Abstract

In this paper a numerical technique is presented to compensate for anisotropic optical aberrations, which are usually present across the lateral field of view in the out of focus regions, in high resolution optical coherence tomography and microscopy (OCT/OCM) setups. The recorded enface image field at different depths in the tomogram is digitally divided into smaller sub-regions or the regions of interest (ROIs), processed individually using subaperture based digital adaptive optics (DAO), and finally stitched together to yield a final image with a uniform diffraction limited resolution across the entire field of view (FOV). Using this method, a sub-micron lateral resolution is achieved over a depth range of 218μmfor a nano-particle phantom sample imaged using a fiber based point scanning spectral domain (SD) OCM system with a limited depth of focus (DOF) of ~7μmat a numerical aperture (NA) of 0.6. Thus, an increase in DOF by ~30x is demonstrated in this case. The application of this method is also shown in ex vivo mouse adipose tissue.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (5)

2013 (2)

A. Kumar, W. Drexler, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Subaperture correlation based digital adaptive optics for full field optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 21(9), 10850–10866 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Choi, T. R. Hillman, W. Choi, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, P. T. C. So, W. Choi, and Z. Yaqoob, “Measurement of the Time-Resolved Reflection Matrix for Enhancing Light Energy Delivery into a Scattering Medium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(24), 243901 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (3)

2011 (2)

X. Xu, H. Liu, and L. V. Wang, “Time-reversed ultrasonically encoded optical focusing into scattering media,” Nat. Photonics 5(3), 154–157 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. E. Tippie, A. Kumar, and J. R. Fienup, “High-resolution synthetic-aperture digital holography with digital phase and pupil correction,” Opt. Express 19(13), 12027–12038 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

B. W. Graf, S. G. Adie, and S. A. Boppart, “Correction of coherence gate curvature in high numerical aperture optical coherence imaging,” Opt. Lett. 35(18), 3120–3122 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Ji, D. E. Milkie, and E. Betzig, “Adaptive optics via pupil segmentation for high-resolution imaging in biological tissues,” Nat. Methods 7(2), 141–147 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

2007 (3)

L. Yu, B. Rao, J. Zhang, J. Su, Q. Wang, S. Guo, and Z. Chen, “Improved lateral resolution in optical coherence tomography by digital focusing using two-dimensional numerical diffraction method,” Opt. Express 15(12), 7634–7641 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. S. Ralston, D. L. Marks, P. S. Carney, and S. A. Boppart, “Interferometric synthetic aperture microscopy,” Nat. Phys. 3(2), 129–134 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Pircher and R. J. Zawadzki, “Combining adaptive optics with optical coherence tomography: Unveiling the cellular structure of the human retina in vivo,” Expert Rev. Ophthalmol. 2(6), 1019–1035 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (3)

2003 (2)

1976 (1)

Adie, S. G.

Ahmad, A.

Y. Z. Liu, N. D. Shemonski, S. G. Adie, A. Ahmad, A. J. Bower, P. S. Carney, and S. A. Boppart, “Computed optical interferometric tomography for high-speed volumetric cellular imaging,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(9), 2988–3000 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. G. Adie, B. W. Graf, A. Ahmad, P. S. Carney, and S. A. Boppart, “Computational adaptive optics for broadband optical interferometric tomography of biological tissue,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(19), 7175–7180 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ahn, S. S.

Ahnelt, P. K.

Anger, E. M.

Bachmann, A. H.

Betzig, E.

N. Ji, D. E. Milkie, and E. Betzig, “Adaptive optics via pupil segmentation for high-resolution imaging in biological tissues,” Nat. Methods 7(2), 141–147 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boppart, S. A.

Bower, A. J.

Carney, P. S.

Y. Z. Liu, N. D. Shemonski, S. G. Adie, A. Ahmad, A. J. Bower, P. S. Carney, and S. A. Boppart, “Computed optical interferometric tomography for high-speed volumetric cellular imaging,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(9), 2988–3000 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. D. Shemonski, S. S. Ahn, Y. Z. Liu, F. A. South, P. S. Carney, and S. A. Boppart, “Three-dimensional motion correction using speckle and phase for in vivo computed optical interferometric tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(12), 4131–4143 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. G. Adie, B. W. Graf, A. Ahmad, P. S. Carney, and S. A. Boppart, “Computational adaptive optics for broadband optical interferometric tomography of biological tissue,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(19), 7175–7180 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. S. Ralston, D. L. Marks, P. S. Carney, and S. A. Boppart, “Interferometric synthetic aperture microscopy,” Nat. Phys. 3(2), 129–134 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Z.

