Abstract

Optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy (OR-PAM) has become a major experimental tool of photoacoustic tomography, with unique imaging capabilities for various biological applications. However, conventional imaging systems are all table-top embodiments, which preclude their use in internal organs. In this study, by applying the OR-PAM concept to our recently developed endoscopic technique, called photoacoustic endoscopy (PAE), we created an optical-resolution photoacoustic endomicroscopy (OR-PAEM) system, which enables internal organ imaging with a much finer resolution than conventional acoustic-resolution PAE systems. OR-PAEM has potential preclinical and clinical applications using either endogenous or exogenous contrast agents.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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J. M. Yang, C. Li, R. Chen, Q. Zhou, K. K. Shung, and L. V. Wang, “Catheter-based photoacoustic endoscope,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(6), 066001 (2014).
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[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Wang, C. Zhang, and L. V. Wang, “Grueneisen relaxation photoacoustic microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(17), 174301 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Li, J. M. Yang, R. Chen, C.-H. Yeh, L. Zhu, K. Maslov, Q. Zhou, K. K. Shung, and L. V. Wang, “Urogenital photoacoustic endoscope,” Opt. Lett. 39(6), 1473–1476 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Dong, S. Chen, Z. Zhang, C. Sun, and H. F. Zhang, “Photoacoustic probe using a microring resonator ultrasonic sensor for endoscopic applications,” Opt. Lett. 39(15), 4372–4375 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (5)

C. Li, J. M. Yang, R. Chen, Y. Zhang, Y. Xia, Q. Zhou, K. K. Shung, and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic endoscopic imaging study of melanoma tumor growth in a rat colorectum in vivo,” Proc. SPIE 8581, 85810D (2013).
[Crossref]

M. R. Fein and M. Egeblad, “Caught in the act: revealing the metastatic process by live imaging,” Dis. Model. Mech. 6(3), 580–593 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Gora, J. S. Sauk, R. W. Carruth, K. A. Gallagher, M. J. Suter, N. S. Nishioka, L. E. Kava, M. Rosenberg, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Tethered capsule endomicroscopy enables less invasive imaging of gastrointestinal tract microstructure,” Nat. Med. 19(2), 238–240 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Egawa, S. Nakamizo, Y. Natsuaki, H. Doi, Y. Miyachi, and K. Kabashima, “Intravital analysis of vascular permeability in mice using two-photon microscopy,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1932 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. N. Papadopoulos, O. Simandoux, S. Farahi, J. P. Huignard, E. Bossy, D. Psaltis, and C. Moser, “Optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy by use of a multimode fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(21), 211106 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (8)

J. Yao, C. H. Huang, L. Wang, J. M. Yang, L. Gao, K. I. Maslov, J. Zou, and L. V. Wang, “Wide-field fast-scanning photoacoustic microscopy based on a water-immersible MEMS scanning mirror,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(8), 080505 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Krumholz, L. Wang, J. Yao, and L. V. Wang, “Functional photoacoustic microscopy of diabetic vasculature,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(6), 060502 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. V. Wang and S. Hu, “Photoacoustic tomography: in vivo imaging from organelles to organs,” Science 335(6075), 1458–1462 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Wang and L. V. Wang, “Förster resonance energy transfer photoacoustic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(8), 086007 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Laufer, P. Johnson, E. Zhang, B. Treeby, B. Cox, B. Pedley, and P. Beard, “In vivo preclinical photoacoustic imaging of tumor vasculature development and therapy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(5), 056016 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Liu, C. Zhang, and L. V. Wang, “Effects of light scattering on optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(12), 126014 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Yang, C. Favazza, R. Chen, J. Yao, X. Cai, K. Maslov, Q. Zhou, K. K. Shung, and L. V. Wang, “Simultaneous functional photoacoustic and ultrasonic endoscopy of internal organs in vivo,” Nat. Med. 18(8), 1297–1302 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Xi, Y. Chen, Y. Zhang, K. Murari, M. J. Li, and X. Li, “Integrated multimodal endomicroscopy platform for simultaneous en face optical coherence and two-photon fluorescence imaging,” Opt. Lett. 37(3), 362–364 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (6)

E. Z. Zhang, B. Povazay, J. Laufer, A. Alex, B. Hofer, B. Pedley, C. Glittenberg, B. Treeby, B. Cox, P. Beard, and W. Drexler, “Multimodal photoacoustic and optical coherence tomography scanner using an all optical detection scheme for 3D morphological skin imaging,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(8), 2202–2215 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Z. Zhang and P. C. Beard, “A miniature all-optical photoacoustic imaging probe,” Proc. SPIE 7899, 78991F (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Yao, K. I. Maslov, Y. Zhang, Y. Xia, and L. V. Wang, “Label-free oxygen-metabolic photoacoustic microscopy in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(7), 076003 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. R. Chatni, J. Yao, A. Danielli, C. P. Favazza, K. I. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, “Functional photoacoustic microscopy of pH,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(10), 100503 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Beard, “Biomedical photoacoustic imaging,” Interface Focus 1(4), 602–631 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Amornphimoltham, A. Masedunskas, and R. Weigert, “Intravital microscopy as a tool to study drug delivery in preclinical studies,” Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 63(1-2), 119–128 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (4)

D. Fukumura, D. G. Duda, L. L. Munn, and R. K. Jain, “Tumor microvasculature and microenvironment: novel insights through intravital imaging in pre-clinical models,” Microcirculation 17(3), 206–225 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Kim, E. Chung, H. Yamashita, K. E. Hung, A. Mizoguchi, R. Kucherlapati, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and S. H. Yun, “In vivo wide-area cellular imaging by side-view endomicroscopy,” Nat. Methods 7(4), 303–305 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Ntziachristos and D. Razansky, “Molecular imaging by means of multispectral optoacoustic tomography (MSOT),” Chem. Rev. 110(5), 2783–2794 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Matsumoto, T. Nomoto, H. Cabral, Y. Matsumoto, S. Watanabe, R. J. Christie, K. Miyata, M. Oba, T. Ogura, Y. Yamasaki, N. Nishiyama, T. Yamasoba, and K. Kataoka, “Direct and instantaneous observation of intravenously injected substances using intravital confocal micro-videography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 1(4), 1209–1216 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (5)

J. M. Yang, K. Maslov, H. C. Yang, Q. Zhou, K. K. Shung, and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic endoscopy,” Opt. Lett. 34(10), 1591–1593 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Y. Emelianov, P.-C. Li, and M. O’Donnell, “Photoacoustics for molecular imaging and therapy,” Phys. Today 62(5), 34–39 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. J. Vakoc, R. M. Lanning, J. A. Tyrrell, T. P. Padera, L. A. Bartlett, T. Stylianopoulos, L. L. Munn, G. J. Tearney, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional microscopy of the tumor microenvironment in vivo using optical frequency domain imaging,” Nat. Med. 15(10), 1219–1223 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Razansky, M. Distel, C. Vinegoni, R. Ma, N. Perrimon, R. W. Köster, and V. Ntziachristos, “Multispectral opto-acoustic tomography of deep-seated fluorescent proteins in vivo,” Nat. Photonics 3(7), 412–417 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. M. Yang, K. Maslov, H. C. Yang, Q. Zhou, and L. V. Wang, “Endoscopic photoacoustic microscopy,” Proc. SPIE 7177, 71770N (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

J. Shah, S. Park, S. Aglyamov, T. Larson, L. Ma, K. Sokolov, K. Johnston, T. Milner, and S. Y. Emelianov, “Photoacoustic imaging and temperature measurement for photothermal cancer therapy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(3), 034024 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Maslov, H. F. Zhang, S. Hu, and L. V. Wang, “Optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy for in vivo imaging of single capillaries,” Opt. Lett. 33(9), 929–931 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (5)

