Abstract

We report an early, noninvasive and rapid prognostic method of predicting potential acute kidney dysfunction using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). Our analysis was performed on urine samples collected prospectively from 58 kidney transplant patients using a He-Ne laser (632.8 nm) as the excitation source. All abnormal kidney function episodes (three acute rejections and two acute kidney failures that were eventually diagnosed independently by clinical biopsy) consistently exhibited unique SERS spectral features in just one day following the transplant surgery. These results suggested that SERS analysis provides an early and more specific indication to kidney function than the clinically used biomarker, serum creatinine (sCr).

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. J. Balla, G. Balla, V. Jeney, G. Kakuk, H. S. Jacob, and G. M. Vercellotti, “Ferriporphyrins and endothelium: a 2-edged sword-promotion of oxidation and induction of cytoprotectants,” Blood 95(11), 3442–3450 (2000).
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

N. Alachkar, H. Rabb, and B. G. Jaar, “Urinary biomarkers in acute kidney transplant dysfunction,” Nephron Clin. Pract. 118(2), c173–c181 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Chi, H. Chen, P. Tolias, and H. Du, “Fiber optic probe enabled by surface-enhanced Raman scattering for early diagnosis of potential acute rejection of kidney transplant,” Proc. SPIE 9098, 90980P (2011).

2010 (1)

D. Y. Kim, M. Abouljoud, and R. Parasuraman, “The role of microscopic hematuria in the evaluation of urologic malignancy in renal transplant recipients,” Transplant. Proc. 42(5), 1641–1642 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

2007 (2)

K. A. Willets and R. P. Van Duyne, “Localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy and sensing,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 58(1), 267–297 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Levin and M. Rocco, “KDOQI clinical practice guidelines and clinical practice recommendations for diabetes and chronic kidney disease,” Am. J. Kidney Dis. 49(2), S12–S154 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

S. Kumar and U. Bandyopadhyay, “Free heme toxicity and its detoxification systems in human,” Toxicol. Lett. 157(3), 175–188 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

M. A. Arruda, A. G. Rossi, M. S. de Freitas, C. Barja-Fidalgo, and A. V. Graça-Souza, “Heme Inhibits Human Neutrophil Apoptosis: Involvement of Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase, MAPK, and NF-kappaB,” J. Immunol. 173(3), 2023–2030 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

Y. W. Sijpkens, I. I. Doxiadis, M. J. Mallat, J. W. de Fijter, J. A. Bruijn, F. H. Claas, and L. C. Paul, “Early versus late acute rejection episodes in renal transplantation,” Transplantation 75(2), 204–208 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

B. R. Wood and D. McNaughton, “Raman excitation wavelength investigation of single red blood cellsin vivo,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 33(7), 517–523 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (2)

W. R. Premasiri, R. H. Clarke, and M. E. Womble, “Urine analysis by laser Raman spectroscopy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 28(4), 330–334 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. A. Nath, G. M. Vercellotti, J. P. Grande, H. Miyoshi, C. V. Paya, J. C. Manivel, J. J. Haggard, A. J. Croatt, W. D. Payne, and J. Alam, “Heme protein-induced chronic renal inflammation: Suppressive effect of induced heme oxygenase-1,” Kidney Int. 59(1), 106–117 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (2)

Y. Lavrovsky, C. S. Song, B. Chatterjee, and A. K. Roy, “Age-dependent increase of heme oxygenase-1 gene expression in the liver mediated by NFkappaB,” Mech. Ageing Dev. 114(1), 49–60 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Balla, G. Balla, V. Jeney, G. Kakuk, H. S. Jacob, and G. M. Vercellotti, “Ferriporphyrins and endothelium: a 2-edged sword-promotion of oxidation and induction of cytoprotectants,” Blood 95(11), 3442–3450 (2000).
[PubMed]

1999 (2)

J. T. Krug, G. D. Wang, S. R. Emory, and S. Nie, “Efficient Raman enhancement and intermittent light emission observed in single gold nanocrystals,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 121(39), 9208–9214 (1999).
[Crossref]

F. G. Cosio, R. P. Pelletier, D. D. Sedmak, T. E. Pesavento, M. L. Henry, and R. M. Ferguson, “Renal allograft survival following acute rejection correlates with blood pressure levels and histopathology,” Kidney Int. 56(5), 1912–1919 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1998 (2)

1996 (2)

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Population Pumping of Excited Vibrational States by Spontaneous Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76(14), 2444–2447 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Hu, K. M. Smith, and T. G. Spiro, “Assignment of protoheme resonance Raman spectrum by Heme labeling in myoglobin,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 7863(8), 12638–12646 (1996).

