Abstract

Wavefront sensorless adaptive optics optical coherence tomography (WSAO-OCT) is a novel imaging technique for in vivo high-resolution depth-resolved imaging that mitigates some of the challenges encountered with the use of sensor-based adaptive optics designs. This technique replaces the Hartmann Shack wavefront sensor used to measure aberrations with a depth-resolved image-driven optimization algorithm, with the metric based on the OCT volumes acquired in real-time. The custom-built ultrahigh-speed GPU processing platform and fast modal optimization algorithm presented in this paper was essential in enabling real-time, in vivo imaging of human retinas with wavefront sensorless AO correction. WSAO-OCT is especially advantageous for developing a clinical high-resolution retinal imaging system as it enables the use of a compact, low-cost and robust lens-based adaptive optics design. In this report, we describe our WSAO-OCT system for imaging the human photoreceptor mosaic in vivo. We validated our system performance by imaging the retina at several eccentricities, and demonstrated the improvement in photoreceptor visibility with WSAO compensation.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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2014 (8)

F. Felberer, J.-S. Kroisamer, B. Baumann, S. Zotter, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, C. K. Hitzenberger, and M. Pircher, “Adaptive optics SLO/OCT for 3D imaging of human photoreceptors in vivo,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(2), 439–456 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Zhou, P. Bedggood, and A. Metha, “Improving high resolution retinal image quality using speckle illumination HiLo imaging,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(8), 2563–2579 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Scoles, Y. N. Sulai, C. S. Langlo, G. A. Fishman, C. A. Curcio, J. Carroll, and A. Dubra, “In Vivo Imaging of Human Cone Photoreceptor Inner Segments,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 55(7), 4244–4251 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. P. Kocaoglu, R. D. Ferguson, R. S. Jonnal, Z. Liu, Q. Wang, D. X. Hammer, and D. T. Miller, “Adaptive optics optical coherence tomography with dynamic retinal tracking,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(7), 2262–2284 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jian, J. Xu, M. A. Gradowski, S. Bonora, R. J. Zawadzki, and M. V. Sarunic, “Wavefront sensorless adaptive optics optical coherence tomography for in vivo retinal imaging in mice,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(2), 547–559 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Xu, K. Wong, Y. Jian, and M. V. Sarunic, “Real-time acquisition and display of flow contrast using speckle variance optical coherence tomography in a graphics processing unit,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(2), 026001 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. P. Kocaoglu, T. L. Turner, Z. Liu, and D. T. Miller, “Adaptive optics optical coherence tomography at 1 MHz,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(12), 4186 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (5)

2012 (3)

2011 (10)

R. J. Zawadzki, S. M. Jones, S. Pilli, S. Balderas-Mata, D. Y. Kim, S. S. Olivier, and J. S. Werner, “Integrated adaptive optics optical coherence tomography and adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope system for simultaneous cellular resolution in vivo retinal imaging,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(6), 1674–1686 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Dubra and Y. Sulai, “Reflective afocal broadband adaptive optics scanning ophthalmoscope,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(6), 1757–1768 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Dubra, Y. Sulai, J. L. Norris, R. F. Cooper, A. M. Dubis, D. R. Williams, and J. Carroll, “Noninvasive imaging of the human rod photoreceptor mosaic using a confocal adaptive optics scanning ophthalmoscope,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(7), 1864–1876 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Li, P. Bloch, J. Xu, M. V. Sarunic, and L. Shannon, “Performance and scalability of Fourier domain optical coherence tomography acceleration using graphics processing units,” Appl. Opt. 50(13), 1832–1838 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. E. Milkie, E. Betzig, and N. Ji, “Pupil-segmentation-based adaptive optical microscopy with full-pupil illumination,” Opt. Lett. 36(21), 4206–4208 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Hofer, N. Sredar, H. Queener, C. Li, and J. Porter, “Wavefront sensorless adaptive optics ophthalmoscopy in the human eye,” Opt. Express 19(15), 14160–14171 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. P. Kocaoglu, S. Lee, R. S. Jonnal, Q. Wang, A. E. Herde, J. C. Derby, W. Gao, and D. T. Miller, “Imaging cone photoreceptors in three dimensions and in time using ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography with adaptive optics,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(4), 748–763 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Zacharria, B. Lamory, and N. Chateau, “Biomedical imaging: New view of the eye,” Nat. Photonics 5(1), 24–26 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. R. Williams, “Imaging single cells in the living retina,” Vision Res. 51(13), 1379–1396 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Zou, X. Qi, and S. A. Burns, “Woofer-tweeter adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopic imaging based on Lagrange-multiplier damped least-squares algorithm,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(7), 1986–2004 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (6)

