Abstract

An atypical or irregular respiratory frequency is considered to be one of the earliest markers of physiological distress. In addition, monitoring of this vital parameter plays a major role in diagnosis of respiratory disorders, as well as in early detection of sudden infant death syndrome. Nevertheless, the current measurement modalities require attachment of sensors to the patient’s body, leading to discomfort and stress. The current paper presents a new robust algorithm to remotely monitor breathing rate (BR) by using thermal imaging. This approach permits to detect and to track the region of interest (nose) as well as to estimate BR. In order to study the performance of the algorithm, and its robustness against motion and breathing disorders, three different thermal recordings of 11 healthy volunteers were acquired (sequence 1: normal breathing; sequence 2: normal breathing plus arbitrary head movements; and sequence 3: sequence of specific breathing patterns). Thoracic effort (piezoplethysmography) served as “gold standard” for validation of our results. An excellent agreement between estimated BR and ground truth was achieved. Whereas the mean correlation for sequence 1–3 were 0.968, 0.940 and 0.974, the mean absolute BR errors reached 0.33, 0.55 and 0.96 bpm (breaths per minute), respectively. In brief, this work demonstrates that infrared thermography is a promising, clinically relevant alternative for the currently available measuring modalities due to its performance and diverse remarkable advantages.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
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References

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2015 (1)

R. Riha, “Diagnostic approaches to respiratory sleep disorders,” J. Thorac. Dis. 7(8), 1373–1384 (2015).

2014 (3)

J. H. Atkins and J. E. Mandel, “Performance of Masimo rainbow acoustic monitoring for tracking changing respiratory rates under laryngeal mask airway general anesthesia for surgical procedures in the operating room: a prospective observational study,” Anesth. Analg. 119(6), 1307–1314 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. B. Pereira, M. Czaplik, N. Blanik, R. Rossaint, V. Blazek, and S. Leonhardt, “Contact-free monitoring of circulation and perfusion dynamics based on the analysis of thermal imagery,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(4), 1075–1089 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Chauvin, M. Hamel, S. Brière, F. Ferland, F. Grondin, D. Létourneau, M. Tousignant, and F. Michaud, “Contact-free respiration rate monitoring using a pan-tilt thermal camera for stationary bike telerehabilitation sessions,” IEEE Syst. J. PP(99), 1–10 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

C. Brüser, S. Winter, and S. Leonhardt, “Robust inter-beat interval estimation in cardiac vibration signals,” Phys. Meas. 34(2), 123–138 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. Heimann, K. Jergus, A. K. Abbas, N. Heussen, S. Leonhardt, and T. Orlikowsky, “Infrared thermography for detailed registration of thermoregulation in premature infants,” J. Perinat. Med. 41(5), 613–620 (2013).
[PubMed]

T. Duning, M. Deppe, E. Brand, J. Stypmann, C. Becht, A. Heidbreder, and P. Young, “Brainstem involvement as a cause of central sleep apnea: pattern of microstructural cerebral damage in patients with cerebral microangiopathy,” PLoS One 8(4), e60304 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (3)

O. Mimoz, T. Benard, A. Gaucher, D. Frasca, and B. Debaene, “Accuracy of respiratory rate monitoring using a non-invasive acoustic method after general anaesthesia,” Br. J. Anaesth. 108(5), 872–875 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Leonhardt and B. Lachmann, “Electrical impedance tomography: the holy grail of ventilation and perfusion monitoring?” Intensive Care Med. 38(12), 1917–1929 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Czaplik, I. Biener, R. Dembinski, P. Pelosi, T. Soodt, W. Schroeder, S. Leonhardt, G. Marx, R. Rossaint, and J. Bickenbach, “Analysis of regional compliance in a porcine model of acute lung injury,” Respir. Physiol. Neurobiol. 184(1), 16–26 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

G. F. Lewis, R. G. Gatto, and S. W. Porges, “A novel method for extracting respiration rate and relative tidal volume from infrared thermography,” Psychophysiology 48(7), 877–887 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. K. Abbas, K. Heimann, K. Jergus, T. Orlikowsky, and S. Leonhardt, “Neonatal non-contact respiratory monitoring based on real-time infrared thermography,” Biomed. Eng. Online 10(93), 1–17 (2011).
[Crossref]

X. Mei and H. Ling, “Robust Visual Tracking and Vehicle Classification via Sparse Representation,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 33(11), 2259–2272 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

J. Fei and I. Pavlidis, “Thermistor at a distance: unobtrusive measurement of breathing,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 57(4), 988–998 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

D.-Y. Huang and C.-H. Wang, “Optimal multi-level thresholding using a two-stage Otsu optimization approach,” Pattern Recognit. Lett. 30(3), 275–284 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (3)

M. A. Cretikos, R. Bellomo, K. Hillman, J. Chen, S. Finfer, and A. Flabouris, “Respiratory rate: the neglected vital sign,” Med. J. Aust. 188(11), 657–659 (2008).
[PubMed]

F. McGain, M. Cretikos, D. Jones, S. V. Dyk, M. D. Buist, H. Opdam, V. Pellegrino, M. S. Robertson, and R. Bellomo, “Documentation of clinical review and vital signs after major surgery,” Med. J. Aust. 189(7), 380–383 (2008).
[PubMed]

M. Siccoli, P. Valko, D. Hermann, and C. Bassetti, “Central periodic breathing during sleep in 74 patients with acute ischemic stroke - neurogenic and cardiogenic factors,” J. Neurol. 255(11), 1687–1692 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

M. Cretikos, J. Chen, K. Hillman, R. Bellomo, S. Finfer, and A. Flabouris, “The objective medical emergency team activation criteria: A case-control study,” Resuscitation 73(1), 62–72 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Garbey, N. Sun, A. Merla, and I. Pavlidis, “Contact-free measurement of cardiac pulse based on the analysis of thermal imagery,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 54(8), 1418–1426 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

R. G. Soto, E. S. Fu, H. Vila, and R. V. Miguel, “Capnography accurately detects apnea during monitored anesthesia care,” Anesth. Analg. 99(2), 379–382 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

P. S. Liao, T. S. Chen, and P. C. Chung, “A fast algorithm for multi-level thresholding,” J. Inf. Sci. Eng. 17(5), 713–727 (2001).