1983 (1)

R. L. Aft and G. C. Mueller, “Hemin-mediated DNA strand scission,” J. Biol. Chem. 258(19), 12069–12072 (1983).
[PubMed]

1982 (1)

P. C. Lee and D. Meisel, “Adsorption and surface-enhanced Raman of dyes on silver and gold sols,” J. Phys. Chem. 86(17), 3391–3395 (1982).
[Crossref]

1978 (1)

S. R. Previte, G. T. Murata, C. A. Olsson, G. W. Schmitt, D. C. Nabseth, and S. I. Cho, “Hematuria in renal transplant recipients,” Ann. Surg. 187(2), 219–222 (1978).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1974 (1)

E. A. Padlan and W. E. Love, “Three-dimensional structure of hemoglobin from the polychaete annelid, Glycera dibranchiata, at 2.5 A resolution,” J. Biol. Chem. 249(13), 4067–4078 (1974).
[PubMed]

Abouljoud, M.

D. Y. Kim, M. Abouljoud, and R. Parasuraman, “The role of microscopic hematuria in the evaluation of urologic malignancy in renal transplant recipients,” Transplant. Proc. 42(5), 1641–1642 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aft, R. L.

R. L. Aft and G. C. Mueller, “Hemin-mediated DNA strand scission,” J. Biol. Chem. 258(19), 12069–12072 (1983).
[PubMed]

Alachkar, N.

N. Alachkar, H. Rabb, and B. G. Jaar, “Urinary biomarkers in acute kidney transplant dysfunction,” Nephron Clin. Pract. 118(2), c173–c181 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alam, J.

K. A. Nath, G. M. Vercellotti, J. P. Grande, H. Miyoshi, C. V. Paya, J. C. Manivel, J. J. Haggard, A. J. Croatt, W. D. Payne, and J. Alam, “Heme protein-induced chronic renal inflammation: Suppressive effect of induced heme oxygenase-1,” Kidney Int. 59(1), 106–117 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arruda, M. A.

M. A. Arruda, A. G. Rossi, M. S. de Freitas, C. Barja-Fidalgo, and A. V. Graça-Souza, “Heme Inhibits Human Neutrophil Apoptosis: Involvement of Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase, MAPK, and NF-kappaB,” J. Immunol. 173(3), 2023–2030 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Balla, G.

J. Balla, G. Balla, V. Jeney, G. Kakuk, H. S. Jacob, and G. M. Vercellotti, “Ferriporphyrins and endothelium: a 2-edged sword-promotion of oxidation and induction of cytoprotectants,” Blood 95(11), 3442–3450 (2000).
[PubMed]

Balla, J.

J. Balla, G. Balla, V. Jeney, G. Kakuk, H. S. Jacob, and G. M. Vercellotti, “Ferriporphyrins and endothelium: a 2-edged sword-promotion of oxidation and induction of cytoprotectants,” Blood 95(11), 3442–3450 (2000).
[PubMed]

Bandyopadhyay, U.

S. Kumar and U. Bandyopadhyay, “Free heme toxicity and its detoxification systems in human,” Toxicol. Lett. 157(3), 175–188 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barja-Fidalgo, C.

M. A. Arruda, A. G. Rossi, M. S. de Freitas, C. Barja-Fidalgo, and A. V. Graça-Souza, “Heme Inhibits Human Neutrophil Apoptosis: Involvement of Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase, MAPK, and NF-kappaB,” J. Immunol. 173(3), 2023–2030 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beermann, J.

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

Bruijn, J. A.

Y. W. Sijpkens, I. I. Doxiadis, M. J. Mallat, J. W. de Fijter, J. A. Bruijn, F. H. Claas, and L. C. Paul, “Early versus late acute rejection episodes in renal transplantation,” Transplantation 75(2), 204–208 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chatterjee, B.

Y. Lavrovsky, C. S. Song, B. Chatterjee, and A. K. Roy, “Age-dependent increase of heme oxygenase-1 gene expression in the liver mediated by NFkappaB,” Mech. Ageing Dev. 114(1), 49–60 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, H.

J. Chi, H. Chen, P. Tolias, and H. Du, “Fiber optic probe enabled by surface-enhanced Raman scattering for early diagnosis of potential acute rejection of kidney transplant,” Proc. SPIE 9098, 90980P (2011).

