Abstract

We developed a phase-sensitive side-scanning photoacoustic viscoelasticity endoscopy (PAVEE) for mechanical characterization of intraluminal tissues. In PAVEE, the PA phase can be extracted from the optical absorption induced ultrasonic waves and provides an index of viscoelasticity that is closely linked to tissue compositions. The transverse resolution of the PAVEE measured by carbon fiber was about 32 μm. The imaging capability of the PAVEE was verified using a vessel-mimicking phantom with different agar density. Moreover, PAVEE was investigated in processed lumen-shaped vascular tissues to evaluate the biomechanical features, which was highly consistent with the histology. The results demonstrated that the PAVEE can obtain viscoelastic properties of intraluminal tissues, which puts a new insight into the intravascular disease and holds great promise for plaque vulnerability detection.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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2015 (5)

J. Yao, L. Wang, J. M. Yang, K. I. Maslov, T. T. W. Wong, L. Li, C. H. Huang, J. Zou, and L. V. Wang, “High-speed label-free functional photoacoustic microscopy of mouse brain in action,” Nat. Methods 12(5), 407–410 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. P. Jathoul, J. Laufer, O. Ogunlade, B. Treeby, B. Cox, E. Zhang, P. Johnson, A. R. Pizzey, B. Philip, T. Marafioti, M. F. Lythgoe, R. B. Pedley, M. A. Pule, and P. Beard, “Deep in vivo photoacoustic imaging of mammalian tissues using a tyrosinase-based genetic reporter,” Nat. Photonics 9(4), 239–246 (2015).

K. Peng, L. He, B. Wang, and J. Xiao, “Detection of cervical cancer based on photoacoustic imaging-the in-vitro results,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(1), 135–143 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Yang, C. Li, R. Chen, B. Rao, J. Yao, C. H. Yeh, A. Danielli, K. Maslov, Q. Zhou, K. K. Shung, and L. V. Wang, “Optical-resolution photoacoustic endomicroscopy in vivo,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(3), 918–932 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Chen, Y. Zhao, S. Yang, and D. Xing, “Integrated mechanical and structural features for photoacoustic characterization of atherosclerosis using a quasi-continuous laser,” Opt. Express 23(13), 17309–17315 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (6)

Y. Zhao, S. Yang, C. Chen, and D. Xing, “Simultaneous optical absorption and viscoelasticity imaging based on photoacoustic lock-in measurement,” Opt. Lett. 39(9), 2565–2568 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Hai, J. Yao, K. I. Maslov, Y. Zhou, and L. V. Wang, “Near-infrared optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 39(17), 5192–5195 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Wang, T. Ma, M. N. Slipchenko, S. Liang, J. Hui, K. K. Shung, S. Roy, M. Sturek, Q. Zhou, Z. Chen, and J. X. Cheng, “High-speed intravascular photoacoustic imaging of lipid-laden atherosclerotic plaque enabled by a 2-kHz barium nitrite raman laser,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6889 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Bai, X. Gong, W. Hau, R. Lin, J. Zheng, C. Liu, C. Zeng, X. Zou, H. Zheng, and L. Song, “Intravascular optical-resolution photoacoustic tomography with a 1.1 mm diameter catheter,” PLoS One 9(3), e92463 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Schoenhagen and D. G. Vince, “Intravascular photoacoustic tomography of coronary atherosclerosis: riding the waves of light and sound,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 64(4), 391–393 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Zhang, S. Yang, X. Ji, Q. Zhou, and D. Xing, “Characterization of lipid-rich aortic plaques by intravascular photoacoustic tomography: ex vivo and in vivo validation in a rabbit atherosclerosis model with histologic correlation,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 64(4), 385–390 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (3)

L. Xiang, B. Wang, L. Ji, and H. Jiang, “4-D photoacoustic tomography,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1113 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Omar, J. Gateau, and V. Ntziachristos, “Raster-scan optoacoustic mesoscopy in the 25-125 MHz range,” Opt. Lett. 38(14), 2472–2474 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Wang, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, “Single-cell label-free photoacoustic flowoxigraphy in vivo,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110(15), 5759–5764 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (3)

2011 (2)

G. W. Stone, A. Maehara, A. J. Lansky, B. de Bruyne, E. Cristea, G. S. Mintz, R. Mehran, J. McPherson, N. Farhat, S. P. Marso, H. Parise, B. Templin, R. White, Z. Zhang, P. W. Serruys, and PROSPECT Investigators, “A prospective natural-history study of coronary atherosclerosis,” N. Engl. J. Med. 364(3), 226–235 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Gao, S. Yang, and D. Xing, “Viscoelasticity imaging of biological tissues with phase-resolved photoacoustic measurement,” Opt. Lett. 36(17), 3341–3343 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (4)

B. Y. Hsieh, S. L. Chen, T. Ling, L. J. Guo, and P. C. Li, “Integrated intravascular ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging scan head,” Opt. Lett. 35(17), 2892–2894 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. B. Karpiouk, B. Wang, and S. Y. Emelianov, “Development of a catheter for combined intravascular ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81(1), 014901 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Ntziachristos, “Going deeper than microscopy: the optical imaging frontier in biology,” Nat. Methods 7(8), 603–614 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. V. Finn, M. Nakano, J. Narula, F. D. Kolodgie, and R. Virmani, “Concept of vulnerable/unstable plaque,” Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 30(7), 1282–1292 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

J. Ohayon, O. Dubreuil, P. Tracqui, S. Le Floc’h, G. Rioufol, L. Chalabreysse, F. Thivolet, R. I. Pettigrew, and G. Finet, “Influence of residual stress/strain on the biomechanical stability of vulnerable coronary plaques: potential impact for evaluating the risk of plaque rupture,” Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 293(3), H1987–H1996 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

D. E. Ingber, “Mechanical signaling and the cellular response to extracellular matrix in angiogenesis and cardiovascular physiology,” Circ. Res. 91(10), 877–887 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bai, X.

