Abstract

Fiber-optic microendoscopes have shown promise to image the changes in nuclear morphometry that accompany the development of precancerous lesions in tissue with squamous epithelium such as in the oral mucosa and cervix. However, fiber-optic microendoscopy image contrast is limited by out-of-focus light generated by scattering within tissue. The scattering coefficient of tissues with columnar epithelium can be greater than that of squamous epithelium resulting in decreased image quality. To address this challenge, we present a small and portable microendoscope system capable of performing optical sectioning using structured illumination (SI) in real-time. Several optical phantoms were developed and used to quantify the sectioning capabilities of the system. Columnar epithelium from cervical tissue specimens was then imaged ex vivo, and we demonstrate that the addition of SI achieves higher image contrast, enabling visualization of nuclear morphology.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
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References

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2015 (1)

D. Shin, M. A. Protano, A. D. Polydorides, S. M. Dawsey, M. C. Pierce, M. K. Kim, R. A. Schwarz, T. Quang, N. Parikh, M. S. Bhutani, F. Zhang, G. Wang, L. Xue, X. Wang, H. Xu, S. Anandasabapathy, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Quantitative Analysis of High-Resolution Microendoscopic Images for Diagnosis of Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 13(2), 272–279 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (2)

N. D. Parikh, D. Perl, M. H. Lee, B. Shah, Y. Young, S. S. Chang, R. Shukla, A. D. Polydorides, E. Moshier, J. Godbold, E. Zhou, J. Mitcham, R. Richards-Kortum, and S. Anandasabapathy, “In vivo diagnostic accuracy of high-resolution microendoscopy in differentiating neoplastic from non-neoplastic colorectal polyps: a prospective study,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 109(1), 68–75 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. M. Vila, M. J. Kingsley, A. D. Polydorides, M. A. Protano, M. C. Pierce, J. Sauk, M. K. Kim, K. Patel, J. H. Godbold, J. D. Waye, R. Richards-Kortum, and S. Anandasabapathy, “Accuracy and interrater reliability for the diagnosis of Barrett’s neoplasia among users of a novel, portable high-resolution microendoscope,” Dis. Esophagus 27(1), 55–62 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (4)

S. S. Chang, R. Shukla, A. D. Polydorides, P. M. Vila, M. Lee, H. Han, P. Kedia, J. Lewis, S. Gonzalez, M. K. Kim, N. Harpaz, J. Godbold, R. Richards-Kortum, and S. Anandasabapathy, “High resolution microendoscopy for classification of colorectal polyps,” Endoscopy 45(7), 553–559 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Kyrish, J. Dobbs, S. Jain, X. Wang, D. Yu, R. Richards-Kortum, and T. S. Tkaczyk, “Needle-based fluorescence endomicroscopy via structured illumination with a plastic, achromatic objective,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(9), 096003 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Xu, T. Jiang, A. Li, B. Hu, Z. Feng, H. Gong, S. Zeng, and Q. Luo, “Fast optical sectioning obtained by structured illumination microscopy using a digital mirror device,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(6), 060503 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. H. Koucky and M. C. Pierce, “Axial response of high-resolution microendoscopy in scattering media,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(10), 2247–2256 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (3)

A. G. York, S. H. Parekh, D. Dalle Nogare, R. S. Fischer, K. Temprine, M. Mione, A. B. Chitnis, C. A. Combs, and H. Shroff, “Resolution doubling in live, multicellular organisms via multifocal structured illumination microscopy,” Nat. Methods 9(7), 749–754 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. K. Quinn, T. C. Bubi, M. C. Pierce, M. K. Kayembe, D. Ramogola-Masire, and R. Richards-Kortum, “High-resolution microendoscopy for the detection of cervical neoplasia in low-resource settings,” PLoS ONE 7(9), e44924 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Regunathan, J. Woo, M. C. Pierce, A. D. Polydorides, M. Raoufi, S. Roayaie, M. Schwartz, D. Labow, D. Shin, R. Suzuki, M. S. Bhutani, L. G. Coghlan, R. Richards-Kortum, S. Anandasabapathy, and M. K. Kim, “Feasibility and preliminary accuracy of high-resolution imaging of the liver and pancreas using FNA compatible microendoscopy (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc. 76(2), 293–300 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

T. Wilson, “Optical sectioning in fluorescence microscopy,” J. Microsc. 242(2), 111–116 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

T. J. Muldoon, PhDD. Roblyer, PhDM. D. Williams, MDV. M. T. Stepanek, MD, PhDR. Richards-Kortum, PhD, andA. M. Gillenwater, MD, “Noninvasive imaging of oral neoplasia with a high-resolution fiber-optic microendoscope,” Head Neck 34(3), 305–312 (2010).

T. J. Muldoon, PhDD. Roblyer, PhDM. D. Williams, MDV. M. T. Stepanek, MD, PhDR. Richards-Kortum, PhD, andA. M. Gillenwater, MD, “Noninvasive imaging of oral neoplasia with a high-resolution fiber-optic microendoscope,” Head Neck 34(3), 305–312 (2010).

T. J. Muldoon, PhDD. Roblyer, PhDM. D. Williams, MDV. M. T. Stepanek, MD, PhDR. Richards-Kortum, PhD, andA. M. Gillenwater, MD, “Noninvasive imaging of oral neoplasia with a high-resolution fiber-optic microendoscope,” Head Neck 34(3), 305–312 (2010).

T. J. Muldoon, PhDD. Roblyer, PhDM. D. Williams, MDV. M. T. Stepanek, MD, PhDR. Richards-Kortum, PhD, andA. M. Gillenwater, MD, “Noninvasive imaging of oral neoplasia with a high-resolution fiber-optic microendoscope,” Head Neck 34(3), 305–312 (2010).

T. J. Muldoon, PhDD. Roblyer, PhDM. D. Williams, MDV. M. T. Stepanek, MD, PhDR. Richards-Kortum, PhD, andA. M. Gillenwater, MD, “Noninvasive imaging of oral neoplasia with a high-resolution fiber-optic microendoscope,” Head Neck 34(3), 305–312 (2010).

T. J. Muldoon, PhDD. Roblyer, PhDM. D. Williams, MDV. M. T. Stepanek, MD, PhDR. Richards-Kortum, PhD, andA. M. Gillenwater, MD, “Noninvasive imaging of oral neoplasia with a high-resolution fiber-optic microendoscope,” Head Neck 34(3), 305–312 (2010).

D. Shin, M. C. Pierce, A. M. Gillenwater, M. D. Williams, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “A Fiber-Optic Fluorescence Microscope Using a Consumer-Grade Digital Camera for in Vivo Cellular Imaging,” PLoS ONE 5(6), e11218 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

C. Redden Weber, R. A. Schwarz, E. N. Atkinson, D. D. Cox, C. Macaulay, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Model-based analysis of reflectance and fluorescence spectra for in vivo detection of cervical dysplasia and cancer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 064016 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. J. Muldoon, S. Anandasabapathy, D. Maru, and R. Richards-Kortum, “High-resolution imaging in Barrett’s esophagus: a novel, low-cost endoscopic microscope,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 68(4), 737–744 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Bozinovic, C. Ventalon, T. Ford, and J. Mertz, “Fluorescence endomicroscopy with structured illumination,” Opt. Express 16(11), 8016–8025 (2008).
[PubMed]

2007 (1)

2002 (1)

I. Georgakoudi, E. E. Sheets, M. G. Müller, V. Backman, C. P. Crum, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Trimodal spectroscopy for the detection and characterization of cervical precancers in vivo,” Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 186(3), 374–382 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

Anandasabapathy, S.

