Abstract

We demonstrate three-dimensional structural and functional retinal imaging with line-field parallel swept source imaging (LPSI) at acquisition speeds of up to 1 MHz equivalent A-scan rate with sensitivity better than 93.5 dB at a central wavelength of 840 nm. The results demonstrate competitive sensitivity, speed, image contrast and penetration depth when compared to conventional point scanning OCT. LPSI allows high-speed retinal imaging of function and morphology with commercially available components. We further demonstrate a method that mitigates the effect of the lateral Gaussian intensity distribution across the line focus and demonstrate and discuss the feasibility of high-speed optical angiography for visualization of the retinal microcirculation.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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2014 (3)

2013 (2)

M. S. Mahmud, D. W. Cadotte, B. Vuong, C. Sun, T. W. H. Luk, A. Mariampillai, and V. X. Yang, “Review of speckle and phase variance optical coherence tomography to visualize microvascular networks,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(5), 050901 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Klein, W. Wieser, L. Reznicek, A. Neubauer, A. Kampik, and R. Huber, “Multi-MHz retinal OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(10), 1890–1908 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (4)

2011 (2)

2010 (3)

2009 (1)

2008 (2)

2007 (5)

2006 (3)

2005 (1)

2004 (5)

2003 (5)

2002 (1)

2001 (1)

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, R. K. Ghanta, F. X. Kärtner, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh-resolution ophthalmic optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med. 7(4), 502–507 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (2)

A. F. Zuluaga and R. Richards-Kortum, “Spatially resolved spectral interferometry for determination of subsurface structure,” Opt. Lett. 24(8), 519–521 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. R. Harwood, L. E. Mezey, and C. M. Harris, “The spectral main sequence of human saccades,” J. Neurosci. 19(20), 9098–9106 (1999).
[PubMed]

1993 (2)

1990 (1)

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, and A. E. Hendrickson, “Human photoreceptor topography,” J. Comp. Neurol. 292(4), 497–523 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

J. Hirsch and C. A. Curcio, “The spatial resolution capacity of human foveal retina,” Vision Res. 29(9), 1095–1101 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1971 (1)

S. J. Fricker, “Dynamic measurements of horizontal eye motion. I. Acceleration and velocity matrices,” Invest. Ophthalmol. 10(9), 724–732 (1971).
[PubMed]

1964 (1)

Adler, D. C.

Alex, A.

An, L.

Andre, R.

C. Blatter, T. Klein, B. Grajciar, T. Schmoll, W. Wieser, R. Andre, R. Huber, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Ultrahigh-speed non-invasive widefield angiography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(7), 070505 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aoki, G.

Artal, P.

Bachmann, A. H.

Bajraszewski, T.

Biedermann, B. R.

Bird, A. C.

Blatter, C.

Bonin, T.

T. Bonin, G. Franke, M. Hagen-Eggert, P. Koch, and G. Hüttmann, “In vivo Fourier-domain full-field OCT of the human retina with 1.5 million A-lines/s,” Opt. Lett. 35(20), 3432–3434 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Hillmann, G. Franke, L. Hinkel, T. Bonin, P. Koch, and G. Hüttmann, “Off-axis full-field swept-source optical coherence tomography using holographic refocusing,” Proc. SPIE 8571, Optical Coherence Tomography and Coherence Domain Optical Methods in BiomedicineXVII, 857104 (2013).

Bouma, B.

Bouma, B. E.

Cable, A.

Cable, A. E.

Cadotte, D. W.

M. S. Mahmud, D. W. Cadotte, B. Vuong, C. Sun, T. W. H. Luk, A. Mariampillai, and V. X. Yang, “Review of speckle and phase variance optical coherence tomography to visualize microvascular networks,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(5), 050901 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cense, B.

Chen, T.

Chen, Y.

Choma, M.

Curcio, C. A.

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, and A. E. Hendrickson, “Human photoreceptor topography,” J. Comp. Neurol. 292(4), 497–523 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Hirsch and C. A. Curcio, “The spatial resolution capacity of human foveal retina,” Vision Res. 29(9), 1095–1101 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

de Boer, J.

de Boer, J. F.

Drexler, W.

