Abstract

Acupuncture has been a powerful clinical tool for treating chronic diseases. However, there is currently no appropriate method to clarify the therapeutic effect of acupuncture. Here, we use photoacoustic tomography (PAT) to study the effect of acupuncture on mouse brain blood vessels. Ten healthy mice were stimulated with acupuncture needles on two acupoints. PAT images were obtained before and after acupuncture. We report that stimulation of certain acupoints resulted in changes in hemodynamics/blood flow at these points. The results demonstrate that PAT can non-invasively detect blood flow changes in mouse brain under acupuncture. This pilot study shows the potential of PAT as a visualization tool for illuminating the mechanism of acupuncture and promoting its clinical applications.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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2011 (2)

C. X. Han, J. D. B. Wang, Y. Guo, and Y. Y. Liu, “Cluster analysis of electrical signals from dorsal spinal nerve root evoked by different acupuncture manipulations at Zusanli point,” J. Tianjin University 44(5), 412–416 (2011).

G. Litscher, G. Bauernfeind, X. Y. Gao, G. M. Putz, L. Wang, W. Anderle, I. Gaischek, D. Litscher, C. Neuper, and R. C. Niemtzow, “Battlefield acupuncture and near-Infrared spectroscopy–miniaturized computer-triggered electrical stimulation of battlefield ear acupuncture points and 50-channel near-infrared spectroscopic mapping,” Med. Acupuncture 23(4), 263–270 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

I. Quah-Smith, P. S. Sachdev, W. Wen, X. H. Chen, and M. A. Williams, “The brain effects of laser acupuncture in healthy individuals: An FMRI Investigation,” PLoS ONE 5(9), e12619 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. K. Hui, V. Napadow, J. Liu, M. Li, O. Marina, E. E. Nixon, J. D. Claunch, L. LaCount, T. Sporko, and K. K. Kwong, “Monitoring acupuncture effects on human brain by FMRI,” J. Vis. Exp. 8(38), 1190–1197 (2010).
[PubMed]

2008 (2)

W. Qin, J. Tian, L. J. Bai, X. H. Pan, L. Yang, P. Chen, J. P. Dai, L. Ai, B. X. Zhao, Q. Y. Gong, W. Wang, K. M. von Deneen, and Y. J. Liu, “FMRI connectivity analysis of acupuncture effects on an amygdala-associated brain network,” Mol. Pain 4(1), 55 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. H. V. Wang, “Prospects of photoacoustic tomography. Medical Physicals,” Am. Assoc. Phys. Med 35(12), 5758–5767 (2008).

2007 (1)

V. Napadow, N. Kettner, J. Liu, M. Li, K. K. Kwong, M. Vangel, N. Makris, J. Audette, and K. K. Hui, “Hypothalamus and amygdala response to acupuncture stimuli in carpal tunnel syndrome,” Pain 130(3), 254–266 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (6)

L. Yang, X. L. Gao, X. L. L. X. Yang, H. Li, C. X. Li, H. Lei, J. Tian, and D. P. Yang, “Effects of TENS of Yongquan on Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging and on Pain Threshold in Rats,” Radiol. Prat. 20(12), 1087–1089 (2005).

K. K. Hui, J. Liu, O. Marina, V. Napadow, C. Haselgrove, K. K. Kwong, D. N. Kennedy, and N. Makris, “The integrated response of the human cerebro-cerebellar and limbic systems to acupuncture stimulation at ST 36 as evidenced by fMRI,” Neuroimage 27(3), 479–496 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Napadow, N. Makris, J. Liu, N. W. Kettner, K. K. Kwong, and K. K. Hui, “Effects of electroacupuncture versus manual acupuncture on the human brain as measured by fMRI,” Hum. Brain Mapp. 24(3), 193–205 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Pariente, P. White, R. S. Frackowiak, and G. Lewith, “Expectancy and belief modulate the neuronal substrates of pain treated by acupuncture,” Neuroimage 25(4), 1161–1167 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. M. Siedentopf, F. Koppelstaetter, I. A. Haala, V. Haid, P. Rhomberg, A. Ischebeck, W. Buchberger, S. Felber, A. Schlager, and S. M. Golaszewski, “Laser acupuncture induced specific cerebral cortical and subcortical activations in humans,” Lasers Med. Sci. 20(2), 68–73 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Tan, D. Xing, Y. Wang, Y. G. Zeng, and B. Z. Yin, “Influence of Bandwidth of Ultrasonic Transducer on Photoacoustic Imaging,” Acta Opt. Sin. 25(1), 40–44 (2005).

2004 (1)

S. S. Yoo, E. K. Teh, R. A. Blinder, and F. A. Jolesz, “Modulation of cerebellar activities by acupuncture stimulation: evidence from fMRI study,” Neuroimage 22(2), 932–940 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

W. T. Zhang, Z. Jin, G. H. Cui, K. L. Zhang, L. Zhang, Y. W. Zeng, F. Luo, A. C. Chen, and J. S. Han, “Relations between brain network activation and analgesic effect induced by low vs. high frequency electrical acupoint stimulation in different subjects: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study,” Brain Res. 982(2), 168–178 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. D. Wang, Y. J. Pang, G. Ku, X. Y. Xie, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Noninvasive laser-induced photoacoustic tomography for structural and functional in vivo imaging of the brain,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21(7), 803–806 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

J. C. Hsieh, C. H. Tu, F. P. Chen, M. C. Chen, T. C. Yeh, H. C. Cheng, Y. T. Wu, R. S. Liu, and L. T. Ho, “Activation of the hypothalamus characterises the acupuncture stimulation at the analgesic point in the human: a PET Study,” Neurosci. Lett. 307, 105–108 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

E. Haker, H. Egekvist, and P. Bjerring, “Effect of sensory stimulation (acupuncture) on sympathetic and parasympathetic activities in healthy subjects,” J. Auton. Nerv. Syst. 79(1), 52–59 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

M. T. Wu, J. C. Hsieh, J. Xiong, C. F. Yang, H. B. Pan, Y. C. Chen, G. Tsai, B. R. Rosen, and K. K. Wong, “Central nervous system pathway for acupuncture stimulation: localisation of processing with fMRI of the brain – preliminary experience,” Radiology 212, 133–141 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1982 (1)

J. S. Han and L. Terenius, “Neurochemical basis of acupuncture analgesia,” Annu. Rev. Pharmacol. Toxicol. 22(1), 193–220 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ai, L.

W. Qin, J. Tian, L. J. Bai, X. H. Pan, L. Yang, P. Chen, J. P. Dai, L. Ai, B. X. Zhao, Q. Y. Gong, W. Wang, K. M. von Deneen, and Y. J. Liu, “FMRI connectivity analysis of acupuncture effects on an amygdala-associated brain network,” Mol. Pain 4(1), 55 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anderle, W.

G. Litscher, G. Bauernfeind, X. Y. Gao, G. M. Putz, L. Wang, W. Anderle, I. Gaischek, D. Litscher, C. Neuper, and R. C. Niemtzow, “Battlefield acupuncture and near-Infrared spectroscopy–miniaturized computer-triggered electrical stimulation of battlefield ear acupuncture points and 50-channel near-infrared spectroscopic mapping,” Med. Acupuncture 23(4), 263–270 (2011).
[Crossref]

Audette, J.

V. Napadow, N. Kettner, J. Liu, M. Li, K. K. Kwong, M. Vangel, N. Makris, J. Audette, and K. K. Hui, “Hypothalamus and amygdala response to acupuncture stimuli in carpal tunnel syndrome,” Pain 130(3), 254–266 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bai, L. J.

