Abstract

This article provides an overview of advanced image processing for three dimensional (3D) optical coherence tomographic (OCT) angiography of macular diseases, including age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and diabetic retinopathy (DR). A fast automated retinal layers segmentation algorithm using directional graph search was introduced to separates 3D flow data into different layers in the presence of pathologies. Intelligent manual correction methods are also systematically addressed which can be done rapidly on a single frame and then automatically propagated to full 3D volume with accuracy better than 1 pixel. Methods to visualize and analyze the abnormalities including retinal and choroidal neovascularization, retinal ischemia, and macular edema were presented to facilitate the clinical use of OCT angiography.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (10)

L. Liu, Y. Jia, H. L. Takusagawa, A. D. Pechauer, B. Edmunds, L. Lombardi, E. Davis, J. C. Morrison, and D. Huang, “Optical coherence tomography angiography of the peripapillary retina in glaucoma,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 133(9), 1045–1052 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. D. Pechauer, Y. Jia, L. Liu, S. S. Gao, C. Jiang, and D. Huang, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of Peripapillary Retinal Blood Flow Response to Hyperoxia,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 56(5), 3287–3291 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Ishibazawa, T. Nagaoka, A. Takahashi, T. Omae, T. Tani, K. Sogawa, H. Yokota, and A. Yoshida, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Diabetic Retinopathy: A Prospective Pilot Study,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 160(1), 35–44 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. S. Hwang, Y. Jia, S. S. Gao, S. T. Bailey, A. K. Lauer, C. J. Flaxel, D. J. Wilson, and D. Huang, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Features of Diabetic Retinopathy,” Retina 35(11), 2371–2376 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, T. S. Hwang, S. M. McClintic, S. S. Gao, M. E. Pennesi, C. J. Flaxel, A. K. Lauer, D. J. Wilson, J. Hornegger, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of vascular abnormalities in the living human eye,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(18), E2395–E2402 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. S. Ip, A. Domalpally, J. K. Sun, and J. S. Ehrlich, “Long-term effects of therapy with ranibizumab on diabetic retinopathy severity and baseline risk factors for worsening retinopathy,” Ophthalmology 122(2), 367–374 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. S. Silva, J. D. Cavallerano, N. M. N. Haddad, H. Kwak, K. H. Dyer, A. F. Omar, H. Shikari, L. M. Aiello, J. K. Sun, and L. P. Aiello, “Peripheral lesions identified on ultrawide field imaging predict increased risk of diabetic retinopathy progression over 4 years,” Ophthalmology 122(5), 949–956 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. J. Chiu, M. J. Allingham, P. S. Mettu, S. W. Cousins, J. A. Izatt, and S. Farsiu, “Kernel regression based segmentation of optical coherence tomography images with diabetic macular edema,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(4), 1172–1194 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. S. Gao, G. Liu, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Optimization of the split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography algorithm on a spectral optical coherence tomography system,” Opt. Lett. 40(10), 2305–2308 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Liu, S. S. Gao, S. T. Bailey, D. Huang, D. Li, and Y. Jia, “Automated choroidal neovascularization detection algorithm for optical coherence tomography angiography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(9), 3564–3576 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (6)

P. P. Srinivasan, S. J. Heflin, J. A. Izatt, V. Y. Arshavsky, and S. Farsiu, “Automatic segmentation of up to ten layer boundaries in SD-OCT images of the mouse retina with and without missing layers due to pathology,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(2), 348–365 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Kiss and T. L. Berenberg, “Ultra Widefield Fundus Imaging for Diabetic Retinopathy,” Curr. Diab. Rep. 14(8), 514 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Farsiu, S. J. Chiu, R. V. O’Connell, F. A. Folgar, E. Yuan, J. A. Izatt, C. A. Toth, and Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2 Ancillary Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Study Group, “Quantitative Classification of Eyes with and without Intermediate Age-Related Macular Degeneration Using Optical Coherence Tomography,” Ophthalmology 121(1), 162–172 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Yin, J. R. Chao, and R. K. Wang, “User-guided segmentation for volumetric retinal optical coherence tomography images,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(8), 086020 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, O. Tan, M. L. Klein, C. J. Flaxel, B. Potsaid, J. J. Liu, C. D. Lu, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration,” Ophthalmology 121(7), 1435–1444 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, E. Wei, X. Wang, X. Zhang, J. C. Morrison, M. Parikh, L. H. Lombardi, D. M. Gattey, R. L. Armour, B. Edmunds, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of Optic Disc Perfusion in Glaucoma,” Ophthalmology 121(7), 1322–1332 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (1)

X. Liu, D. Z. Chen, M. H. Tawhai, X. Wu, E. A. Hoffman, and M. Sonka, “Optimal Graph Search Based Segmentation of Airway Tree Double Surfaces Across Bifurcations,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 32(3), 493–510 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (4)

X. Chen, M. Niemeijer, L. Zhang, K. Lee, M. D. Abràmoff, and M. Sonka, “Three-dimensional segmentation of fluid-associated abnormalities in retinal OCT: probability constrained graph-search-graph-cut,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 31(8), 1521–1531 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. J. Chiu, J. A. Izatt, R. V. O’Connell, K. P. Winter, C. A. Toth, and S. Farsiu, “Validated Automatic Segmentation of AMD Pathology Including Drusen and Geographic Atrophy in SD-OCT Images,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53(1), 53–61 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, O. Tan, J. Tokayer, B. Potsaid, Y. Wang, J. J. Liu, M. F. Kraus, H. Subhash, J. G. Fujimoto, J. Hornegger, and D. Huang, “Split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography with optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 20(4), 4710–4725 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. F. Kraus, B. Potsaid, M. A. Mayer, R. Bock, B. Baumann, J. J. Liu, J. Hornegger, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Motion correction in optical coherence tomography volumes on a per A-scan basis using orthogonal scan patterns,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(6), 1182–1199 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

2008 (1)

M. K. Garvin, M. D. Abràmoff, R. Kardon, S. R. Russell, X. Wu, and M. Sonka, “Intraretinal layer segmentation of macular optical coherence tomography images using optimal 3-D graph search,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 27(10), 1495–1505 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

2004 (1)

N. Congdon, B. O’Colmain, C. C. Klaver, R. Klein, B. Muñoz, D. S. Friedman, J. Kempen, H. R. Taylor, P. Mitchell, and Eye Diseases Prevalence Research Group, “Causes and prevalence of visual impairment among adults in the United States,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 122(4), 477–485 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

M. P. López-Sáez, E. Ordoqui, P. Tornero, A. Baeza, T. Sainza, J. M. Zubeldia, and M. L. Baeza, “Fluorescein-induced allergic reaction,” Ann. Allergy Asthma Immunol. 81(5), 428–430 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1991 (2)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. T. D. R. S. R Group, “Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study design and baseline patient characteristics. ETDRS report number 7,” Ophthalmology 98(5Suppl), 741–756 (1991).