W. Drexler, M. Liu, A. Kumar, T. Kamali, A. Unterhuber, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Optical coherence tomography today: speed, contrast, and multimodality,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(7), 071412 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Fechtig, T. Schmoll, B. Grajciar, W. Drexler, and R. Leitgeb, “Line-field parallel swept source interferometric imaging at up to 1 MHz,” Opt. Lett. 39(18), 5333–5336 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Blatter, J. Weingast, A. Alex, B. Grajciar, W. Wieser, W. Drexler, R. Huber, and R. A. Leitgeb, “In situ structural and microangiographic assessment of human skin lesions with high-speed OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(10), 2636–2646 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Povazay, B. Hofer, C. Torti, B. Hermann, A. R. Tumlinson, M. Esmaeelpour, C. A. Egan, A. C. Bird, and W. Drexler, “Impact of enhanced resolution, speed and penetration on three-dimensional retinal optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 17(5), 4134–4150 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Leitgeb, W. Drexler, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, T. Bajraszewski, T. Le, A. Stingl, and A. Fercher, “Ultrahigh resolution Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 12(10), 2156–2165 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Hermann, E. J. Fernández, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, P. M. Prieto, and P. Artal, “Adaptive-optics ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 29(18), 2142–2144 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, R. K. Ghanta, F. X. Kärtner, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh-resolution ophthalmic optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med. 7(4), 502–507 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, G. Kamp, and H. Sattmann, “In vivo Optical Coherence Tomography,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 116(1), 113–114 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Duker, J.

Duker, J. S.

Egan, C. A.

Eigenwillig, C. M.

Endo, T.

Engbert, R.

R. Engbert and R. Kliegl, “Microsaccades uncover the orientation of covert attention,” Vision Res. 43(9), 1035–1045 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Esmaeelpour, M.

Fechtig, D.

Fercher, A.

Fercher, A. F.

Ferguson, R. D.

M. Mujat, N. V. Iftimia, R. D. Ferguson, and D. X. Hammer, “Swept-source parallel OCT, ” Proc. SPIE 7168, Optical Coherence Tomography and Coherence Domain Optical Methods in BiomedicineXIII, 71681E (2009).

Fernández, E. J.

Franke, G.

T. Bonin, G. Franke, M. Hagen-Eggert, P. Koch, and G. Hüttmann, “In vivo Fourier-domain full-field OCT of the human retina with 1.5 million A-lines/s,” Opt. Lett. 35(20), 3432–3434 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Hillmann, G. Franke, L. Hinkel, T. Bonin, P. Koch, and G. Hüttmann, “Off-axis full-field swept-source optical coherence tomography using holographic refocusing,” Proc. SPIE 8571, Optical Coherence Tomography and Coherence Domain Optical Methods in BiomedicineXVII, 857104 (2013).

Fricker, S. J.

S. J. Fricker, “Dynamic measurements of horizontal eye motion. I. Acceleration and velocity matrices,” Invest. Ophthalmol. 10(9), 724–732 (1971).
[PubMed]

Fujimoto, J.

Fujimoto, J. G.

I. Grulkowski, J. J. Liu, B. Potsaid, V. Jayaraman, C. D. Lu, J. Jiang, A. E. Cable, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Retinal, anterior segment and full eye imaging using ultrahigh speed swept source OCT with vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(11), 2733–2751 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, O. Tan, J. Tokayer, B. Potsaid, Y. Wang, J. J. Liu, M. F. Kraus, H. Subhash, J. G. Fujimoto, J. Hornegger, and D. Huang, “Split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography with optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 20(4), 4710–4725 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Potsaid, I. Gorczynska, V. J. Srinivasan, Y. Chen, J. Jiang, A. Cable, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh speed Spectral / Fourier domain OCT ophthalmic imaging at 70,000 to 312,500 axial scans per second,” Opt. Express 16(19), 15149–15169 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Huber, D. C. Adler, V. J. Srinivasan, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Fourier domain mode locking at 1050 nm for ultra-high-speed optical coherence tomography of the human retina at 236,000 axial scans per second,” Opt. Lett. 32(14), 2049–2051 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Fourier Domain Mode Locking (FDML): A new laser operating regime and applications for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 14(8), 3225–3237 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, R. K. Ghanta, F. X. Kärtner, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh-resolution ophthalmic optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med. 7(4), 502–507 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. A. Swanson, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, D. Huang, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo retinal imaging by optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 18(21), 1864–1866 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ghanta, R. K.

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, R. K. Ghanta, F. X. Kärtner, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh-resolution ophthalmic optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med. 7(4), 502–507 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gorczynska, I.

Grajciar, B.

Gruber, A.

Grulkowski, I.

Hagen-Eggert, M.

Hammer, D. X.

M. Mujat, N. V. Iftimia, R. D. Ferguson, and D. X. Hammer, “Swept-source parallel OCT, ” Proc. SPIE 7168, Optical Coherence Tomography and Coherence Domain Optical Methods in BiomedicineXIII, 71681E (2009).