X. Bai, X. Gong, W. Hau, R. Lin, J. Zheng, C. Liu, C. Zeng, X. Zou, H. Zheng, and L. Song, “Intravascular optical-resolution photoacoustic tomography with a 1.1 mm diameter catheter,” PLoS One 9(3), e92463 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beard, P.

A. P. Jathoul, J. Laufer, O. Ogunlade, B. Treeby, B. Cox, E. Zhang, P. Johnson, A. R. Pizzey, B. Philip, T. Marafioti, M. F. Lythgoe, R. B. Pedley, M. A. Pule, and P. Beard, “Deep in vivo photoacoustic imaging of mammalian tissues using a tyrosinase-based genetic reporter,” Nat. Photonics 9(4), 239–246 (2015).

Cai, X.

J. M. Yang, C. Favazza, R. Chen, J. Yao, X. Cai, K. Maslov, Q. Zhou, K. K. Shung, and L. V. Wang, “Simultaneous functional photoacoustic and ultrasonic endoscopy of internal organs in vivo,” Nat. Med. 18(8), 1297–1302 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chalabreysse, L.

J. Ohayon, O. Dubreuil, P. Tracqui, S. Le Floc’h, G. Rioufol, L. Chalabreysse, F. Thivolet, R. I. Pettigrew, and G. Finet, “Influence of residual stress/strain on the biomechanical stability of vulnerable coronary plaques: potential impact for evaluating the risk of plaque rupture,” Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 293(3), H1987–H1996 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, C.

Chen, R.

J. M. Yang, C. Li, R. Chen, B. Rao, J. Yao, C. H. Yeh, A. Danielli, K. Maslov, Q. Zhou, K. K. Shung, and L. V. Wang, “Optical-resolution photoacoustic endomicroscopy in vivo,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(3), 918–932 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Yang, C. Favazza, R. Chen, J. Yao, X. Cai, K. Maslov, Q. Zhou, K. K. Shung, and L. V. Wang, “Simultaneous functional photoacoustic and ultrasonic endoscopy of internal organs in vivo,” Nat. Med. 18(8), 1297–1302 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, S. L.

Chen, Z.

P. Wang, T. Ma, M. N. Slipchenko, S. Liang, J. Hui, K. K. Shung, S. Roy, M. Sturek, Q. Zhou, Z. Chen, and J. X. Cheng, “High-speed intravascular photoacoustic imaging of lipid-laden atherosclerotic plaque enabled by a 2-kHz barium nitrite raman laser,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6889 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheng, J. X.

P. Wang, T. Ma, M. N. Slipchenko, S. Liang, J. Hui, K. K. Shung, S. Roy, M. Sturek, Q. Zhou, Z. Chen, and J. X. Cheng, “High-speed intravascular photoacoustic imaging of lipid-laden atherosclerotic plaque enabled by a 2-kHz barium nitrite raman laser,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6889 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cox, B.

A. P. Jathoul, J. Laufer, O. Ogunlade, B. Treeby, B. Cox, E. Zhang, P. Johnson, A. R. Pizzey, B. Philip, T. Marafioti, M. F. Lythgoe, R. B. Pedley, M. A. Pule, and P. Beard, “Deep in vivo photoacoustic imaging of mammalian tissues using a tyrosinase-based genetic reporter,” Nat. Photonics 9(4), 239–246 (2015).

Cristea, E.

G. W. Stone, A. Maehara, A. J. Lansky, B. de Bruyne, E. Cristea, G. S. Mintz, R. Mehran, J. McPherson, N. Farhat, S. P. Marso, H. Parise, B. Templin, R. White, Z. Zhang, P. W. Serruys, and PROSPECT Investigators, “A prospective natural-history study of coronary atherosclerosis,” N. Engl. J. Med. 364(3), 226–235 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Danielli, A.

de Bruyne, B.

G. W. Stone, A. Maehara, A. J. Lansky, B. de Bruyne, E. Cristea, G. S. Mintz, R. Mehran, J. McPherson, N. Farhat, S. P. Marso, H. Parise, B. Templin, R. White, Z. Zhang, P. W. Serruys, and PROSPECT Investigators, “A prospective natural-history study of coronary atherosclerosis,” N. Engl. J. Med. 364(3), 226–235 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dubreuil, O.

J. Ohayon, O. Dubreuil, P. Tracqui, S. Le Floc’h, G. Rioufol, L. Chalabreysse, F. Thivolet, R. I. Pettigrew, and G. Finet, “Influence of residual stress/strain on the biomechanical stability of vulnerable coronary plaques: potential impact for evaluating the risk of plaque rupture,” Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 293(3), H1987–H1996 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Emelianov, S. Y.

A. B. Karpiouk, B. Wang, and S. Y. Emelianov, “Development of a catheter for combined intravascular ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81(1), 014901 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Farhat, N.

