Abstract

Depth resolved and en face OCT visualization in vivo may have important clinical applications in endoscopy. We demonstrate a high speed, two-dimensional (2D) distal scanning capsule with a micromotor for fast rotary scanning and a pneumatic actuator for precision longitudinal scanning. Longitudinal position measurement and image registration were performed by optical tracking of the pneumatic scanner. The 2D scanning device enables high resolution imaging over a small field of view and is suitable for OCT as well as other scanning microscopies. Large field of view imaging for screening or surveillance applications can also be achieved by proximally pulling back or advancing the capsule while scanning the distal high-speed micromotor. Circumferential en face OCT was demonstrated in living swine at 250 Hz frame rate and 1 MHz A-scan rate using a MEMS tunable VCSEL light source at 1300 nm. Cross-sectional and en face OCT views of the upper and lower gastrointestinal tract were generated with precision distal pneumatic longitudinal actuation as well as proximal manual longitudinal actuation. These devices could enable clinical studies either as an adjunct to endoscopy, attached to an endoscope, or as a swallowed tethered capsule for non-endoscopic imaging without sedation. The combination of ultrahigh speed imaging and distal scanning capsule technology could enable both screening and surveillance applications.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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2014 (10)

W. Wieser, W. Draxinger, T. Klein, S. Karpf, T. Pfeiffer, and R. Huber, “High definition live 3D-OCT in vivo: design and evaluation of a 4D OCT engine with 1 GVoxel/s,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(9), 2963–2977 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Zhang, T.-H. Tsai, O. O. Ahsen, K. Liang, H.-C. Lee, P. Xue, X. Li, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Compact piezoelectric transducer fiber scanning probe for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 39(2), 186–188 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T.-H. Tsai, O. O. Ahsen, H.-C. Lee, K. Liang, M. Figueiredo, Y. K. Tao, M. G. Giacomelli, B. M. Potsaid, V. Jayaraman, Q. Huang, A. E. Cable, J. G. Fujimoto, and H. Mashimo, “Endoscopic Optical Coherence Angiography Enables 3-Dimensional Visualization of Subsurface Microvasculature,” Gastroenterology 147(6), 1219–1221 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T.-H. Tsai, H.-C. Lee, O. O. Ahsen, K. Liang, M. G. Giacomelli, B. M. Potsaid, Y. K. Tao, V. Jayaraman, M. Figueiredo, Q. Huang, A. E. Cable, J. Fujimoto, and H. Mashimo, “Ultrahigh speed endoscopic optical coherence tomography for gastroenterology,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(12), 4387–4404 (2014).
[PubMed]

D. Do, H. Yoo, and D.-G. Gweon, “Fiber-optic raster scanning two-photon endomicroscope using a tubular piezoelectric actuator,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(6), 066010 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Tabatabaei, D. Kang, T. Wu, M. Kim, R. W. Carruth, J. Leung, J. S. Sauk, W. Shreffler, Q. Yuan, A. Katz, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Tethered confocal endomicroscopy capsule for diagnosis and monitoring of eosinophilic esophagitis,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(1), 197–207 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. O. Ahsen, H.-C. Lee, M. G. Giacomelli, Z. Wang, K. Liang, T.-H. Tsai, B. Potsaid, H. Mashimo, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Correction of rotational distortion for catheter-based en face OCT and OCT angiography,” Opt. Lett. 39(20), 5973–5976 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. D. Shemonski, S. S. Ahn, Y.-Z. Liu, F. A. South, P. S. Carney, and S. A. Boppart, “Three-dimensional motion correction using speckle and phase for in vivo computed optical interferometric tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(12), 4131–4143 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Suter, M. J. Gora, G. Y. Lauwers, T. Arnason, J. Sauk, K. A. Gallagher, L. Kava, K. M. Tan, A. R. Soomro, T. P. Gallagher, J. A. Gardecki, B. E. Bouma, M. Rosenberg, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Esophageal-guided biopsy with volumetric laser endomicroscopy and laser cautery marking: a pilot clinical study,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 79(6), 886–896 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Gora, A. R. Soomro, W. P. Puricelli, W. Lu, E. Quijano, L. Moffitt, M. Rosenberg, J. Sauk, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “359 Unsedated Screening for Barrett's Esophagus Using Tethered Capsule Endomicroscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 79(5), AB136 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (7)

