Abstract

We report multimodal imaging of human oral cavity in vivo based on simultaneous wide-field reflectance/fluorescence imaging and polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) with a forward-viewing imaging probe. Wide-field reflectance/fluorescence imaging and PS-OCT were to provide both morphological and fluorescence information on the surface, and structural and birefringent information below the surface respectively. The forward-viewing probe was designed to access the oral cavity through the mouth with dimensions of approximately 10 mm in diameter and 180 mm in length. The probe had field of view (FOV) of approximately 5.5 mm in diameter, and adjustable depth of field (DOF) from 2 mm to 10 mm by controlling numerical aperture (NA) in the detection path. This adjustable DOF was to accommodate both requirements for image-based guiding with high DOF and high-resolution, high-sensitivity imaging with low DOF. This multimodal imaging system was characterized by using a tissue phantom and a mouse model in vivo, and was applied to human oral cavity. Information of surface morphology and vasculature, and under-surface layered structure and birefringence of the oral cavity tissues was obtained. These results showed feasibility of this multimodal imaging system as a tool for studying oral cavity lesions in clinical applications.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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2014 (6)

P. Pande, S. Shrestha, J. Park, M. J. Serafino, I. Gimenez-Conti, J. Brandon, Y.-S. Cheng, B. E. Applegate, and J. A. Jo, “Automated classification of optical coherence tomography images for the diagnosis of oral malignancy in the hamster cheek pouch,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(8), 086022 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Pahlevaninezhad, A. M. D. Lee, S. Lam, C. MacAulay, and P. M. Lane, “Coregistered autofluorescence-optical coherence tomography imaging of human lung sections,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(3), 036022 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. M. Higgins and M. C. Pierce, “Design and characterization of a handheld multimodal imaging device for the assessment of oral epithelial lesions,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(8), 086004 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Grulkowski, J. K. Nowak, K. Karnowski, P. Zebryk, M. Puszczewicz, J. Walkowiak, and M. Wojtkowski, “Quantitative assessment of oral mucosa and labial minor salivary glands in patients with Sjögren’s syndrome using swept source OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(1), 259–274 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Alex, M. Noti, E. D. T. Wojno, D. Artis, and C. Zhou, “Characterization of eosinophilic esophagitis murine models using optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(2), 609–620 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. J. Choi and R. K. Wang, “In vivo imaging of functional microvasculature within tissue beds of oral and nasal cavities by swept-source optical coherence tomography with a forward/side-viewing probe,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(8), 2620–2634 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (7)

N. Bedard, R. A. Schwarz, A. Hu, V. Bhattar, J. Howe, M. D. Williams, A. M. Gillenwater, R. Richards-Kortum, and T. S. Tkaczyk, “Multimodal snapshot spectral imaging for oral cancer diagnostics: a pilot study,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(6), 938–949 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Fatakdawala, S. Poti, F. Zhou, Y. Sun, J. Bec, J. Liu, D. R. Yankelevich, S. P. Tinling, R. F. Gandour-Edwards, D. G. Farwell, and L. Marcu, “Multimodal in vivo imaging of oral cancer using fluorescence lifetime, photoacoustic and ultrasound techniques,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(9), 1724–1741 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Jabbour, S. Cheng, B. H. Malik, R. Cuenca, J. A. Jo, J. Wright, Y.-S. L. Cheng, and K. C. Maitland, “Fluorescence lifetime imaging and reflectance confocal microscopy for multiscale imaging of oral precancer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(4), 046012 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. García-Hernández, R. Roldán-Marín, P. Iglesias-Garcia, and J. Malvehy, “In vivo noninvasive imaging of healthy lower lip mucosa: a correlation study between high-definition optical coherence tomography, reflectance confocal microscopy, and histology,” Dermatol. Res. Pract. 2013, 205256 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. K. Orosco, R. Y. Tsien, and Q. T. Nguyen, “Fluorescence imaging in surgery,” IEEE Rev. Biomed. Eng. 6, 178–187 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Luo, M. Loja, D. G. Farwell, Q. C. Luu, P. J. Donald, D. Amott, R. Gandour-Edwards, and N. Nitin, “High-Resolution Optical Molecular Imaging of Changes in Choline Metabolism in Oral Neoplasia,” Transl. Oncol. 6(1), 33–41 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Lam, A. J. Chaudhari, Y. Sun, F. Zhou, A. Dobbie, R. F. Gandour-Edwards, S. P. Tinling, D. G. Farwell, W. L. Monsky, K. K. Shung, and L. Marcu, “Ultrasound Backscatter Microscopy for Imaging of Oral Carcinoma,” J. Ultrasound Med. 32(10), 1789–1797 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (13)