1981 (1)

The Diabetic Retinopathy Study Research Group, “Photocoagulation treatment of proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Clinical application of Diabetic Retinopathy Study (DRS) findings, DRS Report Number 8,” Ophthalmology 88(7), 583–600 (1981).
[PubMed]

Abràmoff, M. D.

X. Chen, M. Niemeijer, L. Zhang, K. Lee, M. D. Abràmoff, and M. Sonka, “Three-dimensional segmentation of fluid-associated abnormalities in retinal OCT: probability constrained graph-search-graph-cut,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 31(8), 1521–1531 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. K. Garvin, M. D. Abràmoff, R. Kardon, S. R. Russell, X. Wu, and M. Sonka, “Intraretinal layer segmentation of macular optical coherence tomography images using optimal 3-D graph search,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 27(10), 1495–1505 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aiello, L. M.

P. S. Silva, J. D. Cavallerano, N. M. N. Haddad, H. Kwak, K. H. Dyer, A. F. Omar, H. Shikari, L. M. Aiello, J. K. Sun, and L. P. Aiello, “Peripheral lesions identified on ultrawide field imaging predict increased risk of diabetic retinopathy progression over 4 years,” Ophthalmology 122(5), 949–956 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aiello, L. P.

P. S. Silva, J. D. Cavallerano, N. M. N. Haddad, H. Kwak, K. H. Dyer, A. F. Omar, H. Shikari, L. M. Aiello, J. K. Sun, and L. P. Aiello, “Peripheral lesions identified on ultrawide field imaging predict increased risk of diabetic retinopathy progression over 4 years,” Ophthalmology 122(5), 949–956 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Allingham, M. J.

Armour, R. L.

Y. Jia, E. Wei, X. Wang, X. Zhang, J. C. Morrison, M. Parikh, L. H. Lombardi, D. M. Gattey, R. L. Armour, B. Edmunds, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of Optic Disc Perfusion in Glaucoma,” Ophthalmology 121(7), 1322–1332 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arshavsky, V. Y.

Baeza, A.

M. P. López-Sáez, E. Ordoqui, P. Tornero, A. Baeza, T. Sainza, J. M. Zubeldia, and M. L. Baeza, “Fluorescein-induced allergic reaction,” Ann. Allergy Asthma Immunol. 81(5), 428–430 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baeza, M. L.

M. P. López-Sáez, E. Ordoqui, P. Tornero, A. Baeza, T. Sainza, J. M. Zubeldia, and M. L. Baeza, “Fluorescein-induced allergic reaction,” Ann. Allergy Asthma Immunol. 81(5), 428–430 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bailey, S. T.

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, T. S. Hwang, S. M. McClintic, S. S. Gao, M. E. Pennesi, C. J. Flaxel, A. K. Lauer, D. J. Wilson, J. Hornegger, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of vascular abnormalities in the living human eye,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(18), E2395–E2402 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. S. Hwang, Y. Jia, S. S. Gao, S. T. Bailey, A. K. Lauer, C. J. Flaxel, D. J. Wilson, and D. Huang, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Features of Diabetic Retinopathy,” Retina 35(11), 2371–2376 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Liu, S. S. Gao, S. T. Bailey, D. Huang, D. Li, and Y. Jia, “Automated choroidal neovascularization detection algorithm for optical coherence tomography angiography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(9), 3564–3576 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, O. Tan, M. L. Klein, C. J. Flaxel, B. Potsaid, J. J. Liu, C. D. Lu, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration,” Ophthalmology 121(7), 1435–1444 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barrett, W. A.

E. N. Mortensen and W. A. Barrett, “Intelligent scissors for image composition,” in Proceedings of the 22nd annual conference on Computer graphics and interactive techniques, (ACM, 1995), pp. 191–198.

Baumann, B.

Berenberg, T. L.

S. Kiss and T. L. Berenberg, “Ultra Widefield Fundus Imaging for Diabetic Retinopathy,” Curr. Diab. Rep. 14(8), 514 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bock, R.

Cavallerano, J. D.

P. S. Silva, J. D. Cavallerano, N. M. N. Haddad, H. Kwak, K. H. Dyer, A. F. Omar, H. Shikari, L. M. Aiello, J. K. Sun, and L. P. Aiello, “Peripheral lesions identified on ultrawide field imaging predict increased risk of diabetic retinopathy progression over 4 years,” Ophthalmology 122(5), 949–956 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chao, J. R.

X. Yin, J. R. Chao, and R. K. Wang, “User-guided segmentation for volumetric retinal optical coherence tomography images,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(8), 086020 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, D. Z.

X. Liu, D. Z. Chen, M. H. Tawhai, X. Wu, E. A. Hoffman, and M. Sonka, “Optimal Graph Search Based Segmentation of Airway Tree Double Surfaces Across Bifurcations,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 32(3), 493–510 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, X.

X. Chen, M. Niemeijer, L. Zhang, K. Lee, M. D. Abràmoff, and M. Sonka, “Three-dimensional segmentation of fluid-associated abnormalities in retinal OCT: probability constrained graph-search-graph-cut,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 31(8), 1521–1531 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chiu, S. J.

S. J. Chiu, M. J. Allingham, P. S. Mettu, S. W. Cousins, J. A. Izatt, and S. Farsiu, “Kernel regression based segmentation of optical coherence tomography images with diabetic macular edema,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(4), 1172–1194 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Farsiu, S. J. Chiu, R. V. O’Connell, F. A. Folgar, E. Yuan, J. A. Izatt, C. A. Toth, and Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2 Ancillary Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Study Group, “Quantitative Classification of Eyes with and without Intermediate Age-Related Macular Degeneration Using Optical Coherence Tomography,” Ophthalmology 121(1), 162–172 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. J. Chiu, J. A. Izatt, R. V. O’Connell, K. P. Winter, C. A. Toth, and S. Farsiu, “Validated Automatic Segmentation of AMD Pathology Including Drusen and Geographic Atrophy in SD-OCT Images,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53(1), 53–61 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. J. Chiu, X. T. Li, P. Nicholas, C. A. Toth, J. A. Izatt, and S. Farsiu, “Automatic segmentation of seven retinal layers in SDOCT images congruent with expert manual segmentation,” Opt. Express 18(18), 19413–19428 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Congdon, N.

N. Congdon, B. O’Colmain, C. C. Klaver, R. Klein, B. Muñoz, D. S. Friedman, J. Kempen, H. R. Taylor, P. Mitchell, and Eye Diseases Prevalence Research Group, “Causes and prevalence of visual impairment among adults in the United States,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 122(4), 477–485 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cousins, S. W.