Choi, W.

Y. Choi, T. R. Hillman, W. Choi, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, P. T. C. So, W. Choi, and Z. Yaqoob, “Measurement of the Time-Resolved Reflection Matrix for Enhancing Light Energy Delivery into a Scattering Medium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(24), 243901 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Choi, T. R. Hillman, W. Choi, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, P. T. C. So, W. Choi, and Z. Yaqoob, “Measurement of the Time-Resolved Reflection Matrix for Enhancing Light Energy Delivery into a Scattering Medium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(24), 243901 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choi, Y.

Y. Choi, T. R. Hillman, W. Choi, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, P. T. C. So, W. Choi, and Z. Yaqoob, “Measurement of the Time-Resolved Reflection Matrix for Enhancing Light Energy Delivery into a Scattering Medium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(24), 243901 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cowey, A.

Dasari, R. R.

Y. Choi, T. R. Hillman, W. Choi, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, P. T. C. So, W. Choi, and Z. Yaqoob, “Measurement of the Time-Resolved Reflection Matrix for Enhancing Light Energy Delivery into a Scattering Medium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(24), 243901 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Denk, W.

M. Rueckel, J. A. Mack-Bucher, and W. Denk, “Adaptive wavefront correction in two-photon microscopy using coherence-gated wavefront sensing,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(46), 17137–17142 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Drexler, W.

Fienup, J. R.

Franke, G.

Graf, B. W.

S. G. Adie, B. W. Graf, A. Ahmad, P. S. Carney, and S. A. Boppart, “Computational adaptive optics for broadband optical interferometric tomography of biological tissue,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(19), 7175–7180 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. W. Graf, S. G. Adie, and S. A. Boppart, “Correction of coherence gate curvature in high numerical aperture optical coherence imaging,” Opt. Lett. 35(18), 3120–3122 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guo, S.

Hermann, B.

Hillman, T. R.

Y. Choi, T. R. Hillman, W. Choi, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, P. T. C. So, W. Choi, and Z. Yaqoob, “Measurement of the Time-Resolved Reflection Matrix for Enhancing Light Energy Delivery into a Scattering Medium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(24), 243901 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hillmann, D.

Hüttmann, G.

Itoh, M.

Jang, J.

Jang, W.

Ji, N.

N. Ji, D. E. Milkie, and E. Betzig, “Adaptive optics via pupil segmentation for high-resolution imaging in biological tissues,” Nat. Methods 7(2), 141–147 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jung, G.

Kamali, T.

W. Drexler, M. Liu, A. Kumar, T. Kamali, A. Unterhuber, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Optical coherence tomography today: speed, contrast, and multimodality,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(7), 071412 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, J. Y.

Koch, P.

Kumar, A.

Kurokawa, K.

Lasser, T.

Le, T.

Leitgeb, R. A.

Lim, J.

Liu, H.

X. Xu, H. Liu, and L. V. Wang, “Time-reversed ultrasonically encoded optical focusing into scattering media,” Nat. Photonics 5(3), 154–157 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, M.

W. Drexler, M. Liu, A. Kumar, T. Kamali, A. Unterhuber, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Optical coherence tomography today: speed, contrast, and multimodality,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(7), 071412 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, Y. Z.

Lue, N.

Y. Choi, T. R. Hillman, W. Choi, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, P. T. C. So, W. Choi, and Z. Yaqoob, “Measurement of the Time-Resolved Reflection Matrix for Enhancing Light Energy Delivery into a Scattering Medium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(24), 243901 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lührs, C.

Mack-Bucher, J. A.

M. Rueckel, J. A. Mack-Bucher, and W. Denk, “Adaptive wavefront correction in two-photon microscopy using coherence-gated wavefront sensing,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(46), 17137–17142 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Makita, S.

Marks, D. L.

T. S. Ralston, D. L. Marks, P. S. Carney, and S. A. Boppart, “Interferometric synthetic aperture microscopy,” Nat. Phys. 3(2), 129–134 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Milkie, D. E.