G. W. Stone, A. Maehara, A. J. Lansky, B. de Bruyne, E. Cristea, G. S. Mintz, R. Mehran, J. McPherson, N. Farhat, S. P. Marso, H. Parise, B. Templin, R. White, Z. Zhang, P. W. Serruys, and PROSPECT Investigators, “A prospective natural-history study of coronary atherosclerosis,” N. Engl. J. Med. 364(3), 226–235 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Favazza, C.

J. M. Yang, C. Favazza, R. Chen, J. Yao, X. Cai, K. Maslov, Q. Zhou, K. K. Shung, and L. V. Wang, “Simultaneous functional photoacoustic and ultrasonic endoscopy of internal organs in vivo,” Nat. Med. 18(8), 1297–1302 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Finet, G.

J. Ohayon, O. Dubreuil, P. Tracqui, S. Le Floc’h, G. Rioufol, L. Chalabreysse, F. Thivolet, R. I. Pettigrew, and G. Finet, “Influence of residual stress/strain on the biomechanical stability of vulnerable coronary plaques: potential impact for evaluating the risk of plaque rupture,” Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 293(3), H1987–H1996 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Finn, A. V.

A. V. Finn, M. Nakano, J. Narula, F. D. Kolodgie, and R. Virmani, “Concept of vulnerable/unstable plaque,” Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 30(7), 1282–1292 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gao, G.

Gateau, J.

Gong, X.

X. Bai, X. Gong, W. Hau, R. Lin, J. Zheng, C. Liu, C. Zeng, X. Zou, H. Zheng, and L. Song, “Intravascular optical-resolution photoacoustic tomography with a 1.1 mm diameter catheter,” PLoS One 9(3), e92463 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guo, L. J.

Hai, P.

Hau, W.

X. Bai, X. Gong, W. Hau, R. Lin, J. Zheng, C. Liu, C. Zeng, X. Zou, H. Zheng, and L. Song, “Intravascular optical-resolution photoacoustic tomography with a 1.1 mm diameter catheter,” PLoS One 9(3), e92463 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

He, L.

Hsieh, B. Y.

Huang, C. H.

J. Yao, L. Wang, J. M. Yang, K. I. Maslov, T. T. W. Wong, L. Li, C. H. Huang, J. Zou, and L. V. Wang, “High-speed label-free functional photoacoustic microscopy of mouse brain in action,” Nat. Methods 12(5), 407–410 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hui, J.

P. Wang, T. Ma, M. N. Slipchenko, S. Liang, J. Hui, K. K. Shung, S. Roy, M. Sturek, Q. Zhou, Z. Chen, and J. X. Cheng, “High-speed intravascular photoacoustic imaging of lipid-laden atherosclerotic plaque enabled by a 2-kHz barium nitrite raman laser,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6889 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ingber, D. E.

D. E. Ingber, “Mechanical signaling and the cellular response to extracellular matrix in angiogenesis and cardiovascular physiology,” Circ. Res. 91(10), 877–887 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jathoul, A. P.

A. P. Jathoul, J. Laufer, O. Ogunlade, B. Treeby, B. Cox, E. Zhang, P. Johnson, A. R. Pizzey, B. Philip, T. Marafioti, M. F. Lythgoe, R. B. Pedley, M. A. Pule, and P. Beard, “Deep in vivo photoacoustic imaging of mammalian tissues using a tyrosinase-based genetic reporter,” Nat. Photonics 9(4), 239–246 (2015).

Ji, L.

L. Xiang, B. Wang, L. Ji, and H. Jiang, “4-D photoacoustic tomography,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1113 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ji, X.

J. Zhang, S. Yang, X. Ji, Q. Zhou, and D. Xing, “Characterization of lipid-rich aortic plaques by intravascular photoacoustic tomography: ex vivo and in vivo validation in a rabbit atherosclerosis model with histologic correlation,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 64(4), 385–390 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jiang, H.

L. Xiang, B. Wang, L. Ji, and H. Jiang, “4-D photoacoustic tomography,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1113 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Johnson, P.

A. P. Jathoul, J. Laufer, O. Ogunlade, B. Treeby, B. Cox, E. Zhang, P. Johnson, A. R. Pizzey, B. Philip, T. Marafioti, M. F. Lythgoe, R. B. Pedley, M. A. Pule, and P. Beard, “Deep in vivo photoacoustic imaging of mammalian tissues using a tyrosinase-based genetic reporter,” Nat. Photonics 9(4), 239–246 (2015).

Karpiouk, A. B.

A. B. Karpiouk, B. Wang, and S. Y. Emelianov, “Development of a catheter for combined intravascular ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81(1), 014901 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kolodgie, F. D.

A. V. Finn, M. Nakano, J. Narula, F. D. Kolodgie, and R. Virmani, “Concept of vulnerable/unstable plaque,” Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 30(7), 1282–1292 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lansky, A. J.

G. W. Stone, A. Maehara, A. J. Lansky, B. de Bruyne, E. Cristea, G. S. Mintz, R. Mehran, J. McPherson, N. Farhat, S. P. Marso, H. Parise, B. Templin, R. White, Z. Zhang, P. W. Serruys, and PROSPECT Investigators, “A prospective natural-history study of coronary atherosclerosis,” N. Engl. J. Med. 364(3), 226–235 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Laufer, J.

A. P. Jathoul, J. Laufer, O. Ogunlade, B. Treeby, B. Cox, E. Zhang, P. Johnson, A. R. Pizzey, B. Philip, T. Marafioti, M. F. Lythgoe, R. B. Pedley, M. A. Pule, and P. Beard, “Deep in vivo photoacoustic imaging of mammalian tissues using a tyrosinase-based genetic reporter,” Nat. Photonics 9(4), 239–246 (2015).

