Abstract

A new screening technique for neonatal jaundice is proposed exploiting the yellow discoloration in the sclera. It involves taking digital photographs of newborn infants’ eyes (n = 110) and processing the pixel colour values of the sclera to predict the total serum bilirubin (TSB) levels. This technique has linear and rank correlation coefficients of 0.75 and 0.72 (both p<0.01) with the measured TSB. The mean difference ( ± SD) is 0.00 ± 41.60 µmol/l. The receiver operating characteristic curve shows that this technique can identify subjects with TSB above 205 µmol/l with sensitivity of 1.00 and specificity of 0.50, showing its potential as a screening device.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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2015 (1)

Z. Liu and J. Zerubia, “Skin image illumination modeling and chromophore identification for melanoma diagnosis,” Phys. Med. Biol. 60(9), 3415–3431 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (1)

G. Nagar, B. Vandermeer, S. Campbell, and M. Kumar, “Reliability of transcutaneous bilirubin devices in preterm infants: a systematic review,” Pediatrics 132(5), 871–881 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

C. Romagnoli, E. Zecca, P. Catenazzi, G. Barone, and A. A. Zuppa, “Transcutaneous bilirubin measurement: Comparison of Respironics BiliCheck and JM-103 in a normal newborn population,” Clin. Biochem. 45(9), 659–662 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

A. N. Bashkatov, E. A. Genina, V. I. Kochubey, and V. V. Tuchin, “Optical properties of human sclera in spectral range 370–2500 nm,” Opt. Spectrosc. 109(2), 197–204 (2010).
[Crossref]

L. Y. Siu, L. W. Siu, S. K. Au, K. W. Li, T. K. Tsui, Y. Y. Chang, G. P. Lee, and N. S. Kwong, “Evaluation of a transcutaneous bilirubinometer with two optical paths in Chinese preterm infants,” Hong Kong J. Paediatr. 15, 132–140 (2010).

M. Ahmed, S. Mostafa, G. Fisher, and T. M. Reynolds, “Comparison between transcutaneous bilirubinometry and total serum bilirubin measurements in preterm infants <35 weeks gestation,” Ann. Clin. Biochem. 47(1), 72–77 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (5)

T. Karen, H. U. Bucher, and J. C. Fauchère, “Comparison of a new transcutaneous bilirubinometer (Bilimed) with serum bilirubin measurements in preterm and full-term infants,” BMC Pediatr. 9(1), 70 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. N. El-Beshbishi, K. E. Shattuck, A. A. Mohammad, and J. R. Petersen, “Hyperbilirubinemia and transcutaneous bilirubinometry,” Clin. Chem. 55(7), 1280–1287 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Keren, K. Tremont, X. Luan, and A. Cnaan, “Visual assessment of jaundice in term and late preterm infants,” Arch. Dis. Child. Fetal Neonatal Ed. 94(5), F317–F322 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. T. Schmidt, C. A. Wheeler, G. L. Jackson, and W. D. Engle, “Evaluation of transcutaneous bilirubinometry in preterm neonates,” J. Perinatol. 29(8), 564–569 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Leartveravat, “Transcutaneous bilirubin measurement in full term neonate by digital camera,” Medical Journal of Srisaket Surin Buriram Hospitals 24, 105–118 (2009).

2007 (2)

S. Sanpavat and I. Nuchprayoon, “Transcutaneous bilirubin in the pre-term infants,” J. Med. Assoc. Thai. 90(9), 1803–1808 (2007).
[PubMed]

D. De Luca, E. Zecca, P. de Turris, G. Barbato, M. Marras, and C. Romagnoli, “Using BiliCheck™ for preterm neonates in a sub-intensive unit: Diagnostic usefulness and suitability,” Early Hum. Dev. 83(5), 313–317 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

K. Jangaard, H. Curtis, and R. Goldbloom, “Estimation of bilirubin using BiliChek, a transcutaneous bilirubin measurement device: Effects of gestational age and use of phototherapy,” Paediatr. Child Health 11(2), 79–83 (2006).
[PubMed]

2004 (3)

P. Szabo, M. Wolf, H. U. Bucher, J. C. Fauchère, D. Haensse, and R. Arlettaz, “Detection of hyperbilirubinaemia in jaundiced full-term neonates by eye or by bilirubinometer?” Eur. J. Pediatr. 163(12), 722–727 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. A. Willems, L. M. van den Berg, H. de Wit, and A. Molendijk, “Transcutaneous bilirubinometry with the Bilicheck in very premature newborns,” J. Matern. Fetal Neonatal Med. 16(4), 209–214 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. G. Watson and R. D. Young, “Scleral structure, organisation and disease. A review,” Exp. Eye Res. 78(3), 609–623 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