M. J. Gora, J. S. Sauk, R. W. Carruth, K. A. Gallagher, M. J. Suter, N. S. Nishioka, L. E. Kava, M. Rosenberg, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Tethered capsule endomicroscopy enables less invasive imaging of gastrointestinal tract microstructure,” Nat. Med. 19(2), 238–240 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. O. Ahsen, Y. K. Tao, B. M. Potsaid, Y. Sheikine, J. Jiang, I. Grulkowski, T.-H. Tsai, V. Jayaraman, M. F. Kraus, J. L. Connolly, J. Hornegger, A. Cable, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Swept source optical coherence microscopy using a 1310 nm VCSEL light source,” Opt. Express 21(15), 18021–18033 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-C. Lee, J. J. Liu, Y. Sheikine, A. D. Aguirre, J. L. Connolly, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh speed spectral-domain optical coherence microscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(8), 1236–1254 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Grulkowski, J. J. Liu, B. Potsaid, V. Jayaraman, J. Jiang, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. E. Cable, “High-precision, high-accuracy ultralong-range swept-source optical coherence tomography using vertical cavity surface emitting laser light source,” Opt. Lett. 38(5), 673–675 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Gora, J. S. Sauk, R. W. Carruth, W. Lu, D. T. Carlton, A. Soomro, M. Rosenberg, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Imaging the Upper Gastrointestinal Tract in Unsedated Patients Using Tethered Capsule Endomicroscopy,” Gastroenterology 145(4), 723–725 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T.-H. Tsai, B. Potsaid, Y. K. Tao, V. Jayaraman, J. Jiang, P. J. S. Heim, M. F. Kraus, C. Zhou, J. Hornegger, H. Mashimo, A. E. Cable, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh speed endoscopic optical coherence tomography using micromotor imaging catheter and VCSEL technology,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(7), 1119–1132 (2013).
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T. Wang, W. Wieser, G. Springeling, R. Beurskens, C. T. Lancee, T. Pfeiffer, A. F. W. van der Steen, R. Huber, and G. van Soest, “Intravascular optical coherence tomography imaging at 3200 frames per second,” Opt. Lett. 38(10), 1715–1717 (2013).
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2012 (3)

2011 (3)

M. Singh, A. Bansal, W. L. Curvers, M. A. Kara, S. B. Wani, L. Alvarez Herrero, C. R. Lynch, M. C. A. van Kouwen, F. T. Peters, J. D. Keighley, A. Rastogi, K. Pondugula, R. Kim, V. Singh, S. Gaddam, J. J. Bergman, and P. Sharma, “Observer agreement in the assessment of narrowband imaging system surface patterns in Barrett’s esophagus: a multicenter study,” Endoscopy 43(9), 745–751 (2011).
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S. Chang, E. Murdock, Y. Mao, C. Flueraru, and J. Disano, “Stationary-fiber rotary probe with unobstructed 360° view for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 36(22), 4392–4394 (2011).
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T. H. Tsai, B. Potsaid, M. F. Kraus, C. Zhou, Y. K. Tao, J. Hornegger, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Piezoelectric-transducer-based miniature catheter for ultrahigh-speed endoscopic optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(8), 2438–2448 (2011).
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2010 (6)

L. Huo, J. Xi, Y. Wu, and X. Li, “Forward-viewing resonant fiber-optic scanning endoscope of appropriate scanning speed for 3D OCT imaging,” Opt. Express 18(14), 14375–14384 (2010).
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A. D. Aguirre, J. Sawinski, S. W. Huang, C. Zhou, W. Denk, and J. G. Fujimoto, “High speed optical coherence microscopy with autofocus adjustment and a miniaturized endoscopic imaging probe,” Opt. Express 18(5), 4222–4239 (2010).
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C. M. Lee, C. J. Engelbrecht, T. D. Soper, F. Helmchen, and E. J. Seibel, “Scanning fiber endoscopy with highly flexible, 1 mm catheterscopes for wide-field, full-color imaging,” J. Biophotonics 3(5-6), 385–407 (2010).
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M. J. Suter, P. A. Jillella, B. J. Vakoc, E. F. Halpern, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Image-guided biopsy in the esophagus through comprehensive optical frequency domain imaging and laser marking: a study in living swine,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 71(2), 346–353 (2010).
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M. I. Canto, “Endomicroscopy of Barrett’s Esophagus,” Gastroenterol. Clin. North Am. 39(4), 759–769 (2010).
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S. A. Rodriguez, S. Banerjee, D. Desilets, D. L. Diehl, F. A. Farraye, V. Kaul, R. S. Kwon, P. Mamula, M. C. Pedrosa, S. Varadarajulu, L.-M. W. K. Song, W. M. Tierney, and ASGE Technology Committee, “Ultrathin endoscopes,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 71(6), 893–898 (2010).
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2009 (3)

C. Zhou, D. C. Adler, L. Becker, Y. Chen, T.-H. Tsai, M. Figueiredo, J. M. Schmitt, J. G. Fujimoto, and H. Mashimo, “Effective treatment of chronic radiation proctitis using radiofrequency ablation,” Therap. Adv. Gastroenterol. 2(3), 149–156 (2009).
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Z. Liao, R. Gao, C. Xu, D.-F. Xu, and Z.-S. Li, “Sleeve string capsule endoscopy for real-time viewing of the esophagus: a pilot study (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc. 70(2), 201–209 (2009).
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J. Xi, L. Huo, Y. Wu, M. J. Cobb, J. H. Hwang, and X. Li, “High-resolution OCT balloon imaging catheter with astigmatism correction,” Opt. Lett. 34(13), 1943–1945 (2009).
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2008 (6)