Hanson, S. R.

Harris, C. M.

M. R. Harwood, L. E. Mezey, and C. M. Harris, “The spectral main sequence of human saccades,” J. Neurosci. 19(20), 9098–9106 (1999).
[PubMed]

Harwood, M. R.

M. R. Harwood, L. E. Mezey, and C. M. Harris, “The spectral main sequence of human saccades,” J. Neurosci. 19(20), 9098–9106 (1999).
[PubMed]

Hee, M. R.

Hendrickson, A. E.

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, and A. E. Hendrickson, “Human photoreceptor topography,” J. Comp. Neurol. 292(4), 497–523 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hermann, B.

Hillmann, D.

D. Hillmann, G. Franke, L. Hinkel, T. Bonin, P. Koch, and G. Hüttmann, “Off-axis full-field swept-source optical coherence tomography using holographic refocusing,” Proc. SPIE 8571, Optical Coherence Tomography and Coherence Domain Optical Methods in BiomedicineXVII, 857104 (2013).

Hinkel, L.

D. Hillmann, G. Franke, L. Hinkel, T. Bonin, P. Koch, and G. Hüttmann, “Off-axis full-field swept-source optical coherence tomography using holographic refocusing,” Proc. SPIE 8571, Optical Coherence Tomography and Coherence Domain Optical Methods in BiomedicineXVII, 857104 (2013).

Hirsch, J.

J. Hirsch and C. A. Curcio, “The spatial resolution capacity of human foveal retina,” Vision Res. 29(9), 1095–1101 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hitzenberger, C.

Hitzenberger, C. K.

Hofer, B.

Hong, Y.

Hornegger, J.

Huang, D.

Huber, R.

T. Klein, W. Wieser, L. Reznicek, A. Neubauer, A. Kampik, and R. Huber, “Multi-MHz retinal OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(10), 1890–1908 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Blatter, J. Weingast, A. Alex, B. Grajciar, W. Wieser, W. Drexler, R. Huber, and R. A. Leitgeb, “In situ structural and microangiographic assessment of human skin lesions with high-speed OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(10), 2636–2646 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Blatter, T. Klein, B. Grajciar, T. Schmoll, W. Wieser, R. Andre, R. Huber, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Ultrahigh-speed non-invasive widefield angiography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(7), 070505 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Klein, W. Wieser, C. M. Eigenwillig, B. R. Biedermann, and R. Huber, “Megahertz OCT for ultrawide-field retinal imaging with a 1050 nm Fourier domain mode-locked laser,” Opt. Express 19(4), 3044–3062 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Wieser, B. R. Biedermann, T. Klein, C. M. Eigenwillig, and R. Huber, “Multi-Megahertz OCT: High quality 3D imaging at 20 million A-scans and 4.5 GVoxels per second,” Opt. Express 18(14), 14685–14704 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Huber, D. C. Adler, V. J. Srinivasan, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Fourier domain mode locking at 1050 nm for ultra-high-speed optical coherence tomography of the human retina at 236,000 axial scans per second,” Opt. Lett. 32(14), 2049–2051 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Fourier Domain Mode Locking (FDML): A new laser operating regime and applications for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 14(8), 3225–3237 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hurst, S.

Hüttmann, G.

T. Bonin, G. Franke, M. Hagen-Eggert, P. Koch, and G. Hüttmann, “In vivo Fourier-domain full-field OCT of the human retina with 1.5 million A-lines/s,” Opt. Lett. 35(20), 3432–3434 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Hillmann, G. Franke, L. Hinkel, T. Bonin, P. Koch, and G. Hüttmann, “Off-axis full-field swept-source optical coherence tomography using holographic refocusing,” Proc. SPIE 8571, Optical Coherence Tomography and Coherence Domain Optical Methods in BiomedicineXVII, 857104 (2013).

Iftimia, N. V.

M. Mujat, N. V. Iftimia, R. D. Ferguson, and D. X. Hammer, “Swept-source parallel OCT, ” Proc. SPIE 7168, Optical Coherence Tomography and Coherence Domain Optical Methods in BiomedicineXIII, 71681E (2009).

Itoh, M.

Izatt, J.

Izatt, J. A.

Jacques, S. L.

Jayaraman, V.

Jia, Y.

Jiang, J.

Kalina, R. E.

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, and A. E. Hendrickson, “Human photoreceptor topography,” J. Comp. Neurol. 292(4), 497–523 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kamali, T.

