Abstract

Congenital heart disease (CHD) patients are at risk for neurodevelopmental delay. The etiology of these delays is unclear, but abnormal prenatal cerebral maturation and postoperative hemodynamic instability likely play a role. A better understanding of these factors is needed to improve neurodevelopmental outcome. In this study, we used bedside frequency-domain near infrared spectroscopy (FDNIRS) and diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) to assess cerebral hemodynamics and oxygen metabolism in neonates with single-ventricle (SV) CHD undergoing surgery and compared them to controls. Our goals were 1) to compare cerebral hemodynamics between unanesthetized SV and healthy neonates, and 2) to determine if FDNIRS-DCS could detect alterations in cerebral hemodynamics beyond cerebral hemoglobin oxygen saturation (SO2). Eleven SV neonates were recruited and compared to 13 controls. Preoperatively, SV patients showed decreased cerebral blood flow (CBFi), cerebral oxygen metabolism (CMRO2i) and SO2; and increased oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) compared to controls. Compared to preoperative values, unstable postoperative SV patients had decreased CMRO2i and CBFi, which returned to baseline when stable. However, SO2 showed no difference between unstable and stable states. Preoperative SV neonates are flow-limited and show signs of impaired cerebral development compared to controls. FDNIRS-DCS shows potential to improve assessment of cerebral development and postoperative hemodynamics compared to SO2 alone.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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2014 (7)

A. R. Cassidy, M. T. White, D. R. DeMaso, J. W. Newburger, and D. C. Bellinger, “Executive Function in Children and Adolescents with Critical Cyanotic Congenital Heart Disease,” J. Int. Neuropsychol. Soc. 20, 1–16 (2014).

K. A. Mussatto, R. G. Hoffmann, G. M. Hoffman, J. S. Tweddell, L. Bear, Y. Cao, and C. Brosig, “Risk and prevalence of developmental delay in young children with congenital heart disease,” Pediatrics 133, e570–7 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Jain, E. M. Buckley, D. J. Licht, J. M. Lynch, P. J. Schwab, M. Y. Naim, N. A. Lavin, S. C. Nicolson, L. M. Montenegro, A. G. Yodh, and F. W. Wehrli, “Cerebral oxygen metabolism in neonates with congenital heart disease quantified by MRI and optics,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 34, 380–388 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. M. Lynch, E. M. Buckley, P. J. Schwab, A. L. McCarthy, M. E. Winters, D. R. Busch, R. Xiao, D. A. Goff, S. C. Nicolson, L. M. Montenegro, S. Fuller, J. W. Gaynor, T. L. Spray, A. G. Yodh, M. Y. Naim, and D. J. Licht, “Time to surgery and preoperative cerebral hemodynamics predict postoperative white matter injury in neonates with hypoplastic left heart syndrome,” J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. 148, 2181–2188 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Dehaes, A. Aggarwal, P. Y. Lin, C. R. Fortuno, A. Fenoglio, N. Roche-Labarbe, J. S. Soul, M. A. Franceschini, and P. E. Grant, “Cerebral Oxygen Metabolism in Neonatal Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy During and After Therapeutic Hypothermia,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 34, 87–94 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Demel, M. Wolf, C. F. Poets, and A. R. Franz, “Effect of different assumptions for brain water content on absolute measures of cerebral oxygenation determined by frequency-domain near-infrared spectroscopy in preterm infants: an observational study,” BMC Pediatr. 14, 206 (2014).
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V. E. Sheward, I. A. Murdoch, A. Durward, and S. M. Tibby, “Neonatal decompensation before surgery in hypoplastic left heart syndrome: a case control study,” Arch. Dis. Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 99, F468 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (4)

A. Dimitropoulos, P. S. McQuillen, V. Sethi, A. Moosa, V. Chau, D. Xu, R. Brant, A. Azakie, A. Campbell, A. J. Barkovich, K. J. Poskitt, and S. P. Miller, “Brain injury and development in newborns with critical congenital heart disease,” Neurology 81, 241–248 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Y. Lin, N. Roche-Labarbe, M. Dehaes, S. Carp, A. Fenoglio, B. Barbieri, K. Hagan, P. E. Grant, and M. A. Franceschini, “Non-invasive optical measurement of cerebral metabolism and hemodynamics in infants,” J. Vis. Exp. 73, e4379 (2013).
[PubMed]

M. E. Oster, K. A. Lee, M. A. Honein, T. Riehle-Colarusso, M. Shin, and A. Correa, “Temporal trends in survival among infants with critical congenital heart defects,” Pediatrics 131, e1502–8 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. M. Buckley, J. M. Lynch, D. A. Goff, P. J. Schwab, W. B. Baker, T. Durduran, D. R. Busch, S. C. Nicolson, L. M. Montenegro, M. Y. Naim, R. Xiao, T. L. Spray, A. G. Yodh, J. W. Gaynor, and D. J. Licht, “Early postoperative changes in cerebral oxygen metabolism following neonatal cardiac surgery: Effects of surgical duration,” J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. 145, 196–205 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (4)