D. Shin, M. A. Protano, A. D. Polydorides, S. M. Dawsey, M. C. Pierce, M. K. Kim, R. A. Schwarz, T. Quang, N. Parikh, M. S. Bhutani, F. Zhang, G. Wang, L. Xue, X. Wang, H. Xu, S. Anandasabapathy, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Quantitative Analysis of High-Resolution Microendoscopic Images for Diagnosis of Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 13(2), 272–279 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. D. Parikh, D. Perl, M. H. Lee, B. Shah, Y. Young, S. S. Chang, R. Shukla, A. D. Polydorides, E. Moshier, J. Godbold, E. Zhou, J. Mitcham, R. Richards-Kortum, and S. Anandasabapathy, “In vivo diagnostic accuracy of high-resolution microendoscopy in differentiating neoplastic from non-neoplastic colorectal polyps: a prospective study,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 109(1), 68–75 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. M. Vila, M. J. Kingsley, A. D. Polydorides, M. A. Protano, M. C. Pierce, J. Sauk, M. K. Kim, K. Patel, J. H. Godbold, J. D. Waye, R. Richards-Kortum, and S. Anandasabapathy, “Accuracy and interrater reliability for the diagnosis of Barrett’s neoplasia among users of a novel, portable high-resolution microendoscope,” Dis. Esophagus 27(1), 55–62 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. S. Chang, R. Shukla, A. D. Polydorides, P. M. Vila, M. Lee, H. Han, P. Kedia, J. Lewis, S. Gonzalez, M. K. Kim, N. Harpaz, J. Godbold, R. Richards-Kortum, and S. Anandasabapathy, “High resolution microendoscopy for classification of colorectal polyps,” Endoscopy 45(7), 553–559 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Regunathan, J. Woo, M. C. Pierce, A. D. Polydorides, M. Raoufi, S. Roayaie, M. Schwartz, D. Labow, D. Shin, R. Suzuki, M. S. Bhutani, L. G. Coghlan, R. Richards-Kortum, S. Anandasabapathy, and M. K. Kim, “Feasibility and preliminary accuracy of high-resolution imaging of the liver and pancreas using FNA compatible microendoscopy (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc. 76(2), 293–300 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. J. Muldoon, S. Anandasabapathy, D. Maru, and R. Richards-Kortum, “High-resolution imaging in Barrett’s esophagus: a novel, low-cost endoscopic microscope,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 68(4), 737–744 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Atkinson, E. N.

C. Redden Weber, R. A. Schwarz, E. N. Atkinson, D. D. Cox, C. Macaulay, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Model-based analysis of reflectance and fluorescence spectra for in vivo detection of cervical dysplasia and cancer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 064016 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Backman, V.

I. Georgakoudi, E. E. Sheets, M. G. Müller, V. Backman, C. P. Crum, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Trimodal spectroscopy for the detection and characterization of cervical precancers in vivo,” Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 186(3), 374–382 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Badizadegan, K.

I. Georgakoudi, E. E. Sheets, M. G. Müller, V. Backman, C. P. Crum, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Trimodal spectroscopy for the detection and characterization of cervical precancers in vivo,” Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 186(3), 374–382 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bhutani, M. S.

D. Shin, M. A. Protano, A. D. Polydorides, S. M. Dawsey, M. C. Pierce, M. K. Kim, R. A. Schwarz, T. Quang, N. Parikh, M. S. Bhutani, F. Zhang, G. Wang, L. Xue, X. Wang, H. Xu, S. Anandasabapathy, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Quantitative Analysis of High-Resolution Microendoscopic Images for Diagnosis of Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 13(2), 272–279 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Regunathan, J. Woo, M. C. Pierce, A. D. Polydorides, M. Raoufi, S. Roayaie, M. Schwartz, D. Labow, D. Shin, R. Suzuki, M. S. Bhutani, L. G. Coghlan, R. Richards-Kortum, S. Anandasabapathy, and M. K. Kim, “Feasibility and preliminary accuracy of high-resolution imaging of the liver and pancreas using FNA compatible microendoscopy (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc. 76(2), 293–300 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bozinovic, N.

Bubi, T. C.

M. K. Quinn, T. C. Bubi, M. C. Pierce, M. K. Kayembe, D. Ramogola-Masire, and R. Richards-Kortum, “High-resolution microendoscopy for the detection of cervical neoplasia in low-resource settings,” PLoS ONE 7(9), e44924 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, S. S.

N. D. Parikh, D. Perl, M. H. Lee, B. Shah, Y. Young, S. S. Chang, R. Shukla, A. D. Polydorides, E. Moshier, J. Godbold, E. Zhou, J. Mitcham, R. Richards-Kortum, and S. Anandasabapathy, “In vivo diagnostic accuracy of high-resolution microendoscopy in differentiating neoplastic from non-neoplastic colorectal polyps: a prospective study,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 109(1), 68–75 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. S. Chang, R. Shukla, A. D. Polydorides, P. M. Vila, M. Lee, H. Han, P. Kedia, J. Lewis, S. Gonzalez, M. K. Kim, N. Harpaz, J. Godbold, R. Richards-Kortum, and S. Anandasabapathy, “High resolution microendoscopy for classification of colorectal polyps,” Endoscopy 45(7), 553–559 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chitnis, A. B.

A. G. York, S. H. Parekh, D. Dalle Nogare, R. S. Fischer, K. Temprine, M. Mione, A. B. Chitnis, C. A. Combs, and H. Shroff, “Resolution doubling in live, multicellular organisms via multifocal structured illumination microscopy,” Nat. Methods 9(7), 749–754 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Coghlan, L. G.

R. Regunathan, J. Woo, M. C. Pierce, A. D. Polydorides, M. Raoufi, S. Roayaie, M. Schwartz, D. Labow, D. Shin, R. Suzuki, M. S. Bhutani, L. G. Coghlan, R. Richards-Kortum, S. Anandasabapathy, and M. K. Kim, “Feasibility and preliminary accuracy of high-resolution imaging of the liver and pancreas using FNA compatible microendoscopy (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc. 76(2), 293–300 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Combs, C. A.

A. G. York, S. H. Parekh, D. Dalle Nogare, R. S. Fischer, K. Temprine, M. Mione, A. B. Chitnis, C. A. Combs, and H. Shroff, “Resolution doubling in live, multicellular organisms via multifocal structured illumination microscopy,” Nat. Methods 9(7), 749–754 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cox, D. D.

C. Redden Weber, R. A. Schwarz, E. N. Atkinson, D. D. Cox, C. Macaulay, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Model-based analysis of reflectance and fluorescence spectra for in vivo detection of cervical dysplasia and cancer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 064016 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Crum, C. P.

I. Georgakoudi, E. E. Sheets, M. G. Müller, V. Backman, C. P. Crum, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Trimodal spectroscopy for the detection and characterization of cervical precancers in vivo,” Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 186(3), 374–382 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dalle Nogare, D.

A. G. York, S. H. Parekh, D. Dalle Nogare, R. S. Fischer, K. Temprine, M. Mione, A. B. Chitnis, C. A. Combs, and H. Shroff, “Resolution doubling in live, multicellular organisms via multifocal structured illumination microscopy,” Nat. Methods 9(7), 749–754 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dasari, R. R.

I. Georgakoudi, E. E. Sheets, M. G. Müller, V. Backman, C. P. Crum, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Trimodal spectroscopy for the detection and characterization of cervical precancers in vivo,” Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 186(3), 374–382 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dawsey, S. M.

D. Shin, M. A. Protano, A. D. Polydorides, S. M. Dawsey, M. C. Pierce, M. K. Kim, R. A. Schwarz, T. Quang, N. Parikh, M. S. Bhutani, F. Zhang, G. Wang, L. Xue, X. Wang, H. Xu, S. Anandasabapathy, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Quantitative Analysis of High-Resolution Microendoscopic Images for Diagnosis of Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 13(2), 272–279 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dobbs, J.

M. Kyrish, J. Dobbs, S. Jain, X. Wang, D. Yu, R. Richards-Kortum, and T. S. Tkaczyk, “Needle-based fluorescence endomicroscopy via structured illumination with a plastic, achromatic objective,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(9), 096003 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feld, M. S.

I. Georgakoudi, E. E. Sheets, M. G. Müller, V. Backman, C. P. Crum, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Trimodal spectroscopy for the detection and characterization of cervical precancers in vivo,” Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 186(3), 374–382 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feng, Z.

D. Xu, T. Jiang, A. Li, B. Hu, Z. Feng, H. Gong, S. Zeng, and Q. Luo, “Fast optical sectioning obtained by structured illumination microscopy using a digital mirror device,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(6), 060503 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fischer, R. S.