1979 (1)

N. Otsu, “A Threshold Selection Method from Gray-Level Histograms,” IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern. 9(1), 62–66 (1979).
[Crossref]

Abbas, A. K.

K. Heimann, K. Jergus, A. K. Abbas, N. Heussen, S. Leonhardt, and T. Orlikowsky, “Infrared thermography for detailed registration of thermoregulation in premature infants,” J. Perinat. Med. 41(5), 613–620 (2013).
[PubMed]

A. K. Abbas, K. Heimann, K. Jergus, T. Orlikowsky, and S. Leonhardt, “Neonatal non-contact respiratory monitoring based on real-time infrared thermography,” Biomed. Eng. Online 10(93), 1–17 (2011).
[Crossref]

Atkins, J. H.

J. H. Atkins and J. E. Mandel, “Performance of Masimo rainbow acoustic monitoring for tracking changing respiratory rates under laryngeal mask airway general anesthesia for surgical procedures in the operating room: a prospective observational study,” Anesth. Analg. 119(6), 1307–1314 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bartula, M.

M. Bartula, T. Tigges, and J. Muehlsteff, “Camera-based system for contactless monitoring of respiration,” in Proceedings of IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (IEEE, 2013), pp. 2672–2675.

Bassetti, C.

M. Siccoli, P. Valko, D. Hermann, and C. Bassetti, “Central periodic breathing during sleep in 74 patients with acute ischemic stroke - neurogenic and cardiogenic factors,” J. Neurol. 255(11), 1687–1692 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Becht, C.

T. Duning, M. Deppe, E. Brand, J. Stypmann, C. Becht, A. Heidbreder, and P. Young, “Brainstem involvement as a cause of central sleep apnea: pattern of microstructural cerebral damage in patients with cerebral microangiopathy,” PLoS One 8(4), e60304 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bellomo, R.

M. A. Cretikos, R. Bellomo, K. Hillman, J. Chen, S. Finfer, and A. Flabouris, “Respiratory rate: the neglected vital sign,” Med. J. Aust. 188(11), 657–659 (2008).
[PubMed]

F. McGain, M. Cretikos, D. Jones, S. V. Dyk, M. D. Buist, H. Opdam, V. Pellegrino, M. S. Robertson, and R. Bellomo, “Documentation of clinical review and vital signs after major surgery,” Med. J. Aust. 189(7), 380–383 (2008).
[PubMed]

M. Cretikos, J. Chen, K. Hillman, R. Bellomo, S. Finfer, and A. Flabouris, “The objective medical emergency team activation criteria: A case-control study,” Resuscitation 73(1), 62–72 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Benard, T.

O. Mimoz, T. Benard, A. Gaucher, D. Frasca, and B. Debaene, “Accuracy of respiratory rate monitoring using a non-invasive acoustic method after general anaesthesia,” Br. J. Anaesth. 108(5), 872–875 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bickenbach, J.

M. Czaplik, I. Biener, R. Dembinski, P. Pelosi, T. Soodt, W. Schroeder, S. Leonhardt, G. Marx, R. Rossaint, and J. Bickenbach, “Analysis of regional compliance in a porcine model of acute lung injury,” Respir. Physiol. Neurobiol. 184(1), 16–26 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biener, I.

M. Czaplik, I. Biener, R. Dembinski, P. Pelosi, T. Soodt, W. Schroeder, S. Leonhardt, G. Marx, R. Rossaint, and J. Bickenbach, “Analysis of regional compliance in a porcine model of acute lung injury,” Respir. Physiol. Neurobiol. 184(1), 16–26 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Blanik, N.

Blazek, V.

C. B. Pereira, M. Czaplik, N. Blanik, R. Rossaint, V. Blazek, and S. Leonhardt, “Contact-free monitoring of circulation and perfusion dynamics based on the analysis of thermal imagery,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(4), 1075–1089 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. B. Pereira, X. Yu, V. Blazek, and S. Leonhardt, “Robust remote monitoring of breathing function by using infrared thermography,” in Proceedings of IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (IEEE, 2015), pp. 4250–4253.

Boric-Lubecke, O.

A. D. Droitcour, T. B. Seto, B.-K. Park, S. Yamada, A. Vergara, C. El Hourani, T. Shing, A. Yuen, V. M. Lubecke, and O. Boric-Lubecke, “Non-contact respiratory rate measurement validation for hospitalized patients,” in Proceedings of IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (IEEE, 2009), pp. 4812–4815.

Brand, E.

T. Duning, M. Deppe, E. Brand, J. Stypmann, C. Becht, A. Heidbreder, and P. Young, “Brainstem involvement as a cause of central sleep apnea: pattern of microstructural cerebral damage in patients with cerebral microangiopathy,” PLoS One 8(4), e60304 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brière, S.