G. Paltauf, R. Nuster, M. Haltmeier, and P. Burgholzer, “Photoacoustic tomography using a Mach-Zehnder interferometer as an acoustic line detector,” Appl. Opt. 46(16), 3352–3358 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Kiesslich, M. Goetz, M. Vieth, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “Technology Insight: confocal laser endoscopy for in vivo diagnosis of colorectal cancer,” Nat. Clin. Pract. Oncol. 4(8), 480–490 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Zhou, X. Xu, E. J. Gottlieb, L. Sun, J. M. Cannata, H. Ameri, M. S. Humayun, P. Han, and K. K. Shung, “PMN-PT single crystal, high-frequency ultrasonic needle transducers for pulsed-wave Doppler application,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 54(3), 668–675 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I. K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med. 12(12), 1429–1433 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Li, R. J. Zemp, G. Lungu, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic imaging of lacZ gene expression in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(2), 020504 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Functional photoacoustic microscopy for high-resolution and noninvasive in vivo imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 24(7), 848–851 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

G. M. Tozer, S. M. Ameer-Beg, J. Baker, P. R. Barber, S. A. Hill, R. J. Hodgkiss, R. Locke, V. E. Prise, I. Wilson, and B. Vojnovic, “Intravital imaging of tumour vascular networks using multi-photon fluorescence microscopy,” Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 57(1), 135–152 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

J. M. Cannata, T. A. Ritter, W. H. Chen, R. H. Silverman, and K. K. Shung, “Design of efficient, broadband single-element (20-80 MHz) ultrasonic transducers for medical imaging applications,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 50(11), 1548–1557 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

J. A. Jensen, “Field: A program for simulating ultrasound systems,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 34, 351–353 (1996).
[PubMed]

Aglyamov, S.

J. Shah, S. Park, S. Aglyamov, T. Larson, L. Ma, K. Sokolov, K. Johnston, T. Milner, and S. Y. Emelianov, “Photoacoustic imaging and temperature measurement for photothermal cancer therapy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(3), 034024 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alex, A.

Ameer-Beg, S. M.

G. M. Tozer, S. M. Ameer-Beg, J. Baker, P. R. Barber, S. A. Hill, R. J. Hodgkiss, R. Locke, V. E. Prise, I. Wilson, and B. Vojnovic, “Intravital imaging of tumour vascular networks using multi-photon fluorescence microscopy,” Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 57(1), 135–152 (2005).
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Ameri, H.

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M. J. Gora, J. S. Sauk, R. W. Carruth, K. A. Gallagher, M. J. Suter, N. S. Nishioka, L. E. Kava, M. Rosenberg, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Tethered capsule endomicroscopy enables less invasive imaging of gastrointestinal tract microstructure,” Nat. Med. 19(2), 238–240 (2013).
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Cabral, H.

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J. M. Yang, C. Favazza, R. Chen, J. Yao, X. Cai, K. Maslov, Q. Zhou, K. K. Shung, and L. V. Wang, “Simultaneous functional photoacoustic and ultrasonic endoscopy of internal organs in vivo,” Nat. Med. 18(8), 1297–1302 (2012).
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Q. Zhou, X. Xu, E. J. Gottlieb, L. Sun, J. M. Cannata, H. Ameri, M. S. Humayun, P. Han, and K. K. Shung, “PMN-PT single crystal, high-frequency ultrasonic needle transducers for pulsed-wave Doppler application,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 54(3), 668–675 (2007).
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J. M. Cannata, T. A. Ritter, W. H. Chen, R. H. Silverman, and K. K. Shung, “Design of efficient, broadband single-element (20-80 MHz) ultrasonic transducers for medical imaging applications,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 50(11), 1548–1557 (2003).
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M. J. Gora, J. S. Sauk, R. W. Carruth, K. A. Gallagher, M. J. Suter, N. S. Nishioka, L. E. Kava, M. Rosenberg, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Tethered capsule endomicroscopy enables less invasive imaging of gastrointestinal tract microstructure,” Nat. Med. 19(2), 238–240 (2013).
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S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I. K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med. 12(12), 1429–1433 (2007).
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M. R. Chatni, J. Yao, A. Danielli, C. P. Favazza, K. I. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, “Functional photoacoustic microscopy of pH,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(10), 100503 (2011).
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C. Li, J. M. Yang, R. Chen, C.-H. Yeh, L. Zhu, K. Maslov, Q. Zhou, K. K. Shung, and L. V. Wang, “Urogenital photoacoustic endoscope,” Opt. Lett. 39(6), 1473–1476 (2014).
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J. M. Yang, C. Li, R. Chen, Q. Zhou, K. K. Shung, and L. V. Wang, “Catheter-based photoacoustic endoscope,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(6), 066001 (2014).
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C. Li, J. M. Yang, R. Chen, Y. Zhang, Y. Xia, Q. Zhou, K. K. Shung, and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic endoscopic imaging study of melanoma tumor growth in a rat colorectum in vivo,” Proc. SPIE 8581, 85810D (2013).
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J. M. Yang, C. Favazza, R. Chen, J. Yao, X. Cai, K. Maslov, Q. Zhou, K. K. Shung, and L. V. Wang, “Simultaneous functional photoacoustic and ultrasonic endoscopy of internal organs in vivo,” Nat. Med. 18(8), 1297–1302 (2012).
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Chen, S.

Chen, W. H.

J. M. Cannata, T. A. Ritter, W. H. Chen, R. H. Silverman, and K. K. Shung, “Design of efficient, broadband single-element (20-80 MHz) ultrasonic transducers for medical imaging applications,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 50(11), 1548–1557 (2003).
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Christie, R. J.

Chung, E.

P. Kim, E. Chung, H. Yamashita, K. E. Hung, A. Mizoguchi, R. Kucherlapati, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and S. H. Yun, “In vivo wide-area cellular imaging by side-view endomicroscopy,” Nat. Methods 7(4), 303–305 (2010).
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Danielli, A.

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S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I. K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med. 12(12), 1429–1433 (2007).
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S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I. K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med. 12(12), 1429–1433 (2007).
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D. Razansky, M. Distel, C. Vinegoni, R. Ma, N. Perrimon, R. W. Köster, and V. Ntziachristos, “Multispectral opto-acoustic tomography of deep-seated fluorescent proteins in vivo,” Nat. Photonics 3(7), 412–417 (2009).
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G. Egawa, S. Nakamizo, Y. Natsuaki, H. Doi, Y. Miyachi, and K. Kabashima, “Intravital analysis of vascular permeability in mice using two-photon microscopy,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1932 (2013).
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Drexler, W.

Duda, D. G.

D. Fukumura, D. G. Duda, L. L. Munn, and R. K. Jain, “Tumor microvasculature and microenvironment: novel insights through intravital imaging in pre-clinical models,” Microcirculation 17(3), 206–225 (2010).
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G. Egawa, S. Nakamizo, Y. Natsuaki, H. Doi, Y. Miyachi, and K. Kabashima, “Intravital analysis of vascular permeability in mice using two-photon microscopy,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1932 (2013).
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M. R. Fein and M. Egeblad, “Caught in the act: revealing the metastatic process by live imaging,” Dis. Model. Mech. 6(3), 580–593 (2013).
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S. Y. Emelianov, P.-C. Li, and M. O’Donnell, “Photoacoustics for molecular imaging and therapy,” Phys. Today 62(5), 34–39 (2009).
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J. Shah, S. Park, S. Aglyamov, T. Larson, L. Ma, K. Sokolov, K. Johnston, T. Milner, and S. Y. Emelianov, “Photoacoustic imaging and temperature measurement for photothermal cancer therapy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(3), 034024 (2008).
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S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I. K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med. 12(12), 1429–1433 (2007).
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Farahi, S.

I. N. Papadopoulos, O. Simandoux, S. Farahi, J. P. Huignard, E. Bossy, D. Psaltis, and C. Moser, “Optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy by use of a multimode fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(21), 211106 (2013).
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J. M. Yang, C. Favazza, R. Chen, J. Yao, X. Cai, K. Maslov, Q. Zhou, K. K. Shung, and L. V. Wang, “Simultaneous functional photoacoustic and ultrasonic endoscopy of internal organs in vivo,” Nat. Med. 18(8), 1297–1302 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Favazza, C. P.

M. R. Chatni, J. Yao, A. Danielli, C. P. Favazza, K. I. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, “Functional photoacoustic microscopy of pH,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(10), 100503 (2011).
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Fein, M. R.