B. S. Marino, P. H. Lipkin, J. W. Newburger, G. Peacock, M. Gerdes, J. W. Gaynor, K. A. Mussatto, K. Uzark, C. S. Goldberg, W. H. Johnson, J. Li, S. E. Smith, D. C. Bellinger, W. T. Mahle, American Heart Association Congenital Heart Defects CommitteeCouncil on Cardiovascular Disease in the YoungCouncil on Cardiovascular NursingStroke Council, “Neurodevelopmental outcomes in children with congenital heart disease: evaluation and management: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association,” Circulation 126, 1143–1172 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Y. Lin, N. Roche-Labarbe, M. Dehaes, A. Fenoglio, P. E. Grant, and M. A. Franceschini, “Regional and Hemispheric Asymmetries of Cerebral Hemodynamic and Oxygen Metabolism in Newborns,” Cereb. Cortex 23, 339–348 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Roche-Labarbe, A. Fenoglio, A. Aggarwal, M. Dehaes, S. A. Carp, M. A. Franceschini, and P. E. Grant, “Near-infrared spectroscopy assessment of cerebral oxygen metabolism in the developing premature brain,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 32, 481–488 (2012).
[Crossref]

E. M. Buckley, D. Hance, T. Pawlowski, J. Lynch, F. B. Wilson, R. C. Mesquita, T. Durduran, L. K. Diaz, M. E. Putt, D. J. Licht, M. A. Fogel, and A. G. Yodh, “Validation of diffuse correlation spectroscopic measurement of cerebral blood flow using phase-encoded velocity mapping magnetic resonance imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 037007 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

2010 (5)

N. Roche-Labarbe, S. A. Carp, A. Surova, M. Patel, D. A. Boas, P. E. Grant, and M. A. Franceschini, “Noninvasive optical measures of CBV, StO(2), CBF index, and rCMRO(2) in human premature neonates’ brains in the first six weeks of life,” Hum. Brain Mapp. 31, 341–352 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. Durduran, C. Zhou, E. M. Buckley, M. N. Kim, G. Yu, R. Choe, J. W. Gaynor, T. L. Spray, S. M. Durning, S. E. Mason, L. M. Montenegro, S. C. Nicolson, R. A. Zimmerman, M. E. Putt, J. Wang, J. H. Greenberg, J. A. Detre, A. G. Yodh, and D. J. Licht, “Optical measurement of cerebral hemodynamics and oxygen metabolism in neonates with congenital heart defects,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 037004 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. G. Gaies, J. G. Gurney, A. H. Yen, M. L. Napoli, R. J. Gajarski, R. G. Ohye, J. R. Charpie, and J. C. Hirsch, “Vasoactive-inotropic score as a predictor of morbidity and mortality in infants after cardiopulmonary bypass,” Pediatr. Crit. Care Med. 11, 234–238 (2010).
[Crossref]

B. D. Kussman, D. Wypij, P. C. Laussen, J. S. Soul, D. C. Bellinger, J. A. DiNardo, R. Robertson, F. A. Pigula, R. A. Jonas, and J. W. Newburger, “Relationship of intraoperative cerebral oxygen saturation to neurodevelopmental outcome and brain magnetic resonance imaging at 1 year of age in infants undergoing biventricular repair,” Circulation 122, 245–254 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Limperopoulos, W. Tworetzky, D. B. Mcelhinney, J. W. Newburger, D. W. Brown, R. L. Robertson, N. Guizard, E. McGrath, J. Geva, D. Annese, C. Dunbar-Masterson, B. Trainor, P. C. Laussen, and A. J. du Plessis, “Brain volume and metabolism in fetuses with congenital heart disease: evaluation with quantitative magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy,” Circulation 121, 26–33 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

B. D. Kussman, D. Wypij, J. A. DiNardo, J. W. Newburger, J. E. Mayer, P. J. del Nido, E. A. Bacha, F. Pigula, E. McGrath, and P. C. Laussen, “Cerebral oximetry during infant cardiac surgery: evaluation and relationship to early postoperative outcome,” Anesth. Analg. 108, 1122–1131 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Jopling, E. Henry, S. E. Wiedmeier, and R. D. Christensen, “Reference ranges for hematocrit and blood hemoglobin concentration during the neonatal period: data from a multihospital health care system,” Pediatrics 123, e333–7 (2009).
[PubMed]

P. E. Grant, N. Roche-Labarbe, A. Surova, G. Themelis, J. Selb, E. K. Warren, K. S. Krishnamoorthy, D. A. Boas, and M. A. Franceschini, “Increased cerebral blood volume and oxygen consumption in neonatal brain injury,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 29, 1704–1713 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

J. W. Newburger, R. A. Jonas, J. Soul, B. D. Kussman, D. C. Bellinger, P. C. Laussen, R. Robertson, J. E. Mayer, P. J. del Nido, E. A. Bacha, J. M. Forbess, F. Pigula, S. J. Roth, K. J. Visconti, A. J. du Plessis, D. M. Farrell, E. McGrath, L. A. Rappaport, and D. Wypij, “Randomized trial of hematocrit 25% versus 35% during hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass in infant heart surgery,” J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. 135, 347–354 (2008).
[Crossref]