W. Qin, J. Tian, L. J. Bai, X. H. Pan, L. Yang, P. Chen, J. P. Dai, L. Ai, B. X. Zhao, Q. Y. Gong, W. Wang, K. M. von Deneen, and Y. J. Liu, “FMRI connectivity analysis of acupuncture effects on an amygdala-associated brain network,” Mol. Pain 4(1), 55 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bauernfeind, G.

G. Litscher, G. Bauernfeind, X. Y. Gao, G. M. Putz, L. Wang, W. Anderle, I. Gaischek, D. Litscher, C. Neuper, and R. C. Niemtzow, “Battlefield acupuncture and near-Infrared spectroscopy–miniaturized computer-triggered electrical stimulation of battlefield ear acupuncture points and 50-channel near-infrared spectroscopic mapping,” Med. Acupuncture 23(4), 263–270 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bjerring, P.

E. Haker, H. Egekvist, and P. Bjerring, “Effect of sensory stimulation (acupuncture) on sympathetic and parasympathetic activities in healthy subjects,” J. Auton. Nerv. Syst. 79(1), 52–59 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Blinder, R. A.

S. S. Yoo, E. K. Teh, R. A. Blinder, and F. A. Jolesz, “Modulation of cerebellar activities by acupuncture stimulation: evidence from fMRI study,” Neuroimage 22(2), 932–940 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Buchberger, W.

C. M. Siedentopf, F. Koppelstaetter, I. A. Haala, V. Haid, P. Rhomberg, A. Ischebeck, W. Buchberger, S. Felber, A. Schlager, and S. M. Golaszewski, “Laser acupuncture induced specific cerebral cortical and subcortical activations in humans,” Lasers Med. Sci. 20(2), 68–73 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, A. C.

W. T. Zhang, Z. Jin, G. H. Cui, K. L. Zhang, L. Zhang, Y. W. Zeng, F. Luo, A. C. Chen, and J. S. Han, “Relations between brain network activation and analgesic effect induced by low vs. high frequency electrical acupoint stimulation in different subjects: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study,” Brain Res. 982(2), 168–178 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, F. P.

J. C. Hsieh, C. H. Tu, F. P. Chen, M. C. Chen, T. C. Yeh, H. C. Cheng, Y. T. Wu, R. S. Liu, and L. T. Ho, “Activation of the hypothalamus characterises the acupuncture stimulation at the analgesic point in the human: a PET Study,” Neurosci. Lett. 307, 105–108 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, M. C.

J. C. Hsieh, C. H. Tu, F. P. Chen, M. C. Chen, T. C. Yeh, H. C. Cheng, Y. T. Wu, R. S. Liu, and L. T. Ho, “Activation of the hypothalamus characterises the acupuncture stimulation at the analgesic point in the human: a PET Study,” Neurosci. Lett. 307, 105–108 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, P.

W. Qin, J. Tian, L. J. Bai, X. H. Pan, L. Yang, P. Chen, J. P. Dai, L. Ai, B. X. Zhao, Q. Y. Gong, W. Wang, K. M. von Deneen, and Y. J. Liu, “FMRI connectivity analysis of acupuncture effects on an amygdala-associated brain network,” Mol. Pain 4(1), 55 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, X. H.

I. Quah-Smith, P. S. Sachdev, W. Wen, X. H. Chen, and M. A. Williams, “The brain effects of laser acupuncture in healthy individuals: An FMRI Investigation,” PLoS ONE 5(9), e12619 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Y. C.

M. T. Wu, J. C. Hsieh, J. Xiong, C. F. Yang, H. B. Pan, Y. C. Chen, G. Tsai, B. R. Rosen, and K. K. Wong, “Central nervous system pathway for acupuncture stimulation: localisation of processing with fMRI of the brain – preliminary experience,” Radiology 212, 133–141 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheng, H. C.

J. C. Hsieh, C. H. Tu, F. P. Chen, M. C. Chen, T. C. Yeh, H. C. Cheng, Y. T. Wu, R. S. Liu, and L. T. Ho, “Activation of the hypothalamus characterises the acupuncture stimulation at the analgesic point in the human: a PET Study,” Neurosci. Lett. 307, 105–108 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Claunch, J. D.

K. K. Hui, V. Napadow, J. Liu, M. Li, O. Marina, E. E. Nixon, J. D. Claunch, L. LaCount, T. Sporko, and K. K. Kwong, “Monitoring acupuncture effects on human brain by FMRI,” J. Vis. Exp. 8(38), 1190–1197 (2010).
[PubMed]

Cui, G. H.

W. T. Zhang, Z. Jin, G. H. Cui, K. L. Zhang, L. Zhang, Y. W. Zeng, F. Luo, A. C. Chen, and J. S. Han, “Relations between brain network activation and analgesic effect induced by low vs. high frequency electrical acupoint stimulation in different subjects: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study,” Brain Res. 982(2), 168–178 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dai, J. P.

W. Qin, J. Tian, L. J. Bai, X. H. Pan, L. Yang, P. Chen, J. P. Dai, L. Ai, B. X. Zhao, Q. Y. Gong, W. Wang, K. M. von Deneen, and Y. J. Liu, “FMRI connectivity analysis of acupuncture effects on an amygdala-associated brain network,” Mol. Pain 4(1), 55 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Egekvist, H.

E. Haker, H. Egekvist, and P. Bjerring, “Effect of sensory stimulation (acupuncture) on sympathetic and parasympathetic activities in healthy subjects,” J. Auton. Nerv. Syst. 79(1), 52–59 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Felber, S.

C. M. Siedentopf, F. Koppelstaetter, I. A. Haala, V. Haid, P. Rhomberg, A. Ischebeck, W. Buchberger, S. Felber, A. Schlager, and S. M. Golaszewski, “Laser acupuncture induced specific cerebral cortical and subcortical activations in humans,” Lasers Med. Sci. 20(2), 68–73 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Frackowiak, R. S.

J. Pariente, P. White, R. S. Frackowiak, and G. Lewith, “Expectancy and belief modulate the neuronal substrates of pain treated by acupuncture,” Neuroimage 25(4), 1161–1167 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gaischek, I.

G. Litscher, G. Bauernfeind, X. Y. Gao, G. M. Putz, L. Wang, W. Anderle, I. Gaischek, D. Litscher, C. Neuper, and R. C. Niemtzow, “Battlefield acupuncture and near-Infrared spectroscopy–miniaturized computer-triggered electrical stimulation of battlefield ear acupuncture points and 50-channel near-infrared spectroscopic mapping,” Med. Acupuncture 23(4), 263–270 (2011).
[Crossref]

Gao, X. L.

L. Yang, X. L. Gao, X. L. L. X. Yang, H. Li, C. X. Li, H. Lei, J. Tian, and D. P. Yang, “Effects of TENS of Yongquan on Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging and on Pain Threshold in Rats,” Radiol. Prat. 20(12), 1087–1089 (2005).

Gao, X. Y.

G. Litscher, G. Bauernfeind, X. Y. Gao, G. M. Putz, L. Wang, W. Anderle, I. Gaischek, D. Litscher, C. Neuper, and R. C. Niemtzow, “Battlefield acupuncture and near-Infrared spectroscopy–miniaturized computer-triggered electrical stimulation of battlefield ear acupuncture points and 50-channel near-infrared spectroscopic mapping,” Med. Acupuncture 23(4), 263–270 (2011).
[Crossref]

Golaszewski, S. M.