M. R. Fein and M. Egeblad, “Caught in the act: revealing the metastatic process by live imaging,” Dis. Model. Mech. 6(3), 580–593 (2013).
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D. Fukumura, D. G. Duda, L. L. Munn, and R. K. Jain, “Tumor microvasculature and microenvironment: novel insights through intravital imaging in pre-clinical models,” Microcirculation 17(3), 206–225 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Kim, E. Chung, H. Yamashita, K. E. Hung, A. Mizoguchi, R. Kucherlapati, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and S. H. Yun, “In vivo wide-area cellular imaging by side-view endomicroscopy,” Nat. Methods 7(4), 303–305 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. J. Vakoc, R. M. Lanning, J. A. Tyrrell, T. P. Padera, L. A. Bartlett, T. Stylianopoulos, L. L. Munn, G. J. Tearney, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional microscopy of the tumor microenvironment in vivo using optical frequency domain imaging,” Nat. Med. 15(10), 1219–1223 (2009).
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M. J. Gora, J. S. Sauk, R. W. Carruth, K. A. Gallagher, M. J. Suter, N. S. Nishioka, L. E. Kava, M. Rosenberg, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Tethered capsule endomicroscopy enables less invasive imaging of gastrointestinal tract microstructure,” Nat. Med. 19(2), 238–240 (2013).
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Goetz, M.

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M. J. Gora, J. S. Sauk, R. W. Carruth, K. A. Gallagher, M. J. Suter, N. S. Nishioka, L. E. Kava, M. Rosenberg, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Tethered capsule endomicroscopy enables less invasive imaging of gastrointestinal tract microstructure,” Nat. Med. 19(2), 238–240 (2013).
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Q. Zhou, X. Xu, E. J. Gottlieb, L. Sun, J. M. Cannata, H. Ameri, M. S. Humayun, P. Han, and K. K. Shung, “PMN-PT single crystal, high-frequency ultrasonic needle transducers for pulsed-wave Doppler application,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 54(3), 668–675 (2007).
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Han, P.

Q. Zhou, X. Xu, E. J. Gottlieb, L. Sun, J. M. Cannata, H. Ameri, M. S. Humayun, P. Han, and K. K. Shung, “PMN-PT single crystal, high-frequency ultrasonic needle transducers for pulsed-wave Doppler application,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 54(3), 668–675 (2007).
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X. Bai, X. Gong, W. Hau, R. Lin, J. Zheng, C. Liu, C. Zeng, X. Zou, H. Zheng, and L. Song, “Intravascular optical-resolution photoacoustic tomography with a 1.1 mm diameter catheter,” PLoS ONE 9(3), e92463 (2014).
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G. M. Tozer, S. M. Ameer-Beg, J. Baker, P. R. Barber, S. A. Hill, R. J. Hodgkiss, R. Locke, V. E. Prise, I. Wilson, and B. Vojnovic, “Intravital imaging of tumour vascular networks using multi-photon fluorescence microscopy,” Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 57(1), 135–152 (2005).
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G. M. Tozer, S. M. Ameer-Beg, J. Baker, P. R. Barber, S. A. Hill, R. J. Hodgkiss, R. Locke, V. E. Prise, I. Wilson, and B. Vojnovic, “Intravital imaging of tumour vascular networks using multi-photon fluorescence microscopy,” Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 57(1), 135–152 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hofer, B.

Hu, S.

Huang, C. H.

J. Yao, C. H. Huang, L. Wang, J. M. Yang, L. Gao, K. I. Maslov, J. Zou, and L. V. Wang, “Wide-field fast-scanning photoacoustic microscopy based on a water-immersible MEMS scanning mirror,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(8), 080505 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huignard, J. P.

I. N. Papadopoulos, O. Simandoux, S. Farahi, J. P. Huignard, E. Bossy, D. Psaltis, and C. Moser, “Optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy by use of a multimode fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(21), 211106 (2013).
[Crossref]

Humayun, M. S.

Q. Zhou, X. Xu, E. J. Gottlieb, L. Sun, J. M. Cannata, H. Ameri, M. S. Humayun, P. Han, and K. K. Shung, “PMN-PT single crystal, high-frequency ultrasonic needle transducers for pulsed-wave Doppler application,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 54(3), 668–675 (2007).
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Hung, K. E.

P. Kim, E. Chung, H. Yamashita, K. E. Hung, A. Mizoguchi, R. Kucherlapati, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and S. H. Yun, “In vivo wide-area cellular imaging by side-view endomicroscopy,” Nat. Methods 7(4), 303–305 (2010).
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Jain, R. K.

P. Kim, E. Chung, H. Yamashita, K. E. Hung, A. Mizoguchi, R. Kucherlapati, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and S. H. Yun, “In vivo wide-area cellular imaging by side-view endomicroscopy,” Nat. Methods 7(4), 303–305 (2010).
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D. Fukumura, D. G. Duda, L. L. Munn, and R. K. Jain, “Tumor microvasculature and microenvironment: novel insights through intravital imaging in pre-clinical models,” Microcirculation 17(3), 206–225 (2010).
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B. J. Vakoc, R. M. Lanning, J. A. Tyrrell, T. P. Padera, L. A. Bartlett, T. Stylianopoulos, L. L. Munn, G. J. Tearney, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional microscopy of the tumor microenvironment in vivo using optical frequency domain imaging,” Nat. Med. 15(10), 1219–1223 (2009).
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S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I. K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med. 12(12), 1429–1433 (2007).
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J. A. Jensen, “Field: A program for simulating ultrasound systems,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 34, 351–353 (1996).
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J. Laufer, P. Johnson, E. Zhang, B. Treeby, B. Cox, B. Pedley, and P. Beard, “In vivo preclinical photoacoustic imaging of tumor vasculature development and therapy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(5), 056016 (2012).
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Johnston, K.

J. Shah, S. Park, S. Aglyamov, T. Larson, L. Ma, K. Sokolov, K. Johnston, T. Milner, and S. Y. Emelianov, “Photoacoustic imaging and temperature measurement for photothermal cancer therapy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(3), 034024 (2008).
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Kabashima, K.

G. Egawa, S. Nakamizo, Y. Natsuaki, H. Doi, Y. Miyachi, and K. Kabashima, “Intravital analysis of vascular permeability in mice using two-photon microscopy,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1932 (2013).
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Kataoka, K.

Kava, L. E.

M. J. Gora, J. S. Sauk, R. W. Carruth, K. A. Gallagher, M. J. Suter, N. S. Nishioka, L. E. Kava, M. Rosenberg, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Tethered capsule endomicroscopy enables less invasive imaging of gastrointestinal tract microstructure,” Nat. Med. 19(2), 238–240 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kiesslich, R.

R. Kiesslich, M. Goetz, M. Vieth, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “Technology Insight: confocal laser endoscopy for in vivo diagnosis of colorectal cancer,” Nat. Clin. Pract. Oncol. 4(8), 480–490 (2007).
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P. Kim, E. Chung, H. Yamashita, K. E. Hung, A. Mizoguchi, R. Kucherlapati, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and S. H. Yun, “In vivo wide-area cellular imaging by side-view endomicroscopy,” Nat. Methods 7(4), 303–305 (2010).
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D. Razansky, M. Distel, C. Vinegoni, R. Ma, N. Perrimon, R. W. Köster, and V. Ntziachristos, “Multispectral opto-acoustic tomography of deep-seated fluorescent proteins in vivo,” Nat. Photonics 3(7), 412–417 (2009).
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A. Krumholz, L. Wang, J. Yao, and L. V. Wang, “Functional photoacoustic microscopy of diabetic vasculature,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(6), 060502 (2012).
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P. Kim, E. Chung, H. Yamashita, K. E. Hung, A. Mizoguchi, R. Kucherlapati, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and S. H. Yun, “In vivo wide-area cellular imaging by side-view endomicroscopy,” Nat. Methods 7(4), 303–305 (2010).
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B. J. Vakoc, R. M. Lanning, J. A. Tyrrell, T. P. Padera, L. A. Bartlett, T. Stylianopoulos, L. L. Munn, G. J. Tearney, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional microscopy of the tumor microenvironment in vivo using optical frequency domain imaging,” Nat. Med. 15(10), 1219–1223 (2009).
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Larson, T.

