Abstract

We report a novel wide field-of-view (FOV) scanning endoscope, the AnCam, which is based on contact image sensor (CIS) technology used in commercialized business card scanners. The AnCam can capture the whole image of the anal canal within 10 seconds with a resolution of 89 μm, a maximum FOV of 100 mm × 120 mm, and a depth-of-field (DOF) of 0.65 mm at 5.9 line pairs per mm (lp/mm). We demonstrate the performance of the AnCam by imaging the entire anal canal of pigs and tracking the dynamics of acetowhite testing. We believe the AnCam can potentially be a simple and convenient solution for screening of the anal canal for dysplasia and for surveillance in patients following treatment for anal cancer.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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  1. L. G. Johnson, M. M. Madeleine, L. M. Newcomer, S. M. Schwartz, and J. R. Daling, “Anal cancer incidence and survival: The surveillance, epidemiology, and end results experience, 1973-2000,” Cancer 101(2), 281–288 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. R. A. Nelson, A. M. Levine, L. Bernstein, D. D. Smith, and L. L. Lai, “Changing Patterns of Anal Canal Carcinoma in the United States,” J. Clin. Oncol. 31(12), 1569–1575 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. M. Frisch, B. Glimelius, A. J. van den Brule, J. Wohlfahrt, C. J. Meijer, J. M. Walboomers, S. Goldman, C. Svensson, H. O. Adami, and M. Melbye, “Sexually transmitted infection as a cause of anal cancer,” N. Engl. J. Med. 337(19), 1350–1358 (1997).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. C. E. Pineda, J. M. Berry, N. Jay, J. M. Palefsky, and M. L. Welton, “High resolution anoscopy in the planned staged treatment of anal squamous intraepithelial lesions in HIV-negative patients,” J. Gastrointest. Surg. 11(11), 1410–1416 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. I. Tramujas da Costa e Silva, L. C. de Lima Ferreira, F. Santos Gimenez, R. A. Gonçalves Guimarães, L. Botinelly Fujimoto, C. R. Barbosa Cabral, R. Venturim Mozzer, and L. de Souza Atala, “High-resolution anoscopy in the diagnosis of anal cancer precursor lesions in renal graft recipients,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 15(5), 1470–1475 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. N. Jay, J. M. Berry, C. J. Hogeboom, E. A. Holly, T. M. Darragh, and J. M. Palefsky, “Colposcopic appearance of anal squamous intraepithelial lesions: relationship to histopathology,” Dis. Colon Rectum 40(8), 919–928 (1997).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. T. J. Wilkin, S. Palmer, K. F. Brudney, M. A. Chiasson, and T. C. Wright, “Anal intraepithelial neoplasia in heterosexual and homosexual HIV-positive men with access to antiretroviral therapy,” J. Infect. Dis. 190(9), 1685–1691 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. G. A. Zheng, X. Z. Ou, and C. H. Yang, “0.5 gigapixel microscopy using a flatbed scanner,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(1), 1–8 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. Z. Göröcs, Y. Y. Ling, M. D. Yu, D. Karahalios, K. Mogharabi, K. Lu, Q. S. Wei, and A. Ozcan, “Giga-pixel fluorescent imaging over an ultra-large field-of-view using a flatbed scanner,” Lab Chip 13(22), 4460–4466 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. B. Kumar and S. Gupta, “The acetowhite test in genital human papillomavirus infection in men: what does it add?” J. Eur. Acad. Dermatol. Venereol. 15(1), 27–29 (2001).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (1)

2013 (2)

Z. Göröcs, Y. Y. Ling, M. D. Yu, D. Karahalios, K. Mogharabi, K. Lu, Q. S. Wei, and A. Ozcan, “Giga-pixel fluorescent imaging over an ultra-large field-of-view using a flatbed scanner,” Lab Chip 13(22), 4460–4466 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. A. Nelson, A. M. Levine, L. Bernstein, D. D. Smith, and L. L. Lai, “Changing Patterns of Anal Canal Carcinoma in the United States,” J. Clin. Oncol. 31(12), 1569–1575 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