2009 (1)

2008 (4)

2007 (4)

2006 (2)

T. O. Salmon and C. van de Pol, “Normal-eye Zernike coefficients and root-mean-square wavefront errors,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 32(12), 2064–2074 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Pircher, B. Baumann, E. Götzinger, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Retinal cone mosaic imaged with transverse scanning optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 31(12), 1821–1823 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

2002 (1)

J. F. Castejón-Mochón, N. López-Gil, A. Benito, and P. Artal, “Ocular wave-front aberration statistics in a normal young population,” Vision Res. 42(13), 1611–1617 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

1997 (1)

Alexander, N. S.

G. Palczewska, Z. Dong, M. Golczak, J. J. Hunter, D. R. Williams, N. S. Alexander, and K. Palczewski, “Noninvasive two-photon microscopy imaging of mouse retina and retinal pigment epithelium through the pupil of the eye,” Nat. Med. 20(7), 785–789 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Artal, P.

J. F. Castejón-Mochón, N. López-Gil, A. Benito, and P. Artal, “Ocular wave-front aberration statistics in a normal young population,” Vision Res. 42(13), 1611–1617 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Balderas-Mata, S.

Baumann, B.

Bedggood, P.

Benito, A.

J. F. Castejón-Mochón, N. López-Gil, A. Benito, and P. Artal, “Ocular wave-front aberration statistics in a normal young population,” Vision Res. 42(13), 1611–1617 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Betzig, E.

D. E. Milkie, E. Betzig, and N. Ji, “Pupil-segmentation-based adaptive optical microscopy with full-pupil illumination,” Opt. Lett. 36(21), 4206–4208 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Ji, D. E. Milkie, and E. Betzig, “Adaptive optics via pupil segmentation for high-resolution imaging in biological tissues,” Nat. Methods 7(2), 141–147 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biedermann, B. R.

Bloch, P.

Bonora, S.

Booth, M. J.

Botcherby, E. J.

Bower, B. A.

Burns, S. A.

Cable, A.

Carroll, J.

D. Scoles, Y. N. Sulai, C. S. Langlo, G. A. Fishman, C. A. Curcio, J. Carroll, and A. Dubra, “In Vivo Imaging of Human Cone Photoreceptor Inner Segments,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 55(7), 4244–4251 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Dubra, Y. Sulai, J. L. Norris, R. F. Cooper, A. M. Dubis, D. R. Williams, and J. Carroll, “Noninvasive imaging of the human rod photoreceptor mosaic using a confocal adaptive optics scanning ophthalmoscope,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(7), 1864–1876 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Godara, A. M. Dubis, A. Roorda, J. L. Duncan, and J. Carroll, “Adaptive Optics Retinal Imaging: Emerging Clinical Applications,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 87(12), 930–941 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Carroll, S. S. Choi, and D. R. Williams, “In vivo imaging of the photoreceptor mosaic of a rod monochromat,” Vision Res. 48(26), 2564–2568 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Castejón-Mochón, J. F.

J. F. Castejón-Mochón, N. López-Gil, A. Benito, and P. Artal, “Ocular wave-front aberration statistics in a normal young population,” Vision Res. 42(13), 1611–1617 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chateau, N.

M. Zacharria, B. Lamory, and N. Chateau, “Biomedical imaging: New view of the eye,” Nat. Photonics 5(1), 24–26 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chen, D. C.

Chen, Y.

Choi, S.

Choi, S. S.

Cooper, R. F.

Cox, I. G.

Curcio, C. A.