J. Su, J. Zhang, L. Yu, H. G Colt, M. Brenner, and Z. Chen, “Real-time swept source optical coherence tomography imaging of the human airway using a microelectromechanical system endoscope and digital signal processor,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(3), 030506 (2008).
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M. J. Suter, B. J. Vakoc, P. S. Yachimski, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive microscopy of the esophagus in human patients with optical frequency domain imaging,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 68(4), 745–753 (2008).
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E. J. Seibel, R. E. Carroll, J. A. Dominitz, R. S. Johnston, C. D. Melville, C. M. Lee, S. M. Seitz, and M. B. Kimmey, “Tethered Capsule Endoscopy, A Low-Cost and High-Performance Alternative Technology for the Screening of Esophageal Cancer and Barrett’s Esophagus,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 55(3), 1032–1042 (2008).
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E. J. Seibel, C. M. Brown, J. A. Dominitz, and M. B. Kimmey, “Scanning Single Fiber Endoscopy: A New Platform Technology for Integrated Laser Imaging, Diagnosis, and Future Therapies,” Gastrointest. Endosc. Clin. N. Am. 18(3), 467–478 (2008).
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R. Singh, G. K. Anagnostopoulos, K. Yao, H. Karageorgiou, P. J. Fortun, A. Shonde, K. Garsed, P. V. Kaye, C. J. Hawkey, and K. Ragunath, “Narrow-band imaging with magnification in Barrett’s esophagus: validation of a simplified grading system of mucosal morphology patterns against histology,” Endoscopy 40(6), 457–463 (2008).
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F. C. Ramirez, R. Akins, and M. Shaukat, “Screening of Barrett’s esophagus with string-capsule endoscopy: a prospective blinded study of 100 consecutive patients using histology as the criterion standard,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 68(1), 25–31 (2008).
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2007 (5)

J. Sawinski and W. Denk, “Miniature random-access fiber scanner for in vivo multiphoton imaging,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(3), 034701 (2007).
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D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, R. Huber, J. Schmitt, J. Connolly, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Three-dimensional endomicroscopy using optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Photonics 1(12), 709–716 (2007).
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S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I. K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med. 12(12), 1429–1433 (2007).
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B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishko, S. H. Yun, W. Y. Oh, M. J. Suter, A. E. Desjardins, J. A. Evans, N. S. Nishioka, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive esophageal microscopy by using optical frequency-domain imaging (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc. 65(6), 898–905 (2007).
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B. E. Lacy, T. O’Shana, M. Hynes, M. L. Kelley, J. E. Weiss, L. Paquette, and R. I. Rothstein, “Safety and Tolerability of Transoral Bravo Capsule Placement After Transnasal Manometry Using a Validated Conversion Factor,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 102(1), 24–32 (2007).
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2006 (1)

J. A. Evans, J. M. Poneros, B. E. Bouma, J. Bressner, E. F. Halpern, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Optical coherence tomography to identify intramucosal carcinoma and high-grade dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 4(1), 38–43 (2006).
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2005 (1)

F. C. Ramirez, M. S. Shaukat, M. A. Young, D. A. Johnson, and R. Akins, “Feasibility and safety of string, wireless capsule endoscopy in the diagnosis of Barrett’s esophagus,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 61(6), 741–746 (2005).
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2004 (4)

2002 (1)

T. Endo, T. Awakawa, H. Takahashi, Y. Arimura, F. Itoh, K. Yamashita, S. Sasaki, H. Yamamoto, X. Tang, and K. Imai, “Classification of Barrett’s epithelium by magnifying endoscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 55(6), 641–647 (2002).
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2000 (1)

G. Iddan, G. Meron, A. Glukhovsky, and P. Swain, “Wireless capsule endoscopy,” Nature 405(6785), 417 (2000).
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1997 (1)

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276(5321), 2037–2039 (1997).
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1996 (1)

S. Kudo, S. Tamura, T. Nakajima, H. Yamano, H. Kusaka, and H. Watanabe, “Diagnosis of colorectal tumorous lesions by magnifying endoscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 44(1), 8–14 (1996).
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1957 (1)

W. H. Crosby and H. Kugler, “Intraluminal biopsy of the small intestine; the intestinal biopsy capsule,” Am. J. Dig. Dis. 2(5), 236–241 (1957).
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Adler, D. C.

C. Zhou, D. C. Adler, L. Becker, Y. Chen, T.-H. Tsai, M. Figueiredo, J. M. Schmitt, J. G. Fujimoto, and H. Mashimo, “Effective treatment of chronic radiation proctitis using radiofrequency ablation,” Therap. Adv. Gastroenterol. 2(3), 149–156 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, R. Huber, J. Schmitt, J. Connolly, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Three-dimensional endomicroscopy using optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Photonics 1(12), 709–716 (2007).
[Crossref]

Aguirre, A. D.

Ahn, S. S.

Ahsen, O. O.

O. O. Ahsen, H.-C. Lee, M. G. Giacomelli, Z. Wang, K. Liang, T.-H. Tsai, B. Potsaid, H. Mashimo, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Correction of rotational distortion for catheter-based en face OCT and OCT angiography,” Opt. Lett. 39(20), 5973–5976 (2014).
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T.-H. Tsai, H.-C. Lee, O. O. Ahsen, K. Liang, M. G. Giacomelli, B. M. Potsaid, Y. K. Tao, V. Jayaraman, M. Figueiredo, Q. Huang, A. E. Cable, J. Fujimoto, and H. Mashimo, “Ultrahigh speed endoscopic optical coherence tomography for gastroenterology,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(12), 4387–4404 (2014).
[PubMed]