Chi, J.

J. Chi, H. Chen, P. Tolias, and H. Du, “Fiber optic probe enabled by surface-enhanced Raman scattering for early diagnosis of potential acute rejection of kidney transplant,” Proc. SPIE 9098, 90980P (2011).

Cho, S. I.

S. R. Previte, G. T. Murata, C. A. Olsson, G. W. Schmitt, D. C. Nabseth, and S. I. Cho, “Hematuria in renal transplant recipients,” Ann. Surg. 187(2), 219–222 (1978).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Claas, F. H.

Y. W. Sijpkens, I. I. Doxiadis, M. J. Mallat, J. W. de Fijter, J. A. Bruijn, F. H. Claas, and L. C. Paul, “Early versus late acute rejection episodes in renal transplantation,” Transplantation 75(2), 204–208 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Clarke, R. H.

W. R. Premasiri, R. H. Clarke, and M. E. Womble, “Urine analysis by laser Raman spectroscopy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 28(4), 330–334 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cosio, F. G.

F. G. Cosio, R. P. Pelletier, D. D. Sedmak, T. E. Pesavento, M. L. Henry, and R. M. Ferguson, “Renal allograft survival following acute rejection correlates with blood pressure levels and histopathology,” Kidney Int. 56(5), 1912–1919 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Croatt, A. J.

K. A. Nath, G. M. Vercellotti, J. P. Grande, H. Miyoshi, C. V. Paya, J. C. Manivel, J. J. Haggard, A. J. Croatt, W. D. Payne, and J. Alam, “Heme protein-induced chronic renal inflammation: Suppressive effect of induced heme oxygenase-1,” Kidney Int. 59(1), 106–117 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dasari, R. R.

K. Kneipp, H. Kneipp, G. Deinum, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Single-molecule detection of a cyanine dye in silver colloidal solution using near-infrared surface-enhanced raman scattering,” Appl. Spectrosc. 52(2), 175–178 (1998).
[Crossref]

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Population Pumping of Excited Vibrational States by Spontaneous Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76(14), 2444–2447 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

de Fijter, J. W.

Y. W. Sijpkens, I. I. Doxiadis, M. J. Mallat, J. W. de Fijter, J. A. Bruijn, F. H. Claas, and L. C. Paul, “Early versus late acute rejection episodes in renal transplantation,” Transplantation 75(2), 204–208 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

de Freitas, M. S.

M. A. Arruda, A. G. Rossi, M. S. de Freitas, C. Barja-Fidalgo, and A. V. Graça-Souza, “Heme Inhibits Human Neutrophil Apoptosis: Involvement of Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase, MAPK, and NF-kappaB,” J. Immunol. 173(3), 2023–2030 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Deinum, G.

Doxiadis, I. I.

Y. W. Sijpkens, I. I. Doxiadis, M. J. Mallat, J. W. de Fijter, J. A. Bruijn, F. H. Claas, and L. C. Paul, “Early versus late acute rejection episodes in renal transplantation,” Transplantation 75(2), 204–208 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Du, H.

J. Chi, H. Chen, P. Tolias, and H. Du, “Fiber optic probe enabled by surface-enhanced Raman scattering for early diagnosis of potential acute rejection of kidney transplant,” Proc. SPIE 9098, 90980P (2011).

Emory, S. R.

J. T. Krug, G. D. Wang, S. R. Emory, and S. Nie, “Efficient Raman enhancement and intermittent light emission observed in single gold nanocrystals,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 121(39), 9208–9214 (1999).
[Crossref]

Feld, M. S.

K. Kneipp, H. Kneipp, G. Deinum, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Single-molecule detection of a cyanine dye in silver colloidal solution using near-infrared surface-enhanced raman scattering,” Appl. Spectrosc. 52(2), 175–178 (1998).
[Crossref]

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Population Pumping of Excited Vibrational States by Spontaneous Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76(14), 2444–2447 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ferguson, R. M.

F. G. Cosio, R. P. Pelletier, D. D. Sedmak, T. E. Pesavento, M. L. Henry, and R. M. Ferguson, “Renal allograft survival following acute rejection correlates with blood pressure levels and histopathology,” Kidney Int. 56(5), 1912–1919 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Graça-Souza, A. V.

M. A. Arruda, A. G. Rossi, M. S. de Freitas, C. Barja-Fidalgo, and A. V. Graça-Souza, “Heme Inhibits Human Neutrophil Apoptosis: Involvement of Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase, MAPK, and NF-kappaB,” J. Immunol. 173(3), 2023–2030 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grande, J. P.