A. G. York, S. H. Parekh, D. Dalle Nogare, R. S. Fischer, K. Temprine, M. Mione, A. B. Chitnis, C. A. Combs, and H. Shroff, “Resolution doubling in live, multicellular organisms via multifocal structured illumination microscopy,” Nat. Methods 9(7), 749–754 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Follen, M.

C. Redden Weber, R. A. Schwarz, E. N. Atkinson, D. D. Cox, C. Macaulay, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Model-based analysis of reflectance and fluorescence spectra for in vivo detection of cervical dysplasia and cancer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 064016 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ford, T.

Georgakoudi, I.

I. Georgakoudi, E. E. Sheets, M. G. Müller, V. Backman, C. P. Crum, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Trimodal spectroscopy for the detection and characterization of cervical precancers in vivo,” Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 186(3), 374–382 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gillenwater, A.

Gillenwater, A. M.

T. J. Muldoon, PhDD. Roblyer, PhDM. D. Williams, MDV. M. T. Stepanek, MD, PhDR. Richards-Kortum, PhD, andA. M. Gillenwater, MD, “Noninvasive imaging of oral neoplasia with a high-resolution fiber-optic microendoscope,” Head Neck 34(3), 305–312 (2010).

D. Shin, M. C. Pierce, A. M. Gillenwater, M. D. Williams, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “A Fiber-Optic Fluorescence Microscope Using a Consumer-Grade Digital Camera for in Vivo Cellular Imaging,” PLoS ONE 5(6), e11218 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Godbold, J.

N. D. Parikh, D. Perl, M. H. Lee, B. Shah, Y. Young, S. S. Chang, R. Shukla, A. D. Polydorides, E. Moshier, J. Godbold, E. Zhou, J. Mitcham, R. Richards-Kortum, and S. Anandasabapathy, “In vivo diagnostic accuracy of high-resolution microendoscopy in differentiating neoplastic from non-neoplastic colorectal polyps: a prospective study,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 109(1), 68–75 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. S. Chang, R. Shukla, A. D. Polydorides, P. M. Vila, M. Lee, H. Han, P. Kedia, J. Lewis, S. Gonzalez, M. K. Kim, N. Harpaz, J. Godbold, R. Richards-Kortum, and S. Anandasabapathy, “High resolution microendoscopy for classification of colorectal polyps,” Endoscopy 45(7), 553–559 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Godbold, J. H.

P. M. Vila, M. J. Kingsley, A. D. Polydorides, M. A. Protano, M. C. Pierce, J. Sauk, M. K. Kim, K. Patel, J. H. Godbold, J. D. Waye, R. Richards-Kortum, and S. Anandasabapathy, “Accuracy and interrater reliability for the diagnosis of Barrett’s neoplasia among users of a novel, portable high-resolution microendoscope,” Dis. Esophagus 27(1), 55–62 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gong, H.

D. Xu, T. Jiang, A. Li, B. Hu, Z. Feng, H. Gong, S. Zeng, and Q. Luo, “Fast optical sectioning obtained by structured illumination microscopy using a digital mirror device,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(6), 060503 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gonzalez, S.

S. S. Chang, R. Shukla, A. D. Polydorides, P. M. Vila, M. Lee, H. Han, P. Kedia, J. Lewis, S. Gonzalez, M. K. Kim, N. Harpaz, J. Godbold, R. Richards-Kortum, and S. Anandasabapathy, “High resolution microendoscopy for classification of colorectal polyps,” Endoscopy 45(7), 553–559 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Han, H.

S. S. Chang, R. Shukla, A. D. Polydorides, P. M. Vila, M. Lee, H. Han, P. Kedia, J. Lewis, S. Gonzalez, M. K. Kim, N. Harpaz, J. Godbold, R. Richards-Kortum, and S. Anandasabapathy, “High resolution microendoscopy for classification of colorectal polyps,” Endoscopy 45(7), 553–559 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Harpaz, N.

S. S. Chang, R. Shukla, A. D. Polydorides, P. M. Vila, M. Lee, H. Han, P. Kedia, J. Lewis, S. Gonzalez, M. K. Kim, N. Harpaz, J. Godbold, R. Richards-Kortum, and S. Anandasabapathy, “High resolution microendoscopy for classification of colorectal polyps,” Endoscopy 45(7), 553–559 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hu, B.

D. Xu, T. Jiang, A. Li, B. Hu, Z. Feng, H. Gong, S. Zeng, and Q. Luo, “Fast optical sectioning obtained by structured illumination microscopy using a digital mirror device,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(6), 060503 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jain, S.

M. Kyrish, J. Dobbs, S. Jain, X. Wang, D. Yu, R. Richards-Kortum, and T. S. Tkaczyk, “Needle-based fluorescence endomicroscopy via structured illumination with a plastic, achromatic objective,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(9), 096003 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jiang, T.

D. Xu, T. Jiang, A. Li, B. Hu, Z. Feng, H. Gong, S. Zeng, and Q. Luo, “Fast optical sectioning obtained by structured illumination microscopy using a digital mirror device,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(6), 060503 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Juskaitis, R.

Kayembe, M. K.

M. K. Quinn, T. C. Bubi, M. C. Pierce, M. K. Kayembe, D. Ramogola-Masire, and R. Richards-Kortum, “High-resolution microendoscopy for the detection of cervical neoplasia in low-resource settings,” PLoS ONE 7(9), e44924 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kedia, P.

S. S. Chang, R. Shukla, A. D. Polydorides, P. M. Vila, M. Lee, H. Han, P. Kedia, J. Lewis, S. Gonzalez, M. K. Kim, N. Harpaz, J. Godbold, R. Richards-Kortum, and S. Anandasabapathy, “High resolution microendoscopy for classification of colorectal polyps,” Endoscopy 45(7), 553–559 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, M. K.

D. Shin, M. A. Protano, A. D. Polydorides, S. M. Dawsey, M. C. Pierce, M. K. Kim, R. A. Schwarz, T. Quang, N. Parikh, M. S. Bhutani, F. Zhang, G. Wang, L. Xue, X. Wang, H. Xu, S. Anandasabapathy, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Quantitative Analysis of High-Resolution Microendoscopic Images for Diagnosis of Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 13(2), 272–279 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. M. Vila, M. J. Kingsley, A. D. Polydorides, M. A. Protano, M. C. Pierce, J. Sauk, M. K. Kim, K. Patel, J. H. Godbold, J. D. Waye, R. Richards-Kortum, and S. Anandasabapathy, “Accuracy and interrater reliability for the diagnosis of Barrett’s neoplasia among users of a novel, portable high-resolution microendoscope,” Dis. Esophagus 27(1), 55–62 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. S. Chang, R. Shukla, A. D. Polydorides, P. M. Vila, M. Lee, H. Han, P. Kedia, J. Lewis, S. Gonzalez, M. K. Kim, N. Harpaz, J. Godbold, R. Richards-Kortum, and S. Anandasabapathy, “High resolution microendoscopy for classification of colorectal polyps,” Endoscopy 45(7), 553–559 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Regunathan, J. Woo, M. C. Pierce, A. D. Polydorides, M. Raoufi, S. Roayaie, M. Schwartz, D. Labow, D. Shin, R. Suzuki, M. S. Bhutani, L. G. Coghlan, R. Richards-Kortum, S. Anandasabapathy, and M. K. Kim, “Feasibility and preliminary accuracy of high-resolution imaging of the liver and pancreas using FNA compatible microendoscopy (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc. 76(2), 293–300 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kingsley, M. J.

P. M. Vila, M. J. Kingsley, A. D. Polydorides, M. A. Protano, M. C. Pierce, J. Sauk, M. K. Kim, K. Patel, J. H. Godbold, J. D. Waye, R. Richards-Kortum, and S. Anandasabapathy, “Accuracy and interrater reliability for the diagnosis of Barrett’s neoplasia among users of a novel, portable high-resolution microendoscope,” Dis. Esophagus 27(1), 55–62 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Koucky, M. H.

Kyrish, M.

M. Kyrish, J. Dobbs, S. Jain, X. Wang, D. Yu, R. Richards-Kortum, and T. S. Tkaczyk, “Needle-based fluorescence endomicroscopy via structured illumination with a plastic, achromatic objective,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(9), 096003 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Labow, D.