N. Ji, D. E. Milkie, and E. Betzig, “Adaptive optics via pupil segmentation for high-resolution imaging in biological tissues,” Nat. Methods 7(2), 141–147 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Miller, J. J.

Morgan, J. E.

Nakamura, Y.

Noll, R. J.

Park, J. H.

Park, Y.

Pircher, M.

M. Pircher and R. J. Zawadzki, “Combining adaptive optics with optical coherence tomography: Unveiling the cellular structure of the human retina in vivo,” Expert Rev. Ophthalmol. 2(6), 1019–1035 (2007).
[Crossref]

Považay, B.

Ralston, T. S.

T. S. Ralston, D. L. Marks, P. S. Carney, and S. A. Boppart, “Interferometric synthetic aperture microscopy,” Nat. Phys. 3(2), 129–134 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rao, B.

Rueckel, M.

M. Rueckel, J. A. Mack-Bucher, and W. Denk, “Adaptive wavefront correction in two-photon microscopy using coherence-gated wavefront sensing,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(46), 17137–17142 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sando, Y.

Sasaki, K.

Sattmann, H.

Schubert, C.

Shemonski, N. D.

So, P. T. C.

Y. Choi, T. R. Hillman, W. Choi, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, P. T. C. So, W. Choi, and Z. Yaqoob, “Measurement of the Time-Resolved Reflection Matrix for Enhancing Light Energy Delivery into a Scattering Medium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(24), 243901 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

South, F. A.

Steinmann, L.

Stingl, A.

Stur, M.

Su, J.

Sugisaka, J.

Tempea, G.

Thurman, S. T.

Tippie, A. E.

Unterhuber, A.

Villiger, M.

Wang, L. V.

X. Xu, H. Liu, and L. V. Wang, “Time-reversed ultrasonically encoded optical focusing into scattering media,” Nat. Photonics 5(3), 154–157 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Q.

Xu, X.

X. Xu, H. Liu, and L. V. Wang, “Time-reversed ultrasonically encoded optical focusing into scattering media,” Nat. Photonics 5(3), 154–157 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yakovlev, V.

Yaqoob, Z.

Y. Choi, T. R. Hillman, W. Choi, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, P. T. C. So, W. Choi, and Z. Yaqoob, “Measurement of the Time-Resolved Reflection Matrix for Enhancing Light Energy Delivery into a Scattering Medium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(24), 243901 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yasuno, Y.

Yatagai, T.

Yu, H.

Yu, L.

Zawadzki, R. J.

M. Pircher and R. J. Zawadzki, “Combining adaptive optics with optical coherence tomography: Unveiling the cellular structure of the human retina in vivo,” Expert Rev. Ophthalmol. 2(6), 1019–1035 (2007).
[Crossref]

Zhang, J.

Biomed. Opt. Express (3)

Expert Rev. Ophthalmol. (1)

M. Pircher and R. J. Zawadzki, “Combining adaptive optics with optical coherence tomography: Unveiling the cellular structure of the human retina in vivo,” Expert Rev. Ophthalmol. 2(6), 1019–1035 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

W. Drexler, M. Liu, A. Kumar, T. Kamali, A. Unterhuber, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Optical coherence tomography today: speed, contrast, and multimodality,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(7), 071412 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

Nat. Methods (1)

N. Ji, D. E. Milkie, and E. Betzig, “Adaptive optics via pupil segmentation for high-resolution imaging in biological tissues,” Nat. Methods 7(2), 141–147 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

X. Xu, H. Liu, and L. V. Wang, “Time-reversed ultrasonically encoded optical focusing into scattering media,” Nat. Photonics 5(3), 154–157 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Phys. (1)

T. S. Ralston, D. L. Marks, P. S. Carney, and S. A. Boppart, “Interferometric synthetic aperture microscopy,” Nat. Phys. 3(2), 129–134 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (7)

D. Hillmann, G. Franke, C. Lührs, P. Koch, and G. Hüttmann, “Efficient holoscopy image reconstruction,” Opt. Express 20(19), 21247–21263 (2012).
[PubMed]