K. A. Nath, G. M. Vercellotti, J. P. Grande, H. Miyoshi, C. V. Paya, J. C. Manivel, J. J. Haggard, A. J. Croatt, W. D. Payne, and J. Alam, “Heme protein-induced chronic renal inflammation: Suppressive effect of induced heme oxygenase-1,” Kidney Int. 59(1), 106–117 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Haggard, J. J.

K. A. Nath, G. M. Vercellotti, J. P. Grande, H. Miyoshi, C. V. Paya, J. C. Manivel, J. J. Haggard, A. J. Croatt, W. D. Payne, and J. Alam, “Heme protein-induced chronic renal inflammation: Suppressive effect of induced heme oxygenase-1,” Kidney Int. 59(1), 106–117 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Henry, M. L.

F. G. Cosio, R. P. Pelletier, D. D. Sedmak, T. E. Pesavento, M. L. Henry, and R. M. Ferguson, “Renal allograft survival following acute rejection correlates with blood pressure levels and histopathology,” Kidney Int. 56(5), 1912–1919 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hu, S.

S. Hu, K. M. Smith, and T. G. Spiro, “Assignment of protoheme resonance Raman spectrum by Heme labeling in myoglobin,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 7863(8), 12638–12646 (1996).

Itzkan, I.

K. Kneipp, H. Kneipp, G. Deinum, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Single-molecule detection of a cyanine dye in silver colloidal solution using near-infrared surface-enhanced raman scattering,” Appl. Spectrosc. 52(2), 175–178 (1998).
[Crossref]

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Population Pumping of Excited Vibrational States by Spontaneous Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76(14), 2444–2447 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jaar, B. G.

N. Alachkar, H. Rabb, and B. G. Jaar, “Urinary biomarkers in acute kidney transplant dysfunction,” Nephron Clin. Pract. 118(2), c173–c181 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jacob, H. S.

J. Balla, G. Balla, V. Jeney, G. Kakuk, H. S. Jacob, and G. M. Vercellotti, “Ferriporphyrins and endothelium: a 2-edged sword-promotion of oxidation and induction of cytoprotectants,” Blood 95(11), 3442–3450 (2000).
[PubMed]

Jeney, V.

J. Balla, G. Balla, V. Jeney, G. Kakuk, H. S. Jacob, and G. M. Vercellotti, “Ferriporphyrins and endothelium: a 2-edged sword-promotion of oxidation and induction of cytoprotectants,” Blood 95(11), 3442–3450 (2000).
[PubMed]

Kakuk, G.

J. Balla, G. Balla, V. Jeney, G. Kakuk, H. S. Jacob, and G. M. Vercellotti, “Ferriporphyrins and endothelium: a 2-edged sword-promotion of oxidation and induction of cytoprotectants,” Blood 95(11), 3442–3450 (2000).
[PubMed]

Kim, D. Y.

D. Y. Kim, M. Abouljoud, and R. Parasuraman, “The role of microscopic hematuria in the evaluation of urologic malignancy in renal transplant recipients,” Transplant. Proc. 42(5), 1641–1642 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kneipp, H.

K. Kneipp, H. Kneipp, G. Deinum, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Single-molecule detection of a cyanine dye in silver colloidal solution using near-infrared surface-enhanced raman scattering,” Appl. Spectrosc. 52(2), 175–178 (1998).
[Crossref]

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Population Pumping of Excited Vibrational States by Spontaneous Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76(14), 2444–2447 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kneipp, K.

K. Kneipp, H. Kneipp, G. Deinum, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Single-molecule detection of a cyanine dye in silver colloidal solution using near-infrared surface-enhanced raman scattering,” Appl. Spectrosc. 52(2), 175–178 (1998).
[Crossref]

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Population Pumping of Excited Vibrational States by Spontaneous Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76(14), 2444–2447 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Krug, J. T.

J. T. Krug, G. D. Wang, S. R. Emory, and S. Nie, “Efficient Raman enhancement and intermittent light emission observed in single gold nanocrystals,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 121(39), 9208–9214 (1999).
[Crossref]

Kumar, S.

S. Kumar and U. Bandyopadhyay, “Free heme toxicity and its detoxification systems in human,” Toxicol. Lett. 157(3), 175–188 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lavrovsky, Y.