I. Tramujas da Costa e Silva, L. C. de Lima Ferreira, F. Santos Gimenez, R. A. Gonçalves Guimarães, L. Botinelly Fujimoto, C. R. Barbosa Cabral, R. Venturim Mozzer, and L. de Souza Atala, “High-resolution anoscopy in the diagnosis of anal cancer precursor lesions in renal graft recipients,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 15(5), 1470–1475 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

C. E. Pineda, J. M. Berry, N. Jay, J. M. Palefsky, and M. L. Welton, “High resolution anoscopy in the planned staged treatment of anal squamous intraepithelial lesions in HIV-negative patients,” J. Gastrointest. Surg. 11(11), 1410–1416 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

L. G. Johnson, M. M. Madeleine, L. M. Newcomer, S. M. Schwartz, and J. R. Daling, “Anal cancer incidence and survival: The surveillance, epidemiology, and end results experience, 1973-2000,” Cancer 101(2), 281–288 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. J. Wilkin, S. Palmer, K. F. Brudney, M. A. Chiasson, and T. C. Wright, “Anal intraepithelial neoplasia in heterosexual and homosexual HIV-positive men with access to antiretroviral therapy,” J. Infect. Dis. 190(9), 1685–1691 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

B. Kumar and S. Gupta, “The acetowhite test in genital human papillomavirus infection in men: what does it add?” J. Eur. Acad. Dermatol. Venereol. 15(1), 27–29 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1997 (2)

N. Jay, J. M. Berry, C. J. Hogeboom, E. A. Holly, T. M. Darragh, and J. M. Palefsky, “Colposcopic appearance of anal squamous intraepithelial lesions: relationship to histopathology,” Dis. Colon Rectum 40(8), 919–928 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Frisch, B. Glimelius, A. J. van den Brule, J. Wohlfahrt, C. J. Meijer, J. M. Walboomers, S. Goldman, C. Svensson, H. O. Adami, and M. Melbye, “Sexually transmitted infection as a cause of anal cancer,” N. Engl. J. Med. 337(19), 1350–1358 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adami, H. O.

M. Frisch, B. Glimelius, A. J. van den Brule, J. Wohlfahrt, C. J. Meijer, J. M. Walboomers, S. Goldman, C. Svensson, H. O. Adami, and M. Melbye, “Sexually transmitted infection as a cause of anal cancer,” N. Engl. J. Med. 337(19), 1350–1358 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barbosa Cabral, C. R.

I. Tramujas da Costa e Silva, L. C. de Lima Ferreira, F. Santos Gimenez, R. A. Gonçalves Guimarães, L. Botinelly Fujimoto, C. R. Barbosa Cabral, R. Venturim Mozzer, and L. de Souza Atala, “High-resolution anoscopy in the diagnosis of anal cancer precursor lesions in renal graft recipients,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 15(5), 1470–1475 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bernstein, L.

R. A. Nelson, A. M. Levine, L. Bernstein, D. D. Smith, and L. L. Lai, “Changing Patterns of Anal Canal Carcinoma in the United States,” J. Clin. Oncol. 31(12), 1569–1575 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Berry, J. M.

C. E. Pineda, J. M. Berry, N. Jay, J. M. Palefsky, and M. L. Welton, “High resolution anoscopy in the planned staged treatment of anal squamous intraepithelial lesions in HIV-negative patients,” J. Gastrointest. Surg. 11(11), 1410–1416 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Jay, J. M. Berry, C. J. Hogeboom, E. A. Holly, T. M. Darragh, and J. M. Palefsky, “Colposcopic appearance of anal squamous intraepithelial lesions: relationship to histopathology,” Dis. Colon Rectum 40(8), 919–928 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Botinelly Fujimoto, L.

I. Tramujas da Costa e Silva, L. C. de Lima Ferreira, F. Santos Gimenez, R. A. Gonçalves Guimarães, L. Botinelly Fujimoto, C. R. Barbosa Cabral, R. Venturim Mozzer, and L. de Souza Atala, “High-resolution anoscopy in the diagnosis of anal cancer precursor lesions in renal graft recipients,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 15(5), 1470–1475 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brudney, K. F.