W. Drexler, M. Liu, A. Kumar, T. Kamali, A. Unterhuber, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Optical coherence tomography today: speed, contrast, and multimodality,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(7), 071412 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kamp, G.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, G. Kamp, and H. Sattmann, “In vivo Optical Coherence Tomography,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 116(1), 113–114 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kampik, A.

Kärtner, F. X.

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, R. K. Ghanta, F. X. Kärtner, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh-resolution ophthalmic optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med. 7(4), 502–507 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Khurana, M.

Kim, D. Y.

D. Y. Kim, J. S. Werner, and R. J. Zawadzki, “Comparison of phase-shifting techniques for in vivo full-range, high-speed Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(5), 056011 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Klein, T.

Kliegl, R.

R. Engbert and R. Kliegl, “Microsaccades uncover the orientation of covert attention,” Vision Res. 43(9), 1035–1045 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ko, T.

Kocaoglu, O. P.

Koch, P.

T. Bonin, G. Franke, M. Hagen-Eggert, P. Koch, and G. Hüttmann, “In vivo Fourier-domain full-field OCT of the human retina with 1.5 million A-lines/s,” Opt. Lett. 35(20), 3432–3434 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Hillmann, G. Franke, L. Hinkel, T. Bonin, P. Koch, and G. Hüttmann, “Off-axis full-field swept-source optical coherence tomography using holographic refocusing,” Proc. SPIE 8571, Optical Coherence Tomography and Coherence Domain Optical Methods in BiomedicineXVII, 857104 (2013).

Kowalczyk, A.

Kraus, M. F.

Kumar, A.

W. Drexler, M. Liu, A. Kumar, T. Kamali, A. Unterhuber, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Optical coherence tomography today: speed, contrast, and multimodality,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(7), 071412 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lasser, T.

Le, T.

Leitgeb, R.

Leitgeb, R. A.

Leith, E.

Leung, M. K.

Li, P.

Lin, C. P.

Liu, J. J.

Liu, M.

W. Drexler, M. Liu, A. Kumar, T. Kamali, A. Unterhuber, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Optical coherence tomography today: speed, contrast, and multimodality,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(7), 071412 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, Z.

Lu, C. D.

Luk, T. W. H.

M. S. Mahmud, D. W. Cadotte, B. Vuong, C. Sun, T. W. H. Luk, A. Mariampillai, and V. X. Yang, “Review of speckle and phase variance optical coherence tomography to visualize microvascular networks,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(5), 050901 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ma, Z.

Mahmud, M. S.

M. S. Mahmud, D. W. Cadotte, B. Vuong, C. Sun, T. W. H. Luk, A. Mariampillai, and V. X. Yang, “Review of speckle and phase variance optical coherence tomography to visualize microvascular networks,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(5), 050901 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Makita, S.

Mariampillai, A.

M. S. Mahmud, D. W. Cadotte, B. Vuong, C. Sun, T. W. H. Luk, A. Mariampillai, and V. X. Yang, “Review of speckle and phase variance optical coherence tomography to visualize microvascular networks,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(5), 050901 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Mariampillai, B. A. Standish, E. H. Moriyama, M. Khurana, N. R. Munce, M. K. Leung, J. Jiang, A. Cable, B. C. Wilson, I. A. Vitkin, and V. X. Yang, “Speckle variance detection of microvasculature using swept-source optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 33(13), 1530–1532 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mezey, L. E.

M. R. Harwood, L. E. Mezey, and C. M. Harris, “The spectral main sequence of human saccades,” J. Neurosci. 19(20), 9098–9106 (1999).
[PubMed]

Miller, D. T.

Morgner, U.

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, R. K. Ghanta, F. X. Kärtner, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh-resolution ophthalmic optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med. 7(4), 502–507 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moriyama, E. H.

Mujat, M.

M. Mujat, N. V. Iftimia, R. D. Ferguson, and D. X. Hammer, “Swept-source parallel OCT, ” Proc. SPIE 7168, Optical Coherence Tomography and Coherence Domain Optical Methods in BiomedicineXIII, 71681E (2009).

Munce, N. R.

Nakamura, Y.

Nassif, N.

Neubauer, A.

Park, B.

Park, B. H.

Pierce, M.

Pierce, M. C.

Pircher, M.

M. Pircher and R. J. Zawadzki, “Combining adaptive optics with optical coherence tomography: unveiling the cellular structure of the human retina in vivo,” Expert Rev. Ophthalmol. 2(6), 1019–1035 (2007).
[Crossref]

B. Grajciar, M. Pircher, A. Fercher, and R. Leitgeb, “Parallel Fourier domain optical coherence tomography for in vivo measurement of the human eye,” Opt. Express 13(4), 1131–1137 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Potsaid, B.