Y. Lavrovsky, C. S. Song, B. Chatterjee, and A. K. Roy, “Age-dependent increase of heme oxygenase-1 gene expression in the liver mediated by NFkappaB,” Mech. Ageing Dev. 114(1), 49–60 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, P. C.

P. C. Lee and D. Meisel, “Adsorption and surface-enhanced Raman of dyes on silver and gold sols,” J. Phys. Chem. 86(17), 3391–3395 (1982).
[Crossref]

Leosson, K.

Levin, A.

A. Levin and M. Rocco, “KDOQI clinical practice guidelines and clinical practice recommendations for diabetes and chronic kidney disease,” Am. J. Kidney Dis. 49(2), S12–S154 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Love, W. E.

E. A. Padlan and W. E. Love, “Three-dimensional structure of hemoglobin from the polychaete annelid, Glycera dibranchiata, at 2.5 A resolution,” J. Biol. Chem. 249(13), 4067–4078 (1974).
[PubMed]

Mallat, M. J.

Y. W. Sijpkens, I. I. Doxiadis, M. J. Mallat, J. W. de Fijter, J. A. Bruijn, F. H. Claas, and L. C. Paul, “Early versus late acute rejection episodes in renal transplantation,” Transplantation 75(2), 204–208 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Manivel, J. C.

K. A. Nath, G. M. Vercellotti, J. P. Grande, H. Miyoshi, C. V. Paya, J. C. Manivel, J. J. Haggard, A. J. Croatt, W. D. Payne, and J. Alam, “Heme protein-induced chronic renal inflammation: Suppressive effect of induced heme oxygenase-1,” Kidney Int. 59(1), 106–117 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McNaughton, D.

B. R. Wood and D. McNaughton, “Raman excitation wavelength investigation of single red blood cellsin vivo,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 33(7), 517–523 (2002).
[Crossref]

Meisel, D.

P. C. Lee and D. Meisel, “Adsorption and surface-enhanced Raman of dyes on silver and gold sols,” J. Phys. Chem. 86(17), 3391–3395 (1982).
[Crossref]

Miyoshi, H.

K. A. Nath, G. M. Vercellotti, J. P. Grande, H. Miyoshi, C. V. Paya, J. C. Manivel, J. J. Haggard, A. J. Croatt, W. D. Payne, and J. Alam, “Heme protein-induced chronic renal inflammation: Suppressive effect of induced heme oxygenase-1,” Kidney Int. 59(1), 106–117 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mueller, G. C.

R. L. Aft and G. C. Mueller, “Hemin-mediated DNA strand scission,” J. Biol. Chem. 258(19), 12069–12072 (1983).
[PubMed]

Murata, G. T.

S. R. Previte, G. T. Murata, C. A. Olsson, G. W. Schmitt, D. C. Nabseth, and S. I. Cho, “Hematuria in renal transplant recipients,” Ann. Surg. 187(2), 219–222 (1978).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nabseth, D. C.

S. R. Previte, G. T. Murata, C. A. Olsson, G. W. Schmitt, D. C. Nabseth, and S. I. Cho, “Hematuria in renal transplant recipients,” Ann. Surg. 187(2), 219–222 (1978).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nath, K. A.

K. A. Nath, G. M. Vercellotti, J. P. Grande, H. Miyoshi, C. V. Paya, J. C. Manivel, J. J. Haggard, A. J. Croatt, W. D. Payne, and J. Alam, “Heme protein-induced chronic renal inflammation: Suppressive effect of induced heme oxygenase-1,” Kidney Int. 59(1), 106–117 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nie, S.

J. T. Krug, G. D. Wang, S. R. Emory, and S. Nie, “Efficient Raman enhancement and intermittent light emission observed in single gold nanocrystals,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 121(39), 9208–9214 (1999).
[Crossref]

Novikov, S. M.

Olsson, C. A.

S. R. Previte, G. T. Murata, C. A. Olsson, G. W. Schmitt, D. C. Nabseth, and S. I. Cho, “Hematuria in renal transplant recipients,” Ann. Surg. 187(2), 219–222 (1978).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Padlan, E. A.

E. A. Padlan and W. E. Love, “Three-dimensional structure of hemoglobin from the polychaete annelid, Glycera dibranchiata, at 2.5 A resolution,” J. Biol. Chem. 249(13), 4067–4078 (1974).
[PubMed]

Parasuraman, R.

D. Y. Kim, M. Abouljoud, and R. Parasuraman, “The role of microscopic hematuria in the evaluation of urologic malignancy in renal transplant recipients,” Transplant. Proc. 42(5), 1641–1642 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Paul, L. C.