R. Chauvin, M. Hamel, S. Brière, F. Ferland, F. Grondin, D. Létourneau, M. Tousignant, and F. Michaud, “Contact-free respiration rate monitoring using a pan-tilt thermal camera for stationary bike telerehabilitation sessions,” IEEE Syst. J. PP(99), 1–10 (2014).
[Crossref]

Brüser, C.

C. Brüser, S. Winter, and S. Leonhardt, “Robust inter-beat interval estimation in cardiac vibration signals,” Phys. Meas. 34(2), 123–138 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Brüser, S. Winter, and S. Leonhardt, “How speech processing can help with beat-to-beat heart rate estimation in ballistocardiograms,” in Proceedings of IEEE Medical Measurements and Applications (IEEE, 2013), pp.12–16.

C. Brüser, Sensing and Signal Processing for Unobtrusive Cardiac Monitoring Utilizing Ballistocardiography (Shaker Verlag, 2014).

Buist, M. D.

F. McGain, M. Cretikos, D. Jones, S. V. Dyk, M. D. Buist, H. Opdam, V. Pellegrino, M. S. Robertson, and R. Bellomo, “Documentation of clinical review and vital signs after major surgery,” Med. J. Aust. 189(7), 380–383 (2008).
[PubMed]

Chauvin, R.

R. Chauvin, M. Hamel, S. Brière, F. Ferland, F. Grondin, D. Létourneau, M. Tousignant, and F. Michaud, “Contact-free respiration rate monitoring using a pan-tilt thermal camera for stationary bike telerehabilitation sessions,” IEEE Syst. J. PP(99), 1–10 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, J.

M. A. Cretikos, R. Bellomo, K. Hillman, J. Chen, S. Finfer, and A. Flabouris, “Respiratory rate: the neglected vital sign,” Med. J. Aust. 188(11), 657–659 (2008).
[PubMed]

M. Cretikos, J. Chen, K. Hillman, R. Bellomo, S. Finfer, and A. Flabouris, “The objective medical emergency team activation criteria: A case-control study,” Resuscitation 73(1), 62–72 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, T. S.

P. S. Liao, T. S. Chen, and P. C. Chung, “A fast algorithm for multi-level thresholding,” J. Inf. Sci. Eng. 17(5), 713–727 (2001).

Chung, P. C.

P. S. Liao, T. S. Chen, and P. C. Chung, “A fast algorithm for multi-level thresholding,” J. Inf. Sci. Eng. 17(5), 713–727 (2001).

Cretikos, M.

F. McGain, M. Cretikos, D. Jones, S. V. Dyk, M. D. Buist, H. Opdam, V. Pellegrino, M. S. Robertson, and R. Bellomo, “Documentation of clinical review and vital signs after major surgery,” Med. J. Aust. 189(7), 380–383 (2008).
[PubMed]

M. Cretikos, J. Chen, K. Hillman, R. Bellomo, S. Finfer, and A. Flabouris, “The objective medical emergency team activation criteria: A case-control study,” Resuscitation 73(1), 62–72 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cretikos, M. A.

M. A. Cretikos, R. Bellomo, K. Hillman, J. Chen, S. Finfer, and A. Flabouris, “Respiratory rate: the neglected vital sign,” Med. J. Aust. 188(11), 657–659 (2008).
[PubMed]

Czaplik, M.

C. B. Pereira, M. Czaplik, N. Blanik, R. Rossaint, V. Blazek, and S. Leonhardt, “Contact-free monitoring of circulation and perfusion dynamics based on the analysis of thermal imagery,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(4), 1075–1089 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Czaplik, I. Biener, R. Dembinski, P. Pelosi, T. Soodt, W. Schroeder, S. Leonhardt, G. Marx, R. Rossaint, and J. Bickenbach, “Analysis of regional compliance in a porcine model of acute lung injury,” Respir. Physiol. Neurobiol. 184(1), 16–26 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Debaene, B.

O. Mimoz, T. Benard, A. Gaucher, D. Frasca, and B. Debaene, “Accuracy of respiratory rate monitoring using a non-invasive acoustic method after general anaesthesia,” Br. J. Anaesth. 108(5), 872–875 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dembinski, R.

M. Czaplik, I. Biener, R. Dembinski, P. Pelosi, T. Soodt, W. Schroeder, S. Leonhardt, G. Marx, R. Rossaint, and J. Bickenbach, “Analysis of regional compliance in a porcine model of acute lung injury,” Respir. Physiol. Neurobiol. 184(1), 16–26 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Deppe, M.

T. Duning, M. Deppe, E. Brand, J. Stypmann, C. Becht, A. Heidbreder, and P. Young, “Brainstem involvement as a cause of central sleep apnea: pattern of microstructural cerebral damage in patients with cerebral microangiopathy,” PLoS One 8(4), e60304 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Droitcour, A. D.

A. D. Droitcour, T. B. Seto, B.-K. Park, S. Yamada, A. Vergara, C. El Hourani, T. Shing, A. Yuen, V. M. Lubecke, and O. Boric-Lubecke, “Non-contact respiratory rate measurement validation for hospitalized patients,” in Proceedings of IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (IEEE, 2009), pp. 4812–4815.

Duning, T.

T. Duning, M. Deppe, E. Brand, J. Stypmann, C. Becht, A. Heidbreder, and P. Young, “Brainstem involvement as a cause of central sleep apnea: pattern of microstructural cerebral damage in patients with cerebral microangiopathy,” PLoS One 8(4), e60304 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dyk, S. V.