D. Scoles, Y. N. Sulai, C. S. Langlo, G. A. Fishman, C. A. Curcio, J. Carroll, and A. Dubra, “In Vivo Imaging of Human Cone Photoreceptor Inner Segments,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 55(7), 4244–4251 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Débarre, D.

Derby, J. C.

Dong, Z.

G. Palczewska, Z. Dong, M. Golczak, J. J. Hunter, D. R. Williams, N. S. Alexander, and K. Palczewski, “Noninvasive two-photon microscopy imaging of mouse retina and retinal pigment epithelium through the pupil of the eye,” Nat. Med. 20(7), 785–789 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dubis, A. M.

Dubra, A.

Duncan, J. L.

P. Godara, A. M. Dubis, A. Roorda, J. L. Duncan, and J. Carroll, “Adaptive Optics Retinal Imaging: Emerging Clinical Applications,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 87(12), 930–941 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eigenwillig, C. M.

Felberer, F.

Ferguson, R. D.

Fishman, G. A.

D. Scoles, Y. N. Sulai, C. S. Langlo, G. A. Fishman, C. A. Curcio, J. Carroll, and A. Dubra, “In Vivo Imaging of Human Cone Photoreceptor Inner Segments,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 55(7), 4244–4251 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

Gao, W.

Geng, Y.

Godara, P.

P. Godara, A. M. Dubis, A. Roorda, J. L. Duncan, and J. Carroll, “Adaptive Optics Retinal Imaging: Emerging Clinical Applications,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 87(12), 930–941 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Golczak, M.

G. Palczewska, Z. Dong, M. Golczak, J. J. Hunter, D. R. Williams, N. S. Alexander, and K. Palczewski, “Noninvasive two-photon microscopy imaging of mouse retina and retinal pigment epithelium through the pupil of the eye,” Nat. Med. 20(7), 785–789 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gorczynska, I.

Götzinger, E.

Gradowski, M. A.

Guirao, A.

Hammer, D. X.

Herde, A. E.

Hitzenberger, C. K.

Hofer, H.

Huber, R.

Hunter, J. J.

G. Palczewska, Z. Dong, M. Golczak, J. J. Hunter, D. R. Williams, N. S. Alexander, and K. Palczewski, “Noninvasive two-photon microscopy imaging of mouse retina and retinal pigment epithelium through the pupil of the eye,” Nat. Med. 20(7), 785–789 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ivers, K. M.

Izatt, J. A.

Ji, N.

D. E. Milkie, E. Betzig, and N. Ji, “Pupil-segmentation-based adaptive optical microscopy with full-pupil illumination,” Opt. Lett. 36(21), 4206–4208 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Ji, D. E. Milkie, and E. Betzig, “Adaptive optics via pupil segmentation for high-resolution imaging in biological tissues,” Nat. Methods 7(2), 141–147 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jian, Y.

J. Xu, K. Wong, Y. Jian, and M. V. Sarunic, “Real-time acquisition and display of flow contrast using speckle variance optical coherence tomography in a graphics processing unit,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(2), 026001 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jian, J. Xu, M. A. Gradowski, S. Bonora, R. J. Zawadzki, and M. V. Sarunic, “Wavefront sensorless adaptive optics optical coherence tomography for in vivo retinal imaging in mice,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(2), 547–559 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jian, K. Wong, and M. V. Sarunic, “Graphics processing unit accelerated optical coherence tomography processing at megahertz axial scan rate and high resolution video rate volumetric rendering,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(2), 026002 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jian, R. J. Zawadzki, and M. V. Sarunic, “Adaptive optics optical coherence tomography for in vivo mouse retinal imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(5), 056007 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jiang, J.

Jones, S. M.

Jonnal, R.

Jonnal, R. S.

Kampik, A.

Kim, D. Y.

Klein, T.

Kocaoglu, O. P.

Kolbitsch, C.

Kroisamer, J.-S.

Lamory, B.

M. Zacharria, B. Lamory, and N. Chateau, “Biomedical imaging: New view of the eye,” Nat. Photonics 5(1), 24–26 (2011).
[Crossref]

Langlo, C. S.