A. Kumar, W. Drexler, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Numerical focusing methods for full field OCT: a comparison based on a common signal model,” Opt. Express 22(13), 16061–16078 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Yu, B. Rao, J. Zhang, J. Su, Q. Wang, S. Guo, and Z. Chen, “Improved lateral resolution in optical coherence tomography by digital focusing using two-dimensional numerical diffraction method,” Opt. Express 15(12), 7634–7641 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. E. Tippie, A. Kumar, and J. R. Fienup, “High-resolution synthetic-aperture digital holography with digital phase and pupil correction,” Opt. Express 19(13), 12027–12038 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Kumar, W. Drexler, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Subaperture correlation based digital adaptive optics for full field optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 21(9), 10850–10866 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Yasuno, J. Sugisaka, Y. Sando, Y. Nakamura, S. Makita, M. Itoh, and T. Yatagai, “Non-iterative numerical method for laterally superresolving Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 14(3), 1006–1020 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yu, J. Jang, J. Lim, J. H. Park, W. Jang, J. Y. Kim, and Y. Park, “Depth-enhanced 2-D optical coherence tomography using complex wavefront shaping,” Opt. Express 22(7), 7514–7523 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

Y. Choi, T. R. Hillman, W. Choi, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, P. T. C. So, W. Choi, and Z. Yaqoob, “Measurement of the Time-Resolved Reflection Matrix for Enhancing Light Energy Delivery into a Scattering Medium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(24), 243901 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2)

S. G. Adie, B. W. Graf, A. Ahmad, P. S. Carney, and S. A. Boppart, “Computational adaptive optics for broadband optical interferometric tomography of biological tissue,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(19), 7175–7180 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Rueckel, J. A. Mack-Bucher, and W. Denk, “Adaptive wavefront correction in two-photon microscopy using coherence-gated wavefront sensing,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(46), 17137–17142 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 A situation where point objects A and B, lying within the same FOV, are imaged differently through an imperfect optics. Both points A and B see different wavefront aberration resulting in different PSFs.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Schematic of the algorithm using ROI based DAO for anisotropic aberration correction for a given enface plane. The processing steps 2-7 belong to the sub-aperture based DAO method described in detail in Ref [12]. The above processing steps are repeated for each enface image in depth to achieve depth invariant lateral resolution.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Schematic of the fiber based point scanning SD OCT system.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Enface OCT image of NBS 1963A resolution test target showing line set with frequency of 203 cycles/mm. The measured lateral scanning step size is 0.54 μm . (b) Enface image showing lateral PSFs corresponding to nano-particles in the focal plane, (c) the cut through the intensity profile of the PSF marked by white arrows in (b). The measured FWHM of the intensity profile, and hence the lateral resolution of the system, is 0.81 μm . The scale bar in (b) corresponds to 20 μm .
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Original enface image of iron oxide nano particle phantom at a distance of 46 μm above the focal plane, (b) image obtained after applying global phase correction, (c) final image after stitching phase corrected ROIs together, (d)-(f) zoomed in images at the location of green dotted box in (a)-(c), (g) cut through plots at the location of arrow in (f) for each case, (h)-(j) zoomed in images at the location of red dotted box in (a)-(c), (k) cut through plots at the location of arrow in (j) for each case, (l) and (m) show wavefront error maps in radians for ROIs at the location of green and red dotted box respectively. O: original, G: global in the plots (g) and (k). Scale bars in (a) represent 20 μm and applies to (b) and (c). Same gamma correction is applied to all the images for the visual comparison of SNR levels.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) Original B-scan of iron oxide nano particle phantom showing a depth range of 218 μm , (b) after applying global aberration correction, and (c) after ROI based correction. (d) Variation of SNR with the distance from the focal plane for each case. O: original, G: global in the plot (d). (e) 3-D rendering of the images for each case. Horizontal scale bars in (a)-(c) represent 30 μm . Same gamma correction is applied to all the images.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a) Original enface image showing a layer of ex vivo mouse adipocytes at a distance of 54 μm above the focal plane, (b) final image after ROI based DAO correction. Zoomed in images at the location of asterisk sign in (a): (c) original, (d) obtained from the image after global phase correction (figure not shown here), (e) after ROI based phase correction. Cut- through the cell boundary at the location marked by the green arrows in (c)-(e) is shown in the insets. Scale bars in (a) and (b) represents 50 μm . Scale bar in (c) denotes 20 μm and applies to (d) and (e). (f) 3-D rendering of original, global aberration corrected and ROI based aberration corrected image.

Equations (3)

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s x,m = πΔ x m 2 and s y,m = πΔ y m 2 .
S=GA
A ^ =( G T G 1 ) G T S.

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