Y. W. Sijpkens, I. I. Doxiadis, M. J. Mallat, J. W. de Fijter, J. A. Bruijn, F. H. Claas, and L. C. Paul, “Early versus late acute rejection episodes in renal transplantation,” Transplantation 75(2), 204–208 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Paya, C. V.

K. A. Nath, G. M. Vercellotti, J. P. Grande, H. Miyoshi, C. V. Paya, J. C. Manivel, J. J. Haggard, A. J. Croatt, W. D. Payne, and J. Alam, “Heme protein-induced chronic renal inflammation: Suppressive effect of induced heme oxygenase-1,” Kidney Int. 59(1), 106–117 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Payne, W. D.

K. A. Nath, G. M. Vercellotti, J. P. Grande, H. Miyoshi, C. V. Paya, J. C. Manivel, J. J. Haggard, A. J. Croatt, W. D. Payne, and J. Alam, “Heme protein-induced chronic renal inflammation: Suppressive effect of induced heme oxygenase-1,” Kidney Int. 59(1), 106–117 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pelletier, R. P.

F. G. Cosio, R. P. Pelletier, D. D. Sedmak, T. E. Pesavento, M. L. Henry, and R. M. Ferguson, “Renal allograft survival following acute rejection correlates with blood pressure levels and histopathology,” Kidney Int. 56(5), 1912–1919 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pesavento, T. E.

F. G. Cosio, R. P. Pelletier, D. D. Sedmak, T. E. Pesavento, M. L. Henry, and R. M. Ferguson, “Renal allograft survival following acute rejection correlates with blood pressure levels and histopathology,” Kidney Int. 56(5), 1912–1919 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Premasiri, W. R.

W. R. Premasiri, R. H. Clarke, and M. E. Womble, “Urine analysis by laser Raman spectroscopy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 28(4), 330–334 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Previte, S. R.

S. R. Previte, G. T. Murata, C. A. Olsson, G. W. Schmitt, D. C. Nabseth, and S. I. Cho, “Hematuria in renal transplant recipients,” Ann. Surg. 187(2), 219–222 (1978).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rabb, H.

N. Alachkar, H. Rabb, and B. G. Jaar, “Urinary biomarkers in acute kidney transplant dysfunction,” Nephron Clin. Pract. 118(2), c173–c181 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rocco, M.

A. Levin and M. Rocco, “KDOQI clinical practice guidelines and clinical practice recommendations for diabetes and chronic kidney disease,” Am. J. Kidney Dis. 49(2), S12–S154 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rossi, A. G.

M. A. Arruda, A. G. Rossi, M. S. de Freitas, C. Barja-Fidalgo, and A. V. Graça-Souza, “Heme Inhibits Human Neutrophil Apoptosis: Involvement of Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase, MAPK, and NF-kappaB,” J. Immunol. 173(3), 2023–2030 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Roy, A. K.

Y. Lavrovsky, C. S. Song, B. Chatterjee, and A. K. Roy, “Age-dependent increase of heme oxygenase-1 gene expression in the liver mediated by NFkappaB,” Mech. Ageing Dev. 114(1), 49–60 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schmitt, G. W.

S. R. Previte, G. T. Murata, C. A. Olsson, G. W. Schmitt, D. C. Nabseth, and S. I. Cho, “Hematuria in renal transplant recipients,” Ann. Surg. 187(2), 219–222 (1978).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sedmak, D. D.

F. G. Cosio, R. P. Pelletier, D. D. Sedmak, T. E. Pesavento, M. L. Henry, and R. M. Ferguson, “Renal allograft survival following acute rejection correlates with blood pressure levels and histopathology,” Kidney Int. 56(5), 1912–1919 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sijpkens, Y. W.

Y. W. Sijpkens, I. I. Doxiadis, M. J. Mallat, J. W. de Fijter, J. A. Bruijn, F. H. Claas, and L. C. Paul, “Early versus late acute rejection episodes in renal transplantation,” Transplantation 75(2), 204–208 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Smith, K. M.

S. Hu, K. M. Smith, and T. G. Spiro, “Assignment of protoheme resonance Raman spectrum by Heme labeling in myoglobin,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 7863(8), 12638–12646 (1996).

Song, C. S.

Y. Lavrovsky, C. S. Song, B. Chatterjee, and A. K. Roy, “Age-dependent increase of heme oxygenase-1 gene expression in the liver mediated by NFkappaB,” Mech. Ageing Dev. 114(1), 49–60 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Spiro, T. G.