N. Zhang, T.-H. Tsai, O. O. Ahsen, K. Liang, H.-C. Lee, P. Xue, X. Li, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Compact piezoelectric transducer fiber scanning probe for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 39(2), 186–188 (2014).
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T.-H. Tsai, O. O. Ahsen, H.-C. Lee, K. Liang, M. Figueiredo, Y. K. Tao, M. G. Giacomelli, B. M. Potsaid, V. Jayaraman, Q. Huang, A. E. Cable, J. G. Fujimoto, and H. Mashimo, “Endoscopic Optical Coherence Angiography Enables 3-Dimensional Visualization of Subsurface Microvasculature,” Gastroenterology 147(6), 1219–1221 (2014).
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O. O. Ahsen, Y. K. Tao, B. M. Potsaid, Y. Sheikine, J. Jiang, I. Grulkowski, T.-H. Tsai, V. Jayaraman, M. F. Kraus, J. L. Connolly, J. Hornegger, A. Cable, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Swept source optical coherence microscopy using a 1310 nm VCSEL light source,” Opt. Express 21(15), 18021–18033 (2013).
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Akins, R.

F. C. Ramirez, R. Akins, and M. Shaukat, “Screening of Barrett’s esophagus with string-capsule endoscopy: a prospective blinded study of 100 consecutive patients using histology as the criterion standard,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 68(1), 25–31 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. C. Ramirez, M. S. Shaukat, M. A. Young, D. A. Johnson, and R. Akins, “Feasibility and safety of string, wireless capsule endoscopy in the diagnosis of Barrett’s esophagus,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 61(6), 741–746 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alvarez Herrero, L.

M. Singh, A. Bansal, W. L. Curvers, M. A. Kara, S. B. Wani, L. Alvarez Herrero, C. R. Lynch, M. C. A. van Kouwen, F. T. Peters, J. D. Keighley, A. Rastogi, K. Pondugula, R. Kim, V. Singh, S. Gaddam, J. J. Bergman, and P. Sharma, “Observer agreement in the assessment of narrowband imaging system surface patterns in Barrett’s esophagus: a multicenter study,” Endoscopy 43(9), 745–751 (2011).
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Anagnostopoulos, G. K.

R. Singh, G. K. Anagnostopoulos, K. Yao, H. Karageorgiou, P. J. Fortun, A. Shonde, K. Garsed, P. V. Kaye, C. J. Hawkey, and K. Ragunath, “Narrow-band imaging with magnification in Barrett’s esophagus: validation of a simplified grading system of mucosal morphology patterns against histology,” Endoscopy 40(6), 457–463 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arimura, Y.

T. Endo, T. Awakawa, H. Takahashi, Y. Arimura, F. Itoh, K. Yamashita, S. Sasaki, H. Yamamoto, X. Tang, and K. Imai, “Classification of Barrett’s epithelium by magnifying endoscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 55(6), 641–647 (2002).
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Arnason, T.

M. J. Suter, M. J. Gora, G. Y. Lauwers, T. Arnason, J. Sauk, K. A. Gallagher, L. Kava, K. M. Tan, A. R. Soomro, T. P. Gallagher, J. A. Gardecki, B. E. Bouma, M. Rosenberg, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Esophageal-guided biopsy with volumetric laser endomicroscopy and laser cautery marking: a pilot clinical study,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 79(6), 886–896 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Awakawa, T.

T. Endo, T. Awakawa, H. Takahashi, Y. Arimura, F. Itoh, K. Yamashita, S. Sasaki, H. Yamamoto, X. Tang, and K. Imai, “Classification of Barrett’s epithelium by magnifying endoscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 55(6), 641–647 (2002).
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Banerjee, S.

S. A. Rodriguez, S. Banerjee, D. Desilets, D. L. Diehl, F. A. Farraye, V. Kaul, R. S. Kwon, P. Mamula, M. C. Pedrosa, S. Varadarajulu, L.-M. W. K. Song, W. M. Tierney, and ASGE Technology Committee, “Ultrathin endoscopes,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 71(6), 893–898 (2010).
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Bansal, A.

M. Singh, A. Bansal, W. L. Curvers, M. A. Kara, S. B. Wani, L. Alvarez Herrero, C. R. Lynch, M. C. A. van Kouwen, F. T. Peters, J. D. Keighley, A. Rastogi, K. Pondugula, R. Kim, V. Singh, S. Gaddam, J. J. Bergman, and P. Sharma, “Observer agreement in the assessment of narrowband imaging system surface patterns in Barrett’s esophagus: a multicenter study,” Endoscopy 43(9), 745–751 (2011).
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Batts, K. P.

R. A. Ganz, D. S. Utley, R. A. Stern, J. Jackson, K. P. Batts, and P. Termin, “Complete ablation of esophageal epithelium with a balloon-based bipolar electrode: a phased evaluation in the porcine and in the human esophagus,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 60(6), 1002–1010 (2004).
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Becker, L.

C. Zhou, D. C. Adler, L. Becker, Y. Chen, T.-H. Tsai, M. Figueiredo, J. M. Schmitt, J. G. Fujimoto, and H. Mashimo, “Effective treatment of chronic radiation proctitis using radiofrequency ablation,” Therap. Adv. Gastroenterol. 2(3), 149–156 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bergman, J. J.