S. Yasuda, S. Itoh, K. Isobe, M. Yonetani, H. Nakamura, M. Nakamura, Y. Yamauchi, and A. Yamanishi, “New transcutaneous jaundice device with two optical paths,” J. Perinat. Med. 31(1), 81–88 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

J. J. Kuiper, “Conjunctival Icterus,” Ann. Intern. Med. 134(4), 345–346 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

A. P. Bradley, “The use of the area under the ROC curve in the evaluation of machine learning algorithms,” Pattern Recognit. 30(7), 1145–1159 (1997).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

M. H. Zweig and G. Campbell, “Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) plots: a fundamental evaluation tool in clinical medicine,” Clin. Chem. 39(4), 561–577 (1993).
[PubMed]

1986 (1)

J. M. Bland and D. G. Altman, “Statistical methods for assessing agreement between two methods of clinical measurement,” Lancet 327(8476), 307–310 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1969 (1)

L. I. Kramer, “Advancement of dermal icterus in the jaundiced newborn,” Am. J. Dis. Child. 118(3), 454–458 (1969).
[PubMed]

1950 (1)

W. J. Youden, “Index for rating diagnostic tests,” Cancer 3(1), 32–35 (1950).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ahmed, M.

M. Ahmed, S. Mostafa, G. Fisher, and T. M. Reynolds, “Comparison between transcutaneous bilirubinometry and total serum bilirubin measurements in preterm infants <35 weeks gestation,” Ann. Clin. Biochem. 47(1), 72–77 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Altman, D. G.

J. M. Bland and D. G. Altman, “Statistical methods for assessing agreement between two methods of clinical measurement,” Lancet 327(8476), 307–310 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arlettaz, R.

P. Szabo, M. Wolf, H. U. Bucher, J. C. Fauchère, D. Haensse, and R. Arlettaz, “Detection of hyperbilirubinaemia in jaundiced full-term neonates by eye or by bilirubinometer?” Eur. J. Pediatr. 163(12), 722–727 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Au, S. K.

L. Y. Siu, L. W. Siu, S. K. Au, K. W. Li, T. K. Tsui, Y. Y. Chang, G. P. Lee, and N. S. Kwong, “Evaluation of a transcutaneous bilirubinometer with two optical paths in Chinese preterm infants,” Hong Kong J. Paediatr. 15, 132–140 (2010).

Barbato, G.

D. De Luca, E. Zecca, P. de Turris, G. Barbato, M. Marras, and C. Romagnoli, “Using BiliCheck™ for preterm neonates in a sub-intensive unit: Diagnostic usefulness and suitability,” Early Hum. Dev. 83(5), 313–317 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barone, G.

C. Romagnoli, E. Zecca, P. Catenazzi, G. Barone, and A. A. Zuppa, “Transcutaneous bilirubin measurement: Comparison of Respironics BiliCheck and JM-103 in a normal newborn population,” Clin. Biochem. 45(9), 659–662 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bashkatov, A. N.

A. N. Bashkatov, E. A. Genina, V. I. Kochubey, and V. V. Tuchin, “Optical properties of human sclera in spectral range 370–2500 nm,” Opt. Spectrosc. 109(2), 197–204 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bland, J. M.

J. M. Bland and D. G. Altman, “Statistical methods for assessing agreement between two methods of clinical measurement,” Lancet 327(8476), 307–310 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bradley, A. P.

A. P. Bradley, “The use of the area under the ROC curve in the evaluation of machine learning algorithms,” Pattern Recognit. 30(7), 1145–1159 (1997).
[Crossref]

Bucher, H. U.

T. Karen, H. U. Bucher, and J. C. Fauchère, “Comparison of a new transcutaneous bilirubinometer (Bilimed) with serum bilirubin measurements in preterm and full-term infants,” BMC Pediatr. 9(1), 70 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Szabo, M. Wolf, H. U. Bucher, J. C. Fauchère, D. Haensse, and R. Arlettaz, “Detection of hyperbilirubinaemia in jaundiced full-term neonates by eye or by bilirubinometer?” Eur. J. Pediatr. 163(12), 722–727 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Campbell, G.

M. H. Zweig and G. Campbell, “Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) plots: a fundamental evaluation tool in clinical medicine,” Clin. Chem. 39(4), 561–577 (1993).
[PubMed]

Campbell, S.

G. Nagar, B. Vandermeer, S. Campbell, and M. Kumar, “Reliability of transcutaneous bilirubin devices in preterm infants: a systematic review,” Pediatrics 132(5), 871–881 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Catenazzi, P.

C. Romagnoli, E. Zecca, P. Catenazzi, G. Barone, and A. A. Zuppa, “Transcutaneous bilirubin measurement: Comparison of Respironics BiliCheck and JM-103 in a normal newborn population,” Clin. Biochem. 45(9), 659–662 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, Y. Y.