Le Floc’h, S.

J. Ohayon, O. Dubreuil, P. Tracqui, S. Le Floc’h, G. Rioufol, L. Chalabreysse, F. Thivolet, R. I. Pettigrew, and G. Finet, “Influence of residual stress/strain on the biomechanical stability of vulnerable coronary plaques: potential impact for evaluating the risk of plaque rupture,” Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 293(3), H1987–H1996 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, C.

Li, L.

J. Yao, L. Wang, J. M. Yang, K. I. Maslov, T. T. W. Wong, L. Li, C. H. Huang, J. Zou, and L. V. Wang, “High-speed label-free functional photoacoustic microscopy of mouse brain in action,” Nat. Methods 12(5), 407–410 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, P. C.

Liang, S.

P. Wang, T. Ma, M. N. Slipchenko, S. Liang, J. Hui, K. K. Shung, S. Roy, M. Sturek, Q. Zhou, Z. Chen, and J. X. Cheng, “High-speed intravascular photoacoustic imaging of lipid-laden atherosclerotic plaque enabled by a 2-kHz barium nitrite raman laser,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6889 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liao, Y.

Lin, R.

X. Bai, X. Gong, W. Hau, R. Lin, J. Zheng, C. Liu, C. Zeng, X. Zou, H. Zheng, and L. Song, “Intravascular optical-resolution photoacoustic tomography with a 1.1 mm diameter catheter,” PLoS One 9(3), e92463 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ling, T.

Liu, C.

X. Bai, X. Gong, W. Hau, R. Lin, J. Zheng, C. Liu, C. Zeng, X. Zou, H. Zheng, and L. Song, “Intravascular optical-resolution photoacoustic tomography with a 1.1 mm diameter catheter,” PLoS One 9(3), e92463 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lythgoe, M. F.

A. P. Jathoul, J. Laufer, O. Ogunlade, B. Treeby, B. Cox, E. Zhang, P. Johnson, A. R. Pizzey, B. Philip, T. Marafioti, M. F. Lythgoe, R. B. Pedley, M. A. Pule, and P. Beard, “Deep in vivo photoacoustic imaging of mammalian tissues using a tyrosinase-based genetic reporter,” Nat. Photonics 9(4), 239–246 (2015).

Ma, R.

Ma, T.

P. Wang, T. Ma, M. N. Slipchenko, S. Liang, J. Hui, K. K. Shung, S. Roy, M. Sturek, Q. Zhou, Z. Chen, and J. X. Cheng, “High-speed intravascular photoacoustic imaging of lipid-laden atherosclerotic plaque enabled by a 2-kHz barium nitrite raman laser,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6889 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maehara, A.

G. W. Stone, A. Maehara, A. J. Lansky, B. de Bruyne, E. Cristea, G. S. Mintz, R. Mehran, J. McPherson, N. Farhat, S. P. Marso, H. Parise, B. Templin, R. White, Z. Zhang, P. W. Serruys, and PROSPECT Investigators, “A prospective natural-history study of coronary atherosclerosis,” N. Engl. J. Med. 364(3), 226–235 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Marafioti, T.

A. P. Jathoul, J. Laufer, O. Ogunlade, B. Treeby, B. Cox, E. Zhang, P. Johnson, A. R. Pizzey, B. Philip, T. Marafioti, M. F. Lythgoe, R. B. Pedley, M. A. Pule, and P. Beard, “Deep in vivo photoacoustic imaging of mammalian tissues using a tyrosinase-based genetic reporter,” Nat. Photonics 9(4), 239–246 (2015).

Marso, S. P.

G. W. Stone, A. Maehara, A. J. Lansky, B. de Bruyne, E. Cristea, G. S. Mintz, R. Mehran, J. McPherson, N. Farhat, S. P. Marso, H. Parise, B. Templin, R. White, Z. Zhang, P. W. Serruys, and PROSPECT Investigators, “A prospective natural-history study of coronary atherosclerosis,” N. Engl. J. Med. 364(3), 226–235 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maslov, K.

J. M. Yang, C. Li, R. Chen, B. Rao, J. Yao, C. H. Yeh, A. Danielli, K. Maslov, Q. Zhou, K. K. Shung, and L. V. Wang, “Optical-resolution photoacoustic endomicroscopy in vivo,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(3), 918–932 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Wang, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, “Single-cell label-free photoacoustic flowoxigraphy in vivo,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110(15), 5759–5764 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Yang, C. Favazza, R. Chen, J. Yao, X. Cai, K. Maslov, Q. Zhou, K. K. Shung, and L. V. Wang, “Simultaneous functional photoacoustic and ultrasonic endoscopy of internal organs in vivo,” Nat. Med. 18(8), 1297–1302 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maslov, K. I.

J. Yao, L. Wang, J. M. Yang, K. I. Maslov, T. T. W. Wong, L. Li, C. H. Huang, J. Zou, and L. V. Wang, “High-speed label-free functional photoacoustic microscopy of mouse brain in action,” Nat. Methods 12(5), 407–410 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Hai, J. Yao, K. I. Maslov, Y. Zhou, and L. V. Wang, “Near-infrared optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 39(17), 5192–5195 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McPherson, J.

G. W. Stone, A. Maehara, A. J. Lansky, B. de Bruyne, E. Cristea, G. S. Mintz, R. Mehran, J. McPherson, N. Farhat, S. P. Marso, H. Parise, B. Templin, R. White, Z. Zhang, P. W. Serruys, and PROSPECT Investigators, “A prospective natural-history study of coronary atherosclerosis,” N. Engl. J. Med. 364(3), 226–235 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mehran, R.