J. Shah, S. Park, S. Aglyamov, T. Larson, L. Ma, K. Sokolov, K. Johnston, T. Milner, and S. Y. Emelianov, “Photoacoustic imaging and temperature measurement for photothermal cancer therapy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(3), 034024 (2008).
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Laufer, J.

Levene, M. J.

Li, C.

J. M. Yang, C. Li, R. Chen, Q. Zhou, K. K. Shung, and L. V. Wang, “Catheter-based photoacoustic endoscope,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(6), 066001 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Li, J. M. Yang, R. Chen, C.-H. Yeh, L. Zhu, K. Maslov, Q. Zhou, K. K. Shung, and L. V. Wang, “Urogenital photoacoustic endoscope,” Opt. Lett. 39(6), 1473–1476 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Li, J. M. Yang, R. Chen, Y. Zhang, Y. Xia, Q. Zhou, K. K. Shung, and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic endoscopic imaging study of melanoma tumor growth in a rat colorectum in vivo,” Proc. SPIE 8581, 85810D (2013).
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L. Li, R. J. Zemp, G. Lungu, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic imaging of lacZ gene expression in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(2), 020504 (2007).
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Li, M. J.

Li, P.-C.

S. Y. Emelianov, P.-C. Li, and M. O’Donnell, “Photoacoustics for molecular imaging and therapy,” Phys. Today 62(5), 34–39 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, X.

Lin, R.

X. Bai, X. Gong, W. Hau, R. Lin, J. Zheng, C. Liu, C. Zeng, X. Zou, H. Zheng, and L. Song, “Intravascular optical-resolution photoacoustic tomography with a 1.1 mm diameter catheter,” PLoS ONE 9(3), e92463 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, C.

X. Bai, X. Gong, W. Hau, R. Lin, J. Zheng, C. Liu, C. Zeng, X. Zou, H. Zheng, and L. Song, “Intravascular optical-resolution photoacoustic tomography with a 1.1 mm diameter catheter,” PLoS ONE 9(3), e92463 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, Y.

Y. Liu, C. Zhang, and L. V. Wang, “Effects of light scattering on optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(12), 126014 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Locke, R.

G. M. Tozer, S. M. Ameer-Beg, J. Baker, P. R. Barber, S. A. Hill, R. J. Hodgkiss, R. Locke, V. E. Prise, I. Wilson, and B. Vojnovic, “Intravital imaging of tumour vascular networks using multi-photon fluorescence microscopy,” Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 57(1), 135–152 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lungu, G.

L. Li, R. J. Zemp, G. Lungu, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic imaging of lacZ gene expression in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(2), 020504 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ma, L.

J. Shah, S. Park, S. Aglyamov, T. Larson, L. Ma, K. Sokolov, K. Johnston, T. Milner, and S. Y. Emelianov, “Photoacoustic imaging and temperature measurement for photothermal cancer therapy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(3), 034024 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ma, R.

D. Razansky, M. Distel, C. Vinegoni, R. Ma, N. Perrimon, R. W. Köster, and V. Ntziachristos, “Multispectral opto-acoustic tomography of deep-seated fluorescent proteins in vivo,” Nat. Photonics 3(7), 412–417 (2009).
[Crossref]

Masedunskas, A.

P. Amornphimoltham, A. Masedunskas, and R. Weigert, “Intravital microscopy as a tool to study drug delivery in preclinical studies,” Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 63(1-2), 119–128 (2011).
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Maslov, K.

C. Li, J. M. Yang, R. Chen, C.-H. Yeh, L. Zhu, K. Maslov, Q. Zhou, K. K. Shung, and L. V. Wang, “Urogenital photoacoustic endoscope,” Opt. Lett. 39(6), 1473–1476 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Yang, C. Favazza, R. Chen, J. Yao, X. Cai, K. Maslov, Q. Zhou, K. K. Shung, and L. V. Wang, “Simultaneous functional photoacoustic and ultrasonic endoscopy of internal organs in vivo,” Nat. Med. 18(8), 1297–1302 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Yang, K. Maslov, H. C. Yang, Q. Zhou, K. K. Shung, and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic endoscopy,” Opt. Lett. 34(10), 1591–1593 (2009).
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J. M. Yang, K. Maslov, H. C. Yang, Q. Zhou, and L. V. Wang, “Endoscopic photoacoustic microscopy,” Proc. SPIE 7177, 71770N (2009).
[Crossref]

K. Maslov, H. F. Zhang, S. Hu, and L. V. Wang, “Optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy for in vivo imaging of single capillaries,” Opt. Lett. 33(9), 929–931 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Functional photoacoustic microscopy for high-resolution and noninvasive in vivo imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 24(7), 848–851 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maslov, K. I.

J. Yao, C. H. Huang, L. Wang, J. M. Yang, L. Gao, K. I. Maslov, J. Zou, and L. V. Wang, “Wide-field fast-scanning photoacoustic microscopy based on a water-immersible MEMS scanning mirror,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(8), 080505 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yao, K. I. Maslov, Y. Zhang, Y. Xia, and L. V. Wang, “Label-free oxygen-metabolic photoacoustic microscopy in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(7), 076003 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. R. Chatni, J. Yao, A. Danielli, C. P. Favazza, K. I. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, “Functional photoacoustic microscopy of pH,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(10), 100503 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Matsumoto, Y.

Milner, T.

J. Shah, S. Park, S. Aglyamov, T. Larson, L. Ma, K. Sokolov, K. Johnston, T. Milner, and S. Y. Emelianov, “Photoacoustic imaging and temperature measurement for photothermal cancer therapy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(3), 034024 (2008).
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Miyachi, Y.

G. Egawa, S. Nakamizo, Y. Natsuaki, H. Doi, Y. Miyachi, and K. Kabashima, “Intravital analysis of vascular permeability in mice using two-photon microscopy,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1932 (2013).
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Miyata, K.

Mizoguchi, A.

P. Kim, E. Chung, H. Yamashita, K. E. Hung, A. Mizoguchi, R. Kucherlapati, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and S. H. Yun, “In vivo wide-area cellular imaging by side-view endomicroscopy,” Nat. Methods 7(4), 303–305 (2010).
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Moser, C.

I. N. Papadopoulos, O. Simandoux, S. Farahi, J. P. Huignard, E. Bossy, D. Psaltis, and C. Moser, “Optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy by use of a multimode fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(21), 211106 (2013).
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Munn, L. L.

D. Fukumura, D. G. Duda, L. L. Munn, and R. K. Jain, “Tumor microvasculature and microenvironment: novel insights through intravital imaging in pre-clinical models,” Microcirculation 17(3), 206–225 (2010).
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B. J. Vakoc, R. M. Lanning, J. A. Tyrrell, T. P. Padera, L. A. Bartlett, T. Stylianopoulos, L. L. Munn, G. J. Tearney, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional microscopy of the tumor microenvironment in vivo using optical frequency domain imaging,” Nat. Med. 15(10), 1219–1223 (2009).
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Murari, K.

Nakamizo, S.

G. Egawa, S. Nakamizo, Y. Natsuaki, H. Doi, Y. Miyachi, and K. Kabashima, “Intravital analysis of vascular permeability in mice using two-photon microscopy,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1932 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Natsuaki, Y.

G. Egawa, S. Nakamizo, Y. Natsuaki, H. Doi, Y. Miyachi, and K. Kabashima, “Intravital analysis of vascular permeability in mice using two-photon microscopy,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1932 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Neurath, M. F.

R. Kiesslich, M. Goetz, M. Vieth, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “Technology Insight: confocal laser endoscopy for in vivo diagnosis of colorectal cancer,” Nat. Clin. Pract. Oncol. 4(8), 480–490 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nishioka, N. S.

M. J. Gora, J. S. Sauk, R. W. Carruth, K. A. Gallagher, M. J. Suter, N. S. Nishioka, L. E. Kava, M. Rosenberg, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Tethered capsule endomicroscopy enables less invasive imaging of gastrointestinal tract microstructure,” Nat. Med. 19(2), 238–240 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I. K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med. 12(12), 1429–1433 (2007).
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Nishiyama, N.