R. Regunathan, J. Woo, M. C. Pierce, A. D. Polydorides, M. Raoufi, S. Roayaie, M. Schwartz, D. Labow, D. Shin, R. Suzuki, M. S. Bhutani, L. G. Coghlan, R. Richards-Kortum, S. Anandasabapathy, and M. K. Kim, “Feasibility and preliminary accuracy of high-resolution imaging of the liver and pancreas using FNA compatible microendoscopy (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc. 76(2), 293–300 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, M.

S. S. Chang, R. Shukla, A. D. Polydorides, P. M. Vila, M. Lee, H. Han, P. Kedia, J. Lewis, S. Gonzalez, M. K. Kim, N. Harpaz, J. Godbold, R. Richards-Kortum, and S. Anandasabapathy, “High resolution microendoscopy for classification of colorectal polyps,” Endoscopy 45(7), 553–559 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, M. H.

N. D. Parikh, D. Perl, M. H. Lee, B. Shah, Y. Young, S. S. Chang, R. Shukla, A. D. Polydorides, E. Moshier, J. Godbold, E. Zhou, J. Mitcham, R. Richards-Kortum, and S. Anandasabapathy, “In vivo diagnostic accuracy of high-resolution microendoscopy in differentiating neoplastic from non-neoplastic colorectal polyps: a prospective study,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 109(1), 68–75 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lewis, J.

S. S. Chang, R. Shukla, A. D. Polydorides, P. M. Vila, M. Lee, H. Han, P. Kedia, J. Lewis, S. Gonzalez, M. K. Kim, N. Harpaz, J. Godbold, R. Richards-Kortum, and S. Anandasabapathy, “High resolution microendoscopy for classification of colorectal polyps,” Endoscopy 45(7), 553–559 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, A.

D. Xu, T. Jiang, A. Li, B. Hu, Z. Feng, H. Gong, S. Zeng, and Q. Luo, “Fast optical sectioning obtained by structured illumination microscopy using a digital mirror device,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(6), 060503 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Luo, Q.

D. Xu, T. Jiang, A. Li, B. Hu, Z. Feng, H. Gong, S. Zeng, and Q. Luo, “Fast optical sectioning obtained by structured illumination microscopy using a digital mirror device,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(6), 060503 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Macaulay, C.

C. Redden Weber, R. A. Schwarz, E. N. Atkinson, D. D. Cox, C. Macaulay, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Model-based analysis of reflectance and fluorescence spectra for in vivo detection of cervical dysplasia and cancer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 064016 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maru, D.

T. J. Muldoon, S. Anandasabapathy, D. Maru, and R. Richards-Kortum, “High-resolution imaging in Barrett’s esophagus: a novel, low-cost endoscopic microscope,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 68(4), 737–744 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mertz, J.

Mione, M.

A. G. York, S. H. Parekh, D. Dalle Nogare, R. S. Fischer, K. Temprine, M. Mione, A. B. Chitnis, C. A. Combs, and H. Shroff, “Resolution doubling in live, multicellular organisms via multifocal structured illumination microscopy,” Nat. Methods 9(7), 749–754 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mitcham, J.

N. D. Parikh, D. Perl, M. H. Lee, B. Shah, Y. Young, S. S. Chang, R. Shukla, A. D. Polydorides, E. Moshier, J. Godbold, E. Zhou, J. Mitcham, R. Richards-Kortum, and S. Anandasabapathy, “In vivo diagnostic accuracy of high-resolution microendoscopy in differentiating neoplastic from non-neoplastic colorectal polyps: a prospective study,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 109(1), 68–75 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moshier, E.

N. D. Parikh, D. Perl, M. H. Lee, B. Shah, Y. Young, S. S. Chang, R. Shukla, A. D. Polydorides, E. Moshier, J. Godbold, E. Zhou, J. Mitcham, R. Richards-Kortum, and S. Anandasabapathy, “In vivo diagnostic accuracy of high-resolution microendoscopy in differentiating neoplastic from non-neoplastic colorectal polyps: a prospective study,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 109(1), 68–75 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Muldoon, T. J.

T. J. Muldoon, PhDD. Roblyer, PhDM. D. Williams, MDV. M. T. Stepanek, MD, PhDR. Richards-Kortum, PhD, andA. M. Gillenwater, MD, “Noninvasive imaging of oral neoplasia with a high-resolution fiber-optic microendoscope,” Head Neck 34(3), 305–312 (2010).

T. J. Muldoon, S. Anandasabapathy, D. Maru, and R. Richards-Kortum, “High-resolution imaging in Barrett’s esophagus: a novel, low-cost endoscopic microscope,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 68(4), 737–744 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. J. Muldoon, M. C. Pierce, D. L. Nida, M. D. Williams, A. Gillenwater, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Subcellular-resolution molecular imaging within living tissue by fiber microendoscopy,” Opt. Express 15(25), 16413–16423 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Müller, M. G.

I. Georgakoudi, E. E. Sheets, M. G. Müller, V. Backman, C. P. Crum, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Trimodal spectroscopy for the detection and characterization of cervical precancers in vivo,” Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 186(3), 374–382 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Neil, M. A. A.

Nida, D. L.

Parekh, S. H.

A. G. York, S. H. Parekh, D. Dalle Nogare, R. S. Fischer, K. Temprine, M. Mione, A. B. Chitnis, C. A. Combs, and H. Shroff, “Resolution doubling in live, multicellular organisms via multifocal structured illumination microscopy,” Nat. Methods 9(7), 749–754 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Parikh, N.

D. Shin, M. A. Protano, A. D. Polydorides, S. M. Dawsey, M. C. Pierce, M. K. Kim, R. A. Schwarz, T. Quang, N. Parikh, M. S. Bhutani, F. Zhang, G. Wang, L. Xue, X. Wang, H. Xu, S. Anandasabapathy, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Quantitative Analysis of High-Resolution Microendoscopic Images for Diagnosis of Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 13(2), 272–279 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Parikh, N. D.

N. D. Parikh, D. Perl, M. H. Lee, B. Shah, Y. Young, S. S. Chang, R. Shukla, A. D. Polydorides, E. Moshier, J. Godbold, E. Zhou, J. Mitcham, R. Richards-Kortum, and S. Anandasabapathy, “In vivo diagnostic accuracy of high-resolution microendoscopy in differentiating neoplastic from non-neoplastic colorectal polyps: a prospective study,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 109(1), 68–75 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Patel, K.

P. M. Vila, M. J. Kingsley, A. D. Polydorides, M. A. Protano, M. C. Pierce, J. Sauk, M. K. Kim, K. Patel, J. H. Godbold, J. D. Waye, R. Richards-Kortum, and S. Anandasabapathy, “Accuracy and interrater reliability for the diagnosis of Barrett’s neoplasia among users of a novel, portable high-resolution microendoscope,” Dis. Esophagus 27(1), 55–62 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Perl, D.

N. D. Parikh, D. Perl, M. H. Lee, B. Shah, Y. Young, S. S. Chang, R. Shukla, A. D. Polydorides, E. Moshier, J. Godbold, E. Zhou, J. Mitcham, R. Richards-Kortum, and S. Anandasabapathy, “In vivo diagnostic accuracy of high-resolution microendoscopy in differentiating neoplastic from non-neoplastic colorectal polyps: a prospective study,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 109(1), 68–75 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pierce, M. C.