M. Singh, A. Bansal, W. L. Curvers, M. A. Kara, S. B. Wani, L. Alvarez Herrero, C. R. Lynch, M. C. A. van Kouwen, F. T. Peters, J. D. Keighley, A. Rastogi, K. Pondugula, R. Kim, V. Singh, S. Gaddam, J. J. Bergman, and P. Sharma, “Observer agreement in the assessment of narrowband imaging system surface patterns in Barrett’s esophagus: a multicenter study,” Endoscopy 43(9), 745–751 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beurskens, R.

Boppart, S. A.

N. D. Shemonski, S. S. Ahn, Y.-Z. Liu, F. A. South, P. S. Carney, and S. A. Boppart, “Three-dimensional motion correction using speckle and phase for in vivo computed optical interferometric tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(12), 4131–4143 (2014).
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G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276(5321), 2037–2039 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bouma, B. E.

M. J. Suter, M. J. Gora, G. Y. Lauwers, T. Arnason, J. Sauk, K. A. Gallagher, L. Kava, K. M. Tan, A. R. Soomro, T. P. Gallagher, J. A. Gardecki, B. E. Bouma, M. Rosenberg, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Esophageal-guided biopsy with volumetric laser endomicroscopy and laser cautery marking: a pilot clinical study,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 79(6), 886–896 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Gora, J. S. Sauk, R. W. Carruth, K. A. Gallagher, M. J. Suter, N. S. Nishioka, L. E. Kava, M. Rosenberg, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Tethered capsule endomicroscopy enables less invasive imaging of gastrointestinal tract microstructure,” Nat. Med. 19(2), 238–240 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Suter, P. A. Jillella, B. J. Vakoc, E. F. Halpern, M. Mino-Kenudson, G. Y. Lauwers, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Image-guided biopsy in the esophagus through comprehensive optical frequency domain imaging and laser marking: a study in living swine,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 71(2), 346–353 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Suter, B. J. Vakoc, P. S. Yachimski, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive microscopy of the esophagus in human patients with optical frequency domain imaging,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 68(4), 745–753 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I. K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med. 12(12), 1429–1433 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishko, S. H. Yun, W. Y. Oh, M. J. Suter, A. E. Desjardins, J. A. Evans, N. S. Nishioka, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive esophageal microscopy by using optical frequency-domain imaging (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc. 65(6), 898–905 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. Evans, J. M. Poneros, B. E. Bouma, J. Bressner, E. F. Halpern, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Optical coherence tomography to identify intramucosal carcinoma and high-grade dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 4(1), 38–43 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276(5321), 2037–2039 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brenner, M.

J. Su, J. Zhang, L. Yu, H. G Colt, M. Brenner, and Z. Chen, “Real-time swept source optical coherence tomography imaging of the human airway using a microelectromechanical system endoscope and digital signal processor,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(3), 030506 (2008).
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P. H. Tran, D. S. Mukai, M. Brenner, and Z. Chen, “In vivo endoscopic optical coherence tomography by use of a rotational microelectromechanical system probe,” Opt. Lett. 29(11), 1236–1238 (2004).
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Bressner, J.

J. A. Evans, J. M. Poneros, B. E. Bouma, J. Bressner, E. F. Halpern, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Optical coherence tomography to identify intramucosal carcinoma and high-grade dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 4(1), 38–43 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brezinski, M. E.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276(5321), 2037–2039 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brown, C. M.

E. J. Seibel, C. M. Brown, J. A. Dominitz, and M. B. Kimmey, “Scanning Single Fiber Endoscopy: A New Platform Technology for Integrated Laser Imaging, Diagnosis, and Future Therapies,” Gastrointest. Endosc. Clin. N. Am. 18(3), 467–478 (2008).
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D. R. Rivera, C. M. Brown, D. G. Ouzounov, I. Pavlova, D. Kobat, W. W. Webb, and C. Xu, “Compact and flexible raster scanning multiphoton endoscope capable of imaging unstained tissue,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (2011).
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Cable, A.

Cable, A. E.

T.-H. Tsai, H.-C. Lee, O. O. Ahsen, K. Liang, M. G. Giacomelli, B. M. Potsaid, Y. K. Tao, V. Jayaraman, M. Figueiredo, Q. Huang, A. E. Cable, J. Fujimoto, and H. Mashimo, “Ultrahigh speed endoscopic optical coherence tomography for gastroenterology,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(12), 4387–4404 (2014).
[PubMed]

T.-H. Tsai, O. O. Ahsen, H.-C. Lee, K. Liang, M. Figueiredo, Y. K. Tao, M. G. Giacomelli, B. M. Potsaid, V. Jayaraman, Q. Huang, A. E. Cable, J. G. Fujimoto, and H. Mashimo, “Endoscopic Optical Coherence Angiography Enables 3-Dimensional Visualization of Subsurface Microvasculature,” Gastroenterology 147(6), 1219–1221 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Grulkowski, J. J. Liu, B. Potsaid, V. Jayaraman, J. Jiang, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. E. Cable, “High-precision, high-accuracy ultralong-range swept-source optical coherence tomography using vertical cavity surface emitting laser light source,” Opt. Lett. 38(5), 673–675 (2013).
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T.-H. Tsai, B. Potsaid, Y. K. Tao, V. Jayaraman, J. Jiang, P. J. S. Heim, M. F. Kraus, C. Zhou, J. Hornegger, H. Mashimo, A. E. Cable, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh speed endoscopic optical coherence tomography using micromotor imaging catheter and VCSEL technology,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(7), 1119–1132 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Potsaid, V. Jayaraman, J. G. Fujimoto, J. Jiang, P. J. S. Heim, and A. E. Cable, “MEMS tunable VCSEL light source for ultrahigh speed 60kHz - 1MHz axial scan rate and long range centimeter class OCT imaging,” Proc. SPIE 8213, Optical Coherence Tomography and Coherence Domain Optical Methods in Biomedicine XVI 8213, 82130M (2012).
[Crossref]

Canto, M. I.

