. Korber, J. R. Kearney, B. Shingleton, and T. W. Samuelson, “Canaloplasty: Circumferential viscodilation and tensioning of Schlemm’s canal using a flexible microcatheter for the treatment of open-angle glaucoma in adults: Interim clinical study analysis,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 33(7), 1217–1226 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Ophthalmology (1)

L. Kagemann, G. Wollstein, H. Ishikawa, Z. Nadler, I. A. Sigal, L. S. Folio, and J. S. Schuman, “Visualization of the Conventional Outflow Pathway in the Living Human Eye,” Ophthalmology 119(8), 1563–1568 (2012).
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Science (1)

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J. Schwiegerling, Field Guide to Visual and Ophthalmic Optics (SPIE Press, Washington, 2004).

Supplementary Material (3)

» Media 1: MOV (2997 KB)     
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» Media 3: MOV (11209 KB)     

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Figures (16)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Two dimensional gonioscopic model in sagittal plane (profile in blue). Optical chief ray (in red) reflects from mirror (grey gradient). Optical axis shown in dashed yellow.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Zemax model of frustoconical gonioscopic mirror (profile in blue). Collimated optical rays (in red) reflect from the mirror. In the sagittal projection the rays remain collimated on reflection from the mirror. In the other projections, the light focusses, but the astigmatism introduced by the conical shape of the mirror is apparent especially in the perspective view.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Zemax model of a frustoconical gonioscopic mirror (profile in blue) with toroidal lens (profile in light blue). Collimated optical rays (in red) enter the toroidal lens and reflect from the mirror. The position and refractive power of the toroidal lens are designed such that light comes to the same focus in the sagittal and tangential dimensions. Contrast the focused spot in the perspective view with that in Fig. 2.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Zemax model of paraboloid gonioscopic mirror (profile in blue). Collimated optical rays (in red) reflect off the paraboloid mirror. By having both sagittal and tangential curvatures on the mirror surface, all optical focusing power is isolated to a single surface reducing through-focus astigmatism.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Gonioscopic OCT system schematic.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 A) Gonioscopic OCT sample arm Zemax ray diagram B) Detailed view of custom gonioscopic contact illustrating OCT beam scanning within the iridocorneal angle region of the model cornea (bottom of image in light blue) C) Photograph of manufactured gonioscopic OCT contact D) Solidworks (Dassault Systèmes) renderings of gonioscopic OCT contact (see Media 1) E) System photograph showing gonioscopic contact mechanically joined with the sample arm optical system F) Sag diagram of front toroidal surface of gonioscopic OCT contact from Zemax optical model G) Sag diagram of parabolic mirror surface of gonioscopic OCT contact from Zemax optical model
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Through focus PSF and MTF data at the iridocorneal angle from Zemax optical model.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 A) Example annular meridional scan pattern with 5° separation between B-scans for visualization clarity. Arbitrary angular spacing is allowed due to the continuous 360° gonioscopic contact lens. B) Conventional OCT images orient A-scans top to bottom with scan direction progressing left to right. Here an illustrative OCT B-scan (from subject shown in Figs. 12 and 13), obtained using the gonioscopic meridional scan pattern, is shown in the conventional OCT image orientation. This results in a novel view of the ocular anterior chamber with A-scans aligned nearly parallel to the iris.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 SSOCT system sensitivity fall-off plot measured before the gonioscopic contact lens.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Left) Non biological cornea and anterior chamber phantom with resolution target at the “iridocorneal angle” (right side underneath the “cornea”). Right) Gonioscopic OCT SVP of 1951 USAF test chart group 1 element 6 within anterior segment phantom.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 Left) Gonioscopic OCT B-scan of anterior segment phantom Right) En Face SVP showing complete 360° coverage wherein the red dashed line indicates the location of the representative B-scan.
Fig. 12
Fig. 12 Averaged B-Scans from four distinct sectors (superior, inferior, temporal and nasal) from a full 360° volume placed such that the anatomical structures are in a conventional orientation. Cornea and sclera are on top, iris is on the bottom and the zero-delay line is to the right. At the base of the angle, the highly scattering trabecular meshwork appears as a hyper-reflective region [3, 7, 9, 10, 13, 15].
Fig. 13
Fig. 13 A) Volumetric rendering from a quarter of a 360° circumferential gonioscopic OCT volume from a human subject. Visualizing the volume in 3D shows interesting features. The angle is immediately present as in Fig. 11 but now extends back into the image. The iris extends all the way out to the corneoscleral limbus and iris processes can be seen in detail. B) Another view from the same OCT volume. This 180 degree view shows a different region from the previous image.
Fig. 14
Fig. 14 Volume renderings of four distinct 180° sectors (superior, inferior, temporal and nasal) from a full 360° volume from a human subject (see Media 2).
Fig. 15
Fig. 15 B-scans from a corneal tumor on Subject 3. A) External B-scan from commercial anterior segment 1310nm OCT system (Visante, Carl-Zeiss Meditec, Inc) with a manufacturer’s reported scan range of 16 mm x 6 mm (lateral x depth). Red box indicates the tumor and region imaged by GOCT. The eyelid is visible on the left side of the image. B) External photograph of corneal tumor C) GOCT image of the underside of the region of the tumor. The cornea appears grossly normal without evidence of mass infiltration of the tumor.
Fig. 16
Fig. 16 Gonioscopic OCT of a patient who had previously undergone canaloplasty – insertion of a circumferential suture into Schlemm’s canal. A) Gonioscopic photograph showing faint blue canalicular suture. B) Representative B scan of suture (hyper-reflective region) causing peaking of the trabecular meshwork region. C) B scan showing the presence of a scleral lake reservoir created as part of the canaloplasty procedure. D) Volume rendering of 180° of the acquired data. The area of the scleral lake is seen and above the iris root, inward peaking of the trabecular region can be seen (arrowheads). (See Media 3 for the full 360° volume).

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