L. Y. Siu, L. W. Siu, S. K. Au, K. W. Li, T. K. Tsui, Y. Y. Chang, G. P. Lee, and N. S. Kwong, “Evaluation of a transcutaneous bilirubinometer with two optical paths in Chinese preterm infants,” Hong Kong J. Paediatr. 15, 132–140 (2010).

Cnaan, A.

R. Keren, K. Tremont, X. Luan, and A. Cnaan, “Visual assessment of jaundice in term and late preterm infants,” Arch. Dis. Child. Fetal Neonatal Ed. 94(5), F317–F322 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Curtis, H.

K. Jangaard, H. Curtis, and R. Goldbloom, “Estimation of bilirubin using BiliChek, a transcutaneous bilirubin measurement device: Effects of gestational age and use of phototherapy,” Paediatr. Child Health 11(2), 79–83 (2006).
[PubMed]

De Luca, D.

D. De Luca, E. Zecca, P. de Turris, G. Barbato, M. Marras, and C. Romagnoli, “Using BiliCheck™ for preterm neonates in a sub-intensive unit: Diagnostic usefulness and suitability,” Early Hum. Dev. 83(5), 313–317 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

de Turris, P.

D. De Luca, E. Zecca, P. de Turris, G. Barbato, M. Marras, and C. Romagnoli, “Using BiliCheck™ for preterm neonates in a sub-intensive unit: Diagnostic usefulness and suitability,” Early Hum. Dev. 83(5), 313–317 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

de Wit, H.

W. A. Willems, L. M. van den Berg, H. de Wit, and A. Molendijk, “Transcutaneous bilirubinometry with the Bilicheck in very premature newborns,” J. Matern. Fetal Neonatal Med. 16(4), 209–214 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

El-Beshbishi, S. N.

S. N. El-Beshbishi, K. E. Shattuck, A. A. Mohammad, and J. R. Petersen, “Hyperbilirubinemia and transcutaneous bilirubinometry,” Clin. Chem. 55(7), 1280–1287 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Engle, W. D.

E. T. Schmidt, C. A. Wheeler, G. L. Jackson, and W. D. Engle, “Evaluation of transcutaneous bilirubinometry in preterm neonates,” J. Perinatol. 29(8), 564–569 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fauchère, J. C.

T. Karen, H. U. Bucher, and J. C. Fauchère, “Comparison of a new transcutaneous bilirubinometer (Bilimed) with serum bilirubin measurements in preterm and full-term infants,” BMC Pediatr. 9(1), 70 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Szabo, M. Wolf, H. U. Bucher, J. C. Fauchère, D. Haensse, and R. Arlettaz, “Detection of hyperbilirubinaemia in jaundiced full-term neonates by eye or by bilirubinometer?” Eur. J. Pediatr. 163(12), 722–727 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fisher, G.

M. Ahmed, S. Mostafa, G. Fisher, and T. M. Reynolds, “Comparison between transcutaneous bilirubinometry and total serum bilirubin measurements in preterm infants <35 weeks gestation,” Ann. Clin. Biochem. 47(1), 72–77 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Genina, E. A.

A. N. Bashkatov, E. A. Genina, V. I. Kochubey, and V. V. Tuchin, “Optical properties of human sclera in spectral range 370–2500 nm,” Opt. Spectrosc. 109(2), 197–204 (2010).
[Crossref]

Goldbloom, R.

K. Jangaard, H. Curtis, and R. Goldbloom, “Estimation of bilirubin using BiliChek, a transcutaneous bilirubin measurement device: Effects of gestational age and use of phototherapy,” Paediatr. Child Health 11(2), 79–83 (2006).
[PubMed]

Guilliam, A.

T. S. Leung, A. Guilliam, L. MacDonald, and J. Meek, “Investigation of the relationship between the sclera colour of the eye and the serum bilirubin level in newborn infants,” in 42nd Annual Meeting of the International Society on Oxygen Transport to Tissue, (London, 2014).

Haensse, D.

P. Szabo, M. Wolf, H. U. Bucher, J. C. Fauchère, D. Haensse, and R. Arlettaz, “Detection of hyperbilirubinaemia in jaundiced full-term neonates by eye or by bilirubinometer?” Eur. J. Pediatr. 163(12), 722–727 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Isobe, K.

S. Yasuda, S. Itoh, K. Isobe, M. Yonetani, H. Nakamura, M. Nakamura, Y. Yamauchi, and A. Yamanishi, “New transcutaneous jaundice device with two optical paths,” J. Perinat. Med. 31(1), 81–88 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Itoh, S.