M. I. Canto, “Endomicroscopy of Barrett’s Esophagus,” Gastroenterol. Clin. North Am. 39(4), 759–769 (2010).
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S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I. K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med. 12(12), 1429–1433 (2007).
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B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishko, S. H. Yun, W. Y. Oh, M. J. Suter, A. E. Desjardins, J. A. Evans, N. S. Nishioka, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive esophageal microscopy by using optical frequency-domain imaging (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc. 65(6), 898–905 (2007).
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J. A. Evans, J. M. Poneros, B. E. Bouma, J. Bressner, E. F. Halpern, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Optical coherence tomography to identify intramucosal carcinoma and high-grade dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 4(1), 38–43 (2006).
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B. E. Lacy, T. O’Shana, M. Hynes, M. L. Kelley, J. E. Weiss, L. Paquette, and R. I. Rothstein, “Safety and Tolerability of Transoral Bravo Capsule Placement After Transnasal Manometry Using a Validated Conversion Factor,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 102(1), 24–32 (2007).
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B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishko, S. H. Yun, W. Y. Oh, M. J. Suter, A. E. Desjardins, J. A. Evans, N. S. Nishioka, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive esophageal microscopy by using optical frequency-domain imaging (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc. 65(6), 898–905 (2007).
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D. R. Rivera, C. M. Brown, D. G. Ouzounov, I. Pavlova, D. Kobat, W. W. Webb, and C. Xu, “Compact and flexible raster scanning multiphoton endoscope capable of imaging unstained tissue,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (2011).
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B. E. Lacy, T. O’Shana, M. Hynes, M. L. Kelley, J. E. Weiss, L. Paquette, and R. I. Rothstein, “Safety and Tolerability of Transoral Bravo Capsule Placement After Transnasal Manometry Using a Validated Conversion Factor,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 102(1), 24–32 (2007).
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D. R. Rivera, C. M. Brown, D. G. Ouzounov, I. Pavlova, D. Kobat, W. W. Webb, and C. Xu, “Compact and flexible raster scanning multiphoton endoscope capable of imaging unstained tissue,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (2011).
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M. Singh, A. Bansal, W. L. Curvers, M. A. Kara, S. B. Wani, L. Alvarez Herrero, C. R. Lynch, M. C. A. van Kouwen, F. T. Peters, J. D. Keighley, A. Rastogi, K. Pondugula, R. Kim, V. Singh, S. Gaddam, J. J. Bergman, and P. Sharma, “Observer agreement in the assessment of narrowband imaging system surface patterns in Barrett’s esophagus: a multicenter study,” Endoscopy 43(9), 745–751 (2011).
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Pfeiffer, T.

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G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276(5321), 2037–2039 (1997).
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M. Singh, A. Bansal, W. L. Curvers, M. A. Kara, S. B. Wani, L. Alvarez Herrero, C. R. Lynch, M. C. A. van Kouwen, F. T. Peters, J. D. Keighley, A. Rastogi, K. Pondugula, R. Kim, V. Singh, S. Gaddam, J. J. Bergman, and P. Sharma, “Observer agreement in the assessment of narrowband imaging system surface patterns in Barrett’s esophagus: a multicenter study,” Endoscopy 43(9), 745–751 (2011).
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J. A. Evans, J. M. Poneros, B. E. Bouma, J. Bressner, E. F. Halpern, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Optical coherence tomography to identify intramucosal carcinoma and high-grade dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 4(1), 38–43 (2006).
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Quijano, E.

M. J. Gora, A. R. Soomro, W. P. Puricelli, W. Lu, E. Quijano, L. Moffitt, M. Rosenberg, J. Sauk, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “359 Unsedated Screening for Barrett's Esophagus Using Tethered Capsule Endomicroscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 79(5), AB136 (2014).
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R. Singh, G. K. Anagnostopoulos, K. Yao, H. Karageorgiou, P. J. Fortun, A. Shonde, K. Garsed, P. V. Kaye, C. J. Hawkey, and K. Ragunath, “Narrow-band imaging with magnification in Barrett’s esophagus: validation of a simplified grading system of mucosal morphology patterns against histology,” Endoscopy 40(6), 457–463 (2008).
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F. C. Ramirez, R. Akins, and M. Shaukat, “Screening of Barrett’s esophagus with string-capsule endoscopy: a prospective blinded study of 100 consecutive patients using histology as the criterion standard,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 68(1), 25–31 (2008).
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F. C. Ramirez, M. S. Shaukat, M. A. Young, D. A. Johnson, and R. Akins, “Feasibility and safety of string, wireless capsule endoscopy in the diagnosis of Barrett’s esophagus,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 61(6), 741–746 (2005).
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Rastogi, A.