Davis, E.

L. Liu, Y. Jia, H. L. Takusagawa, A. D. Pechauer, B. Edmunds, L. Lombardi, E. Davis, J. C. Morrison, and D. Huang, “Optical coherence tomography angiography of the peripapillary retina in glaucoma,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 133(9), 1045–1052 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Domalpally, A.

M. S. Ip, A. Domalpally, J. K. Sun, and J. S. Ehrlich, “Long-term effects of therapy with ranibizumab on diabetic retinopathy severity and baseline risk factors for worsening retinopathy,” Ophthalmology 122(2), 367–374 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dyer, K. H.

P. S. Silva, J. D. Cavallerano, N. M. N. Haddad, H. Kwak, K. H. Dyer, A. F. Omar, H. Shikari, L. M. Aiello, J. K. Sun, and L. P. Aiello, “Peripheral lesions identified on ultrawide field imaging predict increased risk of diabetic retinopathy progression over 4 years,” Ophthalmology 122(5), 949–956 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Edmunds, B.

L. Liu, Y. Jia, H. L. Takusagawa, A. D. Pechauer, B. Edmunds, L. Lombardi, E. Davis, J. C. Morrison, and D. Huang, “Optical coherence tomography angiography of the peripapillary retina in glaucoma,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 133(9), 1045–1052 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, E. Wei, X. Wang, X. Zhang, J. C. Morrison, M. Parikh, L. H. Lombardi, D. M. Gattey, R. L. Armour, B. Edmunds, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of Optic Disc Perfusion in Glaucoma,” Ophthalmology 121(7), 1322–1332 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ehrlich, J. S.

M. S. Ip, A. Domalpally, J. K. Sun, and J. S. Ehrlich, “Long-term effects of therapy with ranibizumab on diabetic retinopathy severity and baseline risk factors for worsening retinopathy,” Ophthalmology 122(2), 367–374 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Farsiu, S.

S. J. Chiu, M. J. Allingham, P. S. Mettu, S. W. Cousins, J. A. Izatt, and S. Farsiu, “Kernel regression based segmentation of optical coherence tomography images with diabetic macular edema,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(4), 1172–1194 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. P. Srinivasan, S. J. Heflin, J. A. Izatt, V. Y. Arshavsky, and S. Farsiu, “Automatic segmentation of up to ten layer boundaries in SD-OCT images of the mouse retina with and without missing layers due to pathology,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(2), 348–365 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Farsiu, S. J. Chiu, R. V. O’Connell, F. A. Folgar, E. Yuan, J. A. Izatt, C. A. Toth, and Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2 Ancillary Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Study Group, “Quantitative Classification of Eyes with and without Intermediate Age-Related Macular Degeneration Using Optical Coherence Tomography,” Ophthalmology 121(1), 162–172 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. J. Chiu, J. A. Izatt, R. V. O’Connell, K. P. Winter, C. A. Toth, and S. Farsiu, “Validated Automatic Segmentation of AMD Pathology Including Drusen and Geographic Atrophy in SD-OCT Images,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53(1), 53–61 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. J. Chiu, X. T. Li, P. Nicholas, C. A. Toth, J. A. Izatt, and S. Farsiu, “Automatic segmentation of seven retinal layers in SDOCT images congruent with expert manual segmentation,” Opt. Express 18(18), 19413–19428 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Flaxel, C. J.

T. S. Hwang, Y. Jia, S. S. Gao, S. T. Bailey, A. K. Lauer, C. J. Flaxel, D. J. Wilson, and D. Huang, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Features of Diabetic Retinopathy,” Retina 35(11), 2371–2376 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, T. S. Hwang, S. M. McClintic, S. S. Gao, M. E. Pennesi, C. J. Flaxel, A. K. Lauer, D. J. Wilson, J. Hornegger, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of vascular abnormalities in the living human eye,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(18), E2395–E2402 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, O. Tan, M. L. Klein, C. J. Flaxel, B. Potsaid, J. J. Liu, C. D. Lu, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration,” Ophthalmology 121(7), 1435–1444 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Folgar, F. A.

S. Farsiu, S. J. Chiu, R. V. O’Connell, F. A. Folgar, E. Yuan, J. A. Izatt, C. A. Toth, and Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2 Ancillary Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Study Group, “Quantitative Classification of Eyes with and without Intermediate Age-Related Macular Degeneration Using Optical Coherence Tomography,” Ophthalmology 121(1), 162–172 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Friedman, D. S.

N. Congdon, B. O’Colmain, C. C. Klaver, R. Klein, B. Muñoz, D. S. Friedman, J. Kempen, H. R. Taylor, P. Mitchell, and Eye Diseases Prevalence Research Group, “Causes and prevalence of visual impairment among adults in the United States,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 122(4), 477–485 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, T. S. Hwang, S. M. McClintic, S. S. Gao, M. E. Pennesi, C. J. Flaxel, A. K. Lauer, D. J. Wilson, J. Hornegger, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of vascular abnormalities in the living human eye,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(18), E2395–E2402 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, O. Tan, M. L. Klein, C. J. Flaxel, B. Potsaid, J. J. Liu, C. D. Lu, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration,” Ophthalmology 121(7), 1435–1444 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, E. Wei, X. Wang, X. Zhang, J. C. Morrison, M. Parikh, L. H. Lombardi, D. M. Gattey, R. L. Armour, B. Edmunds, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of Optic Disc Perfusion in Glaucoma,” Ophthalmology 121(7), 1322–1332 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. F. Kraus, B. Potsaid, M. A. Mayer, R. Bock, B. Baumann, J. J. Liu, J. Hornegger, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Motion correction in optical coherence tomography volumes on a per A-scan basis using orthogonal scan patterns,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(6), 1182–1199 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, O. Tan, J. Tokayer, B. Potsaid, Y. Wang, J. J. Liu, M. F. Kraus, H. Subhash, J. G. Fujimoto, J. Hornegger, and D. Huang, “Split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography with optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 20(4), 4710–4725 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gao, S. S.

S. S. Gao, G. Liu, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Optimization of the split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography algorithm on a spectral optical coherence tomography system,” Opt. Lett. 40(10), 2305–2308 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Liu, S. S. Gao, S. T. Bailey, D. Huang, D. Li, and Y. Jia, “Automated choroidal neovascularization detection algorithm for optical coherence tomography angiography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(9), 3564–3576 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. D. Pechauer, Y. Jia, L. Liu, S. S. Gao, C. Jiang, and D. Huang, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of Peripapillary Retinal Blood Flow Response to Hyperoxia,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 56(5), 3287–3291 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. S. Hwang, Y. Jia, S. S. Gao, S. T. Bailey, A. K. Lauer, C. J. Flaxel, D. J. Wilson, and D. Huang, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Features of Diabetic Retinopathy,” Retina 35(11), 2371–2376 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, T. S. Hwang, S. M. McClintic, S. S. Gao, M. E. Pennesi, C. J. Flaxel, A. K. Lauer, D. J. Wilson, J. Hornegger, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of vascular abnormalities in the living human eye,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(18), E2395–E2402 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Garvin, M. K.