D. Shin, M. A. Protano, A. D. Polydorides, S. M. Dawsey, M. C. Pierce, M. K. Kim, R. A. Schwarz, T. Quang, N. Parikh, M. S. Bhutani, F. Zhang, G. Wang, L. Xue, X. Wang, H. Xu, S. Anandasabapathy, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Quantitative Analysis of High-Resolution Microendoscopic Images for Diagnosis of Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 13(2), 272–279 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. M. Vila, M. J. Kingsley, A. D. Polydorides, M. A. Protano, M. C. Pierce, J. Sauk, M. K. Kim, K. Patel, J. H. Godbold, J. D. Waye, R. Richards-Kortum, and S. Anandasabapathy, “Accuracy and interrater reliability for the diagnosis of Barrett’s neoplasia among users of a novel, portable high-resolution microendoscope,” Dis. Esophagus 27(1), 55–62 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. H. Koucky and M. C. Pierce, “Axial response of high-resolution microendoscopy in scattering media,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(10), 2247–2256 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. K. Quinn, T. C. Bubi, M. C. Pierce, M. K. Kayembe, D. Ramogola-Masire, and R. Richards-Kortum, “High-resolution microendoscopy for the detection of cervical neoplasia in low-resource settings,” PLoS ONE 7(9), e44924 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Regunathan, J. Woo, M. C. Pierce, A. D. Polydorides, M. Raoufi, S. Roayaie, M. Schwartz, D. Labow, D. Shin, R. Suzuki, M. S. Bhutani, L. G. Coghlan, R. Richards-Kortum, S. Anandasabapathy, and M. K. Kim, “Feasibility and preliminary accuracy of high-resolution imaging of the liver and pancreas using FNA compatible microendoscopy (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc. 76(2), 293–300 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Shin, M. C. Pierce, A. M. Gillenwater, M. D. Williams, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “A Fiber-Optic Fluorescence Microscope Using a Consumer-Grade Digital Camera for in Vivo Cellular Imaging,” PLoS ONE 5(6), e11218 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. J. Muldoon, M. C. Pierce, D. L. Nida, M. D. Williams, A. Gillenwater, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Subcellular-resolution molecular imaging within living tissue by fiber microendoscopy,” Opt. Express 15(25), 16413–16423 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Polydorides, A. D.

D. Shin, M. A. Protano, A. D. Polydorides, S. M. Dawsey, M. C. Pierce, M. K. Kim, R. A. Schwarz, T. Quang, N. Parikh, M. S. Bhutani, F. Zhang, G. Wang, L. Xue, X. Wang, H. Xu, S. Anandasabapathy, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Quantitative Analysis of High-Resolution Microendoscopic Images for Diagnosis of Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 13(2), 272–279 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. D. Parikh, D. Perl, M. H. Lee, B. Shah, Y. Young, S. S. Chang, R. Shukla, A. D. Polydorides, E. Moshier, J. Godbold, E. Zhou, J. Mitcham, R. Richards-Kortum, and S. Anandasabapathy, “In vivo diagnostic accuracy of high-resolution microendoscopy in differentiating neoplastic from non-neoplastic colorectal polyps: a prospective study,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 109(1), 68–75 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. M. Vila, M. J. Kingsley, A. D. Polydorides, M. A. Protano, M. C. Pierce, J. Sauk, M. K. Kim, K. Patel, J. H. Godbold, J. D. Waye, R. Richards-Kortum, and S. Anandasabapathy, “Accuracy and interrater reliability for the diagnosis of Barrett’s neoplasia among users of a novel, portable high-resolution microendoscope,” Dis. Esophagus 27(1), 55–62 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. S. Chang, R. Shukla, A. D. Polydorides, P. M. Vila, M. Lee, H. Han, P. Kedia, J. Lewis, S. Gonzalez, M. K. Kim, N. Harpaz, J. Godbold, R. Richards-Kortum, and S. Anandasabapathy, “High resolution microendoscopy for classification of colorectal polyps,” Endoscopy 45(7), 553–559 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Regunathan, J. Woo, M. C. Pierce, A. D. Polydorides, M. Raoufi, S. Roayaie, M. Schwartz, D. Labow, D. Shin, R. Suzuki, M. S. Bhutani, L. G. Coghlan, R. Richards-Kortum, S. Anandasabapathy, and M. K. Kim, “Feasibility and preliminary accuracy of high-resolution imaging of the liver and pancreas using FNA compatible microendoscopy (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc. 76(2), 293–300 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Protano, M. A.

D. Shin, M. A. Protano, A. D. Polydorides, S. M. Dawsey, M. C. Pierce, M. K. Kim, R. A. Schwarz, T. Quang, N. Parikh, M. S. Bhutani, F. Zhang, G. Wang, L. Xue, X. Wang, H. Xu, S. Anandasabapathy, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Quantitative Analysis of High-Resolution Microendoscopic Images for Diagnosis of Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 13(2), 272–279 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. M. Vila, M. J. Kingsley, A. D. Polydorides, M. A. Protano, M. C. Pierce, J. Sauk, M. K. Kim, K. Patel, J. H. Godbold, J. D. Waye, R. Richards-Kortum, and S. Anandasabapathy, “Accuracy and interrater reliability for the diagnosis of Barrett’s neoplasia among users of a novel, portable high-resolution microendoscope,” Dis. Esophagus 27(1), 55–62 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Quang, T.

D. Shin, M. A. Protano, A. D. Polydorides, S. M. Dawsey, M. C. Pierce, M. K. Kim, R. A. Schwarz, T. Quang, N. Parikh, M. S. Bhutani, F. Zhang, G. Wang, L. Xue, X. Wang, H. Xu, S. Anandasabapathy, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Quantitative Analysis of High-Resolution Microendoscopic Images for Diagnosis of Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 13(2), 272–279 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Quinn, M. K.

M. K. Quinn, T. C. Bubi, M. C. Pierce, M. K. Kayembe, D. Ramogola-Masire, and R. Richards-Kortum, “High-resolution microendoscopy for the detection of cervical neoplasia in low-resource settings,” PLoS ONE 7(9), e44924 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ramogola-Masire, D.

M. K. Quinn, T. C. Bubi, M. C. Pierce, M. K. Kayembe, D. Ramogola-Masire, and R. Richards-Kortum, “High-resolution microendoscopy for the detection of cervical neoplasia in low-resource settings,” PLoS ONE 7(9), e44924 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Raoufi, M.

R. Regunathan, J. Woo, M. C. Pierce, A. D. Polydorides, M. Raoufi, S. Roayaie, M. Schwartz, D. Labow, D. Shin, R. Suzuki, M. S. Bhutani, L. G. Coghlan, R. Richards-Kortum, S. Anandasabapathy, and M. K. Kim, “Feasibility and preliminary accuracy of high-resolution imaging of the liver and pancreas using FNA compatible microendoscopy (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc. 76(2), 293–300 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Redden Weber, C.

C. Redden Weber, R. A. Schwarz, E. N. Atkinson, D. D. Cox, C. Macaulay, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Model-based analysis of reflectance and fluorescence spectra for in vivo detection of cervical dysplasia and cancer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 064016 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Regunathan, R.

R. Regunathan, J. Woo, M. C. Pierce, A. D. Polydorides, M. Raoufi, S. Roayaie, M. Schwartz, D. Labow, D. Shin, R. Suzuki, M. S. Bhutani, L. G. Coghlan, R. Richards-Kortum, S. Anandasabapathy, and M. K. Kim, “Feasibility and preliminary accuracy of high-resolution imaging of the liver and pancreas using FNA compatible microendoscopy (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc. 76(2), 293–300 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Richards-Kortum, R.