T. J. Wilkin, S. Palmer, K. F. Brudney, M. A. Chiasson, and T. C. Wright, “Anal intraepithelial neoplasia in heterosexual and homosexual HIV-positive men with access to antiretroviral therapy,” J. Infect. Dis. 190(9), 1685–1691 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chiasson, M. A.

T. J. Wilkin, S. Palmer, K. F. Brudney, M. A. Chiasson, and T. C. Wright, “Anal intraepithelial neoplasia in heterosexual and homosexual HIV-positive men with access to antiretroviral therapy,” J. Infect. Dis. 190(9), 1685–1691 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Daling, J. R.

L. G. Johnson, M. M. Madeleine, L. M. Newcomer, S. M. Schwartz, and J. R. Daling, “Anal cancer incidence and survival: The surveillance, epidemiology, and end results experience, 1973-2000,” Cancer 101(2), 281–288 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Darragh, T. M.

N. Jay, J. M. Berry, C. J. Hogeboom, E. A. Holly, T. M. Darragh, and J. M. Palefsky, “Colposcopic appearance of anal squamous intraepithelial lesions: relationship to histopathology,” Dis. Colon Rectum 40(8), 919–928 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

de Lima Ferreira, L. C.

I. Tramujas da Costa e Silva, L. C. de Lima Ferreira, F. Santos Gimenez, R. A. Gonçalves Guimarães, L. Botinelly Fujimoto, C. R. Barbosa Cabral, R. Venturim Mozzer, and L. de Souza Atala, “High-resolution anoscopy in the diagnosis of anal cancer precursor lesions in renal graft recipients,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 15(5), 1470–1475 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

de Souza Atala, L.

I. Tramujas da Costa e Silva, L. C. de Lima Ferreira, F. Santos Gimenez, R. A. Gonçalves Guimarães, L. Botinelly Fujimoto, C. R. Barbosa Cabral, R. Venturim Mozzer, and L. de Souza Atala, “High-resolution anoscopy in the diagnosis of anal cancer precursor lesions in renal graft recipients,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 15(5), 1470–1475 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Frisch, M.

M. Frisch, B. Glimelius, A. J. van den Brule, J. Wohlfahrt, C. J. Meijer, J. M. Walboomers, S. Goldman, C. Svensson, H. O. Adami, and M. Melbye, “Sexually transmitted infection as a cause of anal cancer,” N. Engl. J. Med. 337(19), 1350–1358 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Glimelius, B.

M. Frisch, B. Glimelius, A. J. van den Brule, J. Wohlfahrt, C. J. Meijer, J. M. Walboomers, S. Goldman, C. Svensson, H. O. Adami, and M. Melbye, “Sexually transmitted infection as a cause of anal cancer,” N. Engl. J. Med. 337(19), 1350–1358 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Goldman, S.

M. Frisch, B. Glimelius, A. J. van den Brule, J. Wohlfahrt, C. J. Meijer, J. M. Walboomers, S. Goldman, C. Svensson, H. O. Adami, and M. Melbye, “Sexually transmitted infection as a cause of anal cancer,” N. Engl. J. Med. 337(19), 1350–1358 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gonçalves Guimarães, R. A.

I. Tramujas da Costa e Silva, L. C. de Lima Ferreira, F. Santos Gimenez, R. A. Gonçalves Guimarães, L. Botinelly Fujimoto, C. R. Barbosa Cabral, R. Venturim Mozzer, and L. de Souza Atala, “High-resolution anoscopy in the diagnosis of anal cancer precursor lesions in renal graft recipients,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 15(5), 1470–1475 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Göröcs, Z.

Z. Göröcs, Y. Y. Ling, M. D. Yu, D. Karahalios, K. Mogharabi, K. Lu, Q. S. Wei, and A. Ozcan, “Giga-pixel fluorescent imaging over an ultra-large field-of-view using a flatbed scanner,” Lab Chip 13(22), 4460–4466 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gupta, S.

B. Kumar and S. Gupta, “The acetowhite test in genital human papillomavirus infection in men: what does it add?” J. Eur. Acad. Dermatol. Venereol. 15(1), 27–29 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hogeboom, C. J.