M. K. Garvin, M. D. Abràmoff, R. Kardon, S. R. Russell, X. Wu, and M. Sonka, “Intraretinal layer segmentation of macular optical coherence tomography images using optimal 3-D graph search,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 27(10), 1495–1505 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gattey, D. M.

Y. Jia, E. Wei, X. Wang, X. Zhang, J. C. Morrison, M. Parikh, L. H. Lombardi, D. M. Gattey, R. L. Armour, B. Edmunds, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of Optic Disc Perfusion in Glaucoma,” Ophthalmology 121(7), 1322–1332 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gruber, A.

Haddad, N. M. N.

P. S. Silva, J. D. Cavallerano, N. M. N. Haddad, H. Kwak, K. H. Dyer, A. F. Omar, H. Shikari, L. M. Aiello, J. K. Sun, and L. P. Aiello, “Peripheral lesions identified on ultrawide field imaging predict increased risk of diabetic retinopathy progression over 4 years,” Ophthalmology 122(5), 949–956 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hanson, S. R.

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Heflin, S. J.

Hoffman, E. A.

X. Liu, D. Z. Chen, M. H. Tawhai, X. Wu, E. A. Hoffman, and M. Sonka, “Optimal Graph Search Based Segmentation of Airway Tree Double Surfaces Across Bifurcations,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 32(3), 493–510 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hornegger, J.

Huang, D.

L. Liu, S. S. Gao, S. T. Bailey, D. Huang, D. Li, and Y. Jia, “Automated choroidal neovascularization detection algorithm for optical coherence tomography angiography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(9), 3564–3576 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. S. Gao, G. Liu, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Optimization of the split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography algorithm on a spectral optical coherence tomography system,” Opt. Lett. 40(10), 2305–2308 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, T. S. Hwang, S. M. McClintic, S. S. Gao, M. E. Pennesi, C. J. Flaxel, A. K. Lauer, D. J. Wilson, J. Hornegger, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of vascular abnormalities in the living human eye,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(18), E2395–E2402 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. S. Hwang, Y. Jia, S. S. Gao, S. T. Bailey, A. K. Lauer, C. J. Flaxel, D. J. Wilson, and D. Huang, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Features of Diabetic Retinopathy,” Retina 35(11), 2371–2376 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Liu, Y. Jia, H. L. Takusagawa, A. D. Pechauer, B. Edmunds, L. Lombardi, E. Davis, J. C. Morrison, and D. Huang, “Optical coherence tomography angiography of the peripapillary retina in glaucoma,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 133(9), 1045–1052 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. D. Pechauer, Y. Jia, L. Liu, S. S. Gao, C. Jiang, and D. Huang, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of Peripapillary Retinal Blood Flow Response to Hyperoxia,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 56(5), 3287–3291 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, E. Wei, X. Wang, X. Zhang, J. C. Morrison, M. Parikh, L. H. Lombardi, D. M. Gattey, R. L. Armour, B. Edmunds, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of Optic Disc Perfusion in Glaucoma,” Ophthalmology 121(7), 1322–1332 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, O. Tan, M. L. Klein, C. J. Flaxel, B. Potsaid, J. J. Liu, C. D. Lu, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration,” Ophthalmology 121(7), 1435–1444 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, O. Tan, J. Tokayer, B. Potsaid, Y. Wang, J. J. Liu, M. F. Kraus, H. Subhash, J. G. Fujimoto, J. Hornegger, and D. Huang, “Split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography with optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 20(4), 4710–4725 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hurst, S.

Hwang, T. S.

T. S. Hwang, Y. Jia, S. S. Gao, S. T. Bailey, A. K. Lauer, C. J. Flaxel, D. J. Wilson, and D. Huang, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Features of Diabetic Retinopathy,” Retina 35(11), 2371–2376 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, T. S. Hwang, S. M. McClintic, S. S. Gao, M. E. Pennesi, C. J. Flaxel, A. K. Lauer, D. J. Wilson, J. Hornegger, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of vascular abnormalities in the living human eye,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(18), E2395–E2402 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ip, M. S.

M. S. Ip, A. Domalpally, J. K. Sun, and J. S. Ehrlich, “Long-term effects of therapy with ranibizumab on diabetic retinopathy severity and baseline risk factors for worsening retinopathy,” Ophthalmology 122(2), 367–374 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ishibazawa, A.

A. Ishibazawa, T. Nagaoka, A. Takahashi, T. Omae, T. Tani, K. Sogawa, H. Yokota, and A. Yoshida, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Diabetic Retinopathy: A Prospective Pilot Study,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 160(1), 35–44 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Izatt, J. A.

S. J. Chiu, M. J. Allingham, P. S. Mettu, S. W. Cousins, J. A. Izatt, and S. Farsiu, “Kernel regression based segmentation of optical coherence tomography images with diabetic macular edema,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(4), 1172–1194 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. P. Srinivasan, S. J. Heflin, J. A. Izatt, V. Y. Arshavsky, and S. Farsiu, “Automatic segmentation of up to ten layer boundaries in SD-OCT images of the mouse retina with and without missing layers due to pathology,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(2), 348–365 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Farsiu, S. J. Chiu, R. V. O’Connell, F. A. Folgar, E. Yuan, J. A. Izatt, C. A. Toth, and Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2 Ancillary Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Study Group, “Quantitative Classification of Eyes with and without Intermediate Age-Related Macular Degeneration Using Optical Coherence Tomography,” Ophthalmology 121(1), 162–172 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. J. Chiu, J. A. Izatt, R. V. O’Connell, K. P. Winter, C. A. Toth, and S. Farsiu, “Validated Automatic Segmentation of AMD Pathology Including Drusen and Geographic Atrophy in SD-OCT Images,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53(1), 53–61 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. J. Chiu, X. T. Li, P. Nicholas, C. A. Toth, J. A. Izatt, and S. Farsiu, “Automatic segmentation of seven retinal layers in SDOCT images congruent with expert manual segmentation,” Opt. Express 18(18), 19413–19428 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jacques, S. L.

Jia, Y.