C. M. Siedentopf, F. Koppelstaetter, I. A. Haala, V. Haid, P. Rhomberg, A. Ischebeck, W. Buchberger, S. Felber, A. Schlager, and S. M. Golaszewski, “Laser acupuncture induced specific cerebral cortical and subcortical activations in humans,” Lasers Med. Sci. 20(2), 68–73 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gong, Q. Y.

W. Qin, J. Tian, L. J. Bai, X. H. Pan, L. Yang, P. Chen, J. P. Dai, L. Ai, B. X. Zhao, Q. Y. Gong, W. Wang, K. M. von Deneen, and Y. J. Liu, “FMRI connectivity analysis of acupuncture effects on an amygdala-associated brain network,” Mol. Pain 4(1), 55 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guo, Y.

C. X. Han, J. D. B. Wang, Y. Guo, and Y. Y. Liu, “Cluster analysis of electrical signals from dorsal spinal nerve root evoked by different acupuncture manipulations at Zusanli point,” J. Tianjin University 44(5), 412–416 (2011).

Haala, I. A.

C. M. Siedentopf, F. Koppelstaetter, I. A. Haala, V. Haid, P. Rhomberg, A. Ischebeck, W. Buchberger, S. Felber, A. Schlager, and S. M. Golaszewski, “Laser acupuncture induced specific cerebral cortical and subcortical activations in humans,” Lasers Med. Sci. 20(2), 68–73 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Haid, V.

C. M. Siedentopf, F. Koppelstaetter, I. A. Haala, V. Haid, P. Rhomberg, A. Ischebeck, W. Buchberger, S. Felber, A. Schlager, and S. M. Golaszewski, “Laser acupuncture induced specific cerebral cortical and subcortical activations in humans,” Lasers Med. Sci. 20(2), 68–73 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Haker, E.

E. Haker, H. Egekvist, and P. Bjerring, “Effect of sensory stimulation (acupuncture) on sympathetic and parasympathetic activities in healthy subjects,” J. Auton. Nerv. Syst. 79(1), 52–59 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Han, C. X.

C. X. Han, J. D. B. Wang, Y. Guo, and Y. Y. Liu, “Cluster analysis of electrical signals from dorsal spinal nerve root evoked by different acupuncture manipulations at Zusanli point,” J. Tianjin University 44(5), 412–416 (2011).

Han, J. S.

W. T. Zhang, Z. Jin, G. H. Cui, K. L. Zhang, L. Zhang, Y. W. Zeng, F. Luo, A. C. Chen, and J. S. Han, “Relations between brain network activation and analgesic effect induced by low vs. high frequency electrical acupoint stimulation in different subjects: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study,” Brain Res. 982(2), 168–178 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. S. Han and L. Terenius, “Neurochemical basis of acupuncture analgesia,” Annu. Rev. Pharmacol. Toxicol. 22(1), 193–220 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Haselgrove, C.

K. K. Hui, J. Liu, O. Marina, V. Napadow, C. Haselgrove, K. K. Kwong, D. N. Kennedy, and N. Makris, “The integrated response of the human cerebro-cerebellar and limbic systems to acupuncture stimulation at ST 36 as evidenced by fMRI,” Neuroimage 27(3), 479–496 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ho, L. T.

J. C. Hsieh, C. H. Tu, F. P. Chen, M. C. Chen, T. C. Yeh, H. C. Cheng, Y. T. Wu, R. S. Liu, and L. T. Ho, “Activation of the hypothalamus characterises the acupuncture stimulation at the analgesic point in the human: a PET Study,” Neurosci. Lett. 307, 105–108 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hsieh, J. C.

J. C. Hsieh, C. H. Tu, F. P. Chen, M. C. Chen, T. C. Yeh, H. C. Cheng, Y. T. Wu, R. S. Liu, and L. T. Ho, “Activation of the hypothalamus characterises the acupuncture stimulation at the analgesic point in the human: a PET Study,” Neurosci. Lett. 307, 105–108 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. T. Wu, J. C. Hsieh, J. Xiong, C. F. Yang, H. B. Pan, Y. C. Chen, G. Tsai, B. R. Rosen, and K. K. Wong, “Central nervous system pathway for acupuncture stimulation: localisation of processing with fMRI of the brain – preliminary experience,” Radiology 212, 133–141 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hui, K. K.

K. K. Hui, V. Napadow, J. Liu, M. Li, O. Marina, E. E. Nixon, J. D. Claunch, L. LaCount, T. Sporko, and K. K. Kwong, “Monitoring acupuncture effects on human brain by FMRI,” J. Vis. Exp. 8(38), 1190–1197 (2010).
[PubMed]

V. Napadow, N. Kettner, J. Liu, M. Li, K. K. Kwong, M. Vangel, N. Makris, J. Audette, and K. K. Hui, “Hypothalamus and amygdala response to acupuncture stimuli in carpal tunnel syndrome,” Pain 130(3), 254–266 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Napadow, N. Makris, J. Liu, N. W. Kettner, K. K. Kwong, and K. K. Hui, “Effects of electroacupuncture versus manual acupuncture on the human brain as measured by fMRI,” Hum. Brain Mapp. 24(3), 193–205 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. K. Hui, J. Liu, O. Marina, V. Napadow, C. Haselgrove, K. K. Kwong, D. N. Kennedy, and N. Makris, “The integrated response of the human cerebro-cerebellar and limbic systems to acupuncture stimulation at ST 36 as evidenced by fMRI,” Neuroimage 27(3), 479–496 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ischebeck, A.

C. M. Siedentopf, F. Koppelstaetter, I. A. Haala, V. Haid, P. Rhomberg, A. Ischebeck, W. Buchberger, S. Felber, A. Schlager, and S. M. Golaszewski, “Laser acupuncture induced specific cerebral cortical and subcortical activations in humans,” Lasers Med. Sci. 20(2), 68–73 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jin, Z.

W. T. Zhang, Z. Jin, G. H. Cui, K. L. Zhang, L. Zhang, Y. W. Zeng, F. Luo, A. C. Chen, and J. S. Han, “Relations between brain network activation and analgesic effect induced by low vs. high frequency electrical acupoint stimulation in different subjects: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study,” Brain Res. 982(2), 168–178 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jolesz, F. A.

S. S. Yoo, E. K. Teh, R. A. Blinder, and F. A. Jolesz, “Modulation of cerebellar activities by acupuncture stimulation: evidence from fMRI study,” Neuroimage 22(2), 932–940 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kennedy, D. N.

K. K. Hui, J. Liu, O. Marina, V. Napadow, C. Haselgrove, K. K. Kwong, D. N. Kennedy, and N. Makris, “The integrated response of the human cerebro-cerebellar and limbic systems to acupuncture stimulation at ST 36 as evidenced by fMRI,” Neuroimage 27(3), 479–496 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kettner, N.

V. Napadow, N. Kettner, J. Liu, M. Li, K. K. Kwong, M. Vangel, N. Makris, J. Audette, and K. K. Hui, “Hypothalamus and amygdala response to acupuncture stimuli in carpal tunnel syndrome,” Pain 130(3), 254–266 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kettner, N. W.

V. Napadow, N. Makris, J. Liu, N. W. Kettner, K. K. Kwong, and K. K. Hui, “Effects of electroacupuncture versus manual acupuncture on the human brain as measured by fMRI,” Hum. Brain Mapp. 24(3), 193–205 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Koppelstaetter, F.