S. Yasuda, S. Itoh, K. Isobe, M. Yonetani, H. Nakamura, M. Nakamura, Y. Yamauchi, and A. Yamanishi, “New transcutaneous jaundice device with two optical paths,” J. Perinat. Med. 31(1), 81–88 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jackson, G. L.

E. T. Schmidt, C. A. Wheeler, G. L. Jackson, and W. D. Engle, “Evaluation of transcutaneous bilirubinometry in preterm neonates,” J. Perinatol. 29(8), 564–569 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jangaard, K.

K. Jangaard, H. Curtis, and R. Goldbloom, “Estimation of bilirubin using BiliChek, a transcutaneous bilirubin measurement device: Effects of gestational age and use of phototherapy,” Paediatr. Child Health 11(2), 79–83 (2006).
[PubMed]

Karen, T.

T. Karen, H. U. Bucher, and J. C. Fauchère, “Comparison of a new transcutaneous bilirubinometer (Bilimed) with serum bilirubin measurements in preterm and full-term infants,” BMC Pediatr. 9(1), 70 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Keren, R.

R. Keren, K. Tremont, X. Luan, and A. Cnaan, “Visual assessment of jaundice in term and late preterm infants,” Arch. Dis. Child. Fetal Neonatal Ed. 94(5), F317–F322 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kochubey, V. I.

A. N. Bashkatov, E. A. Genina, V. I. Kochubey, and V. V. Tuchin, “Optical properties of human sclera in spectral range 370–2500 nm,” Opt. Spectrosc. 109(2), 197–204 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kramer, L. I.

L. I. Kramer, “Advancement of dermal icterus in the jaundiced newborn,” Am. J. Dis. Child. 118(3), 454–458 (1969).
[PubMed]

Kuiper, J. J.

J. J. Kuiper, “Conjunctival Icterus,” Ann. Intern. Med. 134(4), 345–346 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kumar, M.

G. Nagar, B. Vandermeer, S. Campbell, and M. Kumar, “Reliability of transcutaneous bilirubin devices in preterm infants: a systematic review,” Pediatrics 132(5), 871–881 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kwong, N. S.

L. Y. Siu, L. W. Siu, S. K. Au, K. W. Li, T. K. Tsui, Y. Y. Chang, G. P. Lee, and N. S. Kwong, “Evaluation of a transcutaneous bilirubinometer with two optical paths in Chinese preterm infants,” Hong Kong J. Paediatr. 15, 132–140 (2010).

Leartveravat, S.

S. Leartveravat, “Transcutaneous bilirubin measurement in full term neonate by digital camera,” Medical Journal of Srisaket Surin Buriram Hospitals 24, 105–118 (2009).

Lee, G. P.

L. Y. Siu, L. W. Siu, S. K. Au, K. W. Li, T. K. Tsui, Y. Y. Chang, G. P. Lee, and N. S. Kwong, “Evaluation of a transcutaneous bilirubinometer with two optical paths in Chinese preterm infants,” Hong Kong J. Paediatr. 15, 132–140 (2010).

Leung, T. S.

T. S. Leung, A. Guilliam, L. MacDonald, and J. Meek, “Investigation of the relationship between the sclera colour of the eye and the serum bilirubin level in newborn infants,” in 42nd Annual Meeting of the International Society on Oxygen Transport to Tissue, (London, 2014).

Li, K. W.

L. Y. Siu, L. W. Siu, S. K. Au, K. W. Li, T. K. Tsui, Y. Y. Chang, G. P. Lee, and N. S. Kwong, “Evaluation of a transcutaneous bilirubinometer with two optical paths in Chinese preterm infants,” Hong Kong J. Paediatr. 15, 132–140 (2010).

Liu, Z.

Z. Liu and J. Zerubia, “Skin image illumination modeling and chromophore identification for melanoma diagnosis,” Phys. Med. Biol. 60(9), 3415–3431 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Luan, X.

R. Keren, K. Tremont, X. Luan, and A. Cnaan, “Visual assessment of jaundice in term and late preterm infants,” Arch. Dis. Child. Fetal Neonatal Ed. 94(5), F317–F322 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

MacDonald, L.

T. S. Leung, A. Guilliam, L. MacDonald, and J. Meek, “Investigation of the relationship between the sclera colour of the eye and the serum bilirubin level in newborn infants,” in 42nd Annual Meeting of the International Society on Oxygen Transport to Tissue, (London, 2014).

Marras, M.

D. De Luca, E. Zecca, P. de Turris, G. Barbato, M. Marras, and C. Romagnoli, “Using BiliCheck™ for preterm neonates in a sub-intensive unit: Diagnostic usefulness and suitability,” Early Hum. Dev. 83(5), 313–317 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Meek, J.