S. S. Gao, G. Liu, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Optimization of the split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography algorithm on a spectral optical coherence tomography system,” Opt. Lett. 40(10), 2305–2308 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Liu, S. S. Gao, S. T. Bailey, D. Huang, D. Li, and Y. Jia, “Automated choroidal neovascularization detection algorithm for optical coherence tomography angiography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(9), 3564–3576 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. S. Hwang, Y. Jia, S. S. Gao, S. T. Bailey, A. K. Lauer, C. J. Flaxel, D. J. Wilson, and D. Huang, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Features of Diabetic Retinopathy,” Retina 35(11), 2371–2376 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. D. Pechauer, Y. Jia, L. Liu, S. S. Gao, C. Jiang, and D. Huang, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of Peripapillary Retinal Blood Flow Response to Hyperoxia,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 56(5), 3287–3291 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Liu, Y. Jia, H. L. Takusagawa, A. D. Pechauer, B. Edmunds, L. Lombardi, E. Davis, J. C. Morrison, and D. Huang, “Optical coherence tomography angiography of the peripapillary retina in glaucoma,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 133(9), 1045–1052 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, T. S. Hwang, S. M. McClintic, S. S. Gao, M. E. Pennesi, C. J. Flaxel, A. K. Lauer, D. J. Wilson, J. Hornegger, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of vascular abnormalities in the living human eye,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(18), E2395–E2402 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, E. Wei, X. Wang, X. Zhang, J. C. Morrison, M. Parikh, L. H. Lombardi, D. M. Gattey, R. L. Armour, B. Edmunds, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of Optic Disc Perfusion in Glaucoma,” Ophthalmology 121(7), 1322–1332 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, O. Tan, M. L. Klein, C. J. Flaxel, B. Potsaid, J. J. Liu, C. D. Lu, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration,” Ophthalmology 121(7), 1435–1444 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, O. Tan, J. Tokayer, B. Potsaid, Y. Wang, J. J. Liu, M. F. Kraus, H. Subhash, J. G. Fujimoto, J. Hornegger, and D. Huang, “Split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography with optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 20(4), 4710–4725 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jiang, C.

A. D. Pechauer, Y. Jia, L. Liu, S. S. Gao, C. Jiang, and D. Huang, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of Peripapillary Retinal Blood Flow Response to Hyperoxia,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 56(5), 3287–3291 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kardon, R.

M. K. Garvin, M. D. Abràmoff, R. Kardon, S. R. Russell, X. Wu, and M. Sonka, “Intraretinal layer segmentation of macular optical coherence tomography images using optimal 3-D graph search,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 27(10), 1495–1505 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kempen, J.

N. Congdon, B. O’Colmain, C. C. Klaver, R. Klein, B. Muñoz, D. S. Friedman, J. Kempen, H. R. Taylor, P. Mitchell, and Eye Diseases Prevalence Research Group, “Causes and prevalence of visual impairment among adults in the United States,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 122(4), 477–485 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kiss, S.

S. Kiss and T. L. Berenberg, “Ultra Widefield Fundus Imaging for Diabetic Retinopathy,” Curr. Diab. Rep. 14(8), 514 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Klaver, C. C.

N. Congdon, B. O’Colmain, C. C. Klaver, R. Klein, B. Muñoz, D. S. Friedman, J. Kempen, H. R. Taylor, P. Mitchell, and Eye Diseases Prevalence Research Group, “Causes and prevalence of visual impairment among adults in the United States,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 122(4), 477–485 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Klein, M. L.

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, O. Tan, M. L. Klein, C. J. Flaxel, B. Potsaid, J. J. Liu, C. D. Lu, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration,” Ophthalmology 121(7), 1435–1444 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Klein, R.

N. Congdon, B. O’Colmain, C. C. Klaver, R. Klein, B. Muñoz, D. S. Friedman, J. Kempen, H. R. Taylor, P. Mitchell, and Eye Diseases Prevalence Research Group, “Causes and prevalence of visual impairment among adults in the United States,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 122(4), 477–485 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kraus, M. F.

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, O. Tan, M. L. Klein, C. J. Flaxel, B. Potsaid, J. J. Liu, C. D. Lu, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration,” Ophthalmology 121(7), 1435–1444 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, E. Wei, X. Wang, X. Zhang, J. C. Morrison, M. Parikh, L. H. Lombardi, D. M. Gattey, R. L. Armour, B. Edmunds, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of Optic Disc Perfusion in Glaucoma,” Ophthalmology 121(7), 1322–1332 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Y. Jia, O. Tan, J. Tokayer, B. Potsaid, Y. Wang, J. J. Liu, M. F. Kraus, H. Subhash, J. G. Fujimoto, J. Hornegger, and D. Huang, “Split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography with optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 20(4), 4710–4725 (2012).
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Kwak, H.

P. S. Silva, J. D. Cavallerano, N. M. N. Haddad, H. Kwak, K. H. Dyer, A. F. Omar, H. Shikari, L. M. Aiello, J. K. Sun, and L. P. Aiello, “Peripheral lesions identified on ultrawide field imaging predict increased risk of diabetic retinopathy progression over 4 years,” Ophthalmology 122(5), 949–956 (2015).
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Lauer, A. K.

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, T. S. Hwang, S. M. McClintic, S. S. Gao, M. E. Pennesi, C. J. Flaxel, A. K. Lauer, D. J. Wilson, J. Hornegger, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of vascular abnormalities in the living human eye,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(18), E2395–E2402 (2015).
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T. S. Hwang, Y. Jia, S. S. Gao, S. T. Bailey, A. K. Lauer, C. J. Flaxel, D. J. Wilson, and D. Huang, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Features of Diabetic Retinopathy,” Retina 35(11), 2371–2376 (2015).
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Lee, K.

X. Chen, M. Niemeijer, L. Zhang, K. Lee, M. D. Abràmoff, and M. Sonka, “Three-dimensional segmentation of fluid-associated abnormalities in retinal OCT: probability constrained graph-search-graph-cut,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 31(8), 1521–1531 (2012).
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Li, X. T.

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
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Liu, J. J.

Liu, L.

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L. Liu, Y. Jia, H. L. Takusagawa, A. D. Pechauer, B. Edmunds, L. Lombardi, E. Davis, J. C. Morrison, and D. Huang, “Optical coherence tomography angiography of the peripapillary retina in glaucoma,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 133(9), 1045–1052 (2015).
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Liu, X.