R. B. Hinton, G. Andelfinger, P. Sekar, A. C. Hinton, R. L. Gendron, E. C. Michelfelder, Y. Robitaille, and D. W. Benson, “Prenatal head growth and white matter injury in hypoplastic left heart syndrome,” Pediatr. Res. 64, 364–369 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (4)

P. S. McQuillen, A. J. Barkovich, S. E. G. Hamrick, M. Perez, P. Ward, D. V. Glidden, A. Azakie, T. Karl, and S. P. Miller, “Temporal and anatomic risk profile of brain injury with neonatal repair of congenital heart defects,” Stroke 38, 736–741 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. P. Miller, P. S. McQuillen, S. Hamrick, D. Xu, D. V. Glidden, N. Charlton, T. Karl, A. Azakie, D. M. Ferriero, A. J. Barkovich, and D. B. Vigneron, “Abnormal brain development in newborns with congenital heart disease,” N. Engl. J. Med. 357, 1928–1938 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. S. Goldberg, E. L. Bove, E. J. Devaney, E. Mollen, E. Schwartz, S. Tindall, C. Nowak, J. Charpie, M. B. Brown, T. J. Kulik, and R. G. Ohye, “A randomized clinical trial of regional cerebral perfusion versus deep hypothermic circulatory arrest: outcomes for infants with functional single ventricle,” J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. 133, 880–887 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Franceschini, S. Thaker, G. Themelis, K. K. Krishnamoorthy, H. Bortfeld, S. G. Diamond, D. A. Boas, K. Arvin, and P. E. Grant, “Assessment of infant brain development with frequency-domain near-infrared spectroscopy,” Pediatr. Res. 61, 546–551 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

G. Wernovsky, “Current insights regarding neurological and developmental abnormalities in children and young adults with complex congenital cardiac disease,” Cardiol. Young 16, 92–104 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. C. Partridge, D. B. Vigneron, N. N. Charlton, J. I. Berman, R. G. Henry, P. Mukherjee, P. S. McQuillen, T. R. Karl, A. J. Barkovich, and S. P. Miller, “Pyramidal tract maturation after brain injury in newborns with heart disease,” Ann. Neurol. 59, 640–651 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. L. Dent, J. P. Spaeth, B. V. Jones, S. M. Schwartz, T. A. Glauser, B. Hallinan, J. M. Pearl, P. R. Khoury, and C. D. Kurth, “Brain magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities after the Norwood procedure using regional cerebral perfusion,” J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. 131, 190–197 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (7)

K. N. Fenton, K. Freeman, K. Glogowski, S. Fogg, and K. F. Duncan, “The significance of baseline cerebral oxygen saturation in children undergoing congenital heart surgery,” Am. J. Surg. 190, 260–263 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Bassan, K. Gauvreau, J. W. Newburger, M. Tsuji, C. Limperopoulos, J. S. Soul, G. Walter, P. C. Laussen, R. A. Jonas, and A. J. Du Plessis, “Identification of Pressure Passive Cerebral Perfusion and Its Mediators after Infant Cardiac Surgery,” Pediatr. Res. 57, 35–41 (2005).
[Crossref]

H. C. Kinney, A. Panigrahy, J. W. Newburger, R. A. Jonas, and L. A. Sleeper, “Hypoxic-ischemic brain injury in infants with congenital heart disease dying after cardiac surgery,” Acta Neuropathol. 110, 563–578 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. C. Toet, A. Flinterman, I. van de Laar, J. W. de Vries, G. B. W. E. Bennink, C. S. P. M. Uiterwaal, and F. van Bel, “Cerebral oxygen saturation and electrical brain activity before, during, and up to 36 hours after arterial switch procedure in neonates without pre-existing brain damage: its relationship to neurodevelopmental outcome,” Exp. Brain Res. 165, 343–350 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. L. Dent, J. P. Spaeth, B. V. Jones, S. M. Schwartz, T. A. Glauser, B. Hallinan, J. M. Pearl, P. R. Khoury, and C. D. Kurth, “Brain magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities after the Norwood procedure using regional cerebral perfusion,” J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. 130, 1523–1530 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Ijichi, T. Kusaka, K. Isobe, K. Okubo, K. Kawada, M. Namba, H. Okada, T. Nishida, T. Imai, and S. Itoh, “Developmental changes of optical properties in neonates determined by near-infrared time-resolved spectroscopy,” Pediatr. Res. 58, 568–573 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. M. Harrison, S. Davis, J. R. Reid, S. C. Morrison, S. Arrigain, J. T. Connor, and M. E. Temple, “Neonates with hypoplastic left heart syndrome have ultrasound evidence of abnormal superior mesenteric artery perfusion before and after modified Norwood procedure,” Pediatr. Crit. Care Med. 6, 445–447 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (4)