S. Liang, A. Saidi, J. Jing, G. Liu, J. Li, J. Zhang, C. Sun, J. Narula, and Z. Chen, “Intravascular atherosclerotic imaging with combined fluorescence and optical coherence tomography probe based on a double-clad fiber combiner,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(7), 070501 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Gioux, J. G. Coutard, M. Berger, H. Grateau, V. Josserand, M. Keramidas, C. Righini, J. L. Coll, and J. M. Dinten, “FluoSTIC: miniaturized fluorescence image-guided surgery system,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(10), 106014 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. K. Adegun, P. H. Tomlins, E. Hagi-Pavli, G. McKenzie, K. Piper, D. L. Bader, and F. Fortune, “Quantitative analysis of optical coherence tomography and histopathology images of normal and dysplastic oral mucosal tissues,” Lasers Med. Sci. 27(4), 795–804 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. J. Muldoon, D. Roblyer, M. D. Williams, V. M. T. Stepanek, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. M. Gillenwater, “Noninvasive imaging of oral neoplasia with a high-resolution fiber-optic microendoscope,” Head Neck 34(3), 305–312 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. H. Kim, M. C. Pierce, G. Maguluri, B. H. Park, S. J. Yoon, M. Lydon, R. Sheridan, and J. F. de Boer, “In vivo imaging of human burn injuries with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(6), 066012 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. A. Wall and J. K. Barton, “Fluorescence-based surface magnifying chromoendoscopy and optical coherence tomography endoscope,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(8), 086003 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. C. Pierce, R. A. Schwarz, V. S. Bhattar, S. Mondrik, M. D. Williams, J. J. Lee, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. M. Gillenwater, “Accuracy of In Vivo Multimodal Optical Imaging for Detection of Oral Neoplasia,” Cancer Prev. Res. (Phila.) 5(6), 801–809 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Iftimia, A. K. Iyer, D. X. Hammer, N. Lue, M. Mujat, M. Pitman, R. D. Ferguson, and M. Amiji, “Fluorescence-guided optical coherence tomography imaging for colon cancer screening: a preliminary mouse study,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(1), 178–191 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Davoudi, A. Lindenmaier, B. A. Standish, G. Allo, K. Bizheva, and A. Vitkin, “Noninvasive in vivo structural and vascular imaging of human oral tissues with spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(5), 826–839 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Baumann, W. Choi, B. Potsaid, D. Huang, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Swept source/Fourier domain polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography with a passive polarization delay unit,” Opt. Express 20(9), 10229–10241 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Lim, Y.-J. Hong, L. Duan, M. Yamanari, and Y. Yasuno, “Passive component based multifunctional Jones matrix swept source optical coherence tomography for Doppler and polarization imaging,” Opt. Lett. 37(11), 1958–1960 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. K. Lee, T. T. Chi, C. T. Wu, M. T. Tsai, C. P. Chiang, and C. C. Yang, “Diagnosis of oral precancer with optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(7), 1632–1646 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. C. Gray, E. M. Kim, V. E. Cotero, A. Bajaj, V. P. Staudinger, C. A. Hehir, and S. Yazdanfar, “Dual-mode laparoscopic fluorescence image-guided surgery using a single camera,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(8), 1880–1890 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (9)

