Abstract

Lithium therapy is the gold standard of treatment for patients with Bipolar Disorder. However, despite its effectiveness, it is a potentially hazardous drug requiring regular monitoring of blood levels to ensure toxic levels are not reached. This paper describes the spectrophotometric analysis of Lithium carbonate in solution as a first step in developing a portable home monitoring device for blood lithium analysis.. Using a high-end spectrophotometer, solutions of lithium carbonate (Li2CO3) have been optically fingerprinted. Preliminary measurements indicate that the ultraviolet region shows a strong distinction between different lithium concentrations. Utilizing second derivative absorption curves, the region of 220 nm to 230 nm demonstrated the ability to differentiate between concentrations representing those found in patients. Furthermore, the method could determine to within a 1–6% accuracy whether an unknown solution of Li2CO3 is either inside or outside the high-end of the therapeutic limit.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. L. Price and G. R. Marzani-Nissen, “Bipolar disorders: a review,” Am. Fam. Physician 85(5), 483–493 (2012).
    [PubMed]
  2. B. Disorder, Bipolar Foundation2012, http://www.bipolar-foundation.org/bipolar-disorder/
  3. U. Werneke, M. Ott, E. S. Renberg, D. Taylor, and B. Stegmayr, “A decision analysis of long-term lithium treatment and the risk of renal failure,” Acta Psychiatr. Scand. 126(3), 186–197 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. N. J. Delva and E. R. Hawken, “Preventing lithium intoxication. Guide for physicians,” Can. Fam. Physician 47, 1595–1600 (2001).
    [PubMed]
  5. J. L. Oliveira, G. B. Silva Júnior, K. L. Abreu, N. A. Rocha, L. F. Franco, S. M. Araújo, and E. F. Daher, “Lithium nephrotoxicity,” Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. 56(5), 600–606 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. M. Gitlin and M. A. Frye, “Maintenance therapies in bipolar disorders,” Bipolar Disord. 14(2Suppl 2), 51–65 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. E. Giuliani, D. Iseppi, M. C. Orlandi, A. Alfonso, and A. Barbieri, “Prolonged neurological burden in severe lithium intoxication,” Minerva Anestesiol. 76(6), 463–465 (2010).
    [PubMed]
  8. R. T. Timmer and J. M. Sands, “Lithium Intoxication,” J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 10(3), 666–674 (1999).
    [PubMed]
  9. M. Sampson, M. Ruddel, and R. J. Elin, “Lithium determinations evaluated in eight analyzers,” Clin. Chem. 40(6), 869–872 (1994).
    [PubMed]
  10. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE), “Bipolar disorder: the management of bipolar disorder in adults,children and adolescents, in primary and secondary care”, no. CG38, 2006.
  11. N. Collins, T. R. E. Barnes, A. Shingleton-Smith, D. Gerrett, and C. Paton, “Standards of lithium monitoring in mental health trusts in the UK,” BMC Psychiatry 10(1), 80 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. G. S. Malhi, M. Tanious, P. Das, and M. Berk, “The science and practice of lithium therapy,” Aust. N. Z. J. Psychiatry 46(3), 192–211 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (4)

M. Gitlin and M. A. Frye, “Maintenance therapies in bipolar disorders,” Bipolar Disord. 14(2Suppl 2), 51–65 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. L. Price and G. R. Marzani-Nissen, “Bipolar disorders: a review,” Am. Fam. Physician 85(5), 483–493 (2012).
[PubMed]

U. Werneke, M. Ott, E. S. Renberg, D. Taylor, and B. Stegmayr, “A decision analysis of long-term lithium treatment and the risk of renal failure,” Acta Psychiatr. Scand. 126(3), 186–197 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. S. Malhi, M. Tanious, P. Das, and M. Berk, “The science and practice of lithium therapy,” Aust. N. Z. J. Psychiatry 46(3), 192–211 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

J. L. Oliveira, G. B. Silva Júnior, K. L. Abreu, N. A. Rocha, L. F. Franco, S. M. Araújo, and E. F. Daher, “Lithium nephrotoxicity,” Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. 56(5), 600–606 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Collins, T. R. E. Barnes, A. Shingleton-Smith, D. Gerrett, and C. Paton, “Standards of lithium monitoring in mental health trusts in the UK,” BMC Psychiatry 10(1), 80 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Giuliani, D. Iseppi, M. C. Orlandi, A. Alfonso, and A. Barbieri, “Prolonged neurological burden in severe lithium intoxication,” Minerva Anestesiol. 76(6), 463–465 (2010).
[PubMed]