N. Jay, J. M. Berry, C. J. Hogeboom, E. A. Holly, T. M. Darragh, and J. M. Palefsky, “Colposcopic appearance of anal squamous intraepithelial lesions: relationship to histopathology,” Dis. Colon Rectum 40(8), 919–928 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Holly, E. A.

N. Jay, J. M. Berry, C. J. Hogeboom, E. A. Holly, T. M. Darragh, and J. M. Palefsky, “Colposcopic appearance of anal squamous intraepithelial lesions: relationship to histopathology,” Dis. Colon Rectum 40(8), 919–928 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jay, N.

C. E. Pineda, J. M. Berry, N. Jay, J. M. Palefsky, and M. L. Welton, “High resolution anoscopy in the planned staged treatment of anal squamous intraepithelial lesions in HIV-negative patients,” J. Gastrointest. Surg. 11(11), 1410–1416 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Jay, J. M. Berry, C. J. Hogeboom, E. A. Holly, T. M. Darragh, and J. M. Palefsky, “Colposcopic appearance of anal squamous intraepithelial lesions: relationship to histopathology,” Dis. Colon Rectum 40(8), 919–928 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Johnson, L. G.

L. G. Johnson, M. M. Madeleine, L. M. Newcomer, S. M. Schwartz, and J. R. Daling, “Anal cancer incidence and survival: The surveillance, epidemiology, and end results experience, 1973-2000,” Cancer 101(2), 281–288 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Karahalios, D.

Z. Göröcs, Y. Y. Ling, M. D. Yu, D. Karahalios, K. Mogharabi, K. Lu, Q. S. Wei, and A. Ozcan, “Giga-pixel fluorescent imaging over an ultra-large field-of-view using a flatbed scanner,” Lab Chip 13(22), 4460–4466 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kumar, B.

B. Kumar and S. Gupta, “The acetowhite test in genital human papillomavirus infection in men: what does it add?” J. Eur. Acad. Dermatol. Venereol. 15(1), 27–29 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lai, L. L.

R. A. Nelson, A. M. Levine, L. Bernstein, D. D. Smith, and L. L. Lai, “Changing Patterns of Anal Canal Carcinoma in the United States,” J. Clin. Oncol. 31(12), 1569–1575 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Levine, A. M.

R. A. Nelson, A. M. Levine, L. Bernstein, D. D. Smith, and L. L. Lai, “Changing Patterns of Anal Canal Carcinoma in the United States,” J. Clin. Oncol. 31(12), 1569–1575 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ling, Y. Y.

Z. Göröcs, Y. Y. Ling, M. D. Yu, D. Karahalios, K. Mogharabi, K. Lu, Q. S. Wei, and A. Ozcan, “Giga-pixel fluorescent imaging over an ultra-large field-of-view using a flatbed scanner,” Lab Chip 13(22), 4460–4466 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lu, K.

Z. Göröcs, Y. Y. Ling, M. D. Yu, D. Karahalios, K. Mogharabi, K. Lu, Q. S. Wei, and A. Ozcan, “Giga-pixel fluorescent imaging over an ultra-large field-of-view using a flatbed scanner,” Lab Chip 13(22), 4460–4466 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Madeleine, M. M.

L. G. Johnson, M. M. Madeleine, L. M. Newcomer, S. M. Schwartz, and J. R. Daling, “Anal cancer incidence and survival: The surveillance, epidemiology, and end results experience, 1973-2000,” Cancer 101(2), 281–288 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Meijer, C. J.

M. Frisch, B. Glimelius, A. J. van den Brule, J. Wohlfahrt, C. J. Meijer, J. M. Walboomers, S. Goldman, C. Svensson, H. O. Adami, and M. Melbye, “Sexually transmitted infection as a cause of anal cancer,” N. Engl. J. Med. 337(19), 1350–1358 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Melbye, M.

M. Frisch, B. Glimelius, A. J. van den Brule, J. Wohlfahrt, C. J. Meijer, J. M. Walboomers, S. Goldman, C. Svensson, H. O. Adami, and M. Melbye, “Sexually transmitted infection as a cause of anal cancer,” N. Engl. J. Med. 337(19), 1350–1358 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mogharabi, K.