D. Scoles, Y. N. Sulai, C. S. Langlo, G. A. Fishman, C. A. Curcio, J. Carroll, and A. Dubra, “In Vivo Imaging of Human Cone Photoreceptor Inner Segments,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 55(7), 4244–4251 (2014).
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Lee, S.

Lee, S.-H.

Leitgeb, R. A.

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Liu, Z.

López-Gil, N.

J. F. Castejón-Mochón, N. López-Gil, A. Benito, and P. Artal, “Ocular wave-front aberration statistics in a normal young population,” Vision Res. 42(13), 1611–1617 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Merigan, W. H.

Metha, A.

Milkie, D. E.

D. E. Milkie, E. Betzig, and N. Ji, “Pupil-segmentation-based adaptive optical microscopy with full-pupil illumination,” Opt. Lett. 36(21), 4206–4208 (2011).
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N. Ji, D. E. Milkie, and E. Betzig, “Adaptive optics via pupil segmentation for high-resolution imaging in biological tissues,” Nat. Methods 7(2), 141–147 (2010).
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Miller, D.

Miller, D. T.

Neubauer, A.

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G. Palczewska, Z. Dong, M. Golczak, J. J. Hunter, D. R. Williams, N. S. Alexander, and K. Palczewski, “Noninvasive two-photon microscopy imaging of mouse retina and retinal pigment epithelium through the pupil of the eye,” Nat. Med. 20(7), 785–789 (2014).
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Palczewski, K.

G. Palczewska, Z. Dong, M. Golczak, J. J. Hunter, D. R. Williams, N. S. Alexander, and K. Palczewski, “Noninvasive two-photon microscopy imaging of mouse retina and retinal pigment epithelium through the pupil of the eye,” Nat. Med. 20(7), 785–789 (2014).
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Pilli, S.

Pircher, M.

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Porter, J.

Potsaid, B.

Qi, X.

Queener, H.

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A. Roorda, “Applications of Adaptive Optics Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscopy,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 87(4), 260–268 (2010).
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P. Godara, A. M. Dubis, A. Roorda, J. L. Duncan, and J. Carroll, “Adaptive Optics Retinal Imaging: Emerging Clinical Applications,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 87(12), 930–941 (2010).
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Rosen, R. B.

A. G. Podoleanu and R. B. Rosen, “Combinations of techniques in imaging the retina with high resolution,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 27(4), 464–499 (2008).
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Salmon, T. O.

T. O. Salmon and C. van de Pol, “Normal-eye Zernike coefficients and root-mean-square wavefront errors,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 32(12), 2064–2074 (2006).
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J. Xu, K. Wong, Y. Jian, and M. V. Sarunic, “Real-time acquisition and display of flow contrast using speckle variance optical coherence tomography in a graphics processing unit,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(2), 026001 (2014).
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Y. Jian, K. Wong, and M. V. Sarunic, “Graphics processing unit accelerated optical coherence tomography processing at megahertz axial scan rate and high resolution video rate volumetric rendering,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(2), 026002 (2013).
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Y. Jian, R. J. Zawadzki, and M. V. Sarunic, “Adaptive optics optical coherence tomography for in vivo mouse retinal imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(5), 056007 (2013).
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Sharma, R.

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Sulai, Y. N.

D. Scoles, Y. N. Sulai, C. S. Langlo, G. A. Fishman, C. A. Curcio, J. Carroll, and A. Dubra, “In Vivo Imaging of Human Cone Photoreceptor Inner Segments,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 55(7), 4244–4251 (2014).
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Turner, T. L.

van de Pol, C.

T. O. Salmon and C. van de Pol, “Normal-eye Zernike coefficients and root-mean-square wavefront errors,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 32(12), 2064–2074 (2006).
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J. Xu, K. Wong, Y. Jian, and M. V. Sarunic, “Real-time acquisition and display of flow contrast using speckle variance optical coherence tomography in a graphics processing unit,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(2), 026001 (2014).
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Y. Jian, K. Wong, and M. V. Sarunic, “Graphics processing unit accelerated optical coherence tomography processing at megahertz axial scan rate and high resolution video rate volumetric rendering,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(2), 026002 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, J.

Yin, L.

Zacharria, M.