T. S. Leung, A. Guilliam, L. MacDonald, and J. Meek, “Investigation of the relationship between the sclera colour of the eye and the serum bilirubin level in newborn infants,” in 42nd Annual Meeting of the International Society on Oxygen Transport to Tissue, (London, 2014).

Mohammad, A. A.

S. N. El-Beshbishi, K. E. Shattuck, A. A. Mohammad, and J. R. Petersen, “Hyperbilirubinemia and transcutaneous bilirubinometry,” Clin. Chem. 55(7), 1280–1287 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Molendijk, A.

W. A. Willems, L. M. van den Berg, H. de Wit, and A. Molendijk, “Transcutaneous bilirubinometry with the Bilicheck in very premature newborns,” J. Matern. Fetal Neonatal Med. 16(4), 209–214 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mostafa, S.

M. Ahmed, S. Mostafa, G. Fisher, and T. M. Reynolds, “Comparison between transcutaneous bilirubinometry and total serum bilirubin measurements in preterm infants <35 weeks gestation,” Ann. Clin. Biochem. 47(1), 72–77 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nagar, G.

G. Nagar, B. Vandermeer, S. Campbell, and M. Kumar, “Reliability of transcutaneous bilirubin devices in preterm infants: a systematic review,” Pediatrics 132(5), 871–881 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nakamura, H.

S. Yasuda, S. Itoh, K. Isobe, M. Yonetani, H. Nakamura, M. Nakamura, Y. Yamauchi, and A. Yamanishi, “New transcutaneous jaundice device with two optical paths,” J. Perinat. Med. 31(1), 81–88 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nakamura, M.

S. Yasuda, S. Itoh, K. Isobe, M. Yonetani, H. Nakamura, M. Nakamura, Y. Yamauchi, and A. Yamanishi, “New transcutaneous jaundice device with two optical paths,” J. Perinat. Med. 31(1), 81–88 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nuchprayoon, I.

S. Sanpavat and I. Nuchprayoon, “Transcutaneous bilirubin in the pre-term infants,” J. Med. Assoc. Thai. 90(9), 1803–1808 (2007).
[PubMed]

Petersen, J. R.

S. N. El-Beshbishi, K. E. Shattuck, A. A. Mohammad, and J. R. Petersen, “Hyperbilirubinemia and transcutaneous bilirubinometry,” Clin. Chem. 55(7), 1280–1287 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reynolds, T. M.

M. Ahmed, S. Mostafa, G. Fisher, and T. M. Reynolds, “Comparison between transcutaneous bilirubinometry and total serum bilirubin measurements in preterm infants <35 weeks gestation,” Ann. Clin. Biochem. 47(1), 72–77 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Romagnoli, C.

C. Romagnoli, E. Zecca, P. Catenazzi, G. Barone, and A. A. Zuppa, “Transcutaneous bilirubin measurement: Comparison of Respironics BiliCheck and JM-103 in a normal newborn population,” Clin. Biochem. 45(9), 659–662 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. De Luca, E. Zecca, P. de Turris, G. Barbato, M. Marras, and C. Romagnoli, “Using BiliCheck™ for preterm neonates in a sub-intensive unit: Diagnostic usefulness and suitability,” Early Hum. Dev. 83(5), 313–317 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sanpavat, S.

S. Sanpavat and I. Nuchprayoon, “Transcutaneous bilirubin in the pre-term infants,” J. Med. Assoc. Thai. 90(9), 1803–1808 (2007).
[PubMed]

Schmidt, E. T.

E. T. Schmidt, C. A. Wheeler, G. L. Jackson, and W. D. Engle, “Evaluation of transcutaneous bilirubinometry in preterm neonates,” J. Perinatol. 29(8), 564–569 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shattuck, K. E.

S. N. El-Beshbishi, K. E. Shattuck, A. A. Mohammad, and J. R. Petersen, “Hyperbilirubinemia and transcutaneous bilirubinometry,” Clin. Chem. 55(7), 1280–1287 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Siu, L. W.

L. Y. Siu, L. W. Siu, S. K. Au, K. W. Li, T. K. Tsui, Y. Y. Chang, G. P. Lee, and N. S. Kwong, “Evaluation of a transcutaneous bilirubinometer with two optical paths in Chinese preterm infants,” Hong Kong J. Paediatr. 15, 132–140 (2010).

Siu, L. Y.

L. Y. Siu, L. W. Siu, S. K. Au, K. W. Li, T. K. Tsui, Y. Y. Chang, G. P. Lee, and N. S. Kwong, “Evaluation of a transcutaneous bilirubinometer with two optical paths in Chinese preterm infants,” Hong Kong J. Paediatr. 15, 132–140 (2010).

Szabo, P.