Z. Göröcs, Y. Y. Ling, M. D. Yu, D. Karahalios, K. Mogharabi, K. Lu, Q. S. Wei, and A. Ozcan, “Giga-pixel fluorescent imaging over an ultra-large field-of-view using a flatbed scanner,” Lab Chip 13(22), 4460–4466 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nelson, R. A.

R. A. Nelson, A. M. Levine, L. Bernstein, D. D. Smith, and L. L. Lai, “Changing Patterns of Anal Canal Carcinoma in the United States,” J. Clin. Oncol. 31(12), 1569–1575 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Newcomer, L. M.

L. G. Johnson, M. M. Madeleine, L. M. Newcomer, S. M. Schwartz, and J. R. Daling, “Anal cancer incidence and survival: The surveillance, epidemiology, and end results experience, 1973-2000,” Cancer 101(2), 281–288 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ou, X. Z.

Ozcan, A.

Z. Göröcs, Y. Y. Ling, M. D. Yu, D. Karahalios, K. Mogharabi, K. Lu, Q. S. Wei, and A. Ozcan, “Giga-pixel fluorescent imaging over an ultra-large field-of-view using a flatbed scanner,” Lab Chip 13(22), 4460–4466 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Palefsky, J. M.

C. E. Pineda, J. M. Berry, N. Jay, J. M. Palefsky, and M. L. Welton, “High resolution anoscopy in the planned staged treatment of anal squamous intraepithelial lesions in HIV-negative patients,” J. Gastrointest. Surg. 11(11), 1410–1416 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Jay, J. M. Berry, C. J. Hogeboom, E. A. Holly, T. M. Darragh, and J. M. Palefsky, “Colposcopic appearance of anal squamous intraepithelial lesions: relationship to histopathology,” Dis. Colon Rectum 40(8), 919–928 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Palmer, S.

T. J. Wilkin, S. Palmer, K. F. Brudney, M. A. Chiasson, and T. C. Wright, “Anal intraepithelial neoplasia in heterosexual and homosexual HIV-positive men with access to antiretroviral therapy,” J. Infect. Dis. 190(9), 1685–1691 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pineda, C. E.

C. E. Pineda, J. M. Berry, N. Jay, J. M. Palefsky, and M. L. Welton, “High resolution anoscopy in the planned staged treatment of anal squamous intraepithelial lesions in HIV-negative patients,” J. Gastrointest. Surg. 11(11), 1410–1416 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Santos Gimenez, F.

I. Tramujas da Costa e Silva, L. C. de Lima Ferreira, F. Santos Gimenez, R. A. Gonçalves Guimarães, L. Botinelly Fujimoto, C. R. Barbosa Cabral, R. Venturim Mozzer, and L. de Souza Atala, “High-resolution anoscopy in the diagnosis of anal cancer precursor lesions in renal graft recipients,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 15(5), 1470–1475 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schwartz, S. M.

L. G. Johnson, M. M. Madeleine, L. M. Newcomer, S. M. Schwartz, and J. R. Daling, “Anal cancer incidence and survival: The surveillance, epidemiology, and end results experience, 1973-2000,” Cancer 101(2), 281–288 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Smith, D. D.

R. A. Nelson, A. M. Levine, L. Bernstein, D. D. Smith, and L. L. Lai, “Changing Patterns of Anal Canal Carcinoma in the United States,” J. Clin. Oncol. 31(12), 1569–1575 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Svensson, C.

M. Frisch, B. Glimelius, A. J. van den Brule, J. Wohlfahrt, C. J. Meijer, J. M. Walboomers, S. Goldman, C. Svensson, H. O. Adami, and M. Melbye, “Sexually transmitted infection as a cause of anal cancer,” N. Engl. J. Med. 337(19), 1350–1358 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tramujas da Costa e Silva, I.

I. Tramujas da Costa e Silva, L. C. de Lima Ferreira, F. Santos Gimenez, R. A. Gonçalves Guimarães, L. Botinelly Fujimoto, C. R. Barbosa Cabral, R. Venturim Mozzer, and L. de Souza Atala, “High-resolution anoscopy in the diagnosis of anal cancer precursor lesions in renal graft recipients,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 15(5), 1470–1475 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

van den Brule, A. J.