F. McGain, M. Cretikos, D. Jones, S. V. Dyk, M. D. Buist, H. Opdam, V. Pellegrino, M. S. Robertson, and R. Bellomo, “Documentation of clinical review and vital signs after major surgery,” Med. J. Aust. 189(7), 380–383 (2008).
[PubMed]

El Hourani, C.

A. D. Droitcour, T. B. Seto, B.-K. Park, S. Yamada, A. Vergara, C. El Hourani, T. Shing, A. Yuen, V. M. Lubecke, and O. Boric-Lubecke, “Non-contact respiratory rate measurement validation for hospitalized patients,” in Proceedings of IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (IEEE, 2009), pp. 4812–4815.

Fei, J.

J. Fei and I. Pavlidis, “Thermistor at a distance: unobtrusive measurement of breathing,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 57(4), 988–998 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Fei and I. Pavlidis, “Virtual Thermistor,” in Proceedings of IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (IEEE, 2007), pp. 250–253.

Z. Zhu, J. Fei, and I. Pavlidis, “Tracking human breath in infrared imaging,” in Proceedings of IEEE Symposium on Bioinformatics and Bioengineering (IEEE, 2005), pp.227–231.

Ferland, F.

R. Chauvin, M. Hamel, S. Brière, F. Ferland, F. Grondin, D. Létourneau, M. Tousignant, and F. Michaud, “Contact-free respiration rate monitoring using a pan-tilt thermal camera for stationary bike telerehabilitation sessions,” IEEE Syst. J. PP(99), 1–10 (2014).
[Crossref]

Finfer, S.

M. A. Cretikos, R. Bellomo, K. Hillman, J. Chen, S. Finfer, and A. Flabouris, “Respiratory rate: the neglected vital sign,” Med. J. Aust. 188(11), 657–659 (2008).
[PubMed]

M. Cretikos, J. Chen, K. Hillman, R. Bellomo, S. Finfer, and A. Flabouris, “The objective medical emergency team activation criteria: A case-control study,” Resuscitation 73(1), 62–72 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Flabouris, A.

M. A. Cretikos, R. Bellomo, K. Hillman, J. Chen, S. Finfer, and A. Flabouris, “Respiratory rate: the neglected vital sign,” Med. J. Aust. 188(11), 657–659 (2008).
[PubMed]

M. Cretikos, J. Chen, K. Hillman, R. Bellomo, S. Finfer, and A. Flabouris, “The objective medical emergency team activation criteria: A case-control study,” Resuscitation 73(1), 62–72 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Frasca, D.

O. Mimoz, T. Benard, A. Gaucher, D. Frasca, and B. Debaene, “Accuracy of respiratory rate monitoring using a non-invasive acoustic method after general anaesthesia,” Br. J. Anaesth. 108(5), 872–875 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Guechi, A. Pichot, D. Frasca, F. Rayeh-Pelardy, J.-Y. Lardeur, and O. Mimoz, “Assessment of noninvasive acoustic respiration rate monitoring in patients admitted to an Emergency Department for drug or alcoholic poisoning,” J. Clin. Monit. Comput. (2015) (Epub ahead of print).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fu, E. S.

R. G. Soto, E. S. Fu, H. Vila, and R. V. Miguel, “Capnography accurately detects apnea during monitored anesthesia care,” Anesth. Analg. 99(2), 379–382 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Garbey, M.

M. Garbey, N. Sun, A. Merla, and I. Pavlidis, “Contact-free measurement of cardiac pulse based on the analysis of thermal imagery,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 54(8), 1418–1426 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gatto, R. G.

G. F. Lewis, R. G. Gatto, and S. W. Porges, “A novel method for extracting respiration rate and relative tidal volume from infrared thermography,” Psychophysiology 48(7), 877–887 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gaucher, A.

O. Mimoz, T. Benard, A. Gaucher, D. Frasca, and B. Debaene, “Accuracy of respiratory rate monitoring using a non-invasive acoustic method after general anaesthesia,” Br. J. Anaesth. 108(5), 872–875 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grondin, F.

R. Chauvin, M. Hamel, S. Brière, F. Ferland, F. Grondin, D. Létourneau, M. Tousignant, and F. Michaud, “Contact-free respiration rate monitoring using a pan-tilt thermal camera for stationary bike telerehabilitation sessions,” IEEE Syst. J. PP(99), 1–10 (2014).
[Crossref]

Guechi, Y.

Y. Guechi, A. Pichot, D. Frasca, F. Rayeh-Pelardy, J.-Y. Lardeur, and O. Mimoz, “Assessment of noninvasive acoustic respiration rate monitoring in patients admitted to an Emergency Department for drug or alcoholic poisoning,” J. Clin. Monit. Comput. (2015) (Epub ahead of print).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hamel, M.

R. Chauvin, M. Hamel, S. Brière, F. Ferland, F. Grondin, D. Létourneau, M. Tousignant, and F. Michaud, “Contact-free respiration rate monitoring using a pan-tilt thermal camera for stationary bike telerehabilitation sessions,” IEEE Syst. J. PP(99), 1–10 (2014).
[Crossref]

Heidbreder, A.

T. Duning, M. Deppe, E. Brand, J. Stypmann, C. Becht, A. Heidbreder, and P. Young, “Brainstem involvement as a cause of central sleep apnea: pattern of microstructural cerebral damage in patients with cerebral microangiopathy,” PLoS One 8(4), e60304 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Heimann, K.