C. M. Siedentopf, F. Koppelstaetter, I. A. Haala, V. Haid, P. Rhomberg, A. Ischebeck, W. Buchberger, S. Felber, A. Schlager, and S. M. Golaszewski, “Laser acupuncture induced specific cerebral cortical and subcortical activations in humans,” Lasers Med. Sci. 20(2), 68–73 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ku, G.

X. D. Wang, Y. J. Pang, G. Ku, X. Y. Xie, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Noninvasive laser-induced photoacoustic tomography for structural and functional in vivo imaging of the brain,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21(7), 803–806 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kwong, K. K.

K. K. Hui, V. Napadow, J. Liu, M. Li, O. Marina, E. E. Nixon, J. D. Claunch, L. LaCount, T. Sporko, and K. K. Kwong, “Monitoring acupuncture effects on human brain by FMRI,” J. Vis. Exp. 8(38), 1190–1197 (2010).
[PubMed]

V. Napadow, N. Kettner, J. Liu, M. Li, K. K. Kwong, M. Vangel, N. Makris, J. Audette, and K. K. Hui, “Hypothalamus and amygdala response to acupuncture stimuli in carpal tunnel syndrome,” Pain 130(3), 254–266 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Napadow, N. Makris, J. Liu, N. W. Kettner, K. K. Kwong, and K. K. Hui, “Effects of electroacupuncture versus manual acupuncture on the human brain as measured by fMRI,” Hum. Brain Mapp. 24(3), 193–205 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. K. Hui, J. Liu, O. Marina, V. Napadow, C. Haselgrove, K. K. Kwong, D. N. Kennedy, and N. Makris, “The integrated response of the human cerebro-cerebellar and limbic systems to acupuncture stimulation at ST 36 as evidenced by fMRI,” Neuroimage 27(3), 479–496 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

LaCount, L.

K. K. Hui, V. Napadow, J. Liu, M. Li, O. Marina, E. E. Nixon, J. D. Claunch, L. LaCount, T. Sporko, and K. K. Kwong, “Monitoring acupuncture effects on human brain by FMRI,” J. Vis. Exp. 8(38), 1190–1197 (2010).
[PubMed]

Lei, H.

L. Yang, X. L. Gao, X. L. L. X. Yang, H. Li, C. X. Li, H. Lei, J. Tian, and D. P. Yang, “Effects of TENS of Yongquan on Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging and on Pain Threshold in Rats,” Radiol. Prat. 20(12), 1087–1089 (2005).

Lewith, G.

J. Pariente, P. White, R. S. Frackowiak, and G. Lewith, “Expectancy and belief modulate the neuronal substrates of pain treated by acupuncture,” Neuroimage 25(4), 1161–1167 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, C. X.

L. Yang, X. L. Gao, X. L. L. X. Yang, H. Li, C. X. Li, H. Lei, J. Tian, and D. P. Yang, “Effects of TENS of Yongquan on Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging and on Pain Threshold in Rats,” Radiol. Prat. 20(12), 1087–1089 (2005).

Li, H.

L. Yang, X. L. Gao, X. L. L. X. Yang, H. Li, C. X. Li, H. Lei, J. Tian, and D. P. Yang, “Effects of TENS of Yongquan on Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging and on Pain Threshold in Rats,” Radiol. Prat. 20(12), 1087–1089 (2005).

Li, M.

K. K. Hui, V. Napadow, J. Liu, M. Li, O. Marina, E. E. Nixon, J. D. Claunch, L. LaCount, T. Sporko, and K. K. Kwong, “Monitoring acupuncture effects on human brain by FMRI,” J. Vis. Exp. 8(38), 1190–1197 (2010).
[PubMed]

V. Napadow, N. Kettner, J. Liu, M. Li, K. K. Kwong, M. Vangel, N. Makris, J. Audette, and K. K. Hui, “Hypothalamus and amygdala response to acupuncture stimuli in carpal tunnel syndrome,” Pain 130(3), 254–266 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Litscher, D.

G. Litscher, G. Bauernfeind, X. Y. Gao, G. M. Putz, L. Wang, W. Anderle, I. Gaischek, D. Litscher, C. Neuper, and R. C. Niemtzow, “Battlefield acupuncture and near-Infrared spectroscopy–miniaturized computer-triggered electrical stimulation of battlefield ear acupuncture points and 50-channel near-infrared spectroscopic mapping,” Med. Acupuncture 23(4), 263–270 (2011).
[Crossref]

Litscher, G.

G. Litscher, G. Bauernfeind, X. Y. Gao, G. M. Putz, L. Wang, W. Anderle, I. Gaischek, D. Litscher, C. Neuper, and R. C. Niemtzow, “Battlefield acupuncture and near-Infrared spectroscopy–miniaturized computer-triggered electrical stimulation of battlefield ear acupuncture points and 50-channel near-infrared spectroscopic mapping,” Med. Acupuncture 23(4), 263–270 (2011).
[Crossref]

Liu, J.

K. K. Hui, V. Napadow, J. Liu, M. Li, O. Marina, E. E. Nixon, J. D. Claunch, L. LaCount, T. Sporko, and K. K. Kwong, “Monitoring acupuncture effects on human brain by FMRI,” J. Vis. Exp. 8(38), 1190–1197 (2010).
[PubMed]

V. Napadow, N. Kettner, J. Liu, M. Li, K. K. Kwong, M. Vangel, N. Makris, J. Audette, and K. K. Hui, “Hypothalamus and amygdala response to acupuncture stimuli in carpal tunnel syndrome,” Pain 130(3), 254–266 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Napadow, N. Makris, J. Liu, N. W. Kettner, K. K. Kwong, and K. K. Hui, “Effects of electroacupuncture versus manual acupuncture on the human brain as measured by fMRI,” Hum. Brain Mapp. 24(3), 193–205 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. K. Hui, J. Liu, O. Marina, V. Napadow, C. Haselgrove, K. K. Kwong, D. N. Kennedy, and N. Makris, “The integrated response of the human cerebro-cerebellar and limbic systems to acupuncture stimulation at ST 36 as evidenced by fMRI,” Neuroimage 27(3), 479–496 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, R. S.

J. C. Hsieh, C. H. Tu, F. P. Chen, M. C. Chen, T. C. Yeh, H. C. Cheng, Y. T. Wu, R. S. Liu, and L. T. Ho, “Activation of the hypothalamus characterises the acupuncture stimulation at the analgesic point in the human: a PET Study,” Neurosci. Lett. 307, 105–108 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, Y. J.

W. Qin, J. Tian, L. J. Bai, X. H. Pan, L. Yang, P. Chen, J. P. Dai, L. Ai, B. X. Zhao, Q. Y. Gong, W. Wang, K. M. von Deneen, and Y. J. Liu, “FMRI connectivity analysis of acupuncture effects on an amygdala-associated brain network,” Mol. Pain 4(1), 55 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, Y. Y.

C. X. Han, J. D. B. Wang, Y. Guo, and Y. Y. Liu, “Cluster analysis of electrical signals from dorsal spinal nerve root evoked by different acupuncture manipulations at Zusanli point,” J. Tianjin University 44(5), 412–416 (2011).

Luo, F.

W. T. Zhang, Z. Jin, G. H. Cui, K. L. Zhang, L. Zhang, Y. W. Zeng, F. Luo, A. C. Chen, and J. S. Han, “Relations between brain network activation and analgesic effect induced by low vs. high frequency electrical acupoint stimulation in different subjects: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study,” Brain Res. 982(2), 168–178 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Makris, N.