2001 (1)

N. J. Delva and E. R. Hawken, “Preventing lithium intoxication. Guide for physicians,” Can. Fam. Physician 47, 1595–1600 (2001).
[PubMed]

1999 (1)

R. T. Timmer and J. M. Sands, “Lithium Intoxication,” J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 10(3), 666–674 (1999).
[PubMed]

1994 (1)

M. Sampson, M. Ruddel, and R. J. Elin, “Lithium determinations evaluated in eight analyzers,” Clin. Chem. 40(6), 869–872 (1994).
[PubMed]

Abreu, K. L.

J. L. Oliveira, G. B. Silva Júnior, K. L. Abreu, N. A. Rocha, L. F. Franco, S. M. Araújo, and E. F. Daher, “Lithium nephrotoxicity,” Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. 56(5), 600–606 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alfonso, A.

E. Giuliani, D. Iseppi, M. C. Orlandi, A. Alfonso, and A. Barbieri, “Prolonged neurological burden in severe lithium intoxication,” Minerva Anestesiol. 76(6), 463–465 (2010).
[PubMed]

Araújo, S. M.

J. L. Oliveira, G. B. Silva Júnior, K. L. Abreu, N. A. Rocha, L. F. Franco, S. M. Araújo, and E. F. Daher, “Lithium nephrotoxicity,” Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. 56(5), 600–606 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barbieri, A.

E. Giuliani, D. Iseppi, M. C. Orlandi, A. Alfonso, and A. Barbieri, “Prolonged neurological burden in severe lithium intoxication,” Minerva Anestesiol. 76(6), 463–465 (2010).
[PubMed]

Barnes, T. R. E.

N. Collins, T. R. E. Barnes, A. Shingleton-Smith, D. Gerrett, and C. Paton, “Standards of lithium monitoring in mental health trusts in the UK,” BMC Psychiatry 10(1), 80 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Berk, M.

G. S. Malhi, M. Tanious, P. Das, and M. Berk, “The science and practice of lithium therapy,” Aust. N. Z. J. Psychiatry 46(3), 192–211 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Collins, N.

N. Collins, T. R. E. Barnes, A. Shingleton-Smith, D. Gerrett, and C. Paton, “Standards of lithium monitoring in mental health trusts in the UK,” BMC Psychiatry 10(1), 80 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Daher, E. F.

J. L. Oliveira, G. B. Silva Júnior, K. L. Abreu, N. A. Rocha, L. F. Franco, S. M. Araújo, and E. F. Daher, “Lithium nephrotoxicity,” Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. 56(5), 600–606 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Das, P.

G. S. Malhi, M. Tanious, P. Das, and M. Berk, “The science and practice of lithium therapy,” Aust. N. Z. J. Psychiatry 46(3), 192–211 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Delva, N. J.

N. J. Delva and E. R. Hawken, “Preventing lithium intoxication. Guide for physicians,” Can. Fam. Physician 47, 1595–1600 (2001).
[PubMed]

Elin, R. J.

M. Sampson, M. Ruddel, and R. J. Elin, “Lithium determinations evaluated in eight analyzers,” Clin. Chem. 40(6), 869–872 (1994).
[PubMed]

Franco, L. F.

J. L. Oliveira, G. B. Silva Júnior, K. L. Abreu, N. A. Rocha, L. F. Franco, S. M. Araújo, and E. F. Daher, “Lithium nephrotoxicity,” Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. 56(5), 600–606 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Frye, M. A.

M. Gitlin and M. A. Frye, “Maintenance therapies in bipolar disorders,” Bipolar Disord. 14(2Suppl 2), 51–65 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gerrett, D.

N. Collins, T. R. E. Barnes, A. Shingleton-Smith, D. Gerrett, and C. Paton, “Standards of lithium monitoring in mental health trusts in the UK,” BMC Psychiatry 10(1), 80 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gitlin, M.

M. Gitlin and M. A. Frye, “Maintenance therapies in bipolar disorders,” Bipolar Disord. 14(2Suppl 2), 51–65 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Giuliani, E.