X. Liu, D. Z. Chen, M. H. Tawhai, X. Wu, E. A. Hoffman, and M. Sonka, “Optimal Graph Search Based Segmentation of Airway Tree Double Surfaces Across Bifurcations,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 32(3), 493–510 (2013).
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L. Liu, Y. Jia, H. L. Takusagawa, A. D. Pechauer, B. Edmunds, L. Lombardi, E. Davis, J. C. Morrison, and D. Huang, “Optical coherence tomography angiography of the peripapillary retina in glaucoma,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 133(9), 1045–1052 (2015).
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Y. Jia, E. Wei, X. Wang, X. Zhang, J. C. Morrison, M. Parikh, L. H. Lombardi, D. M. Gattey, R. L. Armour, B. Edmunds, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of Optic Disc Perfusion in Glaucoma,” Ophthalmology 121(7), 1322–1332 (2014).
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M. P. López-Sáez, E. Ordoqui, P. Tornero, A. Baeza, T. Sainza, J. M. Zubeldia, and M. L. Baeza, “Fluorescein-induced allergic reaction,” Ann. Allergy Asthma Immunol. 81(5), 428–430 (1998).
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Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, O. Tan, M. L. Klein, C. J. Flaxel, B. Potsaid, J. J. Liu, C. D. Lu, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration,” Ophthalmology 121(7), 1435–1444 (2014).
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Mayer, M. A.

McClintic, S. M.

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, T. S. Hwang, S. M. McClintic, S. S. Gao, M. E. Pennesi, C. J. Flaxel, A. K. Lauer, D. J. Wilson, J. Hornegger, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of vascular abnormalities in the living human eye,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(18), E2395–E2402 (2015).
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L. Liu, Y. Jia, H. L. Takusagawa, A. D. Pechauer, B. Edmunds, L. Lombardi, E. Davis, J. C. Morrison, and D. Huang, “Optical coherence tomography angiography of the peripapillary retina in glaucoma,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 133(9), 1045–1052 (2015).
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Y. Jia, E. Wei, X. Wang, X. Zhang, J. C. Morrison, M. Parikh, L. H. Lombardi, D. M. Gattey, R. L. Armour, B. Edmunds, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of Optic Disc Perfusion in Glaucoma,” Ophthalmology 121(7), 1322–1332 (2014).
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N. Congdon, B. O’Colmain, C. C. Klaver, R. Klein, B. Muñoz, D. S. Friedman, J. Kempen, H. R. Taylor, P. Mitchell, and Eye Diseases Prevalence Research Group, “Causes and prevalence of visual impairment among adults in the United States,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 122(4), 477–485 (2004).
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A. Ishibazawa, T. Nagaoka, A. Takahashi, T. Omae, T. Tani, K. Sogawa, H. Yokota, and A. Yoshida, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Diabetic Retinopathy: A Prospective Pilot Study,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 160(1), 35–44 (2015).
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Niemeijer, M.

X. Chen, M. Niemeijer, L. Zhang, K. Lee, M. D. Abràmoff, and M. Sonka, “Three-dimensional segmentation of fluid-associated abnormalities in retinal OCT: probability constrained graph-search-graph-cut,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 31(8), 1521–1531 (2012).
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N. Congdon, B. O’Colmain, C. C. Klaver, R. Klein, B. Muñoz, D. S. Friedman, J. Kempen, H. R. Taylor, P. Mitchell, and Eye Diseases Prevalence Research Group, “Causes and prevalence of visual impairment among adults in the United States,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 122(4), 477–485 (2004).
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S. Farsiu, S. J. Chiu, R. V. O’Connell, F. A. Folgar, E. Yuan, J. A. Izatt, C. A. Toth, and Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2 Ancillary Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Study Group, “Quantitative Classification of Eyes with and without Intermediate Age-Related Macular Degeneration Using Optical Coherence Tomography,” Ophthalmology 121(1), 162–172 (2014).
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S. J. Chiu, J. A. Izatt, R. V. O’Connell, K. P. Winter, C. A. Toth, and S. Farsiu, “Validated Automatic Segmentation of AMD Pathology Including Drusen and Geographic Atrophy in SD-OCT Images,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53(1), 53–61 (2012).
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Omae, T.

A. Ishibazawa, T. Nagaoka, A. Takahashi, T. Omae, T. Tani, K. Sogawa, H. Yokota, and A. Yoshida, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Diabetic Retinopathy: A Prospective Pilot Study,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 160(1), 35–44 (2015).
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P. S. Silva, J. D. Cavallerano, N. M. N. Haddad, H. Kwak, K. H. Dyer, A. F. Omar, H. Shikari, L. M. Aiello, J. K. Sun, and L. P. Aiello, “Peripheral lesions identified on ultrawide field imaging predict increased risk of diabetic retinopathy progression over 4 years,” Ophthalmology 122(5), 949–956 (2015).
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M. P. López-Sáez, E. Ordoqui, P. Tornero, A. Baeza, T. Sainza, J. M. Zubeldia, and M. L. Baeza, “Fluorescein-induced allergic reaction,” Ann. Allergy Asthma Immunol. 81(5), 428–430 (1998).
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Y. Jia, E. Wei, X. Wang, X. Zhang, J. C. Morrison, M. Parikh, L. H. Lombardi, D. M. Gattey, R. L. Armour, B. Edmunds, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of Optic Disc Perfusion in Glaucoma,” Ophthalmology 121(7), 1322–1332 (2014).
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L. Liu, Y. Jia, H. L. Takusagawa, A. D. Pechauer, B. Edmunds, L. Lombardi, E. Davis, J. C. Morrison, and D. Huang, “Optical coherence tomography angiography of the peripapillary retina in glaucoma,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 133(9), 1045–1052 (2015).
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Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, T. S. Hwang, S. M. McClintic, S. S. Gao, M. E. Pennesi, C. J. Flaxel, A. K. Lauer, D. J. Wilson, J. Hornegger, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of vascular abnormalities in the living human eye,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(18), E2395–E2402 (2015).
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Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
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M. K. Garvin, M. D. Abràmoff, R. Kardon, S. R. Russell, X. Wu, and M. Sonka, “Intraretinal layer segmentation of macular optical coherence tomography images using optimal 3-D graph search,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 27(10), 1495–1505 (2008).
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M. P. López-Sáez, E. Ordoqui, P. Tornero, A. Baeza, T. Sainza, J. M. Zubeldia, and M. L. Baeza, “Fluorescein-induced allergic reaction,” Ann. Allergy Asthma Immunol. 81(5), 428–430 (1998).
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D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
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P. S. Silva, J. D. Cavallerano, N. M. N. Haddad, H. Kwak, K. H. Dyer, A. F. Omar, H. Shikari, L. M. Aiello, J. K. Sun, and L. P. Aiello, “Peripheral lesions identified on ultrawide field imaging predict increased risk of diabetic retinopathy progression over 4 years,” Ophthalmology 122(5), 949–956 (2015).
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A. Ishibazawa, T. Nagaoka, A. Takahashi, T. Omae, T. Tani, K. Sogawa, H. Yokota, and A. Yoshida, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Diabetic Retinopathy: A Prospective Pilot Study,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 160(1), 35–44 (2015).
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X. Liu, D. Z. Chen, M. H. Tawhai, X. Wu, E. A. Hoffman, and M. Sonka, “Optimal Graph Search Based Segmentation of Airway Tree Double Surfaces Across Bifurcations,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 32(3), 493–510 (2013).
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X. Chen, M. Niemeijer, L. Zhang, K. Lee, M. D. Abràmoff, and M. Sonka, “Three-dimensional segmentation of fluid-associated abnormalities in retinal OCT: probability constrained graph-search-graph-cut,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 31(8), 1521–1531 (2012).
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M. K. Garvin, M. D. Abràmoff, R. Kardon, S. R. Russell, X. Wu, and M. Sonka, “Intraretinal layer segmentation of macular optical coherence tomography images using optimal 3-D graph search,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 27(10), 1495–1505 (2008).
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Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
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Sun, J. K.