V. Napadow, N. Kettner, J. Liu, M. Li, K. K. Kwong, M. Vangel, N. Makris, J. Audette, and K. K. Hui, “Hypothalamus and amygdala response to acupuncture stimuli in carpal tunnel syndrome,” Pain 130(3), 254–266 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Napadow, N. Makris, J. Liu, N. W. Kettner, K. K. Kwong, and K. K. Hui, “Effects of electroacupuncture versus manual acupuncture on the human brain as measured by fMRI,” Hum. Brain Mapp. 24(3), 193–205 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. K. Hui, J. Liu, O. Marina, V. Napadow, C. Haselgrove, K. K. Kwong, D. N. Kennedy, and N. Makris, “The integrated response of the human cerebro-cerebellar and limbic systems to acupuncture stimulation at ST 36 as evidenced by fMRI,” Neuroimage 27(3), 479–496 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Marina, O.

K. K. Hui, V. Napadow, J. Liu, M. Li, O. Marina, E. E. Nixon, J. D. Claunch, L. LaCount, T. Sporko, and K. K. Kwong, “Monitoring acupuncture effects on human brain by FMRI,” J. Vis. Exp. 8(38), 1190–1197 (2010).
[PubMed]

K. K. Hui, J. Liu, O. Marina, V. Napadow, C. Haselgrove, K. K. Kwong, D. N. Kennedy, and N. Makris, “The integrated response of the human cerebro-cerebellar and limbic systems to acupuncture stimulation at ST 36 as evidenced by fMRI,” Neuroimage 27(3), 479–496 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Napadow, V.

K. K. Hui, V. Napadow, J. Liu, M. Li, O. Marina, E. E. Nixon, J. D. Claunch, L. LaCount, T. Sporko, and K. K. Kwong, “Monitoring acupuncture effects on human brain by FMRI,” J. Vis. Exp. 8(38), 1190–1197 (2010).
[PubMed]

V. Napadow, N. Kettner, J. Liu, M. Li, K. K. Kwong, M. Vangel, N. Makris, J. Audette, and K. K. Hui, “Hypothalamus and amygdala response to acupuncture stimuli in carpal tunnel syndrome,” Pain 130(3), 254–266 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. K. Hui, J. Liu, O. Marina, V. Napadow, C. Haselgrove, K. K. Kwong, D. N. Kennedy, and N. Makris, “The integrated response of the human cerebro-cerebellar and limbic systems to acupuncture stimulation at ST 36 as evidenced by fMRI,” Neuroimage 27(3), 479–496 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Napadow, N. Makris, J. Liu, N. W. Kettner, K. K. Kwong, and K. K. Hui, “Effects of electroacupuncture versus manual acupuncture on the human brain as measured by fMRI,” Hum. Brain Mapp. 24(3), 193–205 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Neuper, C.

G. Litscher, G. Bauernfeind, X. Y. Gao, G. M. Putz, L. Wang, W. Anderle, I. Gaischek, D. Litscher, C. Neuper, and R. C. Niemtzow, “Battlefield acupuncture and near-Infrared spectroscopy–miniaturized computer-triggered electrical stimulation of battlefield ear acupuncture points and 50-channel near-infrared spectroscopic mapping,” Med. Acupuncture 23(4), 263–270 (2011).
[Crossref]

Niemtzow, R. C.

G. Litscher, G. Bauernfeind, X. Y. Gao, G. M. Putz, L. Wang, W. Anderle, I. Gaischek, D. Litscher, C. Neuper, and R. C. Niemtzow, “Battlefield acupuncture and near-Infrared spectroscopy–miniaturized computer-triggered electrical stimulation of battlefield ear acupuncture points and 50-channel near-infrared spectroscopic mapping,” Med. Acupuncture 23(4), 263–270 (2011).
[Crossref]

Nixon, E. E.

K. K. Hui, V. Napadow, J. Liu, M. Li, O. Marina, E. E. Nixon, J. D. Claunch, L. LaCount, T. Sporko, and K. K. Kwong, “Monitoring acupuncture effects on human brain by FMRI,” J. Vis. Exp. 8(38), 1190–1197 (2010).
[PubMed]

Pan, H. B.

M. T. Wu, J. C. Hsieh, J. Xiong, C. F. Yang, H. B. Pan, Y. C. Chen, G. Tsai, B. R. Rosen, and K. K. Wong, “Central nervous system pathway for acupuncture stimulation: localisation of processing with fMRI of the brain – preliminary experience,” Radiology 212, 133–141 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pan, X. H.

W. Qin, J. Tian, L. J. Bai, X. H. Pan, L. Yang, P. Chen, J. P. Dai, L. Ai, B. X. Zhao, Q. Y. Gong, W. Wang, K. M. von Deneen, and Y. J. Liu, “FMRI connectivity analysis of acupuncture effects on an amygdala-associated brain network,” Mol. Pain 4(1), 55 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pang, Y. J.

X. D. Wang, Y. J. Pang, G. Ku, X. Y. Xie, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Noninvasive laser-induced photoacoustic tomography for structural and functional in vivo imaging of the brain,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21(7), 803–806 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pariente, J.

J. Pariente, P. White, R. S. Frackowiak, and G. Lewith, “Expectancy and belief modulate the neuronal substrates of pain treated by acupuncture,” Neuroimage 25(4), 1161–1167 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Putz, G. M.

G. Litscher, G. Bauernfeind, X. Y. Gao, G. M. Putz, L. Wang, W. Anderle, I. Gaischek, D. Litscher, C. Neuper, and R. C. Niemtzow, “Battlefield acupuncture and near-Infrared spectroscopy–miniaturized computer-triggered electrical stimulation of battlefield ear acupuncture points and 50-channel near-infrared spectroscopic mapping,” Med. Acupuncture 23(4), 263–270 (2011).
[Crossref]

Qin, W.

W. Qin, J. Tian, L. J. Bai, X. H. Pan, L. Yang, P. Chen, J. P. Dai, L. Ai, B. X. Zhao, Q. Y. Gong, W. Wang, K. M. von Deneen, and Y. J. Liu, “FMRI connectivity analysis of acupuncture effects on an amygdala-associated brain network,” Mol. Pain 4(1), 55 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Quah-Smith, I.

I. Quah-Smith, P. S. Sachdev, W. Wen, X. H. Chen, and M. A. Williams, “The brain effects of laser acupuncture in healthy individuals: An FMRI Investigation,” PLoS ONE 5(9), e12619 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rhomberg, P.

C. M. Siedentopf, F. Koppelstaetter, I. A. Haala, V. Haid, P. Rhomberg, A. Ischebeck, W. Buchberger, S. Felber, A. Schlager, and S. M. Golaszewski, “Laser acupuncture induced specific cerebral cortical and subcortical activations in humans,” Lasers Med. Sci. 20(2), 68–73 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rosen, B. R.

M. T. Wu, J. C. Hsieh, J. Xiong, C. F. Yang, H. B. Pan, Y. C. Chen, G. Tsai, B. R. Rosen, and K. K. Wong, “Central nervous system pathway for acupuncture stimulation: localisation of processing with fMRI of the brain – preliminary experience,” Radiology 212, 133–141 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sachdev, P. S.

I. Quah-Smith, P. S. Sachdev, W. Wen, X. H. Chen, and M. A. Williams, “The brain effects of laser acupuncture in healthy individuals: An FMRI Investigation,” PLoS ONE 5(9), e12619 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schlager, A.