K. K. Galli, R. A. Zimmerman, G. P. Jarvik, G. Wernovsky, M. K. Kuypers, R. R. Clancy, L. M. Montenegro, W. T. Mahle, M. F. Newman, A. M. Saunders, S. C. Nicolson, T. L. Spray, J. W. Gaynor, and K. K. Galli, “Periventricular leukomalacia is common after neonatal cardiac surgery,” J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. 127, 692–704 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. M. Hoffman, E. A. Stuth, R. D. Jaquiss, P. L. Vanderwal, S. R. Staudt, T. J. Troshynski, N. S. Ghanayem, and J. S. Tweddell, “Changes in cerebral and somatic oxygenation during stage 1 palliation of hypoplastic left heart syndrome using continuous regional cerebral perfusion,” J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. 127, 223–233 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Licht, J. Wang, D. W. Silvestre, S. C. Nicolson, L. M. Montenegro, G. Wernovsky, S. Tabbutt, S. M. Durning, D. M. Shera, J. W. Gaynor, T. L. Spray, R. R. Clancy, R. A. Zimmerman, and J. A. Detre, “Preoperative cerebral blood flow is diminished in neonates with severe congenital heart defects,” J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. 128, 841–849 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. P. Miller, P. S. McQuillen, D. B. Vigneron, D. V. Glidden, A. J. Barkovich, D. M. Ferriero, S. E. G. Hamrick, A. Azakie, and T. R. Karl, “Preoperative brain injury in newborns with transposition of the great arteries,” Ann. Thorac. Surg. 77, 1698–1706 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

M. T. Donofrio, Y. A. Bremer, R. M. Schieken, C. Gennings, L. D. Morton, B. W. Eidem, F. Cetta, C. B. Falkensammer, J. C. Huhta, and C. S. Kleinman, “Autoregulation of cerebral blood flow in fetuses with congenital heart disease: the brain sparing effect,” Pediatr. Cardiol. 24, 436–443 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. P. Culver, T. Durduran, D. Furuya, C. Cheung, J. H. Greenberg, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optical tomography of cerebral blood flow, oxygenation, and metabolism in rat during focal ischemia,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 23, 911–924 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (4)

J.-M. Jouannic, A. Benachi, D. Bonnet, L. Fermont, J. Le Bidois, Y. Dumez, and M. Dommergues, “Middle cerebral artery Doppler in fetuses with transposition of the great arteries,” Ultrasound Obstet. Gynecol. 20, 122–124 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. I. E. Hoffman and S. Kaplan, “The incidence of congenital heart disease,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 39, 1890–1900 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Limperopoulos, A. Majnemer, M. I. Shevell, C. Rohlicek, B. Rosenblatt, C. Tchervenkov, and H. Z. Darwish, “Predictors of developmental disabilities after open heart surgery in young children with congenital heart defects,” J. Pediatr. 141, 51–58 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. T. Mahle, F. Tavani, R. A. Zimmerman, S. C. Nicolson, K. K. Galli, J. W. Gaynor, R. R. Clancy, L. M. Montenegro, T. L. Spray, R. M. Chiavacci, G. Wernovsky, and C. D. Kurth, “An MRI study of neurological injury before and after congenital heart surgery,” Circulation 106, I109 (2002).
[PubMed]

2001 (3)

W. T. Mahle and G. Wernovsky, “Long-term developmental outcome of children with complex congenital heart disease,” Clin. Perinatol. 28, 235–247 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. D. Kurth, J. L. Steven, L. M. Montenegro, H. M. Watzman, J. W. Gaynor, T. L. Spray, and S. C. Nicolson, “Cerebral oxygen saturation before congenital heart surgery,” Ann. Thorac. Surg. 72, 187–192 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. B. Grandin, T. P. Duprez, A. M. Smith, F. Mataigne, A. Peeters, C. Oppenheim, and G. Cosnard, “Usefulness of magnetic resonance-derived quantitative measurements of cerebral blood flow and volume in prediction of infarct growth in hyperacute stroke,” Stroke 32, 1147–1153 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

H. M. Watzman, C. D. Kurth, L. M. Montenegro, J. Rome, J. M. Steven, and S. C. Nicolson, “Arterial and venous contributions to near-infrared cerebral oximetry,” Anesthesiology 93, 947–953 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

C. Limperopoulos, A. Majnemer, M. I. Shevell, B. Rosenblatt, C. Rohlicek, and C. Tchervenkov, “Neurologic status of newborns with congenital heart defects before open heart surgery,” Pediatrics 103, 402–408 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1997 (2)

P. R. Huttenlocher and A. S. Dabholkar, “Regional differences in synaptogenesis in human cerebral cortex,” J. Comp. Neurol. 387, 167–178 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. A. Boas and A. G. Yodh, “Spatially varying dynamical properties of turbid media probed with diffusing temporal light correlation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 192–215 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (2)

C. F. Poets, V. A. Stebbens, J. A. Lang, L. M. O’Brien, A. W. Boon, and D. P. Southall, “Arterial oxygen saturation in healthy term neonates,” Eur. J. Pediatr. 155, 219–223 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. L. Rosenthal, “Patterns of prenatal growth among infants with cardiovascular malformations: possible fetal hemodynamic effects,” Am. J. Epidemiol. 143, 505–513 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1995 (2)