P. Szabo, M. Wolf, H. U. Bucher, J. C. Fauchère, D. Haensse, and R. Arlettaz, “Detection of hyperbilirubinaemia in jaundiced full-term neonates by eye or by bilirubinometer?” Eur. J. Pediatr. 163(12), 722–727 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tremont, K.

R. Keren, K. Tremont, X. Luan, and A. Cnaan, “Visual assessment of jaundice in term and late preterm infants,” Arch. Dis. Child. Fetal Neonatal Ed. 94(5), F317–F322 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tsui, T. K.

L. Y. Siu, L. W. Siu, S. K. Au, K. W. Li, T. K. Tsui, Y. Y. Chang, G. P. Lee, and N. S. Kwong, “Evaluation of a transcutaneous bilirubinometer with two optical paths in Chinese preterm infants,” Hong Kong J. Paediatr. 15, 132–140 (2010).

Tuchin, V. V.

A. N. Bashkatov, E. A. Genina, V. I. Kochubey, and V. V. Tuchin, “Optical properties of human sclera in spectral range 370–2500 nm,” Opt. Spectrosc. 109(2), 197–204 (2010).
[Crossref]

van den Berg, L. M.

W. A. Willems, L. M. van den Berg, H. de Wit, and A. Molendijk, “Transcutaneous bilirubinometry with the Bilicheck in very premature newborns,” J. Matern. Fetal Neonatal Med. 16(4), 209–214 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vandermeer, B.

G. Nagar, B. Vandermeer, S. Campbell, and M. Kumar, “Reliability of transcutaneous bilirubin devices in preterm infants: a systematic review,” Pediatrics 132(5), 871–881 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Watson, P. G.

P. G. Watson and R. D. Young, “Scleral structure, organisation and disease. A review,” Exp. Eye Res. 78(3), 609–623 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wheeler, C. A.

E. T. Schmidt, C. A. Wheeler, G. L. Jackson, and W. D. Engle, “Evaluation of transcutaneous bilirubinometry in preterm neonates,” J. Perinatol. 29(8), 564–569 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Willems, W. A.

W. A. Willems, L. M. van den Berg, H. de Wit, and A. Molendijk, “Transcutaneous bilirubinometry with the Bilicheck in very premature newborns,” J. Matern. Fetal Neonatal Med. 16(4), 209–214 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wolf, M.

P. Szabo, M. Wolf, H. U. Bucher, J. C. Fauchère, D. Haensse, and R. Arlettaz, “Detection of hyperbilirubinaemia in jaundiced full-term neonates by eye or by bilirubinometer?” Eur. J. Pediatr. 163(12), 722–727 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yamanishi, A.

S. Yasuda, S. Itoh, K. Isobe, M. Yonetani, H. Nakamura, M. Nakamura, Y. Yamauchi, and A. Yamanishi, “New transcutaneous jaundice device with two optical paths,” J. Perinat. Med. 31(1), 81–88 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yamauchi, Y.

S. Yasuda, S. Itoh, K. Isobe, M. Yonetani, H. Nakamura, M. Nakamura, Y. Yamauchi, and A. Yamanishi, “New transcutaneous jaundice device with two optical paths,” J. Perinat. Med. 31(1), 81–88 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yasuda, S.

S. Yasuda, S. Itoh, K. Isobe, M. Yonetani, H. Nakamura, M. Nakamura, Y. Yamauchi, and A. Yamanishi, “New transcutaneous jaundice device with two optical paths,” J. Perinat. Med. 31(1), 81–88 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yonetani, M.

S. Yasuda, S. Itoh, K. Isobe, M. Yonetani, H. Nakamura, M. Nakamura, Y. Yamauchi, and A. Yamanishi, “New transcutaneous jaundice device with two optical paths,” J. Perinat. Med. 31(1), 81–88 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Youden, W. J.

W. J. Youden, “Index for rating diagnostic tests,” Cancer 3(1), 32–35 (1950).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Young, R. D.

P. G. Watson and R. D. Young, “Scleral structure, organisation and disease. A review,” Exp. Eye Res. 78(3), 609–623 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zecca, E.

C. Romagnoli, E. Zecca, P. Catenazzi, G. Barone, and A. A. Zuppa, “Transcutaneous bilirubin measurement: Comparison of Respironics BiliCheck and JM-103 in a normal newborn population,” Clin. Biochem. 45(9), 659–662 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. De Luca, E. Zecca, P. de Turris, G. Barbato, M. Marras, and C. Romagnoli, “Using BiliCheck™ for preterm neonates in a sub-intensive unit: Diagnostic usefulness and suitability,” Early Hum. Dev. 83(5), 313–317 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zerubia, J.

Z. Liu and J. Zerubia, “Skin image illumination modeling and chromophore identification for melanoma diagnosis,” Phys. Med. Biol. 60(9), 3415–3431 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zuppa, A. A.