Nomoto, T.

Ntziachristos, V.

V. Ntziachristos and D. Razansky, “Molecular imaging by means of multispectral optoacoustic tomography (MSOT),” Chem. Rev. 110(5), 2783–2794 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Razansky, M. Distel, C. Vinegoni, R. Ma, N. Perrimon, R. W. Köster, and V. Ntziachristos, “Multispectral opto-acoustic tomography of deep-seated fluorescent proteins in vivo,” Nat. Photonics 3(7), 412–417 (2009).
[Crossref]

Nuster, R.

O’Donnell, M.

S. Y. Emelianov, P.-C. Li, and M. O’Donnell, “Photoacoustics for molecular imaging and therapy,” Phys. Today 62(5), 34–39 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Oba, M.

Ogura, T.

Oh, W. Y.

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I. K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med. 12(12), 1429–1433 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Padera, T. P.

B. J. Vakoc, R. M. Lanning, J. A. Tyrrell, T. P. Padera, L. A. Bartlett, T. Stylianopoulos, L. L. Munn, G. J. Tearney, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional microscopy of the tumor microenvironment in vivo using optical frequency domain imaging,” Nat. Med. 15(10), 1219–1223 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Paltauf, G.

Papadopoulos, I. N.

I. N. Papadopoulos, O. Simandoux, S. Farahi, J. P. Huignard, E. Bossy, D. Psaltis, and C. Moser, “Optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy by use of a multimode fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(21), 211106 (2013).
[Crossref]

Park, S.

J. Shah, S. Park, S. Aglyamov, T. Larson, L. Ma, K. Sokolov, K. Johnston, T. Milner, and S. Y. Emelianov, “Photoacoustic imaging and temperature measurement for photothermal cancer therapy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(3), 034024 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pedley, B.

Perrimon, N.

D. Razansky, M. Distel, C. Vinegoni, R. Ma, N. Perrimon, R. W. Köster, and V. Ntziachristos, “Multispectral opto-acoustic tomography of deep-seated fluorescent proteins in vivo,” Nat. Photonics 3(7), 412–417 (2009).
[Crossref]

Povazay, B.

Prise, V. E.

G. M. Tozer, S. M. Ameer-Beg, J. Baker, P. R. Barber, S. A. Hill, R. J. Hodgkiss, R. Locke, V. E. Prise, I. Wilson, and B. Vojnovic, “Intravital imaging of tumour vascular networks using multi-photon fluorescence microscopy,” Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 57(1), 135–152 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Psaltis, D.

I. N. Papadopoulos, O. Simandoux, S. Farahi, J. P. Huignard, E. Bossy, D. Psaltis, and C. Moser, “Optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy by use of a multimode fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(21), 211106 (2013).
[Crossref]

Razansky, D.

V. Ntziachristos and D. Razansky, “Molecular imaging by means of multispectral optoacoustic tomography (MSOT),” Chem. Rev. 110(5), 2783–2794 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Razansky, M. Distel, C. Vinegoni, R. Ma, N. Perrimon, R. W. Köster, and V. Ntziachristos, “Multispectral opto-acoustic tomography of deep-seated fluorescent proteins in vivo,” Nat. Photonics 3(7), 412–417 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ritter, T. A.

J. M. Cannata, T. A. Ritter, W. H. Chen, R. H. Silverman, and K. K. Shung, “Design of efficient, broadband single-element (20-80 MHz) ultrasonic transducers for medical imaging applications,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 50(11), 1548–1557 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rosenberg, M.

M. J. Gora, J. S. Sauk, R. W. Carruth, K. A. Gallagher, M. J. Suter, N. S. Nishioka, L. E. Kava, M. Rosenberg, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Tethered capsule endomicroscopy enables less invasive imaging of gastrointestinal tract microstructure,” Nat. Med. 19(2), 238–240 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sauk, J. S.

M. J. Gora, J. S. Sauk, R. W. Carruth, K. A. Gallagher, M. J. Suter, N. S. Nishioka, L. E. Kava, M. Rosenberg, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Tethered capsule endomicroscopy enables less invasive imaging of gastrointestinal tract microstructure,” Nat. Med. 19(2), 238–240 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shah, J.

J. Shah, S. Park, S. Aglyamov, T. Larson, L. Ma, K. Sokolov, K. Johnston, T. Milner, and S. Y. Emelianov, “Photoacoustic imaging and temperature measurement for photothermal cancer therapy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(3), 034024 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shishkov, M.

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I. K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med. 12(12), 1429–1433 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shung, K. K.

J. M. Yang, C. Li, R. Chen, Q. Zhou, K. K. Shung, and L. V. Wang, “Catheter-based photoacoustic endoscope,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(6), 066001 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Li, J. M. Yang, R. Chen, C.-H. Yeh, L. Zhu, K. Maslov, Q. Zhou, K. K. Shung, and L. V. Wang, “Urogenital photoacoustic endoscope,” Opt. Lett. 39(6), 1473–1476 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Li, J. M. Yang, R. Chen, Y. Zhang, Y. Xia, Q. Zhou, K. K. Shung, and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic endoscopic imaging study of melanoma tumor growth in a rat colorectum in vivo,” Proc. SPIE 8581, 85810D (2013).
[Crossref]

J. M. Yang, C. Favazza, R. Chen, J. Yao, X. Cai, K. Maslov, Q. Zhou, K. K. Shung, and L. V. Wang, “Simultaneous functional photoacoustic and ultrasonic endoscopy of internal organs in vivo,” Nat. Med. 18(8), 1297–1302 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Yang, K. Maslov, H. C. Yang, Q. Zhou, K. K. Shung, and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic endoscopy,” Opt. Lett. 34(10), 1591–1593 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Zhou, X. Xu, E. J. Gottlieb, L. Sun, J. M. Cannata, H. Ameri, M. S. Humayun, P. Han, and K. K. Shung, “PMN-PT single crystal, high-frequency ultrasonic needle transducers for pulsed-wave Doppler application,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 54(3), 668–675 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Cannata, T. A. Ritter, W. H. Chen, R. H. Silverman, and K. K. Shung, “Design of efficient, broadband single-element (20-80 MHz) ultrasonic transducers for medical imaging applications,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 50(11), 1548–1557 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Silverman, R. H.

J. M. Cannata, T. A. Ritter, W. H. Chen, R. H. Silverman, and K. K. Shung, “Design of efficient, broadband single-element (20-80 MHz) ultrasonic transducers for medical imaging applications,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 50(11), 1548–1557 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Simandoux, O.

I. N. Papadopoulos, O. Simandoux, S. Farahi, J. P. Huignard, E. Bossy, D. Psaltis, and C. Moser, “Optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy by use of a multimode fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(21), 211106 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sokolov, K.

J. Shah, S. Park, S. Aglyamov, T. Larson, L. Ma, K. Sokolov, K. Johnston, T. Milner, and S. Y. Emelianov, “Photoacoustic imaging and temperature measurement for photothermal cancer therapy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(3), 034024 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Song, L.

X. Bai, X. Gong, W. Hau, R. Lin, J. Zheng, C. Liu, C. Zeng, X. Zou, H. Zheng, and L. Song, “Intravascular optical-resolution photoacoustic tomography with a 1.1 mm diameter catheter,” PLoS ONE 9(3), e92463 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stoica, G.

L. Li, R. J. Zemp, G. Lungu, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic imaging of lacZ gene expression in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(2), 020504 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Functional photoacoustic microscopy for high-resolution and noninvasive in vivo imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 24(7), 848–851 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stylianopoulos, T.

B. J. Vakoc, R. M. Lanning, J. A. Tyrrell, T. P. Padera, L. A. Bartlett, T. Stylianopoulos, L. L. Munn, G. J. Tearney, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional microscopy of the tumor microenvironment in vivo using optical frequency domain imaging,” Nat. Med. 15(10), 1219–1223 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sun, C.

Sun, L.

Q. Zhou, X. Xu, E. J. Gottlieb, L. Sun, J. M. Cannata, H. Ameri, M. S. Humayun, P. Han, and K. K. Shung, “PMN-PT single crystal, high-frequency ultrasonic needle transducers for pulsed-wave Doppler application,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 54(3), 668–675 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Suter, M. J.