Povazay, B.

Prieto, P. M.

Puliafito, C. A.

Reznicek, L.

Richards-Kortum, R.

Sarunic, M.

Sattmann, H.

Schmoll, T.

D. Fechtig, T. Schmoll, B. Grajciar, W. Drexler, and R. Leitgeb, “Line-field parallel swept source interferometric imaging at up to 1 MHz,” Opt. Lett. 39(18), 5333–5336 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Blatter, T. Klein, B. Grajciar, T. Schmoll, W. Wieser, R. Andre, R. Huber, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Ultrahigh-speed non-invasive widefield angiography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(7), 070505 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schuman, J. S.

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, R. K. Ghanta, F. X. Kärtner, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh-resolution ophthalmic optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med. 7(4), 502–507 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. A. Swanson, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, D. Huang, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo retinal imaging by optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 18(21), 1864–1866 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shen, T. T.

Sloan, K. R.

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, and A. E. Hendrickson, “Human photoreceptor topography,” J. Comp. Neurol. 292(4), 497–523 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Srinivasan, V.

Srinivasan, V. J.

Standish, B. A.

Stingl, A.

Subhash, H.

Sun, C.

M. S. Mahmud, D. W. Cadotte, B. Vuong, C. Sun, T. W. H. Luk, A. Mariampillai, and V. X. Yang, “Review of speckle and phase variance optical coherence tomography to visualize microvascular networks,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(5), 050901 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

Tan, O.

Tearney, G.

Tearney, G. J.

Tokayer, J.

Torti, C.

Tumlinson, A. R.

Turner, T. L.

Unterhuber, A.

Upatnieks, J.

Villiger, M. L.

Vitkin, I. A.

Vuong, B.

M. S. Mahmud, D. W. Cadotte, B. Vuong, C. Sun, T. W. H. Luk, A. Mariampillai, and V. X. Yang, “Review of speckle and phase variance optical coherence tomography to visualize microvascular networks,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(5), 050901 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, R.

Wang, R. K.

Wang, Y.

Weingast, J.

Werner, J. S.

D. Y. Kim, J. S. Werner, and R. J. Zawadzki, “Comparison of phase-shifting techniques for in vivo full-range, high-speed Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(5), 056011 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wieser, W.

Wilson, B. C.

Wojtkowski, M.

Yamanari, M.

Yang, C.

Yang, V. X.

M. S. Mahmud, D. W. Cadotte, B. Vuong, C. Sun, T. W. H. Luk, A. Mariampillai, and V. X. Yang, “Review of speckle and phase variance optical coherence tomography to visualize microvascular networks,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(5), 050901 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Mariampillai, B. A. Standish, E. H. Moriyama, M. Khurana, N. R. Munce, M. K. Leung, J. Jiang, A. Cable, B. C. Wilson, I. A. Vitkin, and V. X. Yang, “Speckle variance detection of microvasculature using swept-source optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 33(13), 1530–1532 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yasuno, Y.

Yatagai, T.

Yun, S.

Yun, S. H.

Zawadzki, R. J.

D. Y. Kim, J. S. Werner, and R. J. Zawadzki, “Comparison of phase-shifting techniques for in vivo full-range, high-speed Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(5), 056011 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Pircher and R. J. Zawadzki, “Combining adaptive optics with optical coherence tomography: unveiling the cellular structure of the human retina in vivo,” Expert Rev. Ophthalmol. 2(6), 1019–1035 (2007).
[Crossref]

Zuluaga, A. F.

Am. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, G. Kamp, and H. Sattmann, “In vivo Optical Coherence Tomography,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 116(1), 113–114 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Biomed. Opt. Express (5)

Expert Rev. Ophthalmol. (1)

M. Pircher and R. J. Zawadzki, “Combining adaptive optics with optical coherence tomography: unveiling the cellular structure of the human retina in vivo,” Expert Rev. Ophthalmol. 2(6), 1019–1035 (2007).
[Crossref]

Invest. Ophthalmol. (1)

S. J. Fricker, “Dynamic measurements of horizontal eye motion. I. Acceleration and velocity matrices,” Invest. Ophthalmol. 10(9), 724–732 (1971).
[PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (4)