P. M. Vila, M. J. Kingsley, A. D. Polydorides, M. A. Protano, M. C. Pierce, J. Sauk, M. K. Kim, K. Patel, J. H. Godbold, J. D. Waye, R. Richards-Kortum, and S. Anandasabapathy, “Accuracy and interrater reliability for the diagnosis of Barrett’s neoplasia among users of a novel, portable high-resolution microendoscope,” Dis. Esophagus 27(1), 55–62 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. D. Parikh, D. Perl, M. H. Lee, B. Shah, Y. Young, S. S. Chang, R. Shukla, A. D. Polydorides, E. Moshier, J. Godbold, E. Zhou, J. Mitcham, R. Richards-Kortum, and S. Anandasabapathy, “In vivo diagnostic accuracy of high-resolution microendoscopy in differentiating neoplastic from non-neoplastic colorectal polyps: a prospective study,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 109(1), 68–75 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. S. Chang, R. Shukla, A. D. Polydorides, P. M. Vila, M. Lee, H. Han, P. Kedia, J. Lewis, S. Gonzalez, M. K. Kim, N. Harpaz, J. Godbold, R. Richards-Kortum, and S. Anandasabapathy, “High resolution microendoscopy for classification of colorectal polyps,” Endoscopy 45(7), 553–559 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Kyrish, J. Dobbs, S. Jain, X. Wang, D. Yu, R. Richards-Kortum, and T. S. Tkaczyk, “Needle-based fluorescence endomicroscopy via structured illumination with a plastic, achromatic objective,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(9), 096003 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Regunathan, J. Woo, M. C. Pierce, A. D. Polydorides, M. Raoufi, S. Roayaie, M. Schwartz, D. Labow, D. Shin, R. Suzuki, M. S. Bhutani, L. G. Coghlan, R. Richards-Kortum, S. Anandasabapathy, and M. K. Kim, “Feasibility and preliminary accuracy of high-resolution imaging of the liver and pancreas using FNA compatible microendoscopy (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc. 76(2), 293–300 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. K. Quinn, T. C. Bubi, M. C. Pierce, M. K. Kayembe, D. Ramogola-Masire, and R. Richards-Kortum, “High-resolution microendoscopy for the detection of cervical neoplasia in low-resource settings,” PLoS ONE 7(9), e44924 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. J. Muldoon, PhDD. Roblyer, PhDM. D. Williams, MDV. M. T. Stepanek, MD, PhDR. Richards-Kortum, PhD, andA. M. Gillenwater, MD, “Noninvasive imaging of oral neoplasia with a high-resolution fiber-optic microendoscope,” Head Neck 34(3), 305–312 (2010).

C. Redden Weber, R. A. Schwarz, E. N. Atkinson, D. D. Cox, C. Macaulay, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Model-based analysis of reflectance and fluorescence spectra for in vivo detection of cervical dysplasia and cancer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 064016 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. J. Muldoon, S. Anandasabapathy, D. Maru, and R. Richards-Kortum, “High-resolution imaging in Barrett’s esophagus: a novel, low-cost endoscopic microscope,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 68(4), 737–744 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. J. Muldoon, M. C. Pierce, D. L. Nida, M. D. Williams, A. Gillenwater, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Subcellular-resolution molecular imaging within living tissue by fiber microendoscopy,” Opt. Express 15(25), 16413–16423 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Richards-Kortum, R. R.

D. Shin, M. A. Protano, A. D. Polydorides, S. M. Dawsey, M. C. Pierce, M. K. Kim, R. A. Schwarz, T. Quang, N. Parikh, M. S. Bhutani, F. Zhang, G. Wang, L. Xue, X. Wang, H. Xu, S. Anandasabapathy, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Quantitative Analysis of High-Resolution Microendoscopic Images for Diagnosis of Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 13(2), 272–279 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Shin, M. C. Pierce, A. M. Gillenwater, M. D. Williams, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “A Fiber-Optic Fluorescence Microscope Using a Consumer-Grade Digital Camera for in Vivo Cellular Imaging,” PLoS ONE 5(6), e11218 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Roayaie, S.

R. Regunathan, J. Woo, M. C. Pierce, A. D. Polydorides, M. Raoufi, S. Roayaie, M. Schwartz, D. Labow, D. Shin, R. Suzuki, M. S. Bhutani, L. G. Coghlan, R. Richards-Kortum, S. Anandasabapathy, and M. K. Kim, “Feasibility and preliminary accuracy of high-resolution imaging of the liver and pancreas using FNA compatible microendoscopy (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc. 76(2), 293–300 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Roblyer, D.

T. J. Muldoon, PhDD. Roblyer, PhDM. D. Williams, MDV. M. T. Stepanek, MD, PhDR. Richards-Kortum, PhD, andA. M. Gillenwater, MD, “Noninvasive imaging of oral neoplasia with a high-resolution fiber-optic microendoscope,” Head Neck 34(3), 305–312 (2010).

Sauk, J.

P. M. Vila, M. J. Kingsley, A. D. Polydorides, M. A. Protano, M. C. Pierce, J. Sauk, M. K. Kim, K. Patel, J. H. Godbold, J. D. Waye, R. Richards-Kortum, and S. Anandasabapathy, “Accuracy and interrater reliability for the diagnosis of Barrett’s neoplasia among users of a novel, portable high-resolution microendoscope,” Dis. Esophagus 27(1), 55–62 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schwartz, M.

R. Regunathan, J. Woo, M. C. Pierce, A. D. Polydorides, M. Raoufi, S. Roayaie, M. Schwartz, D. Labow, D. Shin, R. Suzuki, M. S. Bhutani, L. G. Coghlan, R. Richards-Kortum, S. Anandasabapathy, and M. K. Kim, “Feasibility and preliminary accuracy of high-resolution imaging of the liver and pancreas using FNA compatible microendoscopy (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc. 76(2), 293–300 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schwarz, R. A.

D. Shin, M. A. Protano, A. D. Polydorides, S. M. Dawsey, M. C. Pierce, M. K. Kim, R. A. Schwarz, T. Quang, N. Parikh, M. S. Bhutani, F. Zhang, G. Wang, L. Xue, X. Wang, H. Xu, S. Anandasabapathy, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Quantitative Analysis of High-Resolution Microendoscopic Images for Diagnosis of Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 13(2), 272–279 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Redden Weber, R. A. Schwarz, E. N. Atkinson, D. D. Cox, C. Macaulay, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Model-based analysis of reflectance and fluorescence spectra for in vivo detection of cervical dysplasia and cancer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 064016 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shah, B.

N. D. Parikh, D. Perl, M. H. Lee, B. Shah, Y. Young, S. S. Chang, R. Shukla, A. D. Polydorides, E. Moshier, J. Godbold, E. Zhou, J. Mitcham, R. Richards-Kortum, and S. Anandasabapathy, “In vivo diagnostic accuracy of high-resolution microendoscopy in differentiating neoplastic from non-neoplastic colorectal polyps: a prospective study,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 109(1), 68–75 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sheets, E. E.

I. Georgakoudi, E. E. Sheets, M. G. Müller, V. Backman, C. P. Crum, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Trimodal spectroscopy for the detection and characterization of cervical precancers in vivo,” Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 186(3), 374–382 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shin, D.

D. Shin, M. A. Protano, A. D. Polydorides, S. M. Dawsey, M. C. Pierce, M. K. Kim, R. A. Schwarz, T. Quang, N. Parikh, M. S. Bhutani, F. Zhang, G. Wang, L. Xue, X. Wang, H. Xu, S. Anandasabapathy, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Quantitative Analysis of High-Resolution Microendoscopic Images for Diagnosis of Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 13(2), 272–279 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Regunathan, J. Woo, M. C. Pierce, A. D. Polydorides, M. Raoufi, S. Roayaie, M. Schwartz, D. Labow, D. Shin, R. Suzuki, M. S. Bhutani, L. G. Coghlan, R. Richards-Kortum, S. Anandasabapathy, and M. K. Kim, “Feasibility and preliminary accuracy of high-resolution imaging of the liver and pancreas using FNA compatible microendoscopy (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc. 76(2), 293–300 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Shin, M. C. Pierce, A. M. Gillenwater, M. D. Williams, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “A Fiber-Optic Fluorescence Microscope Using a Consumer-Grade Digital Camera for in Vivo Cellular Imaging,” PLoS ONE 5(6), e11218 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shroff, H.

A. G. York, S. H. Parekh, D. Dalle Nogare, R. S. Fischer, K. Temprine, M. Mione, A. B. Chitnis, C. A. Combs, and H. Shroff, “Resolution doubling in live, multicellular organisms via multifocal structured illumination microscopy,” Nat. Methods 9(7), 749–754 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shukla, R.

N. D. Parikh, D. Perl, M. H. Lee, B. Shah, Y. Young, S. S. Chang, R. Shukla, A. D. Polydorides, E. Moshier, J. Godbold, E. Zhou, J. Mitcham, R. Richards-Kortum, and S. Anandasabapathy, “In vivo diagnostic accuracy of high-resolution microendoscopy in differentiating neoplastic from non-neoplastic colorectal polyps: a prospective study,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 109(1), 68–75 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. S. Chang, R. Shukla, A. D. Polydorides, P. M. Vila, M. Lee, H. Han, P. Kedia, J. Lewis, S. Gonzalez, M. K. Kim, N. Harpaz, J. Godbold, R. Richards-Kortum, and S. Anandasabapathy, “High resolution microendoscopy for classification of colorectal polyps,” Endoscopy 45(7), 553–559 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stepanek, V. M. T.