K. H. Kim, B. H. Park, Y. Tu, T. Hasan, B. Lee, J. Li, and J. F. de Boer, “Polarization-sensitive optical frequency domain imaging based on unpolarized light,” Opt. Express 19(2), 552–561 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Whitney, J. L. Crisp, L. T. Nguyen, B. Friedman, L. A. Gross, P. Steinbach, R. Y. Tsien, and Q. T. Nguyen, “Fluorescent peptides highlight peripheral nerves during surgery in mice,” Nat. Biotechnol. 29(4), 352–356 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Pircher, C. K. Hitzenberger, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, “Polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography in the human eye,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 30(6), 431–451 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. M. Winkler, P. F. S. Rice, J. Weichsel, J. M. Watson, M. V. Backer, J. M. Backer, and J. K. Barton, “In Vivo, Dual-Modality OCT/LIF Imaging Using a Novel VEGF Receptor-Targeted NIR Fluorescent Probe in the AOM-Treated Mouse Model,” Mol. Imaging Biol. 13(6), 1173–1182 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yoo, J. W. Kim, M. Shishkov, E. Namati, T. Morse, R. Shubochkin, J. R. McCarthy, V. Ntziachristos, B. E. Bouma, F. A. Jaffer, and G. J. Tearney, “Intra-arterial catheter for simultaneous microstructural and molecular imaging in vivo,” Nat. Med. 17(12), 1680–1684 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Paderni, D. Compilato, F. Carinci, G. Nardi, V. Rodolico, L. Lo Muzio, G. Spinelli, M. Mazzotta, and G. Campisi, “Direct visualization of oral-cavity tissue fluorescence as novel aid for early oral cancer diagnosis and potentially malignant disorders monitoring,” Int. J. Immunopathol. Pharmacol. 24(2Suppl), 121–128 (2011).
[PubMed]

M. Olivo, R. Bhuvaneswari, and I. Keogh, “Advances in bio-optical imaging for the diagnosis of early oral cancer,” Pharmaceutics 3(4), 354–378 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. F. Poh, C. E. MacAulay, D. M. Laronde, P. M. Williams, L. Zhang, and M. P. Rosin, “Squamous cell carcinoma and precursor lesions: diagnosis and screening in a technical era,” Periodontol. 2000 57(1), 73–88 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. H. Awan, P. R. Morgan, and S. Warnakulasuriya, “Evaluation of an autofluorescence based imaging system (VELscope™) in the detection of oral potentially malignant disorders and benign keratoses,” Oral Oncol. 47(4), 274–277 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

J. A. Jo, B. E. Applegate, J. Park, S. Shrestha, P. Pande, I. B. Gimenez-Conti, and J. L. Brandon, “In Vivo Simultaneous Morphological and Biochemical Optical Imaging of Oral Epithelial Cancer,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 57(10), 2596–2599 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. H. Kim, J. A. Burns, J. J. Bernstein, G. N. Maguluri, B. H. Park, and J. F. de Boer, “In vivo 3D human vocal fold imaging with polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography and a MEMS scanning catheter,” Opt. Express 18(14), 14644–14653 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (4)

E. M. C. Hillman and S. A. Burgess, “Sub-millimeter resolution 3D optical imaging of living tissue using laminar optical tomography,” Laser Photon. Rev. 3(1-2), 159–179 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Sun, J. Phipps, D. S. Elson, H. Stoy, S. Tinling, J. Meier, B. Poirier, F. S. Chuang, D. G. Farwell, and L. Marcu, “Fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy: in vivo application to diagnosis of oral carcinoma,” Opt. Lett. 34(13), 2081–2083 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Roblyer, C. Kurachi, V. Stepanek, M. D. Williams, A. K. El-Naggar, J. J. Lee, A. M. Gillenwater, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Objective detection and delineation of oral neoplasia using autofluorescence imaging,” Cancer Prev. Res. (Phila.) 2(5), 423–431 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M.-T. Tsai, C. K. Lee, H. C. Lee, H. M. Chen, C.-P. Chiang, Y. M. Wang, and C. C. Yang, “Differentiating oral lesions in different carcinogenesis stages with optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(4), 044028 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (5)