K. Heimann, K. Jergus, A. K. Abbas, N. Heussen, S. Leonhardt, and T. Orlikowsky, “Infrared thermography for detailed registration of thermoregulation in premature infants,” J. Perinat. Med. 41(5), 613–620 (2013).
[PubMed]

A. K. Abbas, K. Heimann, K. Jergus, T. Orlikowsky, and S. Leonhardt, “Neonatal non-contact respiratory monitoring based on real-time infrared thermography,” Biomed. Eng. Online 10(93), 1–17 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hermann, D.

M. Siccoli, P. Valko, D. Hermann, and C. Bassetti, “Central periodic breathing during sleep in 74 patients with acute ischemic stroke - neurogenic and cardiogenic factors,” J. Neurol. 255(11), 1687–1692 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Heussen, N.

K. Heimann, K. Jergus, A. K. Abbas, N. Heussen, S. Leonhardt, and T. Orlikowsky, “Infrared thermography for detailed registration of thermoregulation in premature infants,” J. Perinat. Med. 41(5), 613–620 (2013).
[PubMed]

Hillman, K.

M. A. Cretikos, R. Bellomo, K. Hillman, J. Chen, S. Finfer, and A. Flabouris, “Respiratory rate: the neglected vital sign,” Med. J. Aust. 188(11), 657–659 (2008).
[PubMed]

M. Cretikos, J. Chen, K. Hillman, R. Bellomo, S. Finfer, and A. Flabouris, “The objective medical emergency team activation criteria: A case-control study,” Resuscitation 73(1), 62–72 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, D.-Y.

D.-Y. Huang and C.-H. Wang, “Optimal multi-level thresholding using a two-stage Otsu optimization approach,” Pattern Recognit. Lett. 30(3), 275–284 (2009).
[Crossref]

Jergus, K.

K. Heimann, K. Jergus, A. K. Abbas, N. Heussen, S. Leonhardt, and T. Orlikowsky, “Infrared thermography for detailed registration of thermoregulation in premature infants,” J. Perinat. Med. 41(5), 613–620 (2013).
[PubMed]

A. K. Abbas, K. Heimann, K. Jergus, T. Orlikowsky, and S. Leonhardt, “Neonatal non-contact respiratory monitoring based on real-time infrared thermography,” Biomed. Eng. Online 10(93), 1–17 (2011).
[Crossref]

Jones, D.

F. McGain, M. Cretikos, D. Jones, S. V. Dyk, M. D. Buist, H. Opdam, V. Pellegrino, M. S. Robertson, and R. Bellomo, “Documentation of clinical review and vital signs after major surgery,” Med. J. Aust. 189(7), 380–383 (2008).
[PubMed]

Lachmann, B.

S. Leonhardt and B. Lachmann, “Electrical impedance tomography: the holy grail of ventilation and perfusion monitoring?” Intensive Care Med. 38(12), 1917–1929 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lardeur, J.-Y.

Y. Guechi, A. Pichot, D. Frasca, F. Rayeh-Pelardy, J.-Y. Lardeur, and O. Mimoz, “Assessment of noninvasive acoustic respiration rate monitoring in patients admitted to an Emergency Department for drug or alcoholic poisoning,” J. Clin. Monit. Comput. (2015) (Epub ahead of print).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leonhardt, S.

C. B. Pereira, M. Czaplik, N. Blanik, R. Rossaint, V. Blazek, and S. Leonhardt, “Contact-free monitoring of circulation and perfusion dynamics based on the analysis of thermal imagery,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(4), 1075–1089 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Brüser, S. Winter, and S. Leonhardt, “Robust inter-beat interval estimation in cardiac vibration signals,” Phys. Meas. 34(2), 123–138 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. Heimann, K. Jergus, A. K. Abbas, N. Heussen, S. Leonhardt, and T. Orlikowsky, “Infrared thermography for detailed registration of thermoregulation in premature infants,” J. Perinat. Med. 41(5), 613–620 (2013).
[PubMed]

S. Leonhardt and B. Lachmann, “Electrical impedance tomography: the holy grail of ventilation and perfusion monitoring?” Intensive Care Med. 38(12), 1917–1929 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Czaplik, I. Biener, R. Dembinski, P. Pelosi, T. Soodt, W. Schroeder, S. Leonhardt, G. Marx, R. Rossaint, and J. Bickenbach, “Analysis of regional compliance in a porcine model of acute lung injury,” Respir. Physiol. Neurobiol. 184(1), 16–26 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. K. Abbas, K. Heimann, K. Jergus, T. Orlikowsky, and S. Leonhardt, “Neonatal non-contact respiratory monitoring based on real-time infrared thermography,” Biomed. Eng. Online 10(93), 1–17 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. B. Pereira, X. Yu, V. Blazek, and S. Leonhardt, “Robust remote monitoring of breathing function by using infrared thermography,” in Proceedings of IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (IEEE, 2015), pp. 4250–4253.

C. Brüser, S. Winter, and S. Leonhardt, “How speech processing can help with beat-to-beat heart rate estimation in ballistocardiograms,” in Proceedings of IEEE Medical Measurements and Applications (IEEE, 2013), pp.12–16.

Létourneau, D.

R. Chauvin, M. Hamel, S. Brière, F. Ferland, F. Grondin, D. Létourneau, M. Tousignant, and F. Michaud, “Contact-free respiration rate monitoring using a pan-tilt thermal camera for stationary bike telerehabilitation sessions,” IEEE Syst. J. PP(99), 1–10 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lewis, G. F.