M. J. Gora, J. S. Sauk, R. W. Carruth, K. A. Gallagher, M. J. Suter, N. S. Nishioka, L. E. Kava, M. Rosenberg, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Tethered capsule endomicroscopy enables less invasive imaging of gastrointestinal tract microstructure,” Nat. Med. 19(2), 238–240 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I. K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med. 12(12), 1429–1433 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tearney, G. J.

M. J. Gora, J. S. Sauk, R. W. Carruth, K. A. Gallagher, M. J. Suter, N. S. Nishioka, L. E. Kava, M. Rosenberg, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Tethered capsule endomicroscopy enables less invasive imaging of gastrointestinal tract microstructure,” Nat. Med. 19(2), 238–240 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. J. Vakoc, R. M. Lanning, J. A. Tyrrell, T. P. Padera, L. A. Bartlett, T. Stylianopoulos, L. L. Munn, G. J. Tearney, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional microscopy of the tumor microenvironment in vivo using optical frequency domain imaging,” Nat. Med. 15(10), 1219–1223 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I. K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med. 12(12), 1429–1433 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tozer, G. M.

G. M. Tozer, S. M. Ameer-Beg, J. Baker, P. R. Barber, S. A. Hill, R. J. Hodgkiss, R. Locke, V. E. Prise, I. Wilson, and B. Vojnovic, “Intravital imaging of tumour vascular networks using multi-photon fluorescence microscopy,” Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 57(1), 135–152 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Treeby, B.

Tyrrell, J. A.

B. J. Vakoc, R. M. Lanning, J. A. Tyrrell, T. P. Padera, L. A. Bartlett, T. Stylianopoulos, L. L. Munn, G. J. Tearney, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional microscopy of the tumor microenvironment in vivo using optical frequency domain imaging,” Nat. Med. 15(10), 1219–1223 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vakoc, B. J.

B. J. Vakoc, R. M. Lanning, J. A. Tyrrell, T. P. Padera, L. A. Bartlett, T. Stylianopoulos, L. L. Munn, G. J. Tearney, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional microscopy of the tumor microenvironment in vivo using optical frequency domain imaging,” Nat. Med. 15(10), 1219–1223 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I. K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med. 12(12), 1429–1433 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Velasco, M. G.

Vieth, M.

R. Kiesslich, M. Goetz, M. Vieth, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “Technology Insight: confocal laser endoscopy for in vivo diagnosis of colorectal cancer,” Nat. Clin. Pract. Oncol. 4(8), 480–490 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vinegoni, C.

D. Razansky, M. Distel, C. Vinegoni, R. Ma, N. Perrimon, R. W. Köster, and V. Ntziachristos, “Multispectral opto-acoustic tomography of deep-seated fluorescent proteins in vivo,” Nat. Photonics 3(7), 412–417 (2009).
[Crossref]

Vojnovic, B.

G. M. Tozer, S. M. Ameer-Beg, J. Baker, P. R. Barber, S. A. Hill, R. J. Hodgkiss, R. Locke, V. E. Prise, I. Wilson, and B. Vojnovic, “Intravital imaging of tumour vascular networks using multi-photon fluorescence microscopy,” Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 57(1), 135–152 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, L.

L. Wang, C. Zhang, and L. V. Wang, “Grueneisen relaxation photoacoustic microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(17), 174301 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yao, C. H. Huang, L. Wang, J. M. Yang, L. Gao, K. I. Maslov, J. Zou, and L. V. Wang, “Wide-field fast-scanning photoacoustic microscopy based on a water-immersible MEMS scanning mirror,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(8), 080505 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Krumholz, L. Wang, J. Yao, and L. V. Wang, “Functional photoacoustic microscopy of diabetic vasculature,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(6), 060502 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, L. V.

J. M. Yang, C. Li, R. Chen, Q. Zhou, K. K. Shung, and L. V. Wang, “Catheter-based photoacoustic endoscope,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(6), 066001 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Li, J. M. Yang, R. Chen, C.-H. Yeh, L. Zhu, K. Maslov, Q. Zhou, K. K. Shung, and L. V. Wang, “Urogenital photoacoustic endoscope,” Opt. Lett. 39(6), 1473–1476 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Wang, C. Zhang, and L. V. Wang, “Grueneisen relaxation photoacoustic microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(17), 174301 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Li, J. M. Yang, R. Chen, Y. Zhang, Y. Xia, Q. Zhou, K. K. Shung, and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic endoscopic imaging study of melanoma tumor growth in a rat colorectum in vivo,” Proc. SPIE 8581, 85810D (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Krumholz, L. Wang, J. Yao, and L. V. Wang, “Functional photoacoustic microscopy of diabetic vasculature,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(6), 060502 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Liu, C. Zhang, and L. V. Wang, “Effects of light scattering on optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(12), 126014 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. V. Wang and S. Hu, “Photoacoustic tomography: in vivo imaging from organelles to organs,” Science 335(6075), 1458–1462 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Wang and L. V. Wang, “Förster resonance energy transfer photoacoustic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(8), 086007 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Yang, C. Favazza, R. Chen, J. Yao, X. Cai, K. Maslov, Q. Zhou, K. K. Shung, and L. V. Wang, “Simultaneous functional photoacoustic and ultrasonic endoscopy of internal organs in vivo,” Nat. Med. 18(8), 1297–1302 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yao, C. H. Huang, L. Wang, J. M. Yang, L. Gao, K. I. Maslov, J. Zou, and L. V. Wang, “Wide-field fast-scanning photoacoustic microscopy based on a water-immersible MEMS scanning mirror,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(8), 080505 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. R. Chatni, J. Yao, A. Danielli, C. P. Favazza, K. I. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, “Functional photoacoustic microscopy of pH,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(10), 100503 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yao, K. I. Maslov, Y. Zhang, Y. Xia, and L. V. Wang, “Label-free oxygen-metabolic photoacoustic microscopy in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(7), 076003 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Yang, K. Maslov, H. C. Yang, Q. Zhou, and L. V. Wang, “Endoscopic photoacoustic microscopy,” Proc. SPIE 7177, 71770N (2009).
[Crossref]

J. M. Yang, K. Maslov, H. C. Yang, Q. Zhou, K. K. Shung, and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic endoscopy,” Opt. Lett. 34(10), 1591–1593 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Maslov, H. F. Zhang, S. Hu, and L. V. Wang, “Optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy for in vivo imaging of single capillaries,” Opt. Lett. 33(9), 929–931 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Li, R. J. Zemp, G. Lungu, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic imaging of lacZ gene expression in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(2), 020504 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Functional photoacoustic microscopy for high-resolution and noninvasive in vivo imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 24(7), 848–851 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

Y. Wang and L. V. Wang, “Förster resonance energy transfer photoacoustic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(8), 086007 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Watanabe, S.

Weigert, R.

P. Amornphimoltham, A. Masedunskas, and R. Weigert, “Intravital microscopy as a tool to study drug delivery in preclinical studies,” Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 63(1-2), 119–128 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wilson, I.

G. M. Tozer, S. M. Ameer-Beg, J. Baker, P. R. Barber, S. A. Hill, R. J. Hodgkiss, R. Locke, V. E. Prise, I. Wilson, and B. Vojnovic, “Intravital imaging of tumour vascular networks using multi-photon fluorescence microscopy,” Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 57(1), 135–152 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xi, J.

Xia, Y.

C. Li, J. M. Yang, R. Chen, Y. Zhang, Y. Xia, Q. Zhou, K. K. Shung, and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic endoscopic imaging study of melanoma tumor growth in a rat colorectum in vivo,” Proc. SPIE 8581, 85810D (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Yao, K. I. Maslov, Y. Zhang, Y. Xia, and L. V. Wang, “Label-free oxygen-metabolic photoacoustic microscopy in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(7), 076003 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, X.

Q. Zhou, X. Xu, E. J. Gottlieb, L. Sun, J. M. Cannata, H. Ameri, M. S. Humayun, P. Han, and K. K. Shung, “PMN-PT single crystal, high-frequency ultrasonic needle transducers for pulsed-wave Doppler application,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 54(3), 668–675 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yamasaki, Y.