D. Boas, L. Campbell, and A. Yodh, “Scattering and Imaging with Diffusing Temporal Field Correlations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 1855–1858 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Fantini, M. A. Franceschini, J. S. Maier, S. A. Walker, and B. Barbieri, “Frequency-domain multichannel optical detector for noninvasive tissue spectroscopy and oxymetry,” Opt. Eng. 34, 32–42 (1995).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

D. R. Jobes, S. C. Nicolson, J. M. Steven, M. Miller, M. L. Jacobs, and W. I. Norwood, “Carbon dioxide prevents pulmonary overcirculation in hypoplastic left heart syndrome,” Ann. Thorac. Surg. 54, 150–151 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

W. Greeley, F. Kern, R. Ungerleider, J. Boyd, T. Quill, L. Smith, B. Baldwin, and J. Reves, “The effect of hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass and total circulatory arrest on cerebral metabolism in neonates, infants, and children,” J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. 101, 783–794 (1991).
[PubMed]

1989 (1)

I. A. Groenenberg, J. W. Wladimiroff, and W. C. Hop, “Fetal cardiac and peripheral arterial flow velocity waveforms in intrauterine growth retardation,” Circulation 80, 1711–1717 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

S. Wray, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, J. S. Wyatt, and E. O. Reynolds, “Characterization of the near infrared absorption spectra of cytochrome aa3 and haemoglobin for the non-invasive monitoring of cerebral oxygenation,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 933, 184–192 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

H. T. Chugani, M. E. Phelps, and J. C. Mazziotta, “Positron emission tomography study of human brain functional development,” Ann. Neurol. 22, 487–497 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

H. T. Chugani and M. E. Phelps, “Maturational changes in cerebral function in infants determined by 18FDG positron emission tomography,” Science 231, 840–843 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1983 (1)

P. Lang and W. I. Norwood, “Hemodynamic assessment after palliative surgery for hypoplastic left heart syndrome,” Circulation 68, 104–108 (1983).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1959 (1)

N. A. Lassen, “Cerebral blood flow and oxygen consumption in man,” Physiol. Rev. 39, 183–238 (1959).
[PubMed]

Aggarwal, A.

M. Dehaes, A. Aggarwal, P. Y. Lin, C. R. Fortuno, A. Fenoglio, N. Roche-Labarbe, J. S. Soul, M. A. Franceschini, and P. E. Grant, “Cerebral Oxygen Metabolism in Neonatal Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy During and After Therapeutic Hypothermia,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 34, 87–94 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. Roche-Labarbe, A. Fenoglio, A. Aggarwal, M. Dehaes, S. A. Carp, M. A. Franceschini, and P. E. Grant, “Near-infrared spectroscopy assessment of cerebral oxygen metabolism in the developing premature brain,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 32, 481–488 (2012).
[Crossref]

Andelfinger, G.

R. B. Hinton, G. Andelfinger, P. Sekar, A. C. Hinton, R. L. Gendron, E. C. Michelfelder, Y. Robitaille, and D. W. Benson, “Prenatal head growth and white matter injury in hypoplastic left heart syndrome,” Pediatr. Res. 64, 364–369 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Annese, D.

C. Limperopoulos, W. Tworetzky, D. B. Mcelhinney, J. W. Newburger, D. W. Brown, R. L. Robertson, N. Guizard, E. McGrath, J. Geva, D. Annese, C. Dunbar-Masterson, B. Trainor, P. C. Laussen, and A. J. du Plessis, “Brain volume and metabolism in fetuses with congenital heart disease: evaluation with quantitative magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy,” Circulation 121, 26–33 (2010).
[Crossref]

Arrigain, S.

A. M. Harrison, S. Davis, J. R. Reid, S. C. Morrison, S. Arrigain, J. T. Connor, and M. E. Temple, “Neonates with hypoplastic left heart syndrome have ultrasound evidence of abnormal superior mesenteric artery perfusion before and after modified Norwood procedure,” Pediatr. Crit. Care Med. 6, 445–447 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arvin, K.

M. A. Franceschini, S. Thaker, G. Themelis, K. K. Krishnamoorthy, H. Bortfeld, S. G. Diamond, D. A. Boas, K. Arvin, and P. E. Grant, “Assessment of infant brain development with frequency-domain near-infrared spectroscopy,” Pediatr. Res. 61, 546–551 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Azakie, A.

A. Dimitropoulos, P. S. McQuillen, V. Sethi, A. Moosa, V. Chau, D. Xu, R. Brant, A. Azakie, A. Campbell, A. J. Barkovich, K. J. Poskitt, and S. P. Miller, “Brain injury and development in newborns with critical congenital heart disease,” Neurology 81, 241–248 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. S. McQuillen, A. J. Barkovich, S. E. G. Hamrick, M. Perez, P. Ward, D. V. Glidden, A. Azakie, T. Karl, and S. P. Miller, “Temporal and anatomic risk profile of brain injury with neonatal repair of congenital heart defects,” Stroke 38, 736–741 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. P. Miller, P. S. McQuillen, S. Hamrick, D. Xu, D. V. Glidden, N. Charlton, T. Karl, A. Azakie, D. M. Ferriero, A. J. Barkovich, and D. B. Vigneron, “Abnormal brain development in newborns with congenital heart disease,” N. Engl. J. Med. 357, 1928–1938 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. P. Miller, P. S. McQuillen, D. B. Vigneron, D. V. Glidden, A. J. Barkovich, D. M. Ferriero, S. E. G. Hamrick, A. Azakie, and T. R. Karl, “Preoperative brain injury in newborns with transposition of the great arteries,” Ann. Thorac. Surg. 77, 1698–1706 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bacha, E. A.