C. M. Siedentopf, F. Koppelstaetter, I. A. Haala, V. Haid, P. Rhomberg, A. Ischebeck, W. Buchberger, S. Felber, A. Schlager, and S. M. Golaszewski, “Laser acupuncture induced specific cerebral cortical and subcortical activations in humans,” Lasers Med. Sci. 20(2), 68–73 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Siedentopf, C. M.

C. M. Siedentopf, F. Koppelstaetter, I. A. Haala, V. Haid, P. Rhomberg, A. Ischebeck, W. Buchberger, S. Felber, A. Schlager, and S. M. Golaszewski, “Laser acupuncture induced specific cerebral cortical and subcortical activations in humans,” Lasers Med. Sci. 20(2), 68–73 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sporko, T.

K. K. Hui, V. Napadow, J. Liu, M. Li, O. Marina, E. E. Nixon, J. D. Claunch, L. LaCount, T. Sporko, and K. K. Kwong, “Monitoring acupuncture effects on human brain by FMRI,” J. Vis. Exp. 8(38), 1190–1197 (2010).
[PubMed]

Stoica, G.

X. D. Wang, Y. J. Pang, G. Ku, X. Y. Xie, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Noninvasive laser-induced photoacoustic tomography for structural and functional in vivo imaging of the brain,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21(7), 803–806 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tan, Y.

Y. Tan, D. Xing, Y. Wang, Y. G. Zeng, and B. Z. Yin, “Influence of Bandwidth of Ultrasonic Transducer on Photoacoustic Imaging,” Acta Opt. Sin. 25(1), 40–44 (2005).

Teh, E. K.

S. S. Yoo, E. K. Teh, R. A. Blinder, and F. A. Jolesz, “Modulation of cerebellar activities by acupuncture stimulation: evidence from fMRI study,” Neuroimage 22(2), 932–940 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Terenius, L.

J. S. Han and L. Terenius, “Neurochemical basis of acupuncture analgesia,” Annu. Rev. Pharmacol. Toxicol. 22(1), 193–220 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tian, J.

W. Qin, J. Tian, L. J. Bai, X. H. Pan, L. Yang, P. Chen, J. P. Dai, L. Ai, B. X. Zhao, Q. Y. Gong, W. Wang, K. M. von Deneen, and Y. J. Liu, “FMRI connectivity analysis of acupuncture effects on an amygdala-associated brain network,” Mol. Pain 4(1), 55 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Yang, X. L. Gao, X. L. L. X. Yang, H. Li, C. X. Li, H. Lei, J. Tian, and D. P. Yang, “Effects of TENS of Yongquan on Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging and on Pain Threshold in Rats,” Radiol. Prat. 20(12), 1087–1089 (2005).

Tsai, G.

M. T. Wu, J. C. Hsieh, J. Xiong, C. F. Yang, H. B. Pan, Y. C. Chen, G. Tsai, B. R. Rosen, and K. K. Wong, “Central nervous system pathway for acupuncture stimulation: localisation of processing with fMRI of the brain – preliminary experience,” Radiology 212, 133–141 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tu, C. H.

J. C. Hsieh, C. H. Tu, F. P. Chen, M. C. Chen, T. C. Yeh, H. C. Cheng, Y. T. Wu, R. S. Liu, and L. T. Ho, “Activation of the hypothalamus characterises the acupuncture stimulation at the analgesic point in the human: a PET Study,” Neurosci. Lett. 307, 105–108 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vangel, M.

V. Napadow, N. Kettner, J. Liu, M. Li, K. K. Kwong, M. Vangel, N. Makris, J. Audette, and K. K. Hui, “Hypothalamus and amygdala response to acupuncture stimuli in carpal tunnel syndrome,” Pain 130(3), 254–266 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

von Deneen, K. M.

W. Qin, J. Tian, L. J. Bai, X. H. Pan, L. Yang, P. Chen, J. P. Dai, L. Ai, B. X. Zhao, Q. Y. Gong, W. Wang, K. M. von Deneen, and Y. J. Liu, “FMRI connectivity analysis of acupuncture effects on an amygdala-associated brain network,” Mol. Pain 4(1), 55 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, J. D. B.

C. X. Han, J. D. B. Wang, Y. Guo, and Y. Y. Liu, “Cluster analysis of electrical signals from dorsal spinal nerve root evoked by different acupuncture manipulations at Zusanli point,” J. Tianjin University 44(5), 412–416 (2011).

Wang, L.

G. Litscher, G. Bauernfeind, X. Y. Gao, G. M. Putz, L. Wang, W. Anderle, I. Gaischek, D. Litscher, C. Neuper, and R. C. Niemtzow, “Battlefield acupuncture and near-Infrared spectroscopy–miniaturized computer-triggered electrical stimulation of battlefield ear acupuncture points and 50-channel near-infrared spectroscopic mapping,” Med. Acupuncture 23(4), 263–270 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wang, L. H. V.

L. H. V. Wang, “Prospects of photoacoustic tomography. Medical Physicals,” Am. Assoc. Phys. Med 35(12), 5758–5767 (2008).

Wang, L. V.

X. D. Wang, Y. J. Pang, G. Ku, X. Y. Xie, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Noninvasive laser-induced photoacoustic tomography for structural and functional in vivo imaging of the brain,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21(7), 803–806 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, W.

W. Qin, J. Tian, L. J. Bai, X. H. Pan, L. Yang, P. Chen, J. P. Dai, L. Ai, B. X. Zhao, Q. Y. Gong, W. Wang, K. M. von Deneen, and Y. J. Liu, “FMRI connectivity analysis of acupuncture effects on an amygdala-associated brain network,” Mol. Pain 4(1), 55 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, X. D.

X. D. Wang, Y. J. Pang, G. Ku, X. Y. Xie, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Noninvasive laser-induced photoacoustic tomography for structural and functional in vivo imaging of the brain,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21(7), 803–806 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

Y. Tan, D. Xing, Y. Wang, Y. G. Zeng, and B. Z. Yin, “Influence of Bandwidth of Ultrasonic Transducer on Photoacoustic Imaging,” Acta Opt. Sin. 25(1), 40–44 (2005).

Wen, W.

I. Quah-Smith, P. S. Sachdev, W. Wen, X. H. Chen, and M. A. Williams, “The brain effects of laser acupuncture in healthy individuals: An FMRI Investigation,” PLoS ONE 5(9), e12619 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

White, P.

J. Pariente, P. White, R. S. Frackowiak, and G. Lewith, “Expectancy and belief modulate the neuronal substrates of pain treated by acupuncture,” Neuroimage 25(4), 1161–1167 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Williams, M. A.

I. Quah-Smith, P. S. Sachdev, W. Wen, X. H. Chen, and M. A. Williams, “The brain effects of laser acupuncture in healthy individuals: An FMRI Investigation,” PLoS ONE 5(9), e12619 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wong, K. K.

M. T. Wu, J. C. Hsieh, J. Xiong, C. F. Yang, H. B. Pan, Y. C. Chen, G. Tsai, B. R. Rosen, and K. K. Wong, “Central nervous system pathway for acupuncture stimulation: localisation of processing with fMRI of the brain – preliminary experience,” Radiology 212, 133–141 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, M. T.