Yamashita, H.

P. Kim, E. Chung, H. Yamashita, K. E. Hung, A. Mizoguchi, R. Kucherlapati, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and S. H. Yun, “In vivo wide-area cellular imaging by side-view endomicroscopy,” Nat. Methods 7(4), 303–305 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yamasoba, T.

Yang, H. C.

J. M. Yang, K. Maslov, H. C. Yang, Q. Zhou, and L. V. Wang, “Endoscopic photoacoustic microscopy,” Proc. SPIE 7177, 71770N (2009).
[Crossref]

J. M. Yang, K. Maslov, H. C. Yang, Q. Zhou, K. K. Shung, and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic endoscopy,” Opt. Lett. 34(10), 1591–1593 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, J. M.

C. Li, J. M. Yang, R. Chen, C.-H. Yeh, L. Zhu, K. Maslov, Q. Zhou, K. K. Shung, and L. V. Wang, “Urogenital photoacoustic endoscope,” Opt. Lett. 39(6), 1473–1476 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Yang, C. Li, R. Chen, Q. Zhou, K. K. Shung, and L. V. Wang, “Catheter-based photoacoustic endoscope,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(6), 066001 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Li, J. M. Yang, R. Chen, Y. Zhang, Y. Xia, Q. Zhou, K. K. Shung, and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic endoscopic imaging study of melanoma tumor growth in a rat colorectum in vivo,” Proc. SPIE 8581, 85810D (2013).
[Crossref]

J. M. Yang, C. Favazza, R. Chen, J. Yao, X. Cai, K. Maslov, Q. Zhou, K. K. Shung, and L. V. Wang, “Simultaneous functional photoacoustic and ultrasonic endoscopy of internal organs in vivo,” Nat. Med. 18(8), 1297–1302 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yao, C. H. Huang, L. Wang, J. M. Yang, L. Gao, K. I. Maslov, J. Zou, and L. V. Wang, “Wide-field fast-scanning photoacoustic microscopy based on a water-immersible MEMS scanning mirror,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(8), 080505 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Yang, K. Maslov, H. C. Yang, Q. Zhou, and L. V. Wang, “Endoscopic photoacoustic microscopy,” Proc. SPIE 7177, 71770N (2009).
[Crossref]

J. M. Yang, K. Maslov, H. C. Yang, Q. Zhou, K. K. Shung, and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic endoscopy,” Opt. Lett. 34(10), 1591–1593 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yao, J.

A. Krumholz, L. Wang, J. Yao, and L. V. Wang, “Functional photoacoustic microscopy of diabetic vasculature,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(6), 060502 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yao, C. H. Huang, L. Wang, J. M. Yang, L. Gao, K. I. Maslov, J. Zou, and L. V. Wang, “Wide-field fast-scanning photoacoustic microscopy based on a water-immersible MEMS scanning mirror,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(8), 080505 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Yang, C. Favazza, R. Chen, J. Yao, X. Cai, K. Maslov, Q. Zhou, K. K. Shung, and L. V. Wang, “Simultaneous functional photoacoustic and ultrasonic endoscopy of internal organs in vivo,” Nat. Med. 18(8), 1297–1302 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yao, K. I. Maslov, Y. Zhang, Y. Xia, and L. V. Wang, “Label-free oxygen-metabolic photoacoustic microscopy in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(7), 076003 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. R. Chatni, J. Yao, A. Danielli, C. P. Favazza, K. I. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, “Functional photoacoustic microscopy of pH,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(10), 100503 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yeh, C.-H.

Yun, S. H.

P. Kim, E. Chung, H. Yamashita, K. E. Hung, A. Mizoguchi, R. Kucherlapati, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and S. H. Yun, “In vivo wide-area cellular imaging by side-view endomicroscopy,” Nat. Methods 7(4), 303–305 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I. K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med. 12(12), 1429–1433 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zemp, R. J.

L. Li, R. J. Zemp, G. Lungu, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic imaging of lacZ gene expression in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(2), 020504 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zeng, C.

X. Bai, X. Gong, W. Hau, R. Lin, J. Zheng, C. Liu, C. Zeng, X. Zou, H. Zheng, and L. Song, “Intravascular optical-resolution photoacoustic tomography with a 1.1 mm diameter catheter,” PLoS ONE 9(3), e92463 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, C.

L. Wang, C. Zhang, and L. V. Wang, “Grueneisen relaxation photoacoustic microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(17), 174301 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Liu, C. Zhang, and L. V. Wang, “Effects of light scattering on optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(12), 126014 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, E.

J. Laufer, P. Johnson, E. Zhang, B. Treeby, B. Cox, B. Pedley, and P. Beard, “In vivo preclinical photoacoustic imaging of tumor vasculature development and therapy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(5), 056016 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, E. Z.

Zhang, H. F.

Zhang, Y.

C. Li, J. M. Yang, R. Chen, Y. Zhang, Y. Xia, Q. Zhou, K. K. Shung, and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic endoscopic imaging study of melanoma tumor growth in a rat colorectum in vivo,” Proc. SPIE 8581, 85810D (2013).
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J. Xi, Y. Chen, Y. Zhang, K. Murari, M. J. Li, and X. Li, “Integrated multimodal endomicroscopy platform for simultaneous en face optical coherence and two-photon fluorescence imaging,” Opt. Lett. 37(3), 362–364 (2012).
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J. Yao, K. I. Maslov, Y. Zhang, Y. Xia, and L. V. Wang, “Label-free oxygen-metabolic photoacoustic microscopy in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(7), 076003 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Z.

Zheng, H.

X. Bai, X. Gong, W. Hau, R. Lin, J. Zheng, C. Liu, C. Zeng, X. Zou, H. Zheng, and L. Song, “Intravascular optical-resolution photoacoustic tomography with a 1.1 mm diameter catheter,” PLoS ONE 9(3), e92463 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zheng, J.

X. Bai, X. Gong, W. Hau, R. Lin, J. Zheng, C. Liu, C. Zeng, X. Zou, H. Zheng, and L. Song, “Intravascular optical-resolution photoacoustic tomography with a 1.1 mm diameter catheter,” PLoS ONE 9(3), e92463 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, Q.

J. M. Yang, C. Li, R. Chen, Q. Zhou, K. K. Shung, and L. V. Wang, “Catheter-based photoacoustic endoscope,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(6), 066001 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Li, J. M. Yang, R. Chen, Y. Zhang, Y. Xia, Q. Zhou, K. K. Shung, and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic endoscopic imaging study of melanoma tumor growth in a rat colorectum in vivo,” Proc. SPIE 8581, 85810D (2013).
[Crossref]

J. M. Yang, C. Favazza, R. Chen, J. Yao, X. Cai, K. Maslov, Q. Zhou, K. K. Shung, and L. V. Wang, “Simultaneous functional photoacoustic and ultrasonic endoscopy of internal organs in vivo,” Nat. Med. 18(8), 1297–1302 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Yang, K. Maslov, H. C. Yang, Q. Zhou, and L. V. Wang, “Endoscopic photoacoustic microscopy,” Proc. SPIE 7177, 71770N (2009).
[Crossref]

J. M. Yang, K. Maslov, H. C. Yang, Q. Zhou, K. K. Shung, and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic endoscopy,” Opt. Lett. 34(10), 1591–1593 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Zhou, X. Xu, E. J. Gottlieb, L. Sun, J. M. Cannata, H. Ameri, M. S. Humayun, P. Han, and K. K. Shung, “PMN-PT single crystal, high-frequency ultrasonic needle transducers for pulsed-wave Doppler application,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 54(3), 668–675 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhu, L.

Zou, J.

J. Yao, C. H. Huang, L. Wang, J. M. Yang, L. Gao, K. I. Maslov, J. Zou, and L. V. Wang, “Wide-field fast-scanning photoacoustic microscopy based on a water-immersible MEMS scanning mirror,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(8), 080505 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zou, X.