G. W. Stone, A. Maehara, A. J. Lansky, B. de Bruyne, E. Cristea, G. S. Mintz, R. Mehran, J. McPherson, N. Farhat, S. P. Marso, H. Parise, B. Templin, R. White, Z. Zhang, P. W. Serruys, and PROSPECT Investigators, “A prospective natural-history study of coronary atherosclerosis,” N. Engl. J. Med. 364(3), 226–235 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mintz, G. S.

G. W. Stone, A. Maehara, A. J. Lansky, B. de Bruyne, E. Cristea, G. S. Mintz, R. Mehran, J. McPherson, N. Farhat, S. P. Marso, H. Parise, B. Templin, R. White, Z. Zhang, P. W. Serruys, and PROSPECT Investigators, “A prospective natural-history study of coronary atherosclerosis,” N. Engl. J. Med. 364(3), 226–235 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nakano, M.

A. V. Finn, M. Nakano, J. Narula, F. D. Kolodgie, and R. Virmani, “Concept of vulnerable/unstable plaque,” Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 30(7), 1282–1292 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Narula, J.

A. V. Finn, M. Nakano, J. Narula, F. D. Kolodgie, and R. Virmani, “Concept of vulnerable/unstable plaque,” Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 30(7), 1282–1292 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ntziachristos, V.

Ogunlade, O.

A. P. Jathoul, J. Laufer, O. Ogunlade, B. Treeby, B. Cox, E. Zhang, P. Johnson, A. R. Pizzey, B. Philip, T. Marafioti, M. F. Lythgoe, R. B. Pedley, M. A. Pule, and P. Beard, “Deep in vivo photoacoustic imaging of mammalian tissues using a tyrosinase-based genetic reporter,” Nat. Photonics 9(4), 239–246 (2015).

Ohayon, J.

J. Ohayon, O. Dubreuil, P. Tracqui, S. Le Floc’h, G. Rioufol, L. Chalabreysse, F. Thivolet, R. I. Pettigrew, and G. Finet, “Influence of residual stress/strain on the biomechanical stability of vulnerable coronary plaques: potential impact for evaluating the risk of plaque rupture,” Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 293(3), H1987–H1996 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Omar, M.

Parise, H.

G. W. Stone, A. Maehara, A. J. Lansky, B. de Bruyne, E. Cristea, G. S. Mintz, R. Mehran, J. McPherson, N. Farhat, S. P. Marso, H. Parise, B. Templin, R. White, Z. Zhang, P. W. Serruys, and PROSPECT Investigators, “A prospective natural-history study of coronary atherosclerosis,” N. Engl. J. Med. 364(3), 226–235 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pedley, R. B.

A. P. Jathoul, J. Laufer, O. Ogunlade, B. Treeby, B. Cox, E. Zhang, P. Johnson, A. R. Pizzey, B. Philip, T. Marafioti, M. F. Lythgoe, R. B. Pedley, M. A. Pule, and P. Beard, “Deep in vivo photoacoustic imaging of mammalian tissues using a tyrosinase-based genetic reporter,” Nat. Photonics 9(4), 239–246 (2015).

Peng, K.

Pettigrew, R. I.

J. Ohayon, O. Dubreuil, P. Tracqui, S. Le Floc’h, G. Rioufol, L. Chalabreysse, F. Thivolet, R. I. Pettigrew, and G. Finet, “Influence of residual stress/strain on the biomechanical stability of vulnerable coronary plaques: potential impact for evaluating the risk of plaque rupture,” Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 293(3), H1987–H1996 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Philip, B.

A. P. Jathoul, J. Laufer, O. Ogunlade, B. Treeby, B. Cox, E. Zhang, P. Johnson, A. R. Pizzey, B. Philip, T. Marafioti, M. F. Lythgoe, R. B. Pedley, M. A. Pule, and P. Beard, “Deep in vivo photoacoustic imaging of mammalian tissues using a tyrosinase-based genetic reporter,” Nat. Photonics 9(4), 239–246 (2015).

Pizzey, A. R.

A. P. Jathoul, J. Laufer, O. Ogunlade, B. Treeby, B. Cox, E. Zhang, P. Johnson, A. R. Pizzey, B. Philip, T. Marafioti, M. F. Lythgoe, R. B. Pedley, M. A. Pule, and P. Beard, “Deep in vivo photoacoustic imaging of mammalian tissues using a tyrosinase-based genetic reporter,” Nat. Photonics 9(4), 239–246 (2015).

Pule, M. A.

A. P. Jathoul, J. Laufer, O. Ogunlade, B. Treeby, B. Cox, E. Zhang, P. Johnson, A. R. Pizzey, B. Philip, T. Marafioti, M. F. Lythgoe, R. B. Pedley, M. A. Pule, and P. Beard, “Deep in vivo photoacoustic imaging of mammalian tissues using a tyrosinase-based genetic reporter,” Nat. Photonics 9(4), 239–246 (2015).

Rao, B.

Razansky, D.

Rioufol, G.

J. Ohayon, O. Dubreuil, P. Tracqui, S. Le Floc’h, G. Rioufol, L. Chalabreysse, F. Thivolet, R. I. Pettigrew, and G. Finet, “Influence of residual stress/strain on the biomechanical stability of vulnerable coronary plaques: potential impact for evaluating the risk of plaque rupture,” Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 293(3), H1987–H1996 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Roy, S.