M. C. Pierce, D. J. Javier, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Optical contrast agents and imaging systems for detection and diagnosis of cancer,” Int. J. Cancer 123(9), 1979–1990 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. W. Lingen, J. R. Kalmar, T. Karrison, and P. M. Speight, “Critical evaluation of diagnostic aids for the detection of oral cancer,” Oral Oncol. 44(1), 10–22 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Scully, J. V. Bagan, C. Hopper, and J. B. Epstein, “Oral cancer: current and future diagnostic techniques,” Am. J. Dent. 21(4), 199–209 (2008).
[PubMed]

I. Pavlova, M. Williams, A. El-Naggar, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. Gillenwater, “Understanding the biological basis of autofluorescence imaging for oral cancer detection: high-resolution fluorescence microscopy in viable tissue,” Clin. Cancer Res. 14(8), 2396–2404 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M.-T. Tsai, H.-C. Lee, C.-K. Lee, C.-H. Yu, H.-M. Chen, C.-P. Chiang, C.-C. Chang, Y.-M. Wang, and C. C. Yang, “Effective indicators for diagnosis of oral cancer using optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 16(20), 15847–15862 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (4)

W.-C. Kuo, N.-K. Chou, C. Chou, C.-M. Lai, H.-J. Huang, S.-S. Wang, and J.-J. Shyu, “Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography for imaging human atherosclerosis,” Appl. Opt. 46(13), 2520–2527 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. M. Zysk, F. T. Nguyen, A. L. Oldenburg, D. L. Marks, and S. A. Boppart, “Optical coherence tomography: a review of clinical development from bench to bedside,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 051403 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. K. Nadkarni, M. C. Pierce, B. H. Park, J. F. de Boer, P. Whittaker, B. E. Bouma, J. E. Bressner, E. Halpern, S. L. Houser, and G. J. Tearney, “Measurement of Collagen and Smooth Muscle Cell Content in Atherosclerotic Plaques Using Polarization-Sensitive Optical Coherence Tomography,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 49(13), 1474–1481 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Ridgway, G. Ahuja, S. Guo, J. Su, U. Mahmood, Z. Chen, and B. Wong, “Imaging of the pediatric airway using optical coherence tomography,” Laryngoscope 117(12), 2206–2212 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

D. C. G. De Veld, M. J. H. Witjes, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, and J. L. N. Roodenburg, “The status of in vivo autofluorescence spectroscopy and imaging for oral oncology,” Oral Oncol. 41(2), 117–131 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (6)

P. Wilder-Smith, W. G. Jung, M. Brenner, K. Osann, H. Beydoun, D. Messadi, and Z. Chen, “In vivo optical coherence tomography for the diagnosis of oral malignancy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 35(4), 269–275 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. D. Wang and J. Van Dam, “Optical biopsy: A new frontier in endoscopic detection and diagnosis,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 2(9), 744–753 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. C. Pierce, R. L. Sheridan, B. Hyle Park, B. Cense, and J. F. de Boer, “Collagen denaturation can be quantified in burned human skin using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Burns 30(6), 511–517 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Gao, Y. Cui, R. M. Levenson, L. W. Chung, and S. Nie, “In vivo cancer targeting and imaging with semiconductor quantum dots,” Nat. Biotechnol. 22(8), 969–976 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. R. Tumlinson, L. P. Hariri, U. Utzinger, and J. K. Barton, “Miniature endoscope for simultaneous optical coherence tomography and laser-induced fluorescence measurement,” Appl. Opt. 43(1), 113–121 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, B. Cense, and J. F. de Boer, “Jones matrix analysis for a polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography system using fiber-optic components,” Opt. Lett. 29(21), 2512–2514 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

2002 (1)

J. F. de Boer and T. E. Milner, “Review of polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography and Stokes vector determination,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 359–371 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (3)

T. W. Remmerbach, H. Weidenbach, N. Pomjanski, K. Knops, S. Mathes, A. Hemprich, and A. Böcking, “Cytologic and DNA-cytometric early diagnosis of oral cancer,” Anal. Cell. Pathol. 22(4), 211–221 (2001).
[PubMed]