T. J. Muldoon, PhDD. Roblyer, PhDM. D. Williams, MDV. M. T. Stepanek, MD, PhDR. Richards-Kortum, PhD, andA. M. Gillenwater, MD, “Noninvasive imaging of oral neoplasia with a high-resolution fiber-optic microendoscope,” Head Neck 34(3), 305–312 (2010).

Suzuki, R.

R. Regunathan, J. Woo, M. C. Pierce, A. D. Polydorides, M. Raoufi, S. Roayaie, M. Schwartz, D. Labow, D. Shin, R. Suzuki, M. S. Bhutani, L. G. Coghlan, R. Richards-Kortum, S. Anandasabapathy, and M. K. Kim, “Feasibility and preliminary accuracy of high-resolution imaging of the liver and pancreas using FNA compatible microendoscopy (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc. 76(2), 293–300 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Temprine, K.

A. G. York, S. H. Parekh, D. Dalle Nogare, R. S. Fischer, K. Temprine, M. Mione, A. B. Chitnis, C. A. Combs, and H. Shroff, “Resolution doubling in live, multicellular organisms via multifocal structured illumination microscopy,” Nat. Methods 9(7), 749–754 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tkaczyk, T. S.

M. Kyrish, J. Dobbs, S. Jain, X. Wang, D. Yu, R. Richards-Kortum, and T. S. Tkaczyk, “Needle-based fluorescence endomicroscopy via structured illumination with a plastic, achromatic objective,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(9), 096003 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ventalon, C.

Vila, P. M.

P. M. Vila, M. J. Kingsley, A. D. Polydorides, M. A. Protano, M. C. Pierce, J. Sauk, M. K. Kim, K. Patel, J. H. Godbold, J. D. Waye, R. Richards-Kortum, and S. Anandasabapathy, “Accuracy and interrater reliability for the diagnosis of Barrett’s neoplasia among users of a novel, portable high-resolution microendoscope,” Dis. Esophagus 27(1), 55–62 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. S. Chang, R. Shukla, A. D. Polydorides, P. M. Vila, M. Lee, H. Han, P. Kedia, J. Lewis, S. Gonzalez, M. K. Kim, N. Harpaz, J. Godbold, R. Richards-Kortum, and S. Anandasabapathy, “High resolution microendoscopy for classification of colorectal polyps,” Endoscopy 45(7), 553–559 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, G.

D. Shin, M. A. Protano, A. D. Polydorides, S. M. Dawsey, M. C. Pierce, M. K. Kim, R. A. Schwarz, T. Quang, N. Parikh, M. S. Bhutani, F. Zhang, G. Wang, L. Xue, X. Wang, H. Xu, S. Anandasabapathy, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Quantitative Analysis of High-Resolution Microendoscopic Images for Diagnosis of Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 13(2), 272–279 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, X.

D. Shin, M. A. Protano, A. D. Polydorides, S. M. Dawsey, M. C. Pierce, M. K. Kim, R. A. Schwarz, T. Quang, N. Parikh, M. S. Bhutani, F. Zhang, G. Wang, L. Xue, X. Wang, H. Xu, S. Anandasabapathy, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Quantitative Analysis of High-Resolution Microendoscopic Images for Diagnosis of Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 13(2), 272–279 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Kyrish, J. Dobbs, S. Jain, X. Wang, D. Yu, R. Richards-Kortum, and T. S. Tkaczyk, “Needle-based fluorescence endomicroscopy via structured illumination with a plastic, achromatic objective,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(9), 096003 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Waye, J. D.

P. M. Vila, M. J. Kingsley, A. D. Polydorides, M. A. Protano, M. C. Pierce, J. Sauk, M. K. Kim, K. Patel, J. H. Godbold, J. D. Waye, R. Richards-Kortum, and S. Anandasabapathy, “Accuracy and interrater reliability for the diagnosis of Barrett’s neoplasia among users of a novel, portable high-resolution microendoscope,” Dis. Esophagus 27(1), 55–62 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Williams, M. D.

D. Shin, M. C. Pierce, A. M. Gillenwater, M. D. Williams, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “A Fiber-Optic Fluorescence Microscope Using a Consumer-Grade Digital Camera for in Vivo Cellular Imaging,” PLoS ONE 5(6), e11218 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. J. Muldoon, PhDD. Roblyer, PhDM. D. Williams, MDV. M. T. Stepanek, MD, PhDR. Richards-Kortum, PhD, andA. M. Gillenwater, MD, “Noninvasive imaging of oral neoplasia with a high-resolution fiber-optic microendoscope,” Head Neck 34(3), 305–312 (2010).

T. J. Muldoon, M. C. Pierce, D. L. Nida, M. D. Williams, A. Gillenwater, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Subcellular-resolution molecular imaging within living tissue by fiber microendoscopy,” Opt. Express 15(25), 16413–16423 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wilson, T.

Woo, J.

R. Regunathan, J. Woo, M. C. Pierce, A. D. Polydorides, M. Raoufi, S. Roayaie, M. Schwartz, D. Labow, D. Shin, R. Suzuki, M. S. Bhutani, L. G. Coghlan, R. Richards-Kortum, S. Anandasabapathy, and M. K. Kim, “Feasibility and preliminary accuracy of high-resolution imaging of the liver and pancreas using FNA compatible microendoscopy (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc. 76(2), 293–300 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, D.

D. Xu, T. Jiang, A. Li, B. Hu, Z. Feng, H. Gong, S. Zeng, and Q. Luo, “Fast optical sectioning obtained by structured illumination microscopy using a digital mirror device,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(6), 060503 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, H.

D. Shin, M. A. Protano, A. D. Polydorides, S. M. Dawsey, M. C. Pierce, M. K. Kim, R. A. Schwarz, T. Quang, N. Parikh, M. S. Bhutani, F. Zhang, G. Wang, L. Xue, X. Wang, H. Xu, S. Anandasabapathy, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Quantitative Analysis of High-Resolution Microendoscopic Images for Diagnosis of Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 13(2), 272–279 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xue, L.

D. Shin, M. A. Protano, A. D. Polydorides, S. M. Dawsey, M. C. Pierce, M. K. Kim, R. A. Schwarz, T. Quang, N. Parikh, M. S. Bhutani, F. Zhang, G. Wang, L. Xue, X. Wang, H. Xu, S. Anandasabapathy, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Quantitative Analysis of High-Resolution Microendoscopic Images for Diagnosis of Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 13(2), 272–279 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

York, A. G.

A. G. York, S. H. Parekh, D. Dalle Nogare, R. S. Fischer, K. Temprine, M. Mione, A. B. Chitnis, C. A. Combs, and H. Shroff, “Resolution doubling in live, multicellular organisms via multifocal structured illumination microscopy,” Nat. Methods 9(7), 749–754 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Young, Y.

N. D. Parikh, D. Perl, M. H. Lee, B. Shah, Y. Young, S. S. Chang, R. Shukla, A. D. Polydorides, E. Moshier, J. Godbold, E. Zhou, J. Mitcham, R. Richards-Kortum, and S. Anandasabapathy, “In vivo diagnostic accuracy of high-resolution microendoscopy in differentiating neoplastic from non-neoplastic colorectal polyps: a prospective study,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 109(1), 68–75 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, D.

M. Kyrish, J. Dobbs, S. Jain, X. Wang, D. Yu, R. Richards-Kortum, and T. S. Tkaczyk, “Needle-based fluorescence endomicroscopy via structured illumination with a plastic, achromatic objective,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(9), 096003 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zeng, S.

D. Xu, T. Jiang, A. Li, B. Hu, Z. Feng, H. Gong, S. Zeng, and Q. Luo, “Fast optical sectioning obtained by structured illumination microscopy using a digital mirror device,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(6), 060503 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, F.