G. F. Lewis, R. G. Gatto, and S. W. Porges, “A novel method for extracting respiration rate and relative tidal volume from infrared thermography,” Psychophysiology 48(7), 877–887 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liao, P. S.

P. S. Liao, T. S. Chen, and P. C. Chung, “A fast algorithm for multi-level thresholding,” J. Inf. Sci. Eng. 17(5), 713–727 (2001).

Ling, H.

X. Mei and H. Ling, “Robust Visual Tracking and Vehicle Classification via Sparse Representation,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 33(11), 2259–2272 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lubecke, V. M.

A. D. Droitcour, T. B. Seto, B.-K. Park, S. Yamada, A. Vergara, C. El Hourani, T. Shing, A. Yuen, V. M. Lubecke, and O. Boric-Lubecke, “Non-contact respiratory rate measurement validation for hospitalized patients,” in Proceedings of IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (IEEE, 2009), pp. 4812–4815.

Mandel, J. E.

J. H. Atkins and J. E. Mandel, “Performance of Masimo rainbow acoustic monitoring for tracking changing respiratory rates under laryngeal mask airway general anesthesia for surgical procedures in the operating room: a prospective observational study,” Anesth. Analg. 119(6), 1307–1314 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Marx, G.

M. Czaplik, I. Biener, R. Dembinski, P. Pelosi, T. Soodt, W. Schroeder, S. Leonhardt, G. Marx, R. Rossaint, and J. Bickenbach, “Analysis of regional compliance in a porcine model of acute lung injury,” Respir. Physiol. Neurobiol. 184(1), 16–26 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McGain, F.

F. McGain, M. Cretikos, D. Jones, S. V. Dyk, M. D. Buist, H. Opdam, V. Pellegrino, M. S. Robertson, and R. Bellomo, “Documentation of clinical review and vital signs after major surgery,” Med. J. Aust. 189(7), 380–383 (2008).
[PubMed]

Mei, X.

X. Mei and H. Ling, “Robust Visual Tracking and Vehicle Classification via Sparse Representation,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 33(11), 2259–2272 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Merla, A.

M. Garbey, N. Sun, A. Merla, and I. Pavlidis, “Contact-free measurement of cardiac pulse based on the analysis of thermal imagery,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 54(8), 1418–1426 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Michaud, F.

R. Chauvin, M. Hamel, S. Brière, F. Ferland, F. Grondin, D. Létourneau, M. Tousignant, and F. Michaud, “Contact-free respiration rate monitoring using a pan-tilt thermal camera for stationary bike telerehabilitation sessions,” IEEE Syst. J. PP(99), 1–10 (2014).
[Crossref]

Miguel, R. V.

R. G. Soto, E. S. Fu, H. Vila, and R. V. Miguel, “Capnography accurately detects apnea during monitored anesthesia care,” Anesth. Analg. 99(2), 379–382 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mimoz, O.

O. Mimoz, T. Benard, A. Gaucher, D. Frasca, and B. Debaene, “Accuracy of respiratory rate monitoring using a non-invasive acoustic method after general anaesthesia,” Br. J. Anaesth. 108(5), 872–875 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Guechi, A. Pichot, D. Frasca, F. Rayeh-Pelardy, J.-Y. Lardeur, and O. Mimoz, “Assessment of noninvasive acoustic respiration rate monitoring in patients admitted to an Emergency Department for drug or alcoholic poisoning,” J. Clin. Monit. Comput. (2015) (Epub ahead of print).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Modak, R. K.

R. K. Modak, Anesthesiology Keywords Review (Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2013).

Muehlsteff, J.

M. Bartula, T. Tigges, and J. Muehlsteff, “Camera-based system for contactless monitoring of respiration,” in Proceedings of IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (IEEE, 2013), pp. 2672–2675.

Murthy, R.

R. Murthy, I. Pavlidis, and P. Tsiamyrtzis, “Touchless monitoring of breathing function,” in Proceedings of IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (IEEE, 2004), pp. 1196–1199.

Opdam, H.

F. McGain, M. Cretikos, D. Jones, S. V. Dyk, M. D. Buist, H. Opdam, V. Pellegrino, M. S. Robertson, and R. Bellomo, “Documentation of clinical review and vital signs after major surgery,” Med. J. Aust. 189(7), 380–383 (2008).
[PubMed]

Orlikowsky, T.

K. Heimann, K. Jergus, A. K. Abbas, N. Heussen, S. Leonhardt, and T. Orlikowsky, “Infrared thermography for detailed registration of thermoregulation in premature infants,” J. Perinat. Med. 41(5), 613–620 (2013).
[PubMed]

A. K. Abbas, K. Heimann, K. Jergus, T. Orlikowsky, and S. Leonhardt, “Neonatal non-contact respiratory monitoring based on real-time infrared thermography,” Biomed. Eng. Online 10(93), 1–17 (2011).
[Crossref]

Otsu, N.

N. Otsu, “A Threshold Selection Method from Gray-Level Histograms,” IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern. 9(1), 62–66 (1979).
[Crossref]

Park, B.-K.

A. D. Droitcour, T. B. Seto, B.-K. Park, S. Yamada, A. Vergara, C. El Hourani, T. Shing, A. Yuen, V. M. Lubecke, and O. Boric-Lubecke, “Non-contact respiratory rate measurement validation for hospitalized patients,” in Proceedings of IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (IEEE, 2009), pp. 4812–4815.

Pavlidis, I.