M. Oheim, E. Beaurepaire, E. Chaigneau, J. Mertz, and S. Charpak, “Two-photon microscopy in brain tissue: parameters influencing the imaging depth,” J. Neurosci. Methods 111(1), 29–37 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. H. Park, C. Saxer, S. M. Srinivas, J. S. Nelson, and J. F. de Boer, “In vivo burn depth determination by high-speed fiber-based polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 6(4), 474–479 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

R. Weissleder, C. H. Tung, U. Mahmood, and A. Bogdanov., “In vivo imaging of tumors with protease-activated near-infrared fluorescent probes,” Nat. Biotechnol. 17(4), 375–378 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

1996 (1)

A. Zupi, L. Califano, P. Maremonti, F. Longo, R. Ciccarelli, and A. Soricelli, “Accuracy in the diagnosis of mandibular involvement by oral cancer,” J. Craniomaxillofac. Surg. 24(5), 281–284 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adegun, O. K.

O. K. Adegun, P. H. Tomlins, E. Hagi-Pavli, G. McKenzie, K. Piper, D. L. Bader, and F. Fortune, “Quantitative analysis of optical coherence tomography and histopathology images of normal and dysplastic oral mucosal tissues,” Lasers Med. Sci. 27(4), 795–804 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ahuja, G.

J. M. Ridgway, G. Ahuja, S. Guo, J. Su, U. Mahmood, Z. Chen, and B. Wong, “Imaging of the pediatric airway using optical coherence tomography,” Laryngoscope 117(12), 2206–2212 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alex, A.

Allo, G.

Amiji, M.

Amott, D.

Z. Luo, M. Loja, D. G. Farwell, Q. C. Luu, P. J. Donald, D. Amott, R. Gandour-Edwards, and N. Nitin, “High-Resolution Optical Molecular Imaging of Changes in Choline Metabolism in Oral Neoplasia,” Transl. Oncol. 6(1), 33–41 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Applegate, B. E.

P. Pande, S. Shrestha, J. Park, M. J. Serafino, I. Gimenez-Conti, J. Brandon, Y.-S. Cheng, B. E. Applegate, and J. A. Jo, “Automated classification of optical coherence tomography images for the diagnosis of oral malignancy in the hamster cheek pouch,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(8), 086022 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. Jo, B. E. Applegate, J. Park, S. Shrestha, P. Pande, I. B. Gimenez-Conti, and J. L. Brandon, “In Vivo Simultaneous Morphological and Biochemical Optical Imaging of Oral Epithelial Cancer,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 57(10), 2596–2599 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Artis, D.

Awan, K. H.

K. H. Awan, P. R. Morgan, and S. Warnakulasuriya, “Evaluation of an autofluorescence based imaging system (VELscope™) in the detection of oral potentially malignant disorders and benign keratoses,” Oral Oncol. 47(4), 274–277 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Backer, J. M.

A. M. Winkler, P. F. S. Rice, J. Weichsel, J. M. Watson, M. V. Backer, J. M. Backer, and J. K. Barton, “In Vivo, Dual-Modality OCT/LIF Imaging Using a Novel VEGF Receptor-Targeted NIR Fluorescent Probe in the AOM-Treated Mouse Model,” Mol. Imaging Biol. 13(6), 1173–1182 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Backer, M. V.

A. M. Winkler, P. F. S. Rice, J. Weichsel, J. M. Watson, M. V. Backer, J. M. Backer, and J. K. Barton, “In Vivo, Dual-Modality OCT/LIF Imaging Using a Novel VEGF Receptor-Targeted NIR Fluorescent Probe in the AOM-Treated Mouse Model,” Mol. Imaging Biol. 13(6), 1173–1182 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bader, D. L.

O. K. Adegun, P. H. Tomlins, E. Hagi-Pavli, G. McKenzie, K. Piper, D. L. Bader, and F. Fortune, “Quantitative analysis of optical coherence tomography and histopathology images of normal and dysplastic oral mucosal tissues,” Lasers Med. Sci. 27(4), 795–804 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bagan, J. V.

C. Scully, J. V. Bagan, C. Hopper, and J. B. Epstein, “Oral cancer: current and future diagnostic techniques,” Am. J. Dent. 21(4), 199–209 (2008).
[PubMed]

Bajaj, A.