P. Wang, T. Ma, M. N. Slipchenko, S. Liang, J. Hui, K. K. Shung, S. Roy, M. Sturek, Q. Zhou, Z. Chen, and J. X. Cheng, “High-speed intravascular photoacoustic imaging of lipid-laden atherosclerotic plaque enabled by a 2-kHz barium nitrite raman laser,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6889 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schoenhagen, P.

P. Schoenhagen and D. G. Vince, “Intravascular photoacoustic tomography of coronary atherosclerosis: riding the waves of light and sound,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 64(4), 391–393 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Serruys, P. W.

G. W. Stone, A. Maehara, A. J. Lansky, B. de Bruyne, E. Cristea, G. S. Mintz, R. Mehran, J. McPherson, N. Farhat, S. P. Marso, H. Parise, B. Templin, R. White, Z. Zhang, P. W. Serruys, and PROSPECT Investigators, “A prospective natural-history study of coronary atherosclerosis,” N. Engl. J. Med. 364(3), 226–235 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shoham, S.

Shung, K. K.

J. M. Yang, C. Li, R. Chen, B. Rao, J. Yao, C. H. Yeh, A. Danielli, K. Maslov, Q. Zhou, K. K. Shung, and L. V. Wang, “Optical-resolution photoacoustic endomicroscopy in vivo,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(3), 918–932 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Wang, T. Ma, M. N. Slipchenko, S. Liang, J. Hui, K. K. Shung, S. Roy, M. Sturek, Q. Zhou, Z. Chen, and J. X. Cheng, “High-speed intravascular photoacoustic imaging of lipid-laden atherosclerotic plaque enabled by a 2-kHz barium nitrite raman laser,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6889 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Yang, C. Favazza, R. Chen, J. Yao, X. Cai, K. Maslov, Q. Zhou, K. K. Shung, and L. V. Wang, “Simultaneous functional photoacoustic and ultrasonic endoscopy of internal organs in vivo,” Nat. Med. 18(8), 1297–1302 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Slipchenko, M. N.

P. Wang, T. Ma, M. N. Slipchenko, S. Liang, J. Hui, K. K. Shung, S. Roy, M. Sturek, Q. Zhou, Z. Chen, and J. X. Cheng, “High-speed intravascular photoacoustic imaging of lipid-laden atherosclerotic plaque enabled by a 2-kHz barium nitrite raman laser,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6889 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Song, L.

X. Bai, X. Gong, W. Hau, R. Lin, J. Zheng, C. Liu, C. Zeng, X. Zou, H. Zheng, and L. Song, “Intravascular optical-resolution photoacoustic tomography with a 1.1 mm diameter catheter,” PLoS One 9(3), e92463 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Söntges, S.

Stone, G. W.

G. W. Stone, A. Maehara, A. J. Lansky, B. de Bruyne, E. Cristea, G. S. Mintz, R. Mehran, J. McPherson, N. Farhat, S. P. Marso, H. Parise, B. Templin, R. White, Z. Zhang, P. W. Serruys, and PROSPECT Investigators, “A prospective natural-history study of coronary atherosclerosis,” N. Engl. J. Med. 364(3), 226–235 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sturek, M.

P. Wang, T. Ma, M. N. Slipchenko, S. Liang, J. Hui, K. K. Shung, S. Roy, M. Sturek, Q. Zhou, Z. Chen, and J. X. Cheng, “High-speed intravascular photoacoustic imaging of lipid-laden atherosclerotic plaque enabled by a 2-kHz barium nitrite raman laser,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6889 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tan, Z.

Tang, Z.

Templin, B.

G. W. Stone, A. Maehara, A. J. Lansky, B. de Bruyne, E. Cristea, G. S. Mintz, R. Mehran, J. McPherson, N. Farhat, S. P. Marso, H. Parise, B. Templin, R. White, Z. Zhang, P. W. Serruys, and PROSPECT Investigators, “A prospective natural-history study of coronary atherosclerosis,” N. Engl. J. Med. 364(3), 226–235 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thivolet, F.

J. Ohayon, O. Dubreuil, P. Tracqui, S. Le Floc’h, G. Rioufol, L. Chalabreysse, F. Thivolet, R. I. Pettigrew, and G. Finet, “Influence of residual stress/strain on the biomechanical stability of vulnerable coronary plaques: potential impact for evaluating the risk of plaque rupture,” Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 293(3), H1987–H1996 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tracqui, P.

J. Ohayon, O. Dubreuil, P. Tracqui, S. Le Floc’h, G. Rioufol, L. Chalabreysse, F. Thivolet, R. I. Pettigrew, and G. Finet, “Influence of residual stress/strain on the biomechanical stability of vulnerable coronary plaques: potential impact for evaluating the risk of plaque rupture,” Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 293(3), H1987–H1996 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Treeby, B.

A. P. Jathoul, J. Laufer, O. Ogunlade, B. Treeby, B. Cox, E. Zhang, P. Johnson, A. R. Pizzey, B. Philip, T. Marafioti, M. F. Lythgoe, R. B. Pedley, M. A. Pule, and P. Beard, “Deep in vivo photoacoustic imaging of mammalian tissues using a tyrosinase-based genetic reporter,” Nat. Photonics 9(4), 239–246 (2015).

Vince, D. G.

P. Schoenhagen and D. G. Vince, “Intravascular photoacoustic tomography of coronary atherosclerosis: riding the waves of light and sound,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 64(4), 391–393 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Virmani, R.