M. Singh, A. Bansal, W. L. Curvers, M. A. Kara, S. B. Wani, L. Alvarez Herrero, C. R. Lynch, M. C. A. van Kouwen, F. T. Peters, J. D. Keighley, A. Rastogi, K. Pondugula, R. Kim, V. Singh, S. Gaddam, J. J. Bergman, and P. Sharma, “Observer agreement in the assessment of narrowband imaging system surface patterns in Barrett’s esophagus: a multicenter study,” Endoscopy 43(9), 745–751 (2011).
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D. R. Rivera, C. M. Brown, D. G. Ouzounov, I. Pavlova, D. Kobat, W. W. Webb, and C. Xu, “Compact and flexible raster scanning multiphoton endoscope capable of imaging unstained tissue,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (2011).
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S. A. Rodriguez, S. Banerjee, D. Desilets, D. L. Diehl, F. A. Farraye, V. Kaul, R. S. Kwon, P. Mamula, M. C. Pedrosa, S. Varadarajulu, L.-M. W. K. Song, W. M. Tierney, and ASGE Technology Committee, “Ultrathin endoscopes,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 71(6), 893–898 (2010).
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M. J. Gora, A. R. Soomro, W. P. Puricelli, W. Lu, E. Quijano, L. Moffitt, M. Rosenberg, J. Sauk, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “359 Unsedated Screening for Barrett's Esophagus Using Tethered Capsule Endomicroscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 79(5), AB136 (2014).
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M. J. Gora, J. S. Sauk, R. W. Carruth, K. A. Gallagher, M. J. Suter, N. S. Nishioka, L. E. Kava, M. Rosenberg, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Tethered capsule endomicroscopy enables less invasive imaging of gastrointestinal tract microstructure,” Nat. Med. 19(2), 238–240 (2013).
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M. J. Gora, J. S. Sauk, R. W. Carruth, W. Lu, D. T. Carlton, A. Soomro, M. Rosenberg, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Imaging the Upper Gastrointestinal Tract in Unsedated Patients Using Tethered Capsule Endomicroscopy,” Gastroenterology 145(4), 723–725 (2013).
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B. E. Lacy, T. O’Shana, M. Hynes, M. L. Kelley, J. E. Weiss, L. Paquette, and R. I. Rothstein, “Safety and Tolerability of Transoral Bravo Capsule Placement After Transnasal Manometry Using a Validated Conversion Factor,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 102(1), 24–32 (2007).
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M. J. Suter, M. J. Gora, G. Y. Lauwers, T. Arnason, J. Sauk, K. A. Gallagher, L. Kava, K. M. Tan, A. R. Soomro, T. P. Gallagher, J. A. Gardecki, B. E. Bouma, M. Rosenberg, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Esophageal-guided biopsy with volumetric laser endomicroscopy and laser cautery marking: a pilot clinical study,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 79(6), 886–896 (2014).
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M. J. Gora, A. R. Soomro, W. P. Puricelli, W. Lu, E. Quijano, L. Moffitt, M. Rosenberg, J. Sauk, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “359 Unsedated Screening for Barrett's Esophagus Using Tethered Capsule Endomicroscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 79(5), AB136 (2014).
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M. J. Gora, J. S. Sauk, R. W. Carruth, K. A. Gallagher, M. J. Suter, N. S. Nishioka, L. E. Kava, M. Rosenberg, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Tethered capsule endomicroscopy enables less invasive imaging of gastrointestinal tract microstructure,” Nat. Med. 19(2), 238–240 (2013).
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M. Singh, A. Bansal, W. L. Curvers, M. A. Kara, S. B. Wani, L. Alvarez Herrero, C. R. Lynch, M. C. A. van Kouwen, F. T. Peters, J. D. Keighley, A. Rastogi, K. Pondugula, R. Kim, V. Singh, S. Gaddam, J. J. Bergman, and P. Sharma, “Observer agreement in the assessment of narrowband imaging system surface patterns in Barrett’s esophagus: a multicenter study,” Endoscopy 43(9), 745–751 (2011).
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F. C. Ramirez, R. Akins, and M. Shaukat, “Screening of Barrett’s esophagus with string-capsule endoscopy: a prospective blinded study of 100 consecutive patients using histology as the criterion standard,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 68(1), 25–31 (2008).
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F. C. Ramirez, M. S. Shaukat, M. A. Young, D. A. Johnson, and R. Akins, “Feasibility and safety of string, wireless capsule endoscopy in the diagnosis of Barrett’s esophagus,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 61(6), 741–746 (2005).
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Shemonski, N. D.

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B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishko, S. H. Yun, W. Y. Oh, M. J. Suter, A. E. Desjardins, J. A. Evans, N. S. Nishioka, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive esophageal microscopy by using optical frequency-domain imaging (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc. 65(6), 898–905 (2007).
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M. J. Suter, B. J. Vakoc, P. S. Yachimski, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive microscopy of the esophagus in human patients with optical frequency domain imaging,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 68(4), 745–753 (2008).
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S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I. K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med. 12(12), 1429–1433 (2007).
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J. A. Evans, J. M. Poneros, B. E. Bouma, J. Bressner, E. F. Halpern, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Optical coherence tomography to identify intramucosal carcinoma and high-grade dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 4(1), 38–43 (2006).
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R. Singh, G. K. Anagnostopoulos, K. Yao, H. Karageorgiou, P. J. Fortun, A. Shonde, K. Garsed, P. V. Kaye, C. J. Hawkey, and K. Ragunath, “Narrow-band imaging with magnification in Barrett’s esophagus: validation of a simplified grading system of mucosal morphology patterns against histology,” Endoscopy 40(6), 457–463 (2008).
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Singh, M.