Barton, J. K.

R. A. Wall and J. K. Barton, “Fluorescence-based surface magnifying chromoendoscopy and optical coherence tomography endoscope,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(8), 086003 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. M. Winkler, P. F. S. Rice, J. Weichsel, J. M. Watson, M. V. Backer, J. M. Backer, and J. K. Barton, “In Vivo, Dual-Modality OCT/LIF Imaging Using a Novel VEGF Receptor-Targeted NIR Fluorescent Probe in the AOM-Treated Mouse Model,” Mol. Imaging Biol. 13(6), 1173–1182 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. R. Tumlinson, L. P. Hariri, U. Utzinger, and J. K. Barton, “Miniature endoscope for simultaneous optical coherence tomography and laser-induced fluorescence measurement,” Appl. Opt. 43(1), 113–121 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bastacky, S.

Baumann, B.

Beaurepaire, E.

M. Oheim, E. Beaurepaire, E. Chaigneau, J. Mertz, and S. Charpak, “Two-photon microscopy in brain tissue: parameters influencing the imaging depth,” J. Neurosci. Methods 111(1), 29–37 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bec, J.

Bedard, N.

Berger, M.

S. Gioux, J. G. Coutard, M. Berger, H. Grateau, V. Josserand, M. Keramidas, C. Righini, J. L. Coll, and J. M. Dinten, “FluoSTIC: miniaturized fluorescence image-guided surgery system,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(10), 106014 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bernstein, J. J.

Beydoun, H.

P. Wilder-Smith, W. G. Jung, M. Brenner, K. Osann, H. Beydoun, D. Messadi, and Z. Chen, “In vivo optical coherence tomography for the diagnosis of oral malignancy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 35(4), 269–275 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bhattar, V.

Bhattar, V. S.

M. C. Pierce, R. A. Schwarz, V. S. Bhattar, S. Mondrik, M. D. Williams, J. J. Lee, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. M. Gillenwater, “Accuracy of In Vivo Multimodal Optical Imaging for Detection of Oral Neoplasia,” Cancer Prev. Res. (Phila.) 5(6), 801–809 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bhuvaneswari, R.

M. Olivo, R. Bhuvaneswari, and I. Keogh, “Advances in bio-optical imaging for the diagnosis of early oral cancer,” Pharmaceutics 3(4), 354–378 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bizheva, K.

Böcking, A.

T. W. Remmerbach, H. Weidenbach, N. Pomjanski, K. Knops, S. Mathes, A. Hemprich, and A. Böcking, “Cytologic and DNA-cytometric early diagnosis of oral cancer,” Anal. Cell. Pathol. 22(4), 211–221 (2001).
[PubMed]

Bogdanov, A.

R. Weissleder, C. H. Tung, U. Mahmood, and A. Bogdanov., “In vivo imaging of tumors with protease-activated near-infrared fluorescent probes,” Nat. Biotechnol. 17(4), 375–378 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boppart, S. A.

A. M. Zysk, F. T. Nguyen, A. L. Oldenburg, D. L. Marks, and S. A. Boppart, “Optical coherence tomography: a review of clinical development from bench to bedside,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 051403 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bouma, B. E.

H. Yoo, J. W. Kim, M. Shishkov, E. Namati, T. Morse, R. Shubochkin, J. R. McCarthy, V. Ntziachristos, B. E. Bouma, F. A. Jaffer, and G. J. Tearney, “Intra-arterial catheter for simultaneous microstructural and molecular imaging in vivo,” Nat. Med. 17(12), 1680–1684 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. K. Nadkarni, M. C. Pierce, B. H. Park, J. F. de Boer, P. Whittaker, B. E. Bouma, J. E. Bressner, E. Halpern, S. L. Houser, and G. J. Tearney, “Measurement of Collagen and Smooth Muscle Cell Content in Atherosclerotic Plaques Using Polarization-Sensitive Optical Coherence Tomography,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 49(13), 1474–1481 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brandon, J.