M. T. Wu, J. C. Hsieh, J. Xiong, C. F. Yang, H. B. Pan, Y. C. Chen, G. Tsai, B. R. Rosen, and K. K. Wong, “Central nervous system pathway for acupuncture stimulation: localisation of processing with fMRI of the brain – preliminary experience,” Radiology 212, 133–141 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, Y. T.

J. C. Hsieh, C. H. Tu, F. P. Chen, M. C. Chen, T. C. Yeh, H. C. Cheng, Y. T. Wu, R. S. Liu, and L. T. Ho, “Activation of the hypothalamus characterises the acupuncture stimulation at the analgesic point in the human: a PET Study,” Neurosci. Lett. 307, 105–108 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xie, X. Y.

X. D. Wang, Y. J. Pang, G. Ku, X. Y. Xie, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Noninvasive laser-induced photoacoustic tomography for structural and functional in vivo imaging of the brain,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21(7), 803–806 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xing, D.

Y. Tan, D. Xing, Y. Wang, Y. G. Zeng, and B. Z. Yin, “Influence of Bandwidth of Ultrasonic Transducer on Photoacoustic Imaging,” Acta Opt. Sin. 25(1), 40–44 (2005).

Xiong, J.

M. T. Wu, J. C. Hsieh, J. Xiong, C. F. Yang, H. B. Pan, Y. C. Chen, G. Tsai, B. R. Rosen, and K. K. Wong, “Central nervous system pathway for acupuncture stimulation: localisation of processing with fMRI of the brain – preliminary experience,” Radiology 212, 133–141 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, C. F.

M. T. Wu, J. C. Hsieh, J. Xiong, C. F. Yang, H. B. Pan, Y. C. Chen, G. Tsai, B. R. Rosen, and K. K. Wong, “Central nervous system pathway for acupuncture stimulation: localisation of processing with fMRI of the brain – preliminary experience,” Radiology 212, 133–141 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, D. P.

L. Yang, X. L. Gao, X. L. L. X. Yang, H. Li, C. X. Li, H. Lei, J. Tian, and D. P. Yang, “Effects of TENS of Yongquan on Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging and on Pain Threshold in Rats,” Radiol. Prat. 20(12), 1087–1089 (2005).

Yang, L.

W. Qin, J. Tian, L. J. Bai, X. H. Pan, L. Yang, P. Chen, J. P. Dai, L. Ai, B. X. Zhao, Q. Y. Gong, W. Wang, K. M. von Deneen, and Y. J. Liu, “FMRI connectivity analysis of acupuncture effects on an amygdala-associated brain network,” Mol. Pain 4(1), 55 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Yang, X. L. Gao, X. L. L. X. Yang, H. Li, C. X. Li, H. Lei, J. Tian, and D. P. Yang, “Effects of TENS of Yongquan on Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging and on Pain Threshold in Rats,” Radiol. Prat. 20(12), 1087–1089 (2005).

Yang, X. L. L. X.

L. Yang, X. L. Gao, X. L. L. X. Yang, H. Li, C. X. Li, H. Lei, J. Tian, and D. P. Yang, “Effects of TENS of Yongquan on Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging and on Pain Threshold in Rats,” Radiol. Prat. 20(12), 1087–1089 (2005).

Yeh, T. C.

J. C. Hsieh, C. H. Tu, F. P. Chen, M. C. Chen, T. C. Yeh, H. C. Cheng, Y. T. Wu, R. S. Liu, and L. T. Ho, “Activation of the hypothalamus characterises the acupuncture stimulation at the analgesic point in the human: a PET Study,” Neurosci. Lett. 307, 105–108 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yin, B. Z.

Y. Tan, D. Xing, Y. Wang, Y. G. Zeng, and B. Z. Yin, “Influence of Bandwidth of Ultrasonic Transducer on Photoacoustic Imaging,” Acta Opt. Sin. 25(1), 40–44 (2005).

Yoo, S. S.

S. S. Yoo, E. K. Teh, R. A. Blinder, and F. A. Jolesz, “Modulation of cerebellar activities by acupuncture stimulation: evidence from fMRI study,” Neuroimage 22(2), 932–940 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zeng, Y. G.

Y. Tan, D. Xing, Y. Wang, Y. G. Zeng, and B. Z. Yin, “Influence of Bandwidth of Ultrasonic Transducer on Photoacoustic Imaging,” Acta Opt. Sin. 25(1), 40–44 (2005).

Zeng, Y. W.

W. T. Zhang, Z. Jin, G. H. Cui, K. L. Zhang, L. Zhang, Y. W. Zeng, F. Luo, A. C. Chen, and J. S. Han, “Relations between brain network activation and analgesic effect induced by low vs. high frequency electrical acupoint stimulation in different subjects: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study,” Brain Res. 982(2), 168–178 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, K. L.

W. T. Zhang, Z. Jin, G. H. Cui, K. L. Zhang, L. Zhang, Y. W. Zeng, F. Luo, A. C. Chen, and J. S. Han, “Relations between brain network activation and analgesic effect induced by low vs. high frequency electrical acupoint stimulation in different subjects: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study,” Brain Res. 982(2), 168–178 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, L.

W. T. Zhang, Z. Jin, G. H. Cui, K. L. Zhang, L. Zhang, Y. W. Zeng, F. Luo, A. C. Chen, and J. S. Han, “Relations between brain network activation and analgesic effect induced by low vs. high frequency electrical acupoint stimulation in different subjects: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study,” Brain Res. 982(2), 168–178 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, W. T.

W. T. Zhang, Z. Jin, G. H. Cui, K. L. Zhang, L. Zhang, Y. W. Zeng, F. Luo, A. C. Chen, and J. S. Han, “Relations between brain network activation and analgesic effect induced by low vs. high frequency electrical acupoint stimulation in different subjects: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study,” Brain Res. 982(2), 168–178 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, B. X.

W. Qin, J. Tian, L. J. Bai, X. H. Pan, L. Yang, P. Chen, J. P. Dai, L. Ai, B. X. Zhao, Q. Y. Gong, W. Wang, K. M. von Deneen, and Y. J. Liu, “FMRI connectivity analysis of acupuncture effects on an amygdala-associated brain network,” Mol. Pain 4(1), 55 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Acta Opt. Sin. (1)

Y. Tan, D. Xing, Y. Wang, Y. G. Zeng, and B. Z. Yin, “Influence of Bandwidth of Ultrasonic Transducer on Photoacoustic Imaging,” Acta Opt. Sin. 25(1), 40–44 (2005).

Am. Assoc. Phys. Med (1)

L. H. V. Wang, “Prospects of photoacoustic tomography. Medical Physicals,” Am. Assoc. Phys. Med 35(12), 5758–5767 (2008).

Annu. Rev. Pharmacol. Toxicol. (1)

J. S. Han and L. Terenius, “Neurochemical basis of acupuncture analgesia,” Annu. Rev. Pharmacol. Toxicol. 22(1), 193–220 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brain Res. (1)

W. T. Zhang, Z. Jin, G. H. Cui, K. L. Zhang, L. Zhang, Y. W. Zeng, F. Luo, A. C. Chen, and J. S. Han, “Relations between brain network activation and analgesic effect induced by low vs. high frequency electrical acupoint stimulation in different subjects: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study,” Brain Res. 982(2), 168–178 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hum. Brain Mapp. (1)

V. Napadow, N. Makris, J. Liu, N. W. Kettner, K. K. Kwong, and K. K. Hui, “Effects of electroacupuncture versus manual acupuncture on the human brain as measured by fMRI,” Hum. Brain Mapp. 24(3), 193–205 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Auton. Nerv. Syst. (1)

E. Haker, H. Egekvist, and P. Bjerring, “Effect of sensory stimulation (acupuncture) on sympathetic and parasympathetic activities in healthy subjects,” J. Auton. Nerv. Syst. 79(1), 52–59 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Tianjin University (1)

C. X. Han, J. D. B. Wang, Y. Guo, and Y. Y. Liu, “Cluster analysis of electrical signals from dorsal spinal nerve root evoked by different acupuncture manipulations at Zusanli point,” J. Tianjin University 44(5), 412–416 (2011).