J. Fei and I. Pavlidis, “Thermistor at a distance: unobtrusive measurement of breathing,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 57(4), 988–998 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Garbey, N. Sun, A. Merla, and I. Pavlidis, “Contact-free measurement of cardiac pulse based on the analysis of thermal imagery,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 54(8), 1418–1426 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Murthy, I. Pavlidis, and P. Tsiamyrtzis, “Touchless monitoring of breathing function,” in Proceedings of IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (IEEE, 2004), pp. 1196–1199.

Z. Zhu, J. Fei, and I. Pavlidis, “Tracking human breath in infrared imaging,” in Proceedings of IEEE Symposium on Bioinformatics and Bioengineering (IEEE, 2005), pp.227–231.

J. Fei and I. Pavlidis, “Virtual Thermistor,” in Proceedings of IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (IEEE, 2007), pp. 250–253.

Pellegrino, V.

F. McGain, M. Cretikos, D. Jones, S. V. Dyk, M. D. Buist, H. Opdam, V. Pellegrino, M. S. Robertson, and R. Bellomo, “Documentation of clinical review and vital signs after major surgery,” Med. J. Aust. 189(7), 380–383 (2008).
[PubMed]

Pelosi, P.

M. Czaplik, I. Biener, R. Dembinski, P. Pelosi, T. Soodt, W. Schroeder, S. Leonhardt, G. Marx, R. Rossaint, and J. Bickenbach, “Analysis of regional compliance in a porcine model of acute lung injury,” Respir. Physiol. Neurobiol. 184(1), 16–26 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pereira, C. B.

C. B. Pereira, M. Czaplik, N. Blanik, R. Rossaint, V. Blazek, and S. Leonhardt, “Contact-free monitoring of circulation and perfusion dynamics based on the analysis of thermal imagery,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(4), 1075–1089 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. B. Pereira, X. Yu, V. Blazek, and S. Leonhardt, “Robust remote monitoring of breathing function by using infrared thermography,” in Proceedings of IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (IEEE, 2015), pp. 4250–4253.

Pichot, A.

Y. Guechi, A. Pichot, D. Frasca, F. Rayeh-Pelardy, J.-Y. Lardeur, and O. Mimoz, “Assessment of noninvasive acoustic respiration rate monitoring in patients admitted to an Emergency Department for drug or alcoholic poisoning,” J. Clin. Monit. Comput. (2015) (Epub ahead of print).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Porges, S. W.

G. F. Lewis, R. G. Gatto, and S. W. Porges, “A novel method for extracting respiration rate and relative tidal volume from infrared thermography,” Psychophysiology 48(7), 877–887 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rayeh-Pelardy, F.

Y. Guechi, A. Pichot, D. Frasca, F. Rayeh-Pelardy, J.-Y. Lardeur, and O. Mimoz, “Assessment of noninvasive acoustic respiration rate monitoring in patients admitted to an Emergency Department for drug or alcoholic poisoning,” J. Clin. Monit. Comput. (2015) (Epub ahead of print).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Riha, R.

R. Riha, “Diagnostic approaches to respiratory sleep disorders,” J. Thorac. Dis. 7(8), 1373–1384 (2015).

Robertson, M. S.

F. McGain, M. Cretikos, D. Jones, S. V. Dyk, M. D. Buist, H. Opdam, V. Pellegrino, M. S. Robertson, and R. Bellomo, “Documentation of clinical review and vital signs after major surgery,” Med. J. Aust. 189(7), 380–383 (2008).
[PubMed]

Rossaint, R.

C. B. Pereira, M. Czaplik, N. Blanik, R. Rossaint, V. Blazek, and S. Leonhardt, “Contact-free monitoring of circulation and perfusion dynamics based on the analysis of thermal imagery,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(4), 1075–1089 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Czaplik, I. Biener, R. Dembinski, P. Pelosi, T. Soodt, W. Schroeder, S. Leonhardt, G. Marx, R. Rossaint, and J. Bickenbach, “Analysis of regional compliance in a porcine model of acute lung injury,” Respir. Physiol. Neurobiol. 184(1), 16–26 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schroeder, W.

M. Czaplik, I. Biener, R. Dembinski, P. Pelosi, T. Soodt, W. Schroeder, S. Leonhardt, G. Marx, R. Rossaint, and J. Bickenbach, “Analysis of regional compliance in a porcine model of acute lung injury,” Respir. Physiol. Neurobiol. 184(1), 16–26 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Seto, T. B.

A. D. Droitcour, T. B. Seto, B.-K. Park, S. Yamada, A. Vergara, C. El Hourani, T. Shing, A. Yuen, V. M. Lubecke, and O. Boric-Lubecke, “Non-contact respiratory rate measurement validation for hospitalized patients,” in Proceedings of IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (IEEE, 2009), pp. 4812–4815.

Shing, T.

A. D. Droitcour, T. B. Seto, B.-K. Park, S. Yamada, A. Vergara, C. El Hourani, T. Shing, A. Yuen, V. M. Lubecke, and O. Boric-Lubecke, “Non-contact respiratory rate measurement validation for hospitalized patients,” in Proceedings of IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (IEEE, 2009), pp. 4812–4815.

Siccoli, M.

M. Siccoli, P. Valko, D. Hermann, and C. Bassetti, “Central periodic breathing during sleep in 74 patients with acute ischemic stroke - neurogenic and cardiogenic factors,” J. Neurol. 255(11), 1687–1692 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Soodt, T.