M. S. Ip, A. Domalpally, J. K. Sun, and J. S. Ehrlich, “Long-term effects of therapy with ranibizumab on diabetic retinopathy severity and baseline risk factors for worsening retinopathy,” Ophthalmology 122(2), 367–374 (2015).
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D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
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A. Ishibazawa, T. Nagaoka, A. Takahashi, T. Omae, T. Tani, K. Sogawa, H. Yokota, and A. Yoshida, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Diabetic Retinopathy: A Prospective Pilot Study,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 160(1), 35–44 (2015).
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Takusagawa, H. L.

L. Liu, Y. Jia, H. L. Takusagawa, A. D. Pechauer, B. Edmunds, L. Lombardi, E. Davis, J. C. Morrison, and D. Huang, “Optical coherence tomography angiography of the peripapillary retina in glaucoma,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 133(9), 1045–1052 (2015).
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Tan, O.

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, O. Tan, M. L. Klein, C. J. Flaxel, B. Potsaid, J. J. Liu, C. D. Lu, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration,” Ophthalmology 121(7), 1435–1444 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, O. Tan, J. Tokayer, B. Potsaid, Y. Wang, J. J. Liu, M. F. Kraus, H. Subhash, J. G. Fujimoto, J. Hornegger, and D. Huang, “Split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography with optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 20(4), 4710–4725 (2012).
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A. Ishibazawa, T. Nagaoka, A. Takahashi, T. Omae, T. Tani, K. Sogawa, H. Yokota, and A. Yoshida, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Diabetic Retinopathy: A Prospective Pilot Study,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 160(1), 35–44 (2015).
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Tawhai, M. H.

X. Liu, D. Z. Chen, M. H. Tawhai, X. Wu, E. A. Hoffman, and M. Sonka, “Optimal Graph Search Based Segmentation of Airway Tree Double Surfaces Across Bifurcations,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 32(3), 493–510 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Taylor, H. R.

N. Congdon, B. O’Colmain, C. C. Klaver, R. Klein, B. Muñoz, D. S. Friedman, J. Kempen, H. R. Taylor, P. Mitchell, and Eye Diseases Prevalence Research Group, “Causes and prevalence of visual impairment among adults in the United States,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 122(4), 477–485 (2004).
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P. Teng, “Caserel - An Open Source Software for Computer-aided Segmentation of Retinal Layers in Optical Coherence Tomography Images,” (2013).

Tokayer, J.

Tornero, P.

M. P. López-Sáez, E. Ordoqui, P. Tornero, A. Baeza, T. Sainza, J. M. Zubeldia, and M. L. Baeza, “Fluorescein-induced allergic reaction,” Ann. Allergy Asthma Immunol. 81(5), 428–430 (1998).
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Toth, C. A.

S. Farsiu, S. J. Chiu, R. V. O’Connell, F. A. Folgar, E. Yuan, J. A. Izatt, C. A. Toth, and Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2 Ancillary Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Study Group, “Quantitative Classification of Eyes with and without Intermediate Age-Related Macular Degeneration Using Optical Coherence Tomography,” Ophthalmology 121(1), 162–172 (2014).
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S. J. Chiu, J. A. Izatt, R. V. O’Connell, K. P. Winter, C. A. Toth, and S. Farsiu, “Validated Automatic Segmentation of AMD Pathology Including Drusen and Geographic Atrophy in SD-OCT Images,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53(1), 53–61 (2012).
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S. J. Chiu, X. T. Li, P. Nicholas, C. A. Toth, J. A. Izatt, and S. Farsiu, “Automatic segmentation of seven retinal layers in SDOCT images congruent with expert manual segmentation,” Opt. Express 18(18), 19413–19428 (2010).
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X. Yin, J. R. Chao, and R. K. Wang, “User-guided segmentation for volumetric retinal optical coherence tomography images,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(8), 086020 (2014).
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Y. Jia, E. Wei, X. Wang, X. Zhang, J. C. Morrison, M. Parikh, L. H. Lombardi, D. M. Gattey, R. L. Armour, B. Edmunds, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of Optic Disc Perfusion in Glaucoma,” Ophthalmology 121(7), 1322–1332 (2014).
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Wang, Y.

Wei, E.

Y. Jia, E. Wei, X. Wang, X. Zhang, J. C. Morrison, M. Parikh, L. H. Lombardi, D. M. Gattey, R. L. Armour, B. Edmunds, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of Optic Disc Perfusion in Glaucoma,” Ophthalmology 121(7), 1322–1332 (2014).
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Wilson, D. J.

T. S. Hwang, Y. Jia, S. S. Gao, S. T. Bailey, A. K. Lauer, C. J. Flaxel, D. J. Wilson, and D. Huang, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Features of Diabetic Retinopathy,” Retina 35(11), 2371–2376 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, T. S. Hwang, S. M. McClintic, S. S. Gao, M. E. Pennesi, C. J. Flaxel, A. K. Lauer, D. J. Wilson, J. Hornegger, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of vascular abnormalities in the living human eye,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(18), E2395–E2402 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, O. Tan, M. L. Klein, C. J. Flaxel, B. Potsaid, J. J. Liu, C. D. Lu, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration,” Ophthalmology 121(7), 1435–1444 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Winter, K. P.

S. J. Chiu, J. A. Izatt, R. V. O’Connell, K. P. Winter, C. A. Toth, and S. Farsiu, “Validated Automatic Segmentation of AMD Pathology Including Drusen and Geographic Atrophy in SD-OCT Images,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53(1), 53–61 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, X.

X. Liu, D. Z. Chen, M. H. Tawhai, X. Wu, E. A. Hoffman, and M. Sonka, “Optimal Graph Search Based Segmentation of Airway Tree Double Surfaces Across Bifurcations,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 32(3), 493–510 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. K. Garvin, M. D. Abràmoff, R. Kardon, S. R. Russell, X. Wu, and M. Sonka, “Intraretinal layer segmentation of macular optical coherence tomography images using optimal 3-D graph search,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 27(10), 1495–1505 (2008).
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Yin, X.