M. Frisch, B. Glimelius, A. J. van den Brule, J. Wohlfahrt, C. J. Meijer, J. M. Walboomers, S. Goldman, C. Svensson, H. O. Adami, and M. Melbye, “Sexually transmitted infection as a cause of anal cancer,” N. Engl. J. Med. 337(19), 1350–1358 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Venturim Mozzer, R.

I. Tramujas da Costa e Silva, L. C. de Lima Ferreira, F. Santos Gimenez, R. A. Gonçalves Guimarães, L. Botinelly Fujimoto, C. R. Barbosa Cabral, R. Venturim Mozzer, and L. de Souza Atala, “High-resolution anoscopy in the diagnosis of anal cancer precursor lesions in renal graft recipients,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 15(5), 1470–1475 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Walboomers, J. M.

M. Frisch, B. Glimelius, A. J. van den Brule, J. Wohlfahrt, C. J. Meijer, J. M. Walboomers, S. Goldman, C. Svensson, H. O. Adami, and M. Melbye, “Sexually transmitted infection as a cause of anal cancer,” N. Engl. J. Med. 337(19), 1350–1358 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wei, Q. S.

Z. Göröcs, Y. Y. Ling, M. D. Yu, D. Karahalios, K. Mogharabi, K. Lu, Q. S. Wei, and A. Ozcan, “Giga-pixel fluorescent imaging over an ultra-large field-of-view using a flatbed scanner,” Lab Chip 13(22), 4460–4466 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Welton, M. L.

C. E. Pineda, J. M. Berry, N. Jay, J. M. Palefsky, and M. L. Welton, “High resolution anoscopy in the planned staged treatment of anal squamous intraepithelial lesions in HIV-negative patients,” J. Gastrointest. Surg. 11(11), 1410–1416 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wilkin, T. J.

T. J. Wilkin, S. Palmer, K. F. Brudney, M. A. Chiasson, and T. C. Wright, “Anal intraepithelial neoplasia in heterosexual and homosexual HIV-positive men with access to antiretroviral therapy,” J. Infect. Dis. 190(9), 1685–1691 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wohlfahrt, J.

M. Frisch, B. Glimelius, A. J. van den Brule, J. Wohlfahrt, C. J. Meijer, J. M. Walboomers, S. Goldman, C. Svensson, H. O. Adami, and M. Melbye, “Sexually transmitted infection as a cause of anal cancer,” N. Engl. J. Med. 337(19), 1350–1358 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wright, T. C.

T. J. Wilkin, S. Palmer, K. F. Brudney, M. A. Chiasson, and T. C. Wright, “Anal intraepithelial neoplasia in heterosexual and homosexual HIV-positive men with access to antiretroviral therapy,” J. Infect. Dis. 190(9), 1685–1691 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, C. H.

Yu, M. D.

Z. Göröcs, Y. Y. Ling, M. D. Yu, D. Karahalios, K. Mogharabi, K. Lu, Q. S. Wei, and A. Ozcan, “Giga-pixel fluorescent imaging over an ultra-large field-of-view using a flatbed scanner,” Lab Chip 13(22), 4460–4466 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zheng, G. A.

Ann. Surg. Oncol. (1)

I. Tramujas da Costa e Silva, L. C. de Lima Ferreira, F. Santos Gimenez, R. A. Gonçalves Guimarães, L. Botinelly Fujimoto, C. R. Barbosa Cabral, R. Venturim Mozzer, and L. de Souza Atala, “High-resolution anoscopy in the diagnosis of anal cancer precursor lesions in renal graft recipients,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 15(5), 1470–1475 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

Cancer (1)

L. G. Johnson, M. M. Madeleine, L. M. Newcomer, S. M. Schwartz, and J. R. Daling, “Anal cancer incidence and survival: The surveillance, epidemiology, and end results experience, 1973-2000,” Cancer 101(2), 281–288 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dis. Colon Rectum (1)