E. Giuliani, D. Iseppi, M. C. Orlandi, A. Alfonso, and A. Barbieri, “Prolonged neurological burden in severe lithium intoxication,” Minerva Anestesiol. 76(6), 463–465 (2010).
[PubMed]

Hawken, E. R.

N. J. Delva and E. R. Hawken, “Preventing lithium intoxication. Guide for physicians,” Can. Fam. Physician 47, 1595–1600 (2001).
[PubMed]

Iseppi, D.

E. Giuliani, D. Iseppi, M. C. Orlandi, A. Alfonso, and A. Barbieri, “Prolonged neurological burden in severe lithium intoxication,” Minerva Anestesiol. 76(6), 463–465 (2010).
[PubMed]

Malhi, G. S.

G. S. Malhi, M. Tanious, P. Das, and M. Berk, “The science and practice of lithium therapy,” Aust. N. Z. J. Psychiatry 46(3), 192–211 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Marzani-Nissen, G. R.

A. L. Price and G. R. Marzani-Nissen, “Bipolar disorders: a review,” Am. Fam. Physician 85(5), 483–493 (2012).
[PubMed]

Oliveira, J. L.

J. L. Oliveira, G. B. Silva Júnior, K. L. Abreu, N. A. Rocha, L. F. Franco, S. M. Araújo, and E. F. Daher, “Lithium nephrotoxicity,” Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. 56(5), 600–606 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Orlandi, M. C.

E. Giuliani, D. Iseppi, M. C. Orlandi, A. Alfonso, and A. Barbieri, “Prolonged neurological burden in severe lithium intoxication,” Minerva Anestesiol. 76(6), 463–465 (2010).
[PubMed]

Ott, M.

U. Werneke, M. Ott, E. S. Renberg, D. Taylor, and B. Stegmayr, “A decision analysis of long-term lithium treatment and the risk of renal failure,” Acta Psychiatr. Scand. 126(3), 186–197 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Paton, C.

N. Collins, T. R. E. Barnes, A. Shingleton-Smith, D. Gerrett, and C. Paton, “Standards of lithium monitoring in mental health trusts in the UK,” BMC Psychiatry 10(1), 80 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Price, A. L.

A. L. Price and G. R. Marzani-Nissen, “Bipolar disorders: a review,” Am. Fam. Physician 85(5), 483–493 (2012).
[PubMed]

Renberg, E. S.

U. Werneke, M. Ott, E. S. Renberg, D. Taylor, and B. Stegmayr, “A decision analysis of long-term lithium treatment and the risk of renal failure,” Acta Psychiatr. Scand. 126(3), 186–197 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rocha, N. A.

J. L. Oliveira, G. B. Silva Júnior, K. L. Abreu, N. A. Rocha, L. F. Franco, S. M. Araújo, and E. F. Daher, “Lithium nephrotoxicity,” Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. 56(5), 600–606 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ruddel, M.

M. Sampson, M. Ruddel, and R. J. Elin, “Lithium determinations evaluated in eight analyzers,” Clin. Chem. 40(6), 869–872 (1994).
[PubMed]

Sampson, M.

M. Sampson, M. Ruddel, and R. J. Elin, “Lithium determinations evaluated in eight analyzers,” Clin. Chem. 40(6), 869–872 (1994).
[PubMed]

Sands, J. M.

R. T. Timmer and J. M. Sands, “Lithium Intoxication,” J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 10(3), 666–674 (1999).
[PubMed]

Shingleton-Smith, A.

N. Collins, T. R. E. Barnes, A. Shingleton-Smith, D. Gerrett, and C. Paton, “Standards of lithium monitoring in mental health trusts in the UK,” BMC Psychiatry 10(1), 80 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Silva Júnior, G. B.

J. L. Oliveira, G. B. Silva Júnior, K. L. Abreu, N. A. Rocha, L. F. Franco, S. M. Araújo, and E. F. Daher, “Lithium nephrotoxicity,” Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. 56(5), 600–606 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stegmayr, B.

U. Werneke, M. Ott, E. S. Renberg, D. Taylor, and B. Stegmayr, “A decision analysis of long-term lithium treatment and the risk of renal failure,” Acta Psychiatr. Scand. 126(3), 186–197 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tanious, M.