M. S. Mahmud, D. W. Cadotte, B. Vuong, C. Sun, T. W. H. Luk, A. Mariampillai, and V. X. Yang, “Review of speckle and phase variance optical coherence tomography to visualize microvascular networks,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(5), 050901 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Blatter, T. Klein, B. Grajciar, T. Schmoll, W. Wieser, R. Andre, R. Huber, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Ultrahigh-speed non-invasive widefield angiography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(7), 070505 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Drexler, M. Liu, A. Kumar, T. Kamali, A. Unterhuber, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Optical coherence tomography today: speed, contrast, and multimodality,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(7), 071412 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Y. Kim, J. S. Werner, and R. J. Zawadzki, “Comparison of phase-shifting techniques for in vivo full-range, high-speed Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(5), 056011 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Comp. Neurol. (1)

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, and A. E. Hendrickson, “Human photoreceptor topography,” J. Comp. Neurol. 292(4), 497–523 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Neurosci. (1)

M. R. Harwood, L. E. Mezey, and C. M. Harris, “The spectral main sequence of human saccades,” J. Neurosci. 19(20), 9098–9106 (1999).
[PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Nat. Med. (1)

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, R. K. Ghanta, F. X. Kärtner, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh-resolution ophthalmic optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med. 7(4), 502–507 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (17)

B. Grajciar, M. Pircher, A. Fercher, and R. Leitgeb, “Parallel Fourier domain optical coherence tomography for in vivo measurement of the human eye,” Opt. Express 13(4), 1131–1137 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Leitgeb, C. Hitzenberger, and A. Fercher, “Performance of fourier domain vs. time domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 11(8), 889–894 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Nassif, B. Cense, B. Park, M. Pierce, S. Yun, B. Bouma, G. Tearney, T. Chen, and J. de Boer, “In vivo high-resolution video-rate spectral-domain optical coherence tomography of the human retina and optic nerve,” Opt. Express 12(3), 367–376 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Choma, M. Sarunic, C. Yang, and J. Izatt, “Sensitivity advantage of swept source and Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 11(18), 2183–2189 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Leitgeb, W. Drexler, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, T. Bajraszewski, T. Le, A. Stingl, and A. Fercher, “Ultrahigh resolution Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 12(10), 2156–2165 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, T. Ko, J. Fujimoto, A. Kowalczyk, and J. Duker, “Ultrahigh-resolution, high-speed, Fourier domain optical coherence tomography and methods for dispersion compensation,” Opt. Express 12(11), 2404–2422 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. Tearney, J. de Boer, and B. Bouma, “Motion artifacts in optical coherence tomography with frequency-domain ranging,” Opt. Express 12(13), 2977–2998 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Fourier Domain Mode Locking (FDML): A new laser operating regime and applications for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 14(8), 3225–3237 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Makita, Y. Hong, M. Yamanari, T. Yatagai, and Y. Yasuno, “Optical coherence angiography,” Opt. Express 14(17), 7821–7840 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. H. Bachmann, M. L. Villiger, C. Blatter, T. Lasser, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Resonant Doppler flow imaging and optical vivisection of retinal blood vessels,” Opt. Express 15(2), 408–422 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. K. Wang, S. L. Jacques, Z. Ma, S. Hurst, S. R. Hanson, and A. Gruber, “Three dimensional optical angiography,” Opt. Express 15(7), 4083–4097 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Nakamura, S. Makita, M. Yamanari, M. Itoh, T. Yatagai, and Y. Yasuno, “High-speed three-dimensional human retinal imaging by line-field spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 15(12), 7103–7116 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Klein, W. Wieser, C. M. Eigenwillig, B. R. Biedermann, and R. Huber, “Megahertz OCT for ultrawide-field retinal imaging with a 1050 nm Fourier domain mode-locked laser,” Opt. Express 19(4), 3044–3062 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, O. Tan, J. Tokayer, B. Potsaid, Y. Wang, J. J. Liu, M. F. Kraus, H. Subhash, J. G. Fujimoto, J. Hornegger, and D. Huang, “Split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography with optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 20(4), 4710–4725 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Potsaid, I. Gorczynska, V. J. Srinivasan, Y. Chen, J. Jiang, A. Cable, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh speed Spectral / Fourier domain OCT ophthalmic imaging at 70,000 to 312,500 axial scans per second,” Opt. Express 16(19), 15149–15169 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Povazay, B. Hofer, C. Torti, B. Hermann, A. R. Tumlinson, M. Esmaeelpour, C. A. Egan, A. C. Bird, and W. Drexler, “Impact of enhanced resolution, speed and penetration on three-dimensional retinal optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 17(5), 4134–4150 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Wieser, B. R. Biedermann, T. Klein, C. M. Eigenwillig, and R. Huber, “Multi-Megahertz OCT: High quality 3D imaging at 20 million A-scans and 4.5 GVoxels per second,” Opt. Express 18(14), 14685–14704 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (10)