C. Romagnoli, E. Zecca, P. Catenazzi, G. Barone, and A. A. Zuppa, “Transcutaneous bilirubin measurement: Comparison of Respironics BiliCheck and JM-103 in a normal newborn population,” Clin. Biochem. 45(9), 659–662 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zweig, M. H.

M. H. Zweig and G. Campbell, “Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) plots: a fundamental evaluation tool in clinical medicine,” Clin. Chem. 39(4), 561–577 (1993).
[PubMed]

Am. J. Dis. Child. (1)

L. I. Kramer, “Advancement of dermal icterus in the jaundiced newborn,” Am. J. Dis. Child. 118(3), 454–458 (1969).
[PubMed]

Ann. Clin. Biochem. (1)

M. Ahmed, S. Mostafa, G. Fisher, and T. M. Reynolds, “Comparison between transcutaneous bilirubinometry and total serum bilirubin measurements in preterm infants <35 weeks gestation,” Ann. Clin. Biochem. 47(1), 72–77 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ann. Intern. Med. (1)

J. J. Kuiper, “Conjunctival Icterus,” Ann. Intern. Med. 134(4), 345–346 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arch. Dis. Child. Fetal Neonatal Ed. (1)

R. Keren, K. Tremont, X. Luan, and A. Cnaan, “Visual assessment of jaundice in term and late preterm infants,” Arch. Dis. Child. Fetal Neonatal Ed. 94(5), F317–F322 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

BMC Pediatr. (1)

T. Karen, H. U. Bucher, and J. C. Fauchère, “Comparison of a new transcutaneous bilirubinometer (Bilimed) with serum bilirubin measurements in preterm and full-term infants,” BMC Pediatr. 9(1), 70 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cancer (1)

W. J. Youden, “Index for rating diagnostic tests,” Cancer 3(1), 32–35 (1950).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Clin. Biochem. (1)

C. Romagnoli, E. Zecca, P. Catenazzi, G. Barone, and A. A. Zuppa, “Transcutaneous bilirubin measurement: Comparison of Respironics BiliCheck and JM-103 in a normal newborn population,” Clin. Biochem. 45(9), 659–662 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Clin. Chem. (2)

S. N. El-Beshbishi, K. E. Shattuck, A. A. Mohammad, and J. R. Petersen, “Hyperbilirubinemia and transcutaneous bilirubinometry,” Clin. Chem. 55(7), 1280–1287 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. H. Zweig and G. Campbell, “Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) plots: a fundamental evaluation tool in clinical medicine,” Clin. Chem. 39(4), 561–577 (1993).
[PubMed]

Early Hum. Dev. (1)

D. De Luca, E. Zecca, P. de Turris, G. Barbato, M. Marras, and C. Romagnoli, “Using BiliCheck™ for preterm neonates in a sub-intensive unit: Diagnostic usefulness and suitability,” Early Hum. Dev. 83(5), 313–317 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eur. J. Pediatr. (1)

P. Szabo, M. Wolf, H. U. Bucher, J. C. Fauchère, D. Haensse, and R. Arlettaz, “Detection of hyperbilirubinaemia in jaundiced full-term neonates by eye or by bilirubinometer?” Eur. J. Pediatr. 163(12), 722–727 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Exp. Eye Res. (1)

P. G. Watson and R. D. Young, “Scleral structure, organisation and disease. A review,” Exp. Eye Res. 78(3), 609–623 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hong Kong J. Paediatr. (1)

L. Y. Siu, L. W. Siu, S. K. Au, K. W. Li, T. K. Tsui, Y. Y. Chang, G. P. Lee, and N. S. Kwong, “Evaluation of a transcutaneous bilirubinometer with two optical paths in Chinese preterm infants,” Hong Kong J. Paediatr. 15, 132–140 (2010).

J. Matern. Fetal Neonatal Med. (1)

W. A. Willems, L. M. van den Berg, H. de Wit, and A. Molendijk, “Transcutaneous bilirubinometry with the Bilicheck in very premature newborns,” J. Matern. Fetal Neonatal Med. 16(4), 209–214 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Med. Assoc. Thai. (1)

S. Sanpavat and I. Nuchprayoon, “Transcutaneous bilirubin in the pre-term infants,” J. Med. Assoc. Thai. 90(9), 1803–1808 (2007).
[PubMed]

J. Perinat. Med. (1)

S. Yasuda, S. Itoh, K. Isobe, M. Yonetani, H. Nakamura, M. Nakamura, Y. Yamauchi, and A. Yamanishi, “New transcutaneous jaundice device with two optical paths,” J. Perinat. Med. 31(1), 81–88 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Perinatol. (1)

E. T. Schmidt, C. A. Wheeler, G. L. Jackson, and W. D. Engle, “Evaluation of transcutaneous bilirubinometry in preterm neonates,” J. Perinatol. 29(8), 564–569 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lancet (1)

J. M. Bland and D. G. Altman, “Statistical methods for assessing agreement between two methods of clinical measurement,” Lancet 327(8476), 307–310 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Medical Journal of Srisaket Surin Buriram Hospitals (1)

S. Leartveravat, “Transcutaneous bilirubin measurement in full term neonate by digital camera,” Medical Journal of Srisaket Surin Buriram Hospitals 24, 105–118 (2009).