B. D. Kussman, D. Wypij, J. A. DiNardo, J. W. Newburger, J. E. Mayer, P. J. del Nido, E. A. Bacha, F. Pigula, E. McGrath, and P. C. Laussen, “Cerebral oximetry during infant cardiac surgery: evaluation and relationship to early postoperative outcome,” Anesth. Analg. 108, 1122–1131 (2009).
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P. Y. Lin, N. Roche-Labarbe, M. Dehaes, S. Carp, A. Fenoglio, B. Barbieri, K. Hagan, P. E. Grant, and M. A. Franceschini, “Non-invasive optical measurement of cerebral metabolism and hemodynamics in infants,” J. Vis. Exp. 73, e4379 (2013).
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M. Dehaes, P. E. Grant, D. D. Sliva, N. Roche-Labarbe, R. Pienaar, D. A. Boas, M. A. Franceschini, and J. Selb, “Assessment of the frequency-domain multi-distance method to evaluate the brain optical properties: Monte Carlo simulations from neonate to adult,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2, 552–567 (2011).
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J. W. Newburger, R. A. Jonas, J. Soul, B. D. Kussman, D. C. Bellinger, P. C. Laussen, R. Robertson, J. E. Mayer, P. J. del Nido, E. A. Bacha, J. M. Forbess, F. Pigula, S. J. Roth, K. J. Visconti, A. J. du Plessis, D. M. Farrell, E. McGrath, L. A. Rappaport, and D. Wypij, “Randomized trial of hematocrit 25% versus 35% during hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass in infant heart surgery,” J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. 135, 347–354 (2008).
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H. Bassan, K. Gauvreau, J. W. Newburger, M. Tsuji, C. Limperopoulos, J. S. Soul, G. Walter, P. C. Laussen, R. A. Jonas, and A. J. Du Plessis, “Identification of Pressure Passive Cerebral Perfusion and Its Mediators after Infant Cardiac Surgery,” Pediatr. Res. 57, 35–41 (2005).
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J.-M. Jouannic, A. Benachi, D. Bonnet, L. Fermont, J. Le Bidois, Y. Dumez, and M. Dommergues, “Middle cerebral artery Doppler in fetuses with transposition of the great arteries,” Ultrasound Obstet. Gynecol. 20, 122–124 (2002).
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K. N. Fenton, K. Freeman, K. Glogowski, S. Fogg, and K. F. Duncan, “The significance of baseline cerebral oxygen saturation in children undergoing congenital heart surgery,” Am. J. Surg. 190, 260–263 (2005).
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T. Durduran, C. Zhou, E. M. Buckley, M. N. Kim, G. Yu, R. Choe, J. W. Gaynor, T. L. Spray, S. M. Durning, S. E. Mason, L. M. Montenegro, S. C. Nicolson, R. A. Zimmerman, M. E. Putt, J. Wang, J. H. Greenberg, J. A. Detre, A. G. Yodh, and D. J. Licht, “Optical measurement of cerebral hemodynamics and oxygen metabolism in neonates with congenital heart defects,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 037004 (2010).
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J. P. Culver, T. Durduran, D. Furuya, C. Cheung, J. H. Greenberg, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optical tomography of cerebral blood flow, oxygenation, and metabolism in rat during focal ischemia,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 23, 911–924 (2003).
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Durning, S. M.

T. Durduran, C. Zhou, E. M. Buckley, M. N. Kim, G. Yu, R. Choe, J. W. Gaynor, T. L. Spray, S. M. Durning, S. E. Mason, L. M. Montenegro, S. C. Nicolson, R. A. Zimmerman, M. E. Putt, J. Wang, J. H. Greenberg, J. A. Detre, A. G. Yodh, and D. J. Licht, “Optical measurement of cerebral hemodynamics and oxygen metabolism in neonates with congenital heart defects,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 037004 (2010).
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D. J. Licht, J. Wang, D. W. Silvestre, S. C. Nicolson, L. M. Montenegro, G. Wernovsky, S. Tabbutt, S. M. Durning, D. M. Shera, J. W. Gaynor, T. L. Spray, R. R. Clancy, R. A. Zimmerman, and J. A. Detre, “Preoperative cerebral blood flow is diminished in neonates with severe congenital heart defects,” J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. 128, 841–849 (2004).
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M. T. Donofrio, Y. A. Bremer, R. M. Schieken, C. Gennings, L. D. Morton, B. W. Eidem, F. Cetta, C. B. Falkensammer, J. C. Huhta, and C. S. Kleinman, “Autoregulation of cerebral blood flow in fetuses with congenital heart disease: the brain sparing effect,” Pediatr. Cardiol. 24, 436–443 (2003).
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M. T. Donofrio, Y. A. Bremer, R. M. Schieken, C. Gennings, L. D. Morton, B. W. Eidem, F. Cetta, C. B. Falkensammer, J. C. Huhta, and C. S. Kleinman, “Autoregulation of cerebral blood flow in fetuses with congenital heart disease: the brain sparing effect,” Pediatr. Cardiol. 24, 436–443 (2003).
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J. W. Newburger, R. A. Jonas, J. Soul, B. D. Kussman, D. C. Bellinger, P. C. Laussen, R. Robertson, J. E. Mayer, P. J. del Nido, E. A. Bacha, J. M. Forbess, F. Pigula, S. J. Roth, K. J. Visconti, A. J. du Plessis, D. M. Farrell, E. McGrath, L. A. Rappaport, and D. Wypij, “Randomized trial of hematocrit 25% versus 35% during hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass in infant heart surgery,” J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. 135, 347–354 (2008).
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Fenoglio, A.