X. Yin, J. R. Chao, and R. K. Wang, “User-guided segmentation for volumetric retinal optical coherence tomography images,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(8), 086020 (2014).
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Yokota, H.

A. Ishibazawa, T. Nagaoka, A. Takahashi, T. Omae, T. Tani, K. Sogawa, H. Yokota, and A. Yoshida, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Diabetic Retinopathy: A Prospective Pilot Study,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 160(1), 35–44 (2015).
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Yoshida, A.

A. Ishibazawa, T. Nagaoka, A. Takahashi, T. Omae, T. Tani, K. Sogawa, H. Yokota, and A. Yoshida, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Diabetic Retinopathy: A Prospective Pilot Study,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 160(1), 35–44 (2015).
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Yuan, E.

S. Farsiu, S. J. Chiu, R. V. O’Connell, F. A. Folgar, E. Yuan, J. A. Izatt, C. A. Toth, and Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2 Ancillary Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Study Group, “Quantitative Classification of Eyes with and without Intermediate Age-Related Macular Degeneration Using Optical Coherence Tomography,” Ophthalmology 121(1), 162–172 (2014).
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Zhang, L.

X. Chen, M. Niemeijer, L. Zhang, K. Lee, M. D. Abràmoff, and M. Sonka, “Three-dimensional segmentation of fluid-associated abnormalities in retinal OCT: probability constrained graph-search-graph-cut,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 31(8), 1521–1531 (2012).
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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Overview of OCT angiography image processing of a healthy macula. (A) The 3D OCT data (3 × 3 × 0.9 mm), after motion correction with structural information overlaid on angiography data. OCT angiogram is computed using the SSADA algorithm. (B-I) After segmentation of the retinal layers, 3D slabs are compressed to 2D and presented as en face maximum projection angiograms. (B) The vitreous angiogram shows the absence of flow. (C) The superficial inner retinal angiogram shows healthy retinal circulation with a small foveal avascular zone. (D) The deep inner retina angiogram shows the deep retinal plexus which is a network of fine vessels. (E) Inner retinal angiogram. (F) The healthy outer retinal slab should be absent of flow, but shows flow projection artifacts from the inner retina. (G) The outer retinal angiogram after projection removal (F minus E). (H) The choriocapillaris angiogram. (I) Retinal thickness map segmented from vitreous/ILM to RPE/BM, the color bar range is 0 to 600 μm. (J) Composite structural and angiogram B-scan images generated after removal of shadowgraphic projection. (K) Composite C-scan images generated by the flattening of OCT structural and angiogram data volume using RPE/BM.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (A) Composite OCT B-scan images with color-coded angiography. Angiography data are overlaid onto the structure images to help graders better visualize the OCT angiography images. Angiography data in the inner retina (between Vitreous/ILM and OPL/ONL) is overlaid as purple, outer retina (between OPL/ONL and IS/OS) as yellow, and choroid (below RPE) as red. (B) Gradient image showing light-to-dark intensity transitions. (C) Inverse gradient image showing dark-to-light intensity transitions.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (A) Common graph search. (B) Directional graph search. The solid line represents a made move and dash line represent a possible move. C is the normalized gradient or normalized inverse gradient. x is the B-scan direction, between 1 and W, while z is the A-scan direction, between 1 and H.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Comparison of performance on pathologic tissue using 2D automated segmentation (A1, B1), and propagated 2D automated segmentation (A2, B2). En face images B1 and B2 maps the position of the OPL/ONL boundary of A1 and A2. Red arrows in A1 and A2 point to the segmentation differences. The colorbar of B1 and B2 is the same as Fig. 1(I).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Illustration of 2D automated segmentation with and without intelligent manual correction. Manual correction (middle image, red crosses) was performed on frame n, and the correction propagated to frame n + 30. Red arrows identify the segmentation differences.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (A) Interactive manual segmentation with intelligent scissors, showing a live segmentation of OPL/ONL when the mouse click at the red cross, setting the start point and moves to the green cross. (B) En face depth map with segmentation performed every 20 frames. (C) En face depth map after interpolation of (B).
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Rendering of the 6 × 6 × 1.6 mm OCT retinal volume data, (A1) original, and (A2) flattened. In (B1) (B2) (C1) (C2), each blue dot represents the A-scan center of mass. The colored curved plane in (B1) shows the fitted center of mass plane, which can be thought of as an estimate of the retinal shape. In (B2), the curved plane is flattened. (C1) and (C2) are B-scan frames with the A-scan center of mass overlaid.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Pathological cases where automated segmentation was accurate (A-D), and severe pathology cases where the automated segmentation contained errors (E-H).
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 (A) Segmentation failure in a 6 × 6 mm image with stark curvature. Note the segmentation error inside the yellow box, and a zoom in is provided at the right side. (B) Corrected segmentation done on the flatten image. (C) Recovered image and segmentation from (B).
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Representative images of AMD cases. The scan size is 3 × 3 mm. A are the composite B-scans. C are the composite en face angiogram of inner retina (purple) and outer retina (yellow). In C2, CNV can be seen as yellow vessels, the CNV area is 0.88 mm2. B are the retinal thickness maps. D are the RPEDC thickness (distance between IS/OS and RPE/BM) maps.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 Representative results of DR cases. The scan size is 3 × 3 mm. (Row A) Edema, cyst, extrudes, RNV, and blood flow in different layers can be visualized on the composite B-scan images. (Row B) The composite en face angiogram of superficial inner retina and vitreous, where the RNV can be easily seen as pink vessels. The yellow line in row B marks the position of the B-scan slices in row A. (Row C) The angiogram of the deep inner retina. The vascular network is different from the superficial inner retina, although there are projection artifacts from the superficial inner retina. (Row D) shows the angiogram of inner retina with nonperfusion areas marked in light blue. The nonperfusion areas are 0.72 mm2, 0.52 mm2, 0.60 mm2, and 0.72 mm2, respectively. (Row E) The retinal thickness, i.e. the distance from Vitreous/ILM to RPE/BM. The color map is the same as in Fig. 1(I).
Fig. 12
Fig. 12 A1, B1, results of 6 × 6 mm scan for the wet AMD case in Fig. 10. A2, B2, results of 6 × 6 mm scan for the PDR without edema case in Fig. 11. The blue square marks the 3 × 3 mm range corresponding to Fig. 10 and Fig. 11.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Average time for processing different clinical cases

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Table 2 Segmentation accuracy of different clinical cases

Equations (3)

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G x,z = I x,z - I x,z-1
C x,z (1) = G x,z min(G) max(G)min(G)
C x,z (2) =1 C x,z (1)

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