A. V. Finn, M. Nakano, J. Narula, F. D. Kolodgie, and R. Virmani, “Concept of vulnerable/unstable plaque,” Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 30(7), 1282–1292 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, B.

K. Peng, L. He, B. Wang, and J. Xiao, “Detection of cervical cancer based on photoacoustic imaging-the in-vitro results,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(1), 135–143 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Xiang, B. Wang, L. Ji, and H. Jiang, “4-D photoacoustic tomography,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1113 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. B. Karpiouk, B. Wang, and S. Y. Emelianov, “Development of a catheter for combined intravascular ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81(1), 014901 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, L.

J. Yao, L. Wang, J. M. Yang, K. I. Maslov, T. T. W. Wong, L. Li, C. H. Huang, J. Zou, and L. V. Wang, “High-speed label-free functional photoacoustic microscopy of mouse brain in action,” Nat. Methods 12(5), 407–410 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Wang, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, “Single-cell label-free photoacoustic flowoxigraphy in vivo,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110(15), 5759–5764 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, L. V.

J. Yao, L. Wang, J. M. Yang, K. I. Maslov, T. T. W. Wong, L. Li, C. H. Huang, J. Zou, and L. V. Wang, “High-speed label-free functional photoacoustic microscopy of mouse brain in action,” Nat. Methods 12(5), 407–410 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Yang, C. Li, R. Chen, B. Rao, J. Yao, C. H. Yeh, A. Danielli, K. Maslov, Q. Zhou, K. K. Shung, and L. V. Wang, “Optical-resolution photoacoustic endomicroscopy in vivo,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(3), 918–932 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Hai, J. Yao, K. I. Maslov, Y. Zhou, and L. V. Wang, “Near-infrared optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 39(17), 5192–5195 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Wang, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, “Single-cell label-free photoacoustic flowoxigraphy in vivo,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110(15), 5759–5764 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Yang, C. Favazza, R. Chen, J. Yao, X. Cai, K. Maslov, Q. Zhou, K. K. Shung, and L. V. Wang, “Simultaneous functional photoacoustic and ultrasonic endoscopy of internal organs in vivo,” Nat. Med. 18(8), 1297–1302 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, P.

P. Wang, T. Ma, M. N. Slipchenko, S. Liang, J. Hui, K. K. Shung, S. Roy, M. Sturek, Q. Zhou, Z. Chen, and J. X. Cheng, “High-speed intravascular photoacoustic imaging of lipid-laden atherosclerotic plaque enabled by a 2-kHz barium nitrite raman laser,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6889 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, R. K.

White, R.

G. W. Stone, A. Maehara, A. J. Lansky, B. de Bruyne, E. Cristea, G. S. Mintz, R. Mehran, J. McPherson, N. Farhat, S. P. Marso, H. Parise, B. Templin, R. White, Z. Zhang, P. W. Serruys, and PROSPECT Investigators, “A prospective natural-history study of coronary atherosclerosis,” N. Engl. J. Med. 364(3), 226–235 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wong, T. T. W.

J. Yao, L. Wang, J. M. Yang, K. I. Maslov, T. T. W. Wong, L. Li, C. H. Huang, J. Zou, and L. V. Wang, “High-speed label-free functional photoacoustic microscopy of mouse brain in action,” Nat. Methods 12(5), 407–410 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, Y.

Xiang, L.

L. Xiang, B. Wang, L. Ji, and H. Jiang, “4-D photoacoustic tomography,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1113 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xiao, J.

Xing, D.

Yang, J. M.

J. M. Yang, C. Li, R. Chen, B. Rao, J. Yao, C. H. Yeh, A. Danielli, K. Maslov, Q. Zhou, K. K. Shung, and L. V. Wang, “Optical-resolution photoacoustic endomicroscopy in vivo,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(3), 918–932 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yao, L. Wang, J. M. Yang, K. I. Maslov, T. T. W. Wong, L. Li, C. H. Huang, J. Zou, and L. V. Wang, “High-speed label-free functional photoacoustic microscopy of mouse brain in action,” Nat. Methods 12(5), 407–410 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Yang, C. Favazza, R. Chen, J. Yao, X. Cai, K. Maslov, Q. Zhou, K. K. Shung, and L. V. Wang, “Simultaneous functional photoacoustic and ultrasonic endoscopy of internal organs in vivo,” Nat. Med. 18(8), 1297–1302 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, S.

Yao, J.

J. M. Yang, C. Li, R. Chen, B. Rao, J. Yao, C. H. Yeh, A. Danielli, K. Maslov, Q. Zhou, K. K. Shung, and L. V. Wang, “Optical-resolution photoacoustic endomicroscopy in vivo,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(3), 918–932 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yao, L. Wang, J. M. Yang, K. I. Maslov, T. T. W. Wong, L. Li, C. H. Huang, J. Zou, and L. V. Wang, “High-speed label-free functional photoacoustic microscopy of mouse brain in action,” Nat. Methods 12(5), 407–410 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Hai, J. Yao, K. I. Maslov, Y. Zhou, and L. V. Wang, “Near-infrared optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 39(17), 5192–5195 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Yang, C. Favazza, R. Chen, J. Yao, X. Cai, K. Maslov, Q. Zhou, K. K. Shung, and L. V. Wang, “Simultaneous functional photoacoustic and ultrasonic endoscopy of internal organs in vivo,” Nat. Med. 18(8), 1297–1302 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yeh, C. H.