M. Dehaes, A. Aggarwal, P. Y. Lin, C. R. Fortuno, A. Fenoglio, N. Roche-Labarbe, J. S. Soul, M. A. Franceschini, and P. E. Grant, “Cerebral Oxygen Metabolism in Neonatal Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy During and After Therapeutic Hypothermia,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 34, 87–94 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Y. Lin, N. Roche-Labarbe, M. Dehaes, S. Carp, A. Fenoglio, B. Barbieri, K. Hagan, P. E. Grant, and M. A. Franceschini, “Non-invasive optical measurement of cerebral metabolism and hemodynamics in infants,” J. Vis. Exp. 73, e4379 (2013).
[PubMed]

P. Y. Lin, N. Roche-Labarbe, M. Dehaes, A. Fenoglio, P. E. Grant, and M. A. Franceschini, “Regional and Hemispheric Asymmetries of Cerebral Hemodynamic and Oxygen Metabolism in Newborns,” Cereb. Cortex 23, 339–348 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Roche-Labarbe, A. Fenoglio, A. Aggarwal, M. Dehaes, S. A. Carp, M. A. Franceschini, and P. E. Grant, “Near-infrared spectroscopy assessment of cerebral oxygen metabolism in the developing premature brain,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 32, 481–488 (2012).
[Crossref]

Fenton, K. N.

K. N. Fenton, K. Freeman, K. Glogowski, S. Fogg, and K. F. Duncan, “The significance of baseline cerebral oxygen saturation in children undergoing congenital heart surgery,” Am. J. Surg. 190, 260–263 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fermont, L.

J.-M. Jouannic, A. Benachi, D. Bonnet, L. Fermont, J. Le Bidois, Y. Dumez, and M. Dommergues, “Middle cerebral artery Doppler in fetuses with transposition of the great arteries,” Ultrasound Obstet. Gynecol. 20, 122–124 (2002).
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M. C. Toet, A. Flinterman, I. van de Laar, J. W. de Vries, G. B. W. E. Bennink, C. S. P. M. Uiterwaal, and F. van Bel, “Cerebral oxygen saturation and electrical brain activity before, during, and up to 36 hours after arterial switch procedure in neonates without pre-existing brain damage: its relationship to neurodevelopmental outcome,” Exp. Brain Res. 165, 343–350 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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E. M. Buckley, D. Hance, T. Pawlowski, J. Lynch, F. B. Wilson, R. C. Mesquita, T. Durduran, L. K. Diaz, M. E. Putt, D. J. Licht, M. A. Fogel, and A. G. Yodh, “Validation of diffuse correlation spectroscopic measurement of cerebral blood flow using phase-encoded velocity mapping magnetic resonance imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 037007 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fogg, S.

K. N. Fenton, K. Freeman, K. Glogowski, S. Fogg, and K. F. Duncan, “The significance of baseline cerebral oxygen saturation in children undergoing congenital heart surgery,” Am. J. Surg. 190, 260–263 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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J. W. Newburger, R. A. Jonas, J. Soul, B. D. Kussman, D. C. Bellinger, P. C. Laussen, R. Robertson, J. E. Mayer, P. J. del Nido, E. A. Bacha, J. M. Forbess, F. Pigula, S. J. Roth, K. J. Visconti, A. J. du Plessis, D. M. Farrell, E. McGrath, L. A. Rappaport, and D. Wypij, “Randomized trial of hematocrit 25% versus 35% during hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass in infant heart surgery,” J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. 135, 347–354 (2008).
[Crossref]

Fortuno, C. R.

M. Dehaes, A. Aggarwal, P. Y. Lin, C. R. Fortuno, A. Fenoglio, N. Roche-Labarbe, J. S. Soul, M. A. Franceschini, and P. E. Grant, “Cerebral Oxygen Metabolism in Neonatal Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy During and After Therapeutic Hypothermia,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 34, 87–94 (2014).
[Crossref]

Franceschini, M. A.