N. Jay, J. M. Berry, C. J. Hogeboom, E. A. Holly, T. M. Darragh, and J. M. Palefsky, “Colposcopic appearance of anal squamous intraepithelial lesions: relationship to histopathology,” Dis. Colon Rectum 40(8), 919–928 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Clin. Oncol. (1)

R. A. Nelson, A. M. Levine, L. Bernstein, D. D. Smith, and L. L. Lai, “Changing Patterns of Anal Canal Carcinoma in the United States,” J. Clin. Oncol. 31(12), 1569–1575 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Eur. Acad. Dermatol. Venereol. (1)

B. Kumar and S. Gupta, “The acetowhite test in genital human papillomavirus infection in men: what does it add?” J. Eur. Acad. Dermatol. Venereol. 15(1), 27–29 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Gastrointest. Surg. (1)

C. E. Pineda, J. M. Berry, N. Jay, J. M. Palefsky, and M. L. Welton, “High resolution anoscopy in the planned staged treatment of anal squamous intraepithelial lesions in HIV-negative patients,” J. Gastrointest. Surg. 11(11), 1410–1416 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Infect. Dis. (1)

T. J. Wilkin, S. Palmer, K. F. Brudney, M. A. Chiasson, and T. C. Wright, “Anal intraepithelial neoplasia in heterosexual and homosexual HIV-positive men with access to antiretroviral therapy,” J. Infect. Dis. 190(9), 1685–1691 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lab Chip (1)

Z. Göröcs, Y. Y. Ling, M. D. Yu, D. Karahalios, K. Mogharabi, K. Lu, Q. S. Wei, and A. Ozcan, “Giga-pixel fluorescent imaging over an ultra-large field-of-view using a flatbed scanner,” Lab Chip 13(22), 4460–4466 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Engl. J. Med. (1)

M. Frisch, B. Glimelius, A. J. van den Brule, J. Wohlfahrt, C. J. Meijer, J. M. Walboomers, S. Goldman, C. Svensson, H. O. Adami, and M. Melbye, “Sexually transmitted infection as a cause of anal cancer,” N. Engl. J. Med. 337(19), 1350–1358 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

System setup. (a) The imaging principle of the AnCam. (b) The SELFOC® lens array (SLA) inside the imaging module of the AnCam. (c) The design of the AnCam. (d) A prototype of the AnCam.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Resolution test. (a) The image of a resolution target obtained by the AnCam. (b) A zoomed-in region of (a), showing that the 11.3 lp/mm (88.5-µm line spacing) element is discernible (labeled in the orange rectangle). (c-d) The intensity profile of the 11.3-lp/mm element in the x (c) and y (d) directions after summing the red, green, and blue (RGB) channels.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The depth-of-field (DOF) measurement. (a) The setup for the DOF measurement. A resolution target with a 5.9-lp/mm line pattern was attached on the tube surface of the AnCam at an angle of θ = 1/15 rad. The imaging module was raised by 0.7 mm to make sure the focal plane of the SLA is above the tube surface (bottom-right image). (b) The measured modulation transfer function (MTF) corresponding to the separation distance of the line pattern. (c-h) The scanned image of the target and the zoom-in images of the line pattern with a distance of 0.2 mm (d), 0.5 mm (e), 0.8 mm (f), 1.1 mm (g), and 1.4 mm (d) to the tube surface.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Whole anal canal imaging. (a) The AnCam was inserted into the anus of a live pig for imaging. (b) The cylindrical surface containing the whole anal canal was imaged with a single scan. (c–e) The wide field-of-view (FOV) image captured by the AnCam (c) with the stained region zoomed in (d,e). (f–g) The same stained region captured by a standard colposcope with 12 × magnification (f) with a zoomed-in and 90°-rotated image (g). The yellow and blue arrows in (e) and (g) are pointing at the same stained spots.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The time-lapse images of three rounds of acetic acid staining. (a–b) The wide field-of-view (FOV) AnCam image of the anal canal (a) and a zoomed-in region (b) before staining. (c) After the first round of staining, there was a significant whitening of the anal canal epithelium (yellow arrows) and rectum epithelium (white arrow). (d) After the second round of staining, more regions of the anal canal and rectum became whitened. (e) After the third round of staining, the tissue did not become further whitened.

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