X. Bai, X. Gong, W. Hau, R. Lin, J. Zheng, C. Liu, C. Zeng, X. Zou, H. Zheng, and L. Song, “Intravascular optical-resolution photoacoustic tomography with a 1.1 mm diameter catheter,” PLoS ONE 9(3), e92463 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. (2)

P. Amornphimoltham, A. Masedunskas, and R. Weigert, “Intravital microscopy as a tool to study drug delivery in preclinical studies,” Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 63(1-2), 119–128 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. M. Tozer, S. M. Ameer-Beg, J. Baker, P. R. Barber, S. A. Hill, R. J. Hodgkiss, R. Locke, V. E. Prise, I. Wilson, and B. Vojnovic, “Intravital imaging of tumour vascular networks using multi-photon fluorescence microscopy,” Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 57(1), 135–152 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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I. N. Papadopoulos, O. Simandoux, S. Farahi, J. P. Huignard, E. Bossy, D. Psaltis, and C. Moser, “Optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy by use of a multimode fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(21), 211106 (2013).
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IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control (2)

J. M. Cannata, T. A. Ritter, W. H. Chen, R. H. Silverman, and K. K. Shung, “Design of efficient, broadband single-element (20-80 MHz) ultrasonic transducers for medical imaging applications,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 50(11), 1548–1557 (2003).
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Q. Zhou, X. Xu, E. J. Gottlieb, L. Sun, J. M. Cannata, H. Ameri, M. S. Humayun, P. Han, and K. K. Shung, “PMN-PT single crystal, high-frequency ultrasonic needle transducers for pulsed-wave Doppler application,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 54(3), 668–675 (2007).
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L. Li, R. J. Zemp, G. Lungu, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic imaging of lacZ gene expression in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(2), 020504 (2007).
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J. Shah, S. Park, S. Aglyamov, T. Larson, L. Ma, K. Sokolov, K. Johnston, T. Milner, and S. Y. Emelianov, “Photoacoustic imaging and temperature measurement for photothermal cancer therapy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(3), 034024 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Liu, C. Zhang, and L. V. Wang, “Effects of light scattering on optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(12), 126014 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Yang, C. Li, R. Chen, Q. Zhou, K. K. Shung, and L. V. Wang, “Catheter-based photoacoustic endoscope,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(6), 066001 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. R. Chatni, J. Yao, A. Danielli, C. P. Favazza, K. I. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, “Functional photoacoustic microscopy of pH,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(10), 100503 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Wang and L. V. Wang, “Förster resonance energy transfer photoacoustic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(8), 086007 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Laufer, P. Johnson, E. Zhang, B. Treeby, B. Cox, B. Pedley, and P. Beard, “In vivo preclinical photoacoustic imaging of tumor vasculature development and therapy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(5), 056016 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yao, K. I. Maslov, Y. Zhang, Y. Xia, and L. V. Wang, “Label-free oxygen-metabolic photoacoustic microscopy in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(7), 076003 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yao, C. H. Huang, L. Wang, J. M. Yang, L. Gao, K. I. Maslov, J. Zou, and L. V. Wang, “Wide-field fast-scanning photoacoustic microscopy based on a water-immersible MEMS scanning mirror,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(8), 080505 (2012).
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A. Krumholz, L. Wang, J. Yao, and L. V. Wang, “Functional photoacoustic microscopy of diabetic vasculature,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(6), 060502 (2012).
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D. Fukumura, D. G. Duda, L. L. Munn, and R. K. Jain, “Tumor microvasculature and microenvironment: novel insights through intravital imaging in pre-clinical models,” Microcirculation 17(3), 206–225 (2010).
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Nat. Biotechnol. (1)

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Functional photoacoustic microscopy for high-resolution and noninvasive in vivo imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 24(7), 848–851 (2006).
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Nat. Methods (1)

P. Kim, E. Chung, H. Yamashita, K. E. Hung, A. Mizoguchi, R. Kucherlapati, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and S. H. Yun, “In vivo wide-area cellular imaging by side-view endomicroscopy,” Nat. Methods 7(4), 303–305 (2010).
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D. Razansky, M. Distel, C. Vinegoni, R. Ma, N. Perrimon, R. W. Köster, and V. Ntziachristos, “Multispectral opto-acoustic tomography of deep-seated fluorescent proteins in vivo,” Nat. Photonics 3(7), 412–417 (2009).
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L. Wang, C. Zhang, and L. V. Wang, “Grueneisen relaxation photoacoustic microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(17), 174301 (2014).
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PLoS ONE (1)

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Proc. SPIE (3)

C. Li, J. M. Yang, R. Chen, Y. Zhang, Y. Xia, Q. Zhou, K. K. Shung, and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic endoscopic imaging study of melanoma tumor growth in a rat colorectum in vivo,” Proc. SPIE 8581, 85810D (2013).
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J. M. Yang, K. Maslov, H. C. Yang, Q. Zhou, and L. V. Wang, “Endoscopic photoacoustic microscopy,” Proc. SPIE 7177, 71770N (2009).
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Science (1)

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Supplementary Material (1)

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 OR-PAEM probe and peripheral systems. (a,b) Photos of the OR-PAEM probe showing the imaging window side (a) and bridge side (b). (c) Photo of the SS tubular housing and distal cap. SS, stainless steel. (d) Photo of the optical illumination and acoustic detection unit. (e) Photo of the scanning mirror and micromotor unit. (f) Schematic of (d). The virtual locations of the scanning mirror and the plastic membrane (imaging window) are indicated by two colored dashed lines. (g) Photos of the GRIN lens unit before (upper) and after (lower) being enclosed by a SS tube 2. (h) Front view of the US transducer. (i) Laser beam intensity profile at the focal distance. (j) Schematic of the entire setup. (k) Motorized pullback stage. (l) Frequency multiplier circuit diagram.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Acoustic characteristics of the US transducer. (a) Geometry of the transducer (side view). (b) Experimentally measured US pulse-echo signal variation. (c) Simulated transmission (1W) acoustic intensity map. (d) Theoretical transverse 1W- and 2W-PSFs on the focal place, along with an experimentally measured 2W-LSF. (e) 1W FWHM-based acoustic beam diameter vs. axial distance. (f) 1W and 2W acoustic amplitude variations vs. axial distance.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Photos showing the pre-imaging procedure (providing acoustic matching and sheathing). (a) Submerging the mechanical unit and SS tubular housing of the probe. (b) Injecting deionized water into the GRIN lens and transducer unit. (c) Inserting the GRIN lens and transducer unit into the SS tubular housing. (d) Inserting the mechanical unit into the SS tubular housing. (e) Photo after finishing procedures (a)–(d). (f) Closing the water drainage tube. (g) Closing the distal section of the probe. (h) Inserting HST1. (i) Inserting HST2. HST, heat shrink tube. (j) Photo showing a completely assembled and sheathed probe. (k) Mounting the probe on the pullback stage.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Quantification of the system resolutions and sensitivity. (a) Schematic rendering of the microsphere-gelatin phantom imaging experiment. (b) Light microscopic image of the microsphere-gelatin mixture. (c) Representative B-scan image (Hilbert transformed) acquired from the microsphere-gelatin phantom. (d) Merged plot of representative A-line signals (Hilbert transformed) generated by microspheres at different depths, which shows a PA signal distribution according to depth (due to the large data size, we plotted only the most prominent microsphere’s A-line signal at each depth). (e) Plot of sequential A-line signals generated from a microsphere located at the focus. (f) Radial PSF extracted from (e). (g) Photo showing the blade target and scanning direction. (h) Averaged B-scan image of the blade (Hilbert transformed). (i) ESF extracted from (h). (j) LSF derived from (i). In (i) and (j), the dashed curves were fitted with an error function and a Gaussian function, respectively.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Label-free in vivo OR-PAEM images of a rat colorectum. (a) Volume rendered image (Media 1). The right-hand side corresponds to the anus. (b) RMAP image of (a). MD, mid-dorsal; L, left; R, right. (c–f) Representative B-scan images (selected from the marked four positions, only ~2.0 mm depths are displayed). In the magnified image of (c), the dashed white arc represents the optical working distance of the probe. LBV, large blood vessel. (g) Post-experiment surgical photo.

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