M. Dehaes, A. Aggarwal, P. Y. Lin, C. R. Fortuno, A. Fenoglio, N. Roche-Labarbe, J. S. Soul, M. A. Franceschini, and P. E. Grant, “Cerebral Oxygen Metabolism in Neonatal Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy During and After Therapeutic Hypothermia,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 34, 87–94 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Y. Lin, N. Roche-Labarbe, M. Dehaes, S. Carp, A. Fenoglio, B. Barbieri, K. Hagan, P. E. Grant, and M. A. Franceschini, “Non-invasive optical measurement of cerebral metabolism and hemodynamics in infants,” J. Vis. Exp. 73, e4379 (2013).
[PubMed]

P. Y. Lin, N. Roche-Labarbe, M. Dehaes, A. Fenoglio, P. E. Grant, and M. A. Franceschini, “Regional and Hemispheric Asymmetries of Cerebral Hemodynamic and Oxygen Metabolism in Newborns,” Cereb. Cortex 23, 339–348 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Roche-Labarbe, A. Fenoglio, A. Aggarwal, M. Dehaes, S. A. Carp, M. A. Franceschini, and P. E. Grant, “Near-infrared spectroscopy assessment of cerebral oxygen metabolism in the developing premature brain,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 32, 481–488 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Dehaes, P. E. Grant, D. D. Sliva, N. Roche-Labarbe, R. Pienaar, D. A. Boas, M. A. Franceschini, and J. Selb, “Assessment of the frequency-domain multi-distance method to evaluate the brain optical properties: Monte Carlo simulations from neonate to adult,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2, 552–567 (2011).
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N. Roche-Labarbe, S. A. Carp, A. Surova, M. Patel, D. A. Boas, P. E. Grant, and M. A. Franceschini, “Noninvasive optical measures of CBV, StO(2), CBF index, and rCMRO(2) in human premature neonates’ brains in the first six weeks of life,” Hum. Brain Mapp. 31, 341–352 (2010).
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J. M. Lynch, E. M. Buckley, P. Schwab, A. L. McCarthy, M. E. Winters, D. R. Busch, R. Xiao, D. A. Goff, S. Nicolson, L. Montenegro, S. Fuller, J. W. Gaynor, T. Spray, A. G. Yodh, M. Y. Naim, and D. J. Licht, “Pre-Operative Cerebral Hemodynamics in Infants with Critical Congenital Heart Disease,” in Biomedical Optics (Optical Society of America), BS3A.13 (2014).
[Crossref]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Boxplots of (A) cerebral oxygen metabolism index (CMRO2i), (B) cerebral blood flow index (CBFi), (C) cerebral oxygen extraction fraction (OEF), (D) cerebral blood volume (CBV), (E) cerebral hemoglobin oxygen saturation (SO2), and (F) hemoglobin in the blood (HGB) in preoperative neonates with single-ventricle (Preoperative, nSV = 13 observations) and in healthy control neonates (Control, nHC = 14 observations). Note that HGB values in healthy controls were calculated from reference normal chart (see Section 2.3). On each box, the central mark is the median, the black square is the mean, the edges of the box are the 25th and 75th percentiles, and the whiskers show the 95% confidence interval. Empty circles denote outliers and significant statistical comparisons are indicated with its corresponding p-value (n.s., non significant).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Boxplots of (A) cerebral oxygen metabolism index (CMRO2i), (B) cerebral blood flow index (CBFi), (C) cerebral oxygen extraction fraction (OEF), (D) cerebral blood volume (CBV), (E) cerebral hemoglobin oxygen saturation (SO2), and (F) arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) in neonates with single-ventricle. Neonates were grouped according to preoperative data (Preop., nSV = 13 observations) and to postoperative illness severity defined by the vasoactive-inotropic score (VIS): neonates were categorized “unstable” when VIS ≥ 10 (nunstable = 17 observations) and “stable” when discharged from the cardiac intensive care unit with VIS < 10 (nstable = 34 observations). On each box, the central mark is the median, the black square is the mean, the edges of the box are the 25th and 75th percentiles percentiles, and the whiskers show the 95% confidence interval. Empty circles denote outliers and significant statistical comparisons are indicated with its corresponding p-value (n.s., non significant).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Pearson correlation coefficient (R) and corresponding p-value between (A) cerebral oxygen metabolism index (CMRO2i), (B) cerebral blood flow index (CBFi), (C) cerebral oxygen extraction fraction (OEF), (D) cerebral blood volume (CBV), (E) cerebral hemoglobin oxygen saturation (SO2) and temperature in neonates with single-ventricle: preoperative (black squares), postoperative unstable (red circles) and postoperative stable (green triangles) observations (number of measurements) are displayed with the linear fit (black line) of all pre- and postoperative data.

Tables (4)

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Table 1 Demographic data in single-ventricle patients and healthy control neonates (number or median (IQRa))b.

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Table 2. List of all observations (preoperative, unstable and stable) and time to surgery [days]a for each SV CHD neonate (ID).

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Table 3. List of all observations and postnatal time at measurement [days] for healthy controls (ID).

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Table 4. Pearson correlation coefficients, p-values and number of observations of cerebral and physiological parameters in single-ventricle patientsa.

Equations (2)

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OEF = SaO 2 SvO 2 SaO 2 = 1 β SaO 2 SO 2 SaO 2
CMRO 2 i = CaO 2 CBF i OEF = γ HGB CBF i 1 β ( SaO 2 SO 2 )

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