M. Zacharria, B. Lamory, and N. Chateau, “Biomedical imaging: New view of the eye,” Nat. Photonics 5(1), 24–26 (2011).
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Zawadzki, R. J.

Y. Jian, J. Xu, M. A. Gradowski, S. Bonora, R. J. Zawadzki, and M. V. Sarunic, “Wavefront sensorless adaptive optics optical coherence tomography for in vivo retinal imaging in mice,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(2), 547–559 (2014).
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S. Bonora and R. J. Zawadzki, “Wavefront sensorless modal deformable mirror correction in adaptive optics: optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 38(22), 4801–4804 (2013).
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S.-H. Lee, J. S. Werner, and R. J. Zawadzki, “Improved visualization of outer retinal morphology with aberration cancelling reflective optical design for adaptive optics - optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(11), 2508–2517 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jian, R. J. Zawadzki, and M. V. Sarunic, “Adaptive optics optical coherence tomography for in vivo mouse retinal imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(5), 056007 (2013).
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R. J. Zawadzki, S. M. Jones, S. Pilli, S. Balderas-Mata, D. Y. Kim, S. S. Olivier, and J. S. Werner, “Integrated adaptive optics optical coherence tomography and adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope system for simultaneous cellular resolution in vivo retinal imaging,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(6), 1674–1686 (2011).
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R. J. Zawadzki, S. S. Choi, S. M. Jones, S. S. Oliver, and J. S. Werner, “Adaptive optics-optical coherence tomography: optimizing visualization of microscopic retinal structures in three dimensions,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24(5), 1373–1383 (2007).
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Zhao, M.

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Appl. Opt. (1)

Biomed. Opt. Express (14)

T. Klein, W. Wieser, L. Reznicek, A. Neubauer, A. Kampik, and R. Huber, “Multi-MHz retinal OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(10), 1890–1908 (2013).
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O. P. Kocaoglu, T. L. Turner, Z. Liu, and D. T. Miller, “Adaptive optics optical coherence tomography at 1 MHz,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(12), 4186 (2014).
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Y. Geng, A. Dubra, L. Yin, W. H. Merigan, R. Sharma, R. T. Libby, and D. R. Williams, “Adaptive optics retinal imaging in the living mouse eye,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3, 715–734 (2012).

F. Felberer, J.-S. Kroisamer, B. Baumann, S. Zotter, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, C. K. Hitzenberger, and M. Pircher, “Adaptive optics SLO/OCT for 3D imaging of human photoreceptors in vivo,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(2), 439–456 (2014).
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X. Zhou, P. Bedggood, and A. Metha, “Improving high resolution retinal image quality using speckle illumination HiLo imaging,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(8), 2563–2579 (2014).
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O. P. Kocaoglu, S. Lee, R. S. Jonnal, Q. Wang, A. E. Herde, J. C. Derby, W. Gao, and D. T. Miller, “Imaging cone photoreceptors in three dimensions and in time using ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography with adaptive optics,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(4), 748–763 (2011).
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R. S. Jonnal, O. P. Kocaoglu, Q. Wang, S. Lee, and D. T. Miller, “Phase-sensitive imaging of the outer retina using optical coherence tomography and adaptive optics,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(1), 104–124 (2012).
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O. P. Kocaoglu, R. D. Ferguson, R. S. Jonnal, Z. Liu, Q. Wang, D. X. Hammer, and D. T. Miller, “Adaptive optics optical coherence tomography with dynamic retinal tracking,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(7), 2262–2284 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. J. Zawadzki, S. M. Jones, S. Pilli, S. Balderas-Mata, D. Y. Kim, S. S. Olivier, and J. S. Werner, “Integrated adaptive optics optical coherence tomography and adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope system for simultaneous cellular resolution in vivo retinal imaging,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(6), 1674–1686 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Dubra and Y. Sulai, “Reflective afocal broadband adaptive optics scanning ophthalmoscope,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(6), 1757–1768 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Dubra, Y. Sulai, J. L. Norris, R. F. Cooper, A. M. Dubis, D. R. Williams, and J. Carroll, “Noninvasive imaging of the human rod photoreceptor mosaic using a confocal adaptive optics scanning ophthalmoscope,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(7), 1864–1876 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S.-H. Lee, J. S. Werner, and R. J. Zawadzki, “Improved visualization of outer retinal morphology with aberration cancelling reflective optical design for adaptive optics - optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(11), 2508–2517 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jian, J. Xu, M. A. Gradowski, S. Bonora, R. J. Zawadzki, and M. V. Sarunic, “Wavefront sensorless adaptive optics optical coherence tomography for in vivo retinal imaging in mice,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(2), 547–559 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1)