J. Vis. Exp. (1)

K. K. Hui, V. Napadow, J. Liu, M. Li, O. Marina, E. E. Nixon, J. D. Claunch, L. LaCount, T. Sporko, and K. K. Kwong, “Monitoring acupuncture effects on human brain by FMRI,” J. Vis. Exp. 8(38), 1190–1197 (2010).
[PubMed]

Lasers Med. Sci. (1)

C. M. Siedentopf, F. Koppelstaetter, I. A. Haala, V. Haid, P. Rhomberg, A. Ischebeck, W. Buchberger, S. Felber, A. Schlager, and S. M. Golaszewski, “Laser acupuncture induced specific cerebral cortical and subcortical activations in humans,” Lasers Med. Sci. 20(2), 68–73 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Med. Acupuncture (1)

G. Litscher, G. Bauernfeind, X. Y. Gao, G. M. Putz, L. Wang, W. Anderle, I. Gaischek, D. Litscher, C. Neuper, and R. C. Niemtzow, “Battlefield acupuncture and near-Infrared spectroscopy–miniaturized computer-triggered electrical stimulation of battlefield ear acupuncture points and 50-channel near-infrared spectroscopic mapping,” Med. Acupuncture 23(4), 263–270 (2011).
[Crossref]

Mol. Pain (1)

W. Qin, J. Tian, L. J. Bai, X. H. Pan, L. Yang, P. Chen, J. P. Dai, L. Ai, B. X. Zhao, Q. Y. Gong, W. Wang, K. M. von Deneen, and Y. J. Liu, “FMRI connectivity analysis of acupuncture effects on an amygdala-associated brain network,” Mol. Pain 4(1), 55 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Biotechnol. (1)

X. D. Wang, Y. J. Pang, G. Ku, X. Y. Xie, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Noninvasive laser-induced photoacoustic tomography for structural and functional in vivo imaging of the brain,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21(7), 803–806 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Neuroimage (3)

J. Pariente, P. White, R. S. Frackowiak, and G. Lewith, “Expectancy and belief modulate the neuronal substrates of pain treated by acupuncture,” Neuroimage 25(4), 1161–1167 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. S. Yoo, E. K. Teh, R. A. Blinder, and F. A. Jolesz, “Modulation of cerebellar activities by acupuncture stimulation: evidence from fMRI study,” Neuroimage 22(2), 932–940 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. K. Hui, J. Liu, O. Marina, V. Napadow, C. Haselgrove, K. K. Kwong, D. N. Kennedy, and N. Makris, “The integrated response of the human cerebro-cerebellar and limbic systems to acupuncture stimulation at ST 36 as evidenced by fMRI,” Neuroimage 27(3), 479–496 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Neurosci. Lett. (1)

J. C. Hsieh, C. H. Tu, F. P. Chen, M. C. Chen, T. C. Yeh, H. C. Cheng, Y. T. Wu, R. S. Liu, and L. T. Ho, “Activation of the hypothalamus characterises the acupuncture stimulation at the analgesic point in the human: a PET Study,” Neurosci. Lett. 307, 105–108 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pain (1)

V. Napadow, N. Kettner, J. Liu, M. Li, K. K. Kwong, M. Vangel, N. Makris, J. Audette, and K. K. Hui, “Hypothalamus and amygdala response to acupuncture stimuli in carpal tunnel syndrome,” Pain 130(3), 254–266 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

PLoS ONE (1)

I. Quah-Smith, P. S. Sachdev, W. Wen, X. H. Chen, and M. A. Williams, “The brain effects of laser acupuncture in healthy individuals: An FMRI Investigation,” PLoS ONE 5(9), e12619 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Radiol. Prat. (1)

L. Yang, X. L. Gao, X. L. L. X. Yang, H. Li, C. X. Li, H. Lei, J. Tian, and D. P. Yang, “Effects of TENS of Yongquan on Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging and on Pain Threshold in Rats,” Radiol. Prat. 20(12), 1087–1089 (2005).

Radiology (1)

M. T. Wu, J. C. Hsieh, J. Xiong, C. F. Yang, H. B. Pan, Y. C. Chen, G. Tsai, B. R. Rosen, and K. K. Wong, “Central nervous system pathway for acupuncture stimulation: localisation of processing with fMRI of the brain – preliminary experience,” Radiology 212, 133–141 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (3)

V. Napadow, R. P. Dhond, P. Purdon, N. Kettner, N. Makris, K. K. Wong, and K. K. Hui, “Correlating acupuncture FMRI in the human brainstem with heart rate variability,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Medicine and Biology Society, (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Shanghai, 2005), pp. 4496–4499.
[Crossref]

T. T. Li, J. Rong, L. Huang, B. Z. Chen, X. Y. Jin, and X. C. Zhong, “Photoacoustic imaging of mouse brain using ultrasonic transducer with different central frequencies,” in Proceedings of International Conference on Information Technology and Computer Application Engineering, H. C. Liu, ed. (CRC Press, New York, 2013)
[Crossref]

S. G. Yu, “Commonly used acupuncture points in mice and map,” in Experimental Acupuncture, B. Xu, ed. (People's Medical Publishing House, Beijing, 2012).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Setup for photoacoustic imaging of the mouse brain
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 PAT images from control experiments at the 3, 8, 13 minutes respectively . (a1)-(a3) is the magnified image of box 1,2 and 3 in (a). (b1)-(c3) are acquired similarly in (b) and (c).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Selected acupoints of a mouse photographed before the PAT experiment. RYA: Right Yongquan acupoint. LYA: Left Yongquan acupoint.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Noninvasive PAT imaging of a mouse brain at a wavelength of 532nm with skin and skull intact. Photoacoustic image acquired (a) before acupuncture (at the 3 minutes), (b) after acupuncture (at the 8 minutes), (c) after rotation of the needle (at the 13 minutes). (a1)-(a3) is the magnified image of box 1,2 and 3 in (a). (b1)-(c3) are acquired similarly in (b) and (c). (d) Photograph of the small mouse brain obtained after the PAT experiment. MCA, middle cerebral artery. BL, branch vessel.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) before acupuncture. (b) After acupuncture. (c) After rotation of the needle. The horizontal axis represents the distance along MRC in Fig. 4, and the vertical axis represents the relative light absorption.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Subtraction between images in Fig. 4. (a) Before acupuncture and after acupuncture. (b) Before acupuncture and after needle rotation
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Noninvasive PAT imaging of a mouse brain at a wavelength of 532nm with skin and skull intact. Photoacoustic image acquired (a) before acupuncture. (b) After acupuncture. (a1)-(a3) Is the magnified image of box 1,2 and 3 in (a). (b1)- (b3) Are acquired similarly in (b).
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 (a) Before acupuncture. (b) After acupuncture. The horizontal axis represents the distance along the middle cerebral artery in Fig. 7, and the vertical axis represents the relative light absorption.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Measure of changes under acupuncture on the right and left hind paw.

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