P. Pande, S. Shrestha, J. Park, M. J. Serafino, I. Gimenez-Conti, J. Brandon, Y.-S. Cheng, B. E. Applegate, and J. A. Jo, “Automated classification of optical coherence tomography images for the diagnosis of oral malignancy in the hamster cheek pouch,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(8), 086022 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brandon, J. L.

J. A. Jo, B. E. Applegate, J. Park, S. Shrestha, P. Pande, I. B. Gimenez-Conti, and J. L. Brandon, “In Vivo Simultaneous Morphological and Biochemical Optical Imaging of Oral Epithelial Cancer,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 57(10), 2596–2599 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brenner, M.

P. Wilder-Smith, W. G. Jung, M. Brenner, K. Osann, H. Beydoun, D. Messadi, and Z. Chen, “In vivo optical coherence tomography for the diagnosis of oral malignancy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 35(4), 269–275 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bressner, J. E.

S. K. Nadkarni, M. C. Pierce, B. H. Park, J. F. de Boer, P. Whittaker, B. E. Bouma, J. E. Bressner, E. Halpern, S. L. Houser, and G. J. Tearney, “Measurement of Collagen and Smooth Muscle Cell Content in Atherosclerotic Plaques Using Polarization-Sensitive Optical Coherence Tomography,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 49(13), 1474–1481 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Burgess, S. A.

E. M. C. Hillman and S. A. Burgess, “Sub-millimeter resolution 3D optical imaging of living tissue using laminar optical tomography,” Laser Photon. Rev. 3(1-2), 159–179 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Burns, J. A.

Califano, L.

A. Zupi, L. Califano, P. Maremonti, F. Longo, R. Ciccarelli, and A. Soricelli, “Accuracy in the diagnosis of mandibular involvement by oral cancer,” J. Craniomaxillofac. Surg. 24(5), 281–284 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Campisi, G.

C. Paderni, D. Compilato, F. Carinci, G. Nardi, V. Rodolico, L. Lo Muzio, G. Spinelli, M. Mazzotta, and G. Campisi, “Direct visualization of oral-cavity tissue fluorescence as novel aid for early oral cancer diagnosis and potentially malignant disorders monitoring,” Int. J. Immunopathol. Pharmacol. 24(2Suppl), 121–128 (2011).
[PubMed]

Carinci, F.

C. Paderni, D. Compilato, F. Carinci, G. Nardi, V. Rodolico, L. Lo Muzio, G. Spinelli, M. Mazzotta, and G. Campisi, “Direct visualization of oral-cavity tissue fluorescence as novel aid for early oral cancer diagnosis and potentially malignant disorders monitoring,” Int. J. Immunopathol. Pharmacol. 24(2Suppl), 121–128 (2011).
[PubMed]

Cense, B.

M. C. Pierce, R. L. Sheridan, B. Hyle Park, B. Cense, and J. F. de Boer, “Collagen denaturation can be quantified in burned human skin using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Burns 30(6), 511–517 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, B. Cense, and J. F. de Boer, “Jones matrix analysis for a polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography system using fiber-optic components,” Opt. Lett. 29(21), 2512–2514 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chaigneau, E.

M. Oheim, E. Beaurepaire, E. Chaigneau, J. Mertz, and S. Charpak, “Two-photon microscopy in brain tissue: parameters influencing the imaging depth,” J. Neurosci. Methods 111(1), 29–37 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, C.-C.

Charpak, S.

M. Oheim, E. Beaurepaire, E. Chaigneau, J. Mertz, and S. Charpak, “Two-photon microscopy in brain tissue: parameters influencing the imaging depth,” J. Neurosci. Methods 111(1), 29–37 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chaudhari, A. J.

M. Lam, A. J. Chaudhari, Y. Sun, F. Zhou, A. Dobbie, R. F. Gandour-Edwards, S. P. Tinling, D. G. Farwell, W. L. Monsky, K. K. Shung, and L. Marcu, “Ultrasound Backscatter Microscopy for Imaging of Oral Carcinoma,” J. Ultrasound Med. 32(10), 1789–1797 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, H. M.

M.-T. Tsai, C. K. Lee, H. C. Lee, H. M. Chen, C.-P. Chiang, Y. M. Wang, and C. C. Yang, “Differentiating oral lesions in different carcinogenesis stages with optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(4), 044028 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, H.-M.