D. Shin, M. A. Protano, A. D. Polydorides, S. M. Dawsey, M. C. Pierce, M. K. Kim, R. A. Schwarz, T. Quang, N. Parikh, M. S. Bhutani, F. Zhang, G. Wang, L. Xue, X. Wang, H. Xu, S. Anandasabapathy, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Quantitative Analysis of High-Resolution Microendoscopic Images for Diagnosis of Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 13(2), 272–279 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, E.

N. D. Parikh, D. Perl, M. H. Lee, B. Shah, Y. Young, S. S. Chang, R. Shukla, A. D. Polydorides, E. Moshier, J. Godbold, E. Zhou, J. Mitcham, R. Richards-Kortum, and S. Anandasabapathy, “In vivo diagnostic accuracy of high-resolution microendoscopy in differentiating neoplastic from non-neoplastic colorectal polyps: a prospective study,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 109(1), 68–75 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Am. J. Gastroenterol. (1)

N. D. Parikh, D. Perl, M. H. Lee, B. Shah, Y. Young, S. S. Chang, R. Shukla, A. D. Polydorides, E. Moshier, J. Godbold, E. Zhou, J. Mitcham, R. Richards-Kortum, and S. Anandasabapathy, “In vivo diagnostic accuracy of high-resolution microendoscopy in differentiating neoplastic from non-neoplastic colorectal polyps: a prospective study,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 109(1), 68–75 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. (1)

I. Georgakoudi, E. E. Sheets, M. G. Müller, V. Backman, C. P. Crum, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Trimodal spectroscopy for the detection and characterization of cervical precancers in vivo,” Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 186(3), 374–382 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (1)

D. Shin, M. A. Protano, A. D. Polydorides, S. M. Dawsey, M. C. Pierce, M. K. Kim, R. A. Schwarz, T. Quang, N. Parikh, M. S. Bhutani, F. Zhang, G. Wang, L. Xue, X. Wang, H. Xu, S. Anandasabapathy, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Quantitative Analysis of High-Resolution Microendoscopic Images for Diagnosis of Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 13(2), 272–279 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dis. Esophagus (1)

P. M. Vila, M. J. Kingsley, A. D. Polydorides, M. A. Protano, M. C. Pierce, J. Sauk, M. K. Kim, K. Patel, J. H. Godbold, J. D. Waye, R. Richards-Kortum, and S. Anandasabapathy, “Accuracy and interrater reliability for the diagnosis of Barrett’s neoplasia among users of a novel, portable high-resolution microendoscope,” Dis. Esophagus 27(1), 55–62 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Endoscopy (1)

S. S. Chang, R. Shukla, A. D. Polydorides, P. M. Vila, M. Lee, H. Han, P. Kedia, J. Lewis, S. Gonzalez, M. K. Kim, N. Harpaz, J. Godbold, R. Richards-Kortum, and S. Anandasabapathy, “High resolution microendoscopy for classification of colorectal polyps,” Endoscopy 45(7), 553–559 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gastrointest. Endosc. (2)

T. J. Muldoon, S. Anandasabapathy, D. Maru, and R. Richards-Kortum, “High-resolution imaging in Barrett’s esophagus: a novel, low-cost endoscopic microscope,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 68(4), 737–744 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Regunathan, J. Woo, M. C. Pierce, A. D. Polydorides, M. Raoufi, S. Roayaie, M. Schwartz, D. Labow, D. Shin, R. Suzuki, M. S. Bhutani, L. G. Coghlan, R. Richards-Kortum, S. Anandasabapathy, and M. K. Kim, “Feasibility and preliminary accuracy of high-resolution imaging of the liver and pancreas using FNA compatible microendoscopy (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc. 76(2), 293–300 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Head Neck (1)

T. J. Muldoon, PhDD. Roblyer, PhDM. D. Williams, MDV. M. T. Stepanek, MD, PhDR. Richards-Kortum, PhD, andA. M. Gillenwater, MD, “Noninvasive imaging of oral neoplasia with a high-resolution fiber-optic microendoscope,” Head Neck 34(3), 305–312 (2010).

J. Biomed. Opt. (3)

C. Redden Weber, R. A. Schwarz, E. N. Atkinson, D. D. Cox, C. Macaulay, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Model-based analysis of reflectance and fluorescence spectra for in vivo detection of cervical dysplasia and cancer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 064016 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Kyrish, J. Dobbs, S. Jain, X. Wang, D. Yu, R. Richards-Kortum, and T. S. Tkaczyk, “Needle-based fluorescence endomicroscopy via structured illumination with a plastic, achromatic objective,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(9), 096003 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Xu, T. Jiang, A. Li, B. Hu, Z. Feng, H. Gong, S. Zeng, and Q. Luo, “Fast optical sectioning obtained by structured illumination microscopy using a digital mirror device,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(6), 060503 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Microsc. (1)

T. Wilson, “Optical sectioning in fluorescence microscopy,” J. Microsc. 242(2), 111–116 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Methods (1)

A. G. York, S. H. Parekh, D. Dalle Nogare, R. S. Fischer, K. Temprine, M. Mione, A. B. Chitnis, C. A. Combs, and H. Shroff, “Resolution doubling in live, multicellular organisms via multifocal structured illumination microscopy,” Nat. Methods 9(7), 749–754 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

PLoS ONE (2)

D. Shin, M. C. Pierce, A. M. Gillenwater, M. D. Williams, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “A Fiber-Optic Fluorescence Microscope Using a Consumer-Grade Digital Camera for in Vivo Cellular Imaging,” PLoS ONE 5(6), e11218 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. K. Quinn, T. C. Bubi, M. C. Pierce, M. K. Kayembe, D. Ramogola-Masire, and R. Richards-Kortum, “High-resolution microendoscopy for the detection of cervical neoplasia in low-resource settings,” PLoS ONE 7(9), e44924 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (2)

J. Ferlay, I. Soerjomataram, M. Ervik, R. Dikshit, S. Eser, C. Mathers, M. Rebelo, D. M. Parkin, D. Forman, and F. Bray, “GLOBOCAN 2012 v1.0, Cancer Incidence and Mortality Worldwide: IARC CancerBase No. 11,” Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer; 2013. Available from: http://globocan.iarc.fr , accessed on October 9th, 2014.

World Health Organization, Guidelines for screening and treatment of precancerous lesions for cervical cancer prevention (WHO Guidelines, 2013).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic diagram of the SI-HRME system (a). Photo of the SI-HRME with lid removed and hand held fiber-bundle probe (b). Image of a standard air force resolution target. Group 6 element 6 is resolvable corresponding to ~4.4µm lateral spatial resolution (c).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 HRME images of microspheres when the bundle tip was in contact with the sample slide (a-d) and 60 µm away from the bundle (e-h). Quantified sphere intensity normalized (i) and absolute (j) vs distance from the tip of the fiber-bundle to the sample at each modulation frequency. Brightness is adjusted equally for all images to make dimmer spheres more visible.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Sample FOV of the non-scattering gel imaged using HRME with no SI (a), 10.1 lpm modulated SI (b), 20.3 lpm SI (c), 40.5 lpm SI (d). Colored arrows reference spheres which dim significantly at increased modulation frequencies. Sphere intensity normalized (e) and absolute (f) vs sphere depth in the non-scattering gel. Sphere intensity in the scattering gel normalized (g) and absolute (h). Brightness and contrast adjusted equally for all images.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Squamous epithelium from a cervical tissue specimen. HRME image without SI of the site (a). SI imaging at 10.1 lpm modulation (b), 20.3 lpm (c), and 40.5 lpm (d). Bar graph comparing NBRs for each image (a-d) (e). Nuclear and background signal at each modulation used to calculate the NBRs (f).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Images of three sites of columnar epithelium vs SI modulation frequency. Site 1 imaged without SI (a), 10.1 lpm SI (b), 20.3 lpm SI (c), and 40.5 lpm SI (d). Site 2 images (e-h). Site 3 images (i-l). Nuclear morphology becomes more visible with the addition of SI at each site.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Nuclear to background ratios of each site shown in Fig. 5. Site 1 NBR increase between the no SI case and 10.1 lpm modulation, but steadily decreases as modulation further increases (a). Site 2 (b) and Site 3 (c) NBRs steadily increase with modulation frequency.

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