D. Scoles, Y. N. Sulai, C. S. Langlo, G. A. Fishman, C. A. Curcio, J. Carroll, and A. Dubra, “In Vivo Imaging of Human Cone Photoreceptor Inner Segments,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 55(7), 4244–4251 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (3)

Y. Jian, R. J. Zawadzki, and M. V. Sarunic, “Adaptive optics optical coherence tomography for in vivo mouse retinal imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(5), 056007 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jian, K. Wong, and M. V. Sarunic, “Graphics processing unit accelerated optical coherence tomography processing at megahertz axial scan rate and high resolution video rate volumetric rendering,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(2), 026002 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Xu, K. Wong, Y. Jian, and M. V. Sarunic, “Real-time acquisition and display of flow contrast using speckle variance optical coherence tomography in a graphics processing unit,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(2), 026001 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Cataract Refract. Surg. (1)

T. O. Salmon and C. van de Pol, “Normal-eye Zernike coefficients and root-mean-square wavefront errors,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 32(12), 2064–2074 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (4)

Nat. Med. (1)

G. Palczewska, Z. Dong, M. Golczak, J. J. Hunter, D. R. Williams, N. S. Alexander, and K. Palczewski, “Noninvasive two-photon microscopy imaging of mouse retina and retinal pigment epithelium through the pupil of the eye,” Nat. Med. 20(7), 785–789 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Methods (1)

N. Ji, D. E. Milkie, and E. Betzig, “Adaptive optics via pupil segmentation for high-resolution imaging in biological tissues,” Nat. Methods 7(2), 141–147 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

M. Zacharria, B. Lamory, and N. Chateau, “Biomedical imaging: New view of the eye,” Nat. Photonics 5(1), 24–26 (2011).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (11)

M. Pircher, B. Baumann, E. Götzinger, H. Sattmann, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Simultaneous SLO/OCT imaging of the human retina with axial eye motion correction,” Opt. Express 15(25), 16922–16932 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. J. Zawadzki, S. M. Jones, S. S. Olivier, M. Zhao, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, S. Choi, S. Laut, and J. S. Werner, “Adaptive-optics optical coherence tomography for high-resolution and high-speed 3D retinal in vivo imaging,” Opt. Express 13(21), 8532–8546 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zhang, J. Rha, R. Jonnal, and D. Miller, “Adaptive optics parallel spectral domain optical coherence tomography for imaging the living retina,” Opt. Express 13(12), 4792–4811 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Débarre, E. J. Botcherby, M. J. Booth, and T. Wilson, “Adaptive optics for structured illumination microscopy,” Opt. Express 16(13), 9290–9305 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Hofer, N. Sredar, H. Queener, C. Li, and J. Porter, “Wavefront sensorless adaptive optics ophthalmoscopy in the human eye,” Opt. Express 19(15), 14160–14171 (2011).
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F. Felberer, J.-S. Kroisamer, C. K. Hitzenberger, and M. Pircher, “Lens based adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope,” Opt. Express 20(16), 17297–17310 (2012).
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B. Potsaid, I. Gorczynska, V. J. Srinivasan, Y. Chen, J. Jiang, A. Cable, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh speed spectral / Fourier domain OCT ophthalmic imaging at 70,000 to 312,500 axial scans per second,” Opt. Express 16(19), 15149–15169 (2008).
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T. Schmoll, C. Kolbitsch, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Ultra-high-speed volumetric tomography of human retinal blood flow,” Opt. Express 17(5), 4166–4176 (2009).
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M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, H. Sattmann, R. A. Leitgeb, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “In vivo investigation of human cone photoreceptors with SLO/OCT in combination with 3D motion correction on a cellular level,” Opt. Express 18(13), 13935–13944 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Li, N. Sredar, K. M. Ivers, H. Queener, and J. Porter, “A correction algorithm to simultaneously control dual deformable mirrors in a woofer-tweeter adaptive optics system,” Opt. Express 18(16), 16671–16684 (2010).
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W. Wieser, B. R. Biedermann, T. Klein, C. M. Eigenwillig, and R. Huber, “Multi-Megahertz OCT: High quality 3D imaging at 20 million A-scans and 4.5 GVoxels per second,” Opt. Express 18(14), 14685–14704 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (4)