G. S. Malhi, M. Tanious, P. Das, and M. Berk, “The science and practice of lithium therapy,” Aust. N. Z. J. Psychiatry 46(3), 192–211 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Taylor, D.

U. Werneke, M. Ott, E. S. Renberg, D. Taylor, and B. Stegmayr, “A decision analysis of long-term lithium treatment and the risk of renal failure,” Acta Psychiatr. Scand. 126(3), 186–197 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Timmer, R. T.

R. T. Timmer and J. M. Sands, “Lithium Intoxication,” J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 10(3), 666–674 (1999).
[PubMed]

Werneke, U.

U. Werneke, M. Ott, E. S. Renberg, D. Taylor, and B. Stegmayr, “A decision analysis of long-term lithium treatment and the risk of renal failure,” Acta Psychiatr. Scand. 126(3), 186–197 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Acta Psychiatr. Scand. (1)

U. Werneke, M. Ott, E. S. Renberg, D. Taylor, and B. Stegmayr, “A decision analysis of long-term lithium treatment and the risk of renal failure,” Acta Psychiatr. Scand. 126(3), 186–197 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Am. Fam. Physician (1)

A. L. Price and G. R. Marzani-Nissen, “Bipolar disorders: a review,” Am. Fam. Physician 85(5), 483–493 (2012).
[PubMed]

Aust. N. Z. J. Psychiatry (1)

G. S. Malhi, M. Tanious, P. Das, and M. Berk, “The science and practice of lithium therapy,” Aust. N. Z. J. Psychiatry 46(3), 192–211 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bipolar Disord. (1)

M. Gitlin and M. A. Frye, “Maintenance therapies in bipolar disorders,” Bipolar Disord. 14(2Suppl 2), 51–65 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

BMC Psychiatry (1)

N. Collins, T. R. E. Barnes, A. Shingleton-Smith, D. Gerrett, and C. Paton, “Standards of lithium monitoring in mental health trusts in the UK,” BMC Psychiatry 10(1), 80 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Can. Fam. Physician (1)

N. J. Delva and E. R. Hawken, “Preventing lithium intoxication. Guide for physicians,” Can. Fam. Physician 47, 1595–1600 (2001).
[PubMed]

Clin. Chem. (1)

M. Sampson, M. Ruddel, and R. J. Elin, “Lithium determinations evaluated in eight analyzers,” Clin. Chem. 40(6), 869–872 (1994).
[PubMed]

J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. (1)

R. T. Timmer and J. M. Sands, “Lithium Intoxication,” J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 10(3), 666–674 (1999).
[PubMed]

Minerva Anestesiol. (1)

E. Giuliani, D. Iseppi, M. C. Orlandi, A. Alfonso, and A. Barbieri, “Prolonged neurological burden in severe lithium intoxication,” Minerva Anestesiol. 76(6), 463–465 (2010).
[PubMed]

Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1)

J. L. Oliveira, G. B. Silva Júnior, K. L. Abreu, N. A. Rocha, L. F. Franco, S. M. Araújo, and E. F. Daher, “Lithium nephrotoxicity,” Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. 56(5), 600–606 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (2)

B. Disorder, Bipolar Foundation2012, http://www.bipolar-foundation.org/bipolar-disorder/

National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE), “Bipolar disorder: the management of bipolar disorder in adults,children and adolescents, in primary and secondary care”, no. CG38, 2006.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Full pure water spectrum with various fingerprinting concentrations of Li2CO3.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Second derivative absorption curves (200 – 260 nm), fingerprinting concentrations.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Second derivative absorption curves (200 – 260 nm), therapeutic concentrations.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Concentrations of Li2CO3 in solution of distilled water with the effective Li+ concentration.

Tables Icon

Table 2 R2 values for the linear (L) and cubic (C) therapeutic concentration curves for each of the identified bands (γ207 and γ225) using the peak, maximum height and area under the curve methods.

Tables Icon

Table 3 Li2CO3 concentration calculation from derived calibration functions using the γ225 band.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

BY AREA [ L i 2 C O 3 ]=0.071 z 3 +0.051 z 2 +0.107z+0.266
where z={ ( x0.00019 )/( 0.00012 ) } BY PEAK [ L i 2 C O 3 ]=0.069 z 3 +0.048 z 2 +0.11z+0.266 where z={ ( x0.00002 )/( 0.000014 ) }

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