Opt. Spectrosc. (1)

A. N. Bashkatov, E. A. Genina, V. I. Kochubey, and V. V. Tuchin, “Optical properties of human sclera in spectral range 370–2500 nm,” Opt. Spectrosc. 109(2), 197–204 (2010).
[Crossref]

Paediatr. Child Health (1)

K. Jangaard, H. Curtis, and R. Goldbloom, “Estimation of bilirubin using BiliChek, a transcutaneous bilirubin measurement device: Effects of gestational age and use of phototherapy,” Paediatr. Child Health 11(2), 79–83 (2006).
[PubMed]

Pattern Recognit. (1)

A. P. Bradley, “The use of the area under the ROC curve in the evaluation of machine learning algorithms,” Pattern Recognit. 30(7), 1145–1159 (1997).
[Crossref]

Pediatrics (1)

G. Nagar, B. Vandermeer, S. Campbell, and M. Kumar, “Reliability of transcutaneous bilirubin devices in preterm infants: a systematic review,” Pediatrics 132(5), 871–881 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Med. Biol. (1)

Z. Liu and J. Zerubia, “Skin image illumination modeling and chromophore identification for melanoma diagnosis,” Phys. Med. Biol. 60(9), 3415–3431 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (8)

N. J. Talley and S. O’Connor, Clinical Examination: A Systematic Guide to Physical Diagnosis (Elsevier Health Sciences APAC, 2014).

N. Cohen, “A Color Balancing Algorithm for Cameras,” Standford Project Report. (2011).

J. F. Hair, Multivariate Data Analysis (Prentice Hall, 2010).

D. J. Sheskin, Handbook of parametric and nonparametric statistical procedures (crc Press, 2003).

“NICE clinical guideline 98: Neonatal jaundice,” (National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence, London, 2010).

J. M. Rennie, Rennie & Roberton's Textbook of Neonatology (Elsevier Health Sciences, 2012).

L. d. Greef, M. Goel, M. J. Seo, E. C. Larson, J. W. Stout, J. A. Taylor, and S. N. Patel, “BiliCam: Using Mobile Phones to Monitor Newborn Jaundice,” in The 2014 ACM International Joint Conference on Pervasive and Ubiquitous Computing 2014)

T. S. Leung, A. Guilliam, L. MacDonald, and J. Meek, “Investigation of the relationship between the sclera colour of the eye and the serum bilirubin level in newborn infants,” in 42nd Annual Meeting of the International Society on Oxygen Transport to Tissue, (London, 2014).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 The distribution of total serum bilirubin levels in relation to (a) gestational, and (b) postnatal ages (n = 110).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 An example of the image collected in the UCL Hospitals. The colour chart is shown on the left. The pixel values for the sclera, skin and white reference have been used in the processing. (This image has been media consented by the parents).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Scatter plots for the measured and predicted TSB levels based on (a) the sclera colour (un-normalised) and (b) the skin colour (un-normalised). The Pearson’s linear correlation (r), the Spearman’s rank correlation (ρ) and linear regressed lines are also shown (n = 110).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 The Bland Altman plot showing the agreement between the conventional blood sampling method (measurement) and the photographic method (prediction) based on the sclera colour: the mean difference is zero and most of the differences lie between ± 1.96 standard deviations, i.e., ± 81.54 µmol/l.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The ROC curve for screening TSB above 205 umol/l: the optimal cut-off threshold (open circle) based on the Youden’s J statistic, ycut* = 194 µmol/l, resulting in sensitivity = 0.80 and specificity = 0.86. To increase the sensitivity, the cut-off threshold is reduced to 162 µmol/l (filled circle) which raises the sensitivity to 1.00 at the expense of a reduced specificity = 0.50.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Correlation between the measured and predicted TSB levels

Tables Icon

Table 2 Comparison of result obtained by various studies (conversion for bilirubin: 1 mg/dL = 17.1 µmol/l)

Tables Icon

Table 3 Comparison of results from ROC curves

Equations (1)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

y eye = C 0 + C 1 R eye + C 2 G eye + C 3 B eye + C 4 R eye G eye + C 5 R eye B eye + C 6 B eye G eye + C 7 R eye 2 + C 8 G eye 2 + C 9 B eye 2

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