Optom. Vis. Sci. (2)

A. Roorda, “Applications of Adaptive Optics Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscopy,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 87(4), 260–268 (2010).
[PubMed]

P. Godara, A. M. Dubis, A. Roorda, J. L. Duncan, and J. Carroll, “Adaptive Optics Retinal Imaging: Emerging Clinical Applications,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 87(12), 930–941 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Prog. Retin. Eye Res. (1)

A. G. Podoleanu and R. B. Rosen, “Combinations of techniques in imaging the retina with high resolution,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 27(4), 464–499 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vision Res. (3)

D. R. Williams, “Imaging single cells in the living retina,” Vision Res. 51(13), 1379–1396 (2011).
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J. Carroll, S. S. Choi, and D. R. Williams, “In vivo imaging of the photoreceptor mosaic of a rod monochromat,” Vision Res. 48(26), 2564–2568 (2008).
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J. F. Castejón-Mochón, N. López-Gil, A. Benito, and P. Artal, “Ocular wave-front aberration statistics in a normal young population,” Vision Res. 42(13), 1611–1617 (2002).
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J. Porter, H. Queener, J. Lin, K. Thorn, and A. A. S. Awwal, Adaptive Optics for Vision Science: Principles, Practices, Design and Applications (Wiley- Interscience, 2006).

Supplementary Material (2)

» Media 1: MOV (284 KB)     
» Media 2: MOV (3868 KB)     

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the WSAO-OCT system: DM, Deformable Mirror; SLD, Superluminescent Diode; FC, 90/10 reference/sample Fiber Coupler; G1, G2, horizontal and vertical galvanometer scanning mirrors; PC, polarization controller; DC, dispersion compensation; L0: f = 16 mm; L1, L2: f = 300 mm; L3, L4: f = 200 mm, L5, L6: f = 150 mm; L7: f = 200 mm; L8: f = 250 mm; L9: two lenses f = 200 and f = 300 mm (equivalent to f = 120 mm); L10: two lenses of f = 300 mm (equivalent to f = 150 mm). All lenses were achromatic doublets. A trial lens plane optically conjugated to the eye pupil plane is available for inserting corrective lenses for correcting defocus.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental quantification of the lateral resolution using a resolution target and a 30 mm focal length air-spaced achromatic lens. The achievable lateral resolution was 2.76 μm with a volume size of 1024x200x80. Scale bar: 50 μm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Selected en face projection images during the optimization of Zernike mode 3 (astigmatism) in Media 1. Images of the photoreceptor mosaic were acquired at an eccentricity of ~3.0° in a non-mydriatic pupil. The field of view is 1.0°x0.4° for all images. The scale bar is 50 μm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Cone mosaic of Subject 1 imaged at retinal eccentricity of ~3.0°. The field of view is 1.0°x0.4°. Scale bar is 50 μm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Comparison of the photoreceptor visibility in the en face image before and after WSAO optimization. The left column is a comparison of B-scans, and the right column is a comparison of the en face images generated at the IS/OS layer. NFL, Nerve Fiber Layer; IS/OS, Inner and Outer Segment; RPE, Retina Pigment Epithelium; BM, Bruch’s Membrane. The field of view is 1.3°x0.6° for the en face images. Scale bar is 50 μm. A real-time optimization video has been included in Media 2.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Images of the photoreceptor mosaic acquired along the superior meridian in a non-mydriatic pupil. These include results acquired at four retinal eccentricities for comparison centered at: 5.1°, 2.2°, 1.6°, and 1.0°. The field of view is 1.0°x0.4° for all images. Scale bar is 50 μm.

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