Chen, Z.

S. Liang, A. Saidi, J. Jing, G. Liu, J. Li, J. Zhang, C. Sun, J. Narula, and Z. Chen, “Intravascular atherosclerotic imaging with combined fluorescence and optical coherence tomography probe based on a double-clad fiber combiner,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(7), 070501 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Ridgway, G. Ahuja, S. Guo, J. Su, U. Mahmood, Z. Chen, and B. Wong, “Imaging of the pediatric airway using optical coherence tomography,” Laryngoscope 117(12), 2206–2212 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Wilder-Smith, W. G. Jung, M. Brenner, K. Osann, H. Beydoun, D. Messadi, and Z. Chen, “In vivo optical coherence tomography for the diagnosis of oral malignancy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 35(4), 269–275 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheng, S.

J. M. Jabbour, S. Cheng, B. H. Malik, R. Cuenca, J. A. Jo, J. Wright, Y.-S. L. Cheng, and K. C. Maitland, “Fluorescence lifetime imaging and reflectance confocal microscopy for multiscale imaging of oral precancer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(4), 046012 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheng, Y.-S.

P. Pande, S. Shrestha, J. Park, M. J. Serafino, I. Gimenez-Conti, J. Brandon, Y.-S. Cheng, B. E. Applegate, and J. A. Jo, “Automated classification of optical coherence tomography images for the diagnosis of oral malignancy in the hamster cheek pouch,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(8), 086022 (2014).
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Cheng, Y.-S. L.

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[Crossref] [PubMed]

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[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Wojtkowski, M.

Wong, B.

J. M. Ridgway, G. Ahuja, S. Guo, J. Su, U. Mahmood, Z. Chen, and B. Wong, “Imaging of the pediatric airway using optical coherence tomography,” Laryngoscope 117(12), 2206–2212 (2007).
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K. H. Kim, M. C. Pierce, G. Maguluri, B. H. Park, S. J. Yoon, M. Lydon, R. Sheridan, and J. F. de Boer, “In vivo imaging of human burn injuries with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(6), 066012 (2012).
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Zeidel, M. L.

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C. F. Poh, C. E. MacAulay, D. M. Laronde, P. M. Williams, L. Zhang, and M. P. Rosin, “Squamous cell carcinoma and precursor lesions: diagnosis and screening in a technical era,” Periodontol. 2000 57(1), 73–88 (2011).
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Zhou, F.

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Supplementary Material (3)

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of the multimodal imaging probe. DM: dichroic mirror, L1-L4: lenses, M: mirror, SL: scan lens, TL: tube lens, LP: long pass filter, EX: excitation filter, EM: emission filter, DP: diaphragm, LLG: liquid light guide, FB: optical fiber bundle. Excitation and emission beams were depicted in blue and green respectively, and OCT beam was depicted in orange. (b) Photograph of the multimodal imaging probe mounted on an articulated arm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Multimodal images of fluorescent microspheres: (a) wide-field reflectance image, b) wide-field fluorescence image, (c) zoomed fluorescence image of boxed region in Fig. 2(b) d) cross-sectional OCT image.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measurement of DOF of the wide-field imaging with detection NA. (a – c) DOF change image at different NA setting, 0.075, 0.0625 and 0.0125, respectively (d) relation between measured DOF and NA2.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Images of mouse ear taken by the multimodal imaging probe. (a) Reflectance image, (b) fluorescence image, (c) magnified fluorescence image of the boxed region in (b), (d) OCT cross-sectional image (Media 1).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Multimodal images of human tongue. (a) Wide-field reflectance image, (b) en face OCT image, (c, d) Cross-sectional OCT intensity and PS images respectively. Red arrows in (c) indicate lingual papillae spread across the surface of tongue. (Media 2).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Multimodal image of human buccal mucosa. (a) wide-field reflectance image, (b, c) Cross-sectional OCT intensity and PS image. EP: epithelium, LP: lamina propria, SM: submucosa, M: muscle (red arrow indicates blood vessels) (Media 3).

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