Zeng, C.

X. Bai, X. Gong, W. Hau, R. Lin, J. Zheng, C. Liu, C. Zeng, X. Zou, H. Zheng, and L. Song, “Intravascular optical-resolution photoacoustic tomography with a 1.1 mm diameter catheter,” PLoS One 9(3), e92463 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, E.

A. P. Jathoul, J. Laufer, O. Ogunlade, B. Treeby, B. Cox, E. Zhang, P. Johnson, A. R. Pizzey, B. Philip, T. Marafioti, M. F. Lythgoe, R. B. Pedley, M. A. Pule, and P. Beard, “Deep in vivo photoacoustic imaging of mammalian tissues using a tyrosinase-based genetic reporter,” Nat. Photonics 9(4), 239–246 (2015).

Zhang, J.

J. Zhang, S. Yang, X. Ji, Q. Zhou, and D. Xing, “Characterization of lipid-rich aortic plaques by intravascular photoacoustic tomography: ex vivo and in vivo validation in a rabbit atherosclerosis model with histologic correlation,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 64(4), 385–390 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Z.

G. W. Stone, A. Maehara, A. J. Lansky, B. de Bruyne, E. Cristea, G. S. Mintz, R. Mehran, J. McPherson, N. Farhat, S. P. Marso, H. Parise, B. Templin, R. White, Z. Zhang, P. W. Serruys, and PROSPECT Investigators, “A prospective natural-history study of coronary atherosclerosis,” N. Engl. J. Med. 364(3), 226–235 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, Y.

Zheng, H.

X. Bai, X. Gong, W. Hau, R. Lin, J. Zheng, C. Liu, C. Zeng, X. Zou, H. Zheng, and L. Song, “Intravascular optical-resolution photoacoustic tomography with a 1.1 mm diameter catheter,” PLoS One 9(3), e92463 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zheng, J.

X. Bai, X. Gong, W. Hau, R. Lin, J. Zheng, C. Liu, C. Zeng, X. Zou, H. Zheng, and L. Song, “Intravascular optical-resolution photoacoustic tomography with a 1.1 mm diameter catheter,” PLoS One 9(3), e92463 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, Q.

J. M. Yang, C. Li, R. Chen, B. Rao, J. Yao, C. H. Yeh, A. Danielli, K. Maslov, Q. Zhou, K. K. Shung, and L. V. Wang, “Optical-resolution photoacoustic endomicroscopy in vivo,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(3), 918–932 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Wang, T. Ma, M. N. Slipchenko, S. Liang, J. Hui, K. K. Shung, S. Roy, M. Sturek, Q. Zhou, Z. Chen, and J. X. Cheng, “High-speed intravascular photoacoustic imaging of lipid-laden atherosclerotic plaque enabled by a 2-kHz barium nitrite raman laser,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6889 (2014).
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J. Zhang, S. Yang, X. Ji, Q. Zhou, and D. Xing, “Characterization of lipid-rich aortic plaques by intravascular photoacoustic tomography: ex vivo and in vivo validation in a rabbit atherosclerosis model with histologic correlation,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 64(4), 385–390 (2014).
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J. M. Yang, C. Favazza, R. Chen, J. Yao, X. Cai, K. Maslov, Q. Zhou, K. K. Shung, and L. V. Wang, “Simultaneous functional photoacoustic and ultrasonic endoscopy of internal organs in vivo,” Nat. Med. 18(8), 1297–1302 (2012).
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P. Schoenhagen and D. G. Vince, “Intravascular photoacoustic tomography of coronary atherosclerosis: riding the waves of light and sound,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 64(4), 391–393 (2014).
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J. Zhang, S. Yang, X. Ji, Q. Zhou, and D. Xing, “Characterization of lipid-rich aortic plaques by intravascular photoacoustic tomography: ex vivo and in vivo validation in a rabbit atherosclerosis model with histologic correlation,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 64(4), 385–390 (2014).
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X. Bai, X. Gong, W. Hau, R. Lin, J. Zheng, C. Liu, C. Zeng, X. Zou, H. Zheng, and L. Song, “Intravascular optical-resolution photoacoustic tomography with a 1.1 mm diameter catheter,” PLoS One 9(3), e92463 (2014).
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P. Wang, T. Ma, M. N. Slipchenko, S. Liang, J. Hui, K. K. Shung, S. Roy, M. Sturek, Q. Zhou, Z. Chen, and J. X. Cheng, “High-speed intravascular photoacoustic imaging of lipid-laden atherosclerotic plaque enabled by a 2-kHz barium nitrite raman laser,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6889 (2014).
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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic of the experimental setup for PAVEE. MO: microscopic objective; UT: ultrasound transducer; SM: scanning mirror.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Transverse-resolution evaluation of the system. (a) Cross-sectional PAVEE image of the carbon fiber embedded in hollow agar. (b) Enlarged view of the dashed box in (a). (c) Transverse point spread function (PSF) of the carbon fiber at α in (b).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Photograph of vessel-mimicking phantom composed of two counterparts with same absorption coefficient and different viscoelasticity (upper view). (b) Cross-sectional PAVEE image at z = 1.25 mm. (c) 3D PAVEE image of the agar phantom.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Longitudinal PAVEE image and en-face viscoelasticity image viewed from inside over a 360° field of the sample. In the flattened tissue photograph, region within the dashed frame is scanning area. (b) PAVEE section and corresponding histology and phase distribution at z = 0.8 mm. The section was stained with oil red (red) targeting lipid.

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