S. Hu, K. M. Smith, and T. G. Spiro, “Assignment of protoheme resonance Raman spectrum by Heme labeling in myoglobin,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 7863(8), 12638–12646 (1996).

Star, R. A.

R. A. Star, “Treatment of acute renal failure,” Kidney Int. 54(6), 1817–1831 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tolias, P.

J. Chi, H. Chen, P. Tolias, and H. Du, “Fiber optic probe enabled by surface-enhanced Raman scattering for early diagnosis of potential acute rejection of kidney transplant,” Proc. SPIE 9098, 90980P (2011).

Van Duyne, R. P.

K. A. Willets and R. P. Van Duyne, “Localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy and sensing,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 58(1), 267–297 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vercellotti, G. M.

K. A. Nath, G. M. Vercellotti, J. P. Grande, H. Miyoshi, C. V. Paya, J. C. Manivel, J. J. Haggard, A. J. Croatt, W. D. Payne, and J. Alam, “Heme protein-induced chronic renal inflammation: Suppressive effect of induced heme oxygenase-1,” Kidney Int. 59(1), 106–117 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Balla, G. Balla, V. Jeney, G. Kakuk, H. S. Jacob, and G. M. Vercellotti, “Ferriporphyrins and endothelium: a 2-edged sword-promotion of oxidation and induction of cytoprotectants,” Blood 95(11), 3442–3450 (2000).
[PubMed]

Wang, G. D.

J. T. Krug, G. D. Wang, S. R. Emory, and S. Nie, “Efficient Raman enhancement and intermittent light emission observed in single gold nanocrystals,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 121(39), 9208–9214 (1999).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Population Pumping of Excited Vibrational States by Spontaneous Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76(14), 2444–2447 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Willets, K. A.

K. A. Willets and R. P. Van Duyne, “Localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy and sensing,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 58(1), 267–297 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Womble, M. E.

W. R. Premasiri, R. H. Clarke, and M. E. Womble, “Urine analysis by laser Raman spectroscopy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 28(4), 330–334 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wood, B. R.

B. R. Wood and D. McNaughton, “Raman excitation wavelength investigation of single red blood cellsin vivo,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 33(7), 517–523 (2002).
[Crossref]

Am. J. Kidney Dis. (1)

A. Levin and M. Rocco, “KDOQI clinical practice guidelines and clinical practice recommendations for diabetes and chronic kidney disease,” Am. J. Kidney Dis. 49(2), S12–S154 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ann. Surg. (1)

S. R. Previte, G. T. Murata, C. A. Olsson, G. W. Schmitt, D. C. Nabseth, and S. I. Cho, “Hematuria in renal transplant recipients,” Ann. Surg. 187(2), 219–222 (1978).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. (1)

K. A. Willets and R. P. Van Duyne, “Localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy and sensing,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 58(1), 267–297 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Spectrosc. (1)

Blood (1)

J. Balla, G. Balla, V. Jeney, G. Kakuk, H. S. Jacob, and G. M. Vercellotti, “Ferriporphyrins and endothelium: a 2-edged sword-promotion of oxidation and induction of cytoprotectants,” Blood 95(11), 3442–3450 (2000).
[PubMed]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (2)

S. Hu, K. M. Smith, and T. G. Spiro, “Assignment of protoheme resonance Raman spectrum by Heme labeling in myoglobin,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 7863(8), 12638–12646 (1996).

J. T. Krug, G. D. Wang, S. R. Emory, and S. Nie, “Efficient Raman enhancement and intermittent light emission observed in single gold nanocrystals,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 121(39), 9208–9214 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. Biol. Chem. (2)

R. L. Aft and G. C. Mueller, “Hemin-mediated DNA strand scission,” J. Biol. Chem. 258(19), 12069–12072 (1983).
[PubMed]

E. A. Padlan and W. E. Love, “Three-dimensional structure of hemoglobin from the polychaete annelid, Glycera dibranchiata, at 2.5 A resolution,” J. Biol. Chem. 249(13), 4067–4078 (1974).
[PubMed]

J. Immunol. (1)

M. A. Arruda, A. G. Rossi, M. S. de Freitas, C. Barja-Fidalgo, and A. V. Graça-Souza, “Heme Inhibits Human Neutrophil Apoptosis: Involvement of Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase, MAPK, and NF-kappaB,” J. Immunol. 173(3), 2023–2030 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Phys. Chem. (1)