T. Bonin, G. Franke, M. Hagen-Eggert, P. Koch, and G. Hüttmann, “In vivo Fourier-domain full-field OCT of the human retina with 1.5 million A-lines/s,” Opt. Lett. 35(20), 3432–3434 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Fechtig, T. Schmoll, B. Grajciar, W. Drexler, and R. Leitgeb, “Line-field parallel swept source interferometric imaging at up to 1 MHz,” Opt. Lett. 39(18), 5333–5336 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Huber, D. C. Adler, V. J. Srinivasan, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Fourier domain mode locking at 1050 nm for ultra-high-speed optical coherence tomography of the human retina at 236,000 axial scans per second,” Opt. Lett. 32(14), 2049–2051 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Mariampillai, B. A. Standish, E. H. Moriyama, M. Khurana, N. R. Munce, M. K. Leung, J. Jiang, A. Cable, B. C. Wilson, I. A. Vitkin, and V. X. Yang, “Speckle variance detection of microvasculature using swept-source optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 33(13), 1530–1532 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Hermann, E. J. Fernández, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, P. M. Prieto, and P. Artal, “Adaptive-optics ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 29(18), 2142–2144 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. F. de Boer, B. Cense, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Improved signal-to-noise ratio in spectral-domain compared with time-domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 28(21), 2067–2069 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. A. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, A. F. Fercher, and T. Bajraszewski, “Phase-shifting algorithm to achieve high-speed long-depth-range probing by frequency-domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 28(22), 2201–2203 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, A. Kowalczyk, R. Leitgeb, and A. F. Fercher, “Full range complex spectral optical coherence tomography technique in eye imaging,” Opt. Lett. 27(16), 1415–1417 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. A. Swanson, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, D. Huang, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo retinal imaging by optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 18(21), 1864–1866 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. F. Zuluaga and R. Richards-Kortum, “Spatially resolved spectral interferometry for determination of subsurface structure,” Opt. Lett. 24(8), 519–521 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vision Res. (2)

J. Hirsch and C. A. Curcio, “The spatial resolution capacity of human foveal retina,” Vision Res. 29(9), 1095–1101 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Engbert and R. Kliegl, “Microsaccades uncover the orientation of covert attention,” Vision Res. 43(9), 1035–1045 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (4)

D. Hillmann, G. Franke, L. Hinkel, T. Bonin, P. Koch, and G. Hüttmann, “Off-axis full-field swept-source optical coherence tomography using holographic refocusing,” Proc. SPIE 8571, Optical Coherence Tomography and Coherence Domain Optical Methods in BiomedicineXVII, 857104 (2013).

IEC 60825–1 ed3.0, “Safety of laser products – Part 1: Equipment classification and requirements,” (2014).

ANSI, “American National Standard for safe use of lasers (ANSI 136.1),” ANSI 136.1–2007 (The Laser Institute of America, 2007).

M. Mujat, N. V. Iftimia, R. D. Ferguson, and D. X. Hammer, “Swept-source parallel OCT, ” Proc. SPIE 7168, Optical Coherence Tomography and Coherence Domain Optical Methods in BiomedicineXIII, 71681E (2009).