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S. A. Rodriguez, S. Banerjee, D. Desilets, D. L. Diehl, F. A. Farraye, V. Kaul, R. S. Kwon, P. Mamula, M. C. Pedrosa, S. Varadarajulu, L.-M. W. K. Song, W. M. Tierney, and ASGE Technology Committee, “Ultrathin endoscopes,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 71(6), 893–898 (2010).
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M. J. Gora, J. S. Sauk, R. W. Carruth, W. Lu, D. T. Carlton, A. Soomro, M. Rosenberg, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Imaging the Upper Gastrointestinal Tract in Unsedated Patients Using Tethered Capsule Endomicroscopy,” Gastroenterology 145(4), 723–725 (2013).
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M. J. Suter, M. J. Gora, G. Y. Lauwers, T. Arnason, J. Sauk, K. A. Gallagher, L. Kava, K. M. Tan, A. R. Soomro, T. P. Gallagher, J. A. Gardecki, B. E. Bouma, M. Rosenberg, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Esophageal-guided biopsy with volumetric laser endomicroscopy and laser cautery marking: a pilot clinical study,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 79(6), 886–896 (2014).
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M. J. Gora, A. R. Soomro, W. P. Puricelli, W. Lu, E. Quijano, L. Moffitt, M. Rosenberg, J. Sauk, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “359 Unsedated Screening for Barrett's Esophagus Using Tethered Capsule Endomicroscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 79(5), AB136 (2014).
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Soper, T. D.

C. M. Lee, C. J. Engelbrecht, T. D. Soper, F. Helmchen, and E. J. Seibel, “Scanning fiber endoscopy with highly flexible, 1 mm catheterscopes for wide-field, full-color imaging,” J. Biophotonics 3(5-6), 385–407 (2010).
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Southern, J. F.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276(5321), 2037–2039 (1997).
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Z. Liao, R. Gao, C. Xu, D.-F. Xu, and Z.-S. Li, “Sleeve string capsule endoscopy for real-time viewing of the esophagus: a pilot study (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc. 70(2), 201–209 (2009).
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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic of OCT system. HVA: high voltage amplifier; AWG: arbitrary waveform generator; MZI: Mach-Zehnder interferometer; OC: optical clock; RM: reference mirror; DA: differential amplifier.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Schematic of capsule. Photographs of capsule with motor carriage at (b) beginning position and (c) ending position of the longitudinal pneumatic scan.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Measured trajectory of longitudinal pneumatic actuator. Maximum translation speed was ~1 mm/s. (b) Filtered and linearized longitudinal trajectory for spline resampling. Zoomed portion of an endoscopic en face OCT image of the rectum (c) before and (d) after correction.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Representative X-rays showing the position of the capsule in the (a) stomach and (b) anal canal. The tether (red arrow) and capsule (blue) are indicated.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Representative in vivo endoscopic OCT images of swine (a,c) esophagus and (b,d) rectum. Images are displayed in unwrapped (Cartesian) and circumferential (polar) views, respectively. The characteristic layered structure of the esophagus and the columnar structure of the rectum are visible. The blue and orange arrows in (a) indicate the motor cable and inflation tube, respectively. The arrow in (b) indicates the aliased inner surface of the glass tube. Scale bars are 1 mm in tissue.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 En face OCT image from acquired volume with the fast distal rotary scan and no longitudinal actuation in order to assess motion artifacts. Large hyposcattering (dark) regions indicated areas where the esophageal wall is not in contact with the capsule. The horizontal axis corresponds to time and spans 28 seconds. Periodic motion artifacts are consistent with cardiac and respiratory cycles.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 En face OCT image of swine esophagus in vivo (a) projected over 600 μm depth range from the tissue surface, (b) at 200 μm below the surface and projected over 100 μm depth range, and (c) at 600 μm below the surface and projected over 100 μm depth range. The capsule was manually advanced for the longitudinal scan. Shadow patterns resembling a vascular network (red arrows) were visible. The horizontal scale was based on an estimate of manual longitudinal pullback speed of ~3 mm/s. Scale bar is 1 mm.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 (a) En face OCT image of swine dentate line in vivo at 300 μm below the tissue surface and projected over 50 μm depth range. The capsule was manually advanced for the longitudinal scan. Insets (b, c) show zoomed in regions. The transition from squamous epithelium to columnar crypts (arrow) is clearly visible. Scale bar is 1 mm.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 (a) En face OCT image of swine rectum at ~400 μm depth from tissue surface and projected over ~50 μm depth range. Insets (b, c) show enlargements of regions demonstrating the high precision distal pneumatic scanning. Non-uniform rotational distortion (NURD) of the micromotor was visible. Scale bars of large image and insets are 1 mm and 100 µm, respectively. Scanned area was approximately 1.3 cm2. The motor cable (covered by plastic extrusion on proximal end cap) appeared aliased at a different depth as indicated.

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