P. C. Lee and D. Meisel, “Adsorption and surface-enhanced Raman of dyes on silver and gold sols,” J. Phys. Chem. 86(17), 3391–3395 (1982).
[Crossref]

J. Raman Spectrosc. (1)

B. R. Wood and D. McNaughton, “Raman excitation wavelength investigation of single red blood cellsin vivo,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 33(7), 517–523 (2002).
[Crossref]

Kidney Int. (3)

R. A. Star, “Treatment of acute renal failure,” Kidney Int. 54(6), 1817–1831 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. G. Cosio, R. P. Pelletier, D. D. Sedmak, T. E. Pesavento, M. L. Henry, and R. M. Ferguson, “Renal allograft survival following acute rejection correlates with blood pressure levels and histopathology,” Kidney Int. 56(5), 1912–1919 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. A. Nath, G. M. Vercellotti, J. P. Grande, H. Miyoshi, C. V. Paya, J. C. Manivel, J. J. Haggard, A. J. Croatt, W. D. Payne, and J. Alam, “Heme protein-induced chronic renal inflammation: Suppressive effect of induced heme oxygenase-1,” Kidney Int. 59(1), 106–117 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lasers Surg. Med. (1)

W. R. Premasiri, R. H. Clarke, and M. E. Womble, “Urine analysis by laser Raman spectroscopy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 28(4), 330–334 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mech. Ageing Dev. (1)

Y. Lavrovsky, C. S. Song, B. Chatterjee, and A. K. Roy, “Age-dependent increase of heme oxygenase-1 gene expression in the liver mediated by NFkappaB,” Mech. Ageing Dev. 114(1), 49–60 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nephron Clin. Pract. (1)

N. Alachkar, H. Rabb, and B. G. Jaar, “Urinary biomarkers in acute kidney transplant dysfunction,” Nephron Clin. Pract. 118(2), c173–c181 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Population Pumping of Excited Vibrational States by Spontaneous Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76(14), 2444–2447 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (1)

J. Chi, H. Chen, P. Tolias, and H. Du, “Fiber optic probe enabled by surface-enhanced Raman scattering for early diagnosis of potential acute rejection of kidney transplant,” Proc. SPIE 9098, 90980P (2011).

Toxicol. Lett. (1)

S. Kumar and U. Bandyopadhyay, “Free heme toxicity and its detoxification systems in human,” Toxicol. Lett. 157(3), 175–188 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Transplant. Proc. (1)

D. Y. Kim, M. Abouljoud, and R. Parasuraman, “The role of microscopic hematuria in the evaluation of urologic malignancy in renal transplant recipients,” Transplant. Proc. 42(5), 1641–1642 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Transplantation (1)

Y. W. Sijpkens, I. I. Doxiadis, M. J. Mallat, J. W. de Fijter, J. A. Bruijn, F. H. Claas, and L. C. Paul, “Early versus late acute rejection episodes in renal transplantation,” Transplantation 75(2), 204–208 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (1)

United states renal data system, “Chapter 7, tansplantation,” in USRDS 2013 Annual Data Report (2013), http://www.usrds.org/2013/view/v2_07.aspx

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the SERS optical set up.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Urine spectra of patient 4 at time intervals A, B, D and E. BG represents the background spectrum of Ag NPs on the silicon substrate. Each spectrum was shifted vertically for clarity in illustration.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) SERS spectra of the urine samples from RAAR patients at time interval B. (b) SERS spectra of the urine samples from normal subjects at time interval B.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Distribution of the intensity ratio of peaks at 1360 cm−1 over 520 cm−1. Three patients had R values higher than 10, including patient 24 (RAAR episode). Eight patients had R values between 5 and 10, including patients 26, 27 (RAAR episodes), and patient 10 (acute kidney failure). The R values of twelve patients are between 1 and 5, including patient 3 (acute kidney failure). The R values of the other 37 patients were less than 1. (b) Results from clinical diagnosis. Eighteen patients received biopsy due to high levels of sCr. Five patients were diagnosed as acute rejection or kidney failure. The remaining 40 patients were considered normal and did not receive a biopsy.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Chemical structure of (a) protoporphyrin IX and (b) heme B.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

SERS spectrum of protoporphyrin IX (P-IX) in aqueous solution at 10−7M. BG represents the background spectrum of Ag NPs on the silicon substrate.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Clinical Diagnosis of Patients Entered into This Study.

Metrics