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic of LPSI setup as explained in the text. (b) Ray diagram of the illumination beam in tangential (parallel) direction of sample (black dotted line) and reference arm (red dotted line), respectively. The imaging relation is depicted as green line. (c) Illumination (and imaging) beam of the sagittal (scanning) direction. Numbers without units are in mm. IS and IR are sample and reference arm beam, respectively.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Principle of LPSI signal processing as explained in the text. Numbers 1-5 correspond to the steps described in the enumeration above.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Schematic beam geometry for calculating maximum retinal exposures in point focus illumination (top) and anamorphic line focus illumination (bottom). Definition of sagittal and tangential plane as explained in the text. I S is the respective sample illumination intensity in tangential x- direction.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Stitched widefield 2D retinal images of macula and optic nerve head (ONH). The total field of view is approx. 30°. (a) is obtained without averaging, (b) is obtained by averaging 4 successive tomograms in scanning direction. ILM is internal limiting membrane, ONL is outer nuclear layer, OPL is outer plexiform layer, INL is inner nuclear layer, IPL is inner plexiform layer, GCL is ganglion cell layer, NFL is nerve fiber layer, ELM is external limiting membrane, RPE is retinal pigment epithelium, PJ is photoreceptor junction.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 3D retinal images of parafoveal region. (a) single frame tomogram in transversal (parallel) direction. (b) averaging 4 successive tomograms in scanning (sagittal) direction. (c) and (d) tomograms along the sagittal coordinate. (e), (f), (g) and (h) are enface projections at depth locations indicated in (a). (i) 3D rendering of same data. The arrow points to visible nerve fiber bundles. (GCL- ganglion cell layer, INL - inner nuclear layer, SL - Sattler’s layer, HL - Haller’s layer).
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 3D retinal images obtained at an eccentricity of 7° towards the ONH. (a) represents a depth resolved tomogram in transversal direction. No averaging was employed. (b) is obtained after averaging 4 successive tomograms in scanning (sagittal) direction. (c) and (d) are respective tomograms with the abscissa being the sagittal coordinate. (e), (f) and (g) are enface projections at depth locations indicated in (a). (h) 3D rendering of same data. Abbreviations are explained in Fig. 4 and 5.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Demonstration of the effect of Gaussian weighting on the lateral signal degradation. (a) original retinal tomogram acquired at the periphery of the ONH. The image brightness (B) and contrast (C) was adjusted for optimal examination at the tomogram center. (b) the same tomogram, but B&C adjusted to visualize structures at the periphery. (c) tomogram after lateral Gaussian weighting with curve g ^ 1 . (d) normalized lateral signal decay (green curve) as a function of sensor pixels, obtained by averaging over 100 successive sagittal tomograms within the indicated green box in (a). The red curve is the respective Gaussian fit (Sect. 2.3). The normalized black and blue dashed curves g ^ 1 and g ^ 2 are obtained after inverting the Gaussian fit according to Eq. (6) with d = 0 and d = 5 respectively. S m is the measured lateral sensitivity decay across the sensor pixels. (e) tomogram after Gaussian weighting with curve g ^ 2 .
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Retinal tomograms acquired at 7° eccentricity from the fovea centralis towards the ONH. (a) was acquired at 600, (b) at 800 and (c) at 1000 equivalent kA-scans/s. The horizontal lines in the tomograms are the remaining DC terms. (d)-(f) were obtained after averaging 4 successive tomograms.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 High resolution retinal imaging at 600kHz. The image was acquired at an eccentricity of 7° from the fovea centralis towards the ONH. (a) enface projection at the depth position indicated with a white dashed line in (b). (b) linearly-scaled retinal tomogram taken at the indicated position (white dashed line on right side) in (a) obtained by averaging over 4 successive sagittal frames.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Non-invasive, high speed optical angiography of the retinal vasculature network based on speckle variance (Sect. 2.4). (a) tomogram showing the fovea centralis and indicating the depth position (red box) used to obtain the enface- projection of (b). (b) enface OA image obtained after calculating the speckle variance image. The enface image was obtained by maximum intensity projection over a depth range indicated in (a).
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 Demonstration of the effect of axial motion artifacts. (a)-(d) are tomograms acquired around the ONH with Config. A1. The blurring emanates from eye motion during acquisition of the spectrum. (e) shows a section acquired at approx. 4° eccentricity from the fovea towards the ONH. The artifact highlighted in the magnified image of (e) and in (e) is a consequence of the blurring induced by the axial blood flow component in the vessel below. The distance between location 1 and 1’ indicated in (b) corresponds to the estimated lateral motion between the tomogram in (a) and the successive tomogram in (b). The axial displacement between tomograms in (a) and (b) might be overestimated, since the sample motion introduces a Doppler frequency causing an additional artificial shift of the sample structure.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Summary of imaging parameters for different LPSI Configurations

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Table 2 Axial motion caused signal distortions

Equations (10)

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I BG (k,ξ)= w G (k)[ I(k,ξ)1/100 1 100 I(k,ξ, η i ) ]
I ˜ BG (k, f ξ )= w R ( f ξ s)F T ξ [ I BG (k,ξ) ]
I ˜ BG (k,ξ)=F T f ξ [ I ˜ BG (k, f ξ f max /2) ]
I ˜ BG (z,ξ)=F T k [ I ˜ BG (k,ξ) ]
g=a e [ ( xb c ) 2 ] +d
I ˜ g (z,x)= I ˜ (z,x) 1 g/ g max =I(z,x) g ^
SV(z,x,y)=1/N i [ I ˜ (z,x, y i+1 ) I ˜ (z,x, y i ) ] 2
MPE=1.8 10 3 C 4 C 6 t 0.25 [W/c m 2 ]
C 6 = α max + α min 2 α min
cos[ 2k(t)(Δz+vt)+ φ 0 ]= cos[ 2 k 0 (Δz+vt)+2δkΔzt+2δkv t 2 + φ 0 ]

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