M. Czaplik, I. Biener, R. Dembinski, P. Pelosi, T. Soodt, W. Schroeder, S. Leonhardt, G. Marx, R. Rossaint, and J. Bickenbach, “Analysis of regional compliance in a porcine model of acute lung injury,” Respir. Physiol. Neurobiol. 184(1), 16–26 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Soto, R. G.

R. G. Soto, E. S. Fu, H. Vila, and R. V. Miguel, “Capnography accurately detects apnea during monitored anesthesia care,” Anesth. Analg. 99(2), 379–382 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stypmann, J.

T. Duning, M. Deppe, E. Brand, J. Stypmann, C. Becht, A. Heidbreder, and P. Young, “Brainstem involvement as a cause of central sleep apnea: pattern of microstructural cerebral damage in patients with cerebral microangiopathy,” PLoS One 8(4), e60304 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sun, N.

M. Garbey, N. Sun, A. Merla, and I. Pavlidis, “Contact-free measurement of cardiac pulse based on the analysis of thermal imagery,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 54(8), 1418–1426 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tigges, T.

M. Bartula, T. Tigges, and J. Muehlsteff, “Camera-based system for contactless monitoring of respiration,” in Proceedings of IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (IEEE, 2013), pp. 2672–2675.

Tousignant, M.

R. Chauvin, M. Hamel, S. Brière, F. Ferland, F. Grondin, D. Létourneau, M. Tousignant, and F. Michaud, “Contact-free respiration rate monitoring using a pan-tilt thermal camera for stationary bike telerehabilitation sessions,” IEEE Syst. J. PP(99), 1–10 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tsiamyrtzis, P.

R. Murthy, I. Pavlidis, and P. Tsiamyrtzis, “Touchless monitoring of breathing function,” in Proceedings of IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (IEEE, 2004), pp. 1196–1199.

Valko, P.

M. Siccoli, P. Valko, D. Hermann, and C. Bassetti, “Central periodic breathing during sleep in 74 patients with acute ischemic stroke - neurogenic and cardiogenic factors,” J. Neurol. 255(11), 1687–1692 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vergara, A.

A. D. Droitcour, T. B. Seto, B.-K. Park, S. Yamada, A. Vergara, C. El Hourani, T. Shing, A. Yuen, V. M. Lubecke, and O. Boric-Lubecke, “Non-contact respiratory rate measurement validation for hospitalized patients,” in Proceedings of IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (IEEE, 2009), pp. 4812–4815.

Vila, H.

R. G. Soto, E. S. Fu, H. Vila, and R. V. Miguel, “Capnography accurately detects apnea during monitored anesthesia care,” Anesth. Analg. 99(2), 379–382 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, C.-H.

D.-Y. Huang and C.-H. Wang, “Optimal multi-level thresholding using a two-stage Otsu optimization approach,” Pattern Recognit. Lett. 30(3), 275–284 (2009).
[Crossref]

Winter, S.

C. Brüser, S. Winter, and S. Leonhardt, “Robust inter-beat interval estimation in cardiac vibration signals,” Phys. Meas. 34(2), 123–138 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Brüser, S. Winter, and S. Leonhardt, “How speech processing can help with beat-to-beat heart rate estimation in ballistocardiograms,” in Proceedings of IEEE Medical Measurements and Applications (IEEE, 2013), pp.12–16.

Yamada, S.

A. D. Droitcour, T. B. Seto, B.-K. Park, S. Yamada, A. Vergara, C. El Hourani, T. Shing, A. Yuen, V. M. Lubecke, and O. Boric-Lubecke, “Non-contact respiratory rate measurement validation for hospitalized patients,” in Proceedings of IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (IEEE, 2009), pp. 4812–4815.

Young, P.

T. Duning, M. Deppe, E. Brand, J. Stypmann, C. Becht, A. Heidbreder, and P. Young, “Brainstem involvement as a cause of central sleep apnea: pattern of microstructural cerebral damage in patients with cerebral microangiopathy,” PLoS One 8(4), e60304 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, X.

C. B. Pereira, X. Yu, V. Blazek, and S. Leonhardt, “Robust remote monitoring of breathing function by using infrared thermography,” in Proceedings of IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (IEEE, 2015), pp. 4250–4253.

Yuen, A.

A. D. Droitcour, T. B. Seto, B.-K. Park, S. Yamada, A. Vergara, C. El Hourani, T. Shing, A. Yuen, V. M. Lubecke, and O. Boric-Lubecke, “Non-contact respiratory rate measurement validation for hospitalized patients,” in Proceedings of IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (IEEE, 2009), pp. 4812–4815.

Zhu, Z.

Z. Zhu, J. Fei, and I. Pavlidis, “Tracking human breath in infrared imaging,” in Proceedings of IEEE Symposium on Bioinformatics and Bioengineering (IEEE, 2005), pp.227–231.

Anesth. Analg. (2)

J. H. Atkins and J. E. Mandel, “Performance of Masimo rainbow acoustic monitoring for tracking changing respiratory rates under laryngeal mask airway general anesthesia for surgical procedures in the operating room: a prospective observational study,” Anesth. Analg. 119(6), 1307–1314 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. G. Soto, E. S. Fu, H. Vila, and R. V. Miguel, “Capnography accurately detects apnea during monitored anesthesia care,” Anesth. Analg. 99(2), 379–382 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biomed. Eng. Online (1)

A. K. Abbas, K. Heimann, K. Jergus, T. Orlikowsky, and S. Leonhardt, “Neonatal non-contact respiratory monitoring based on real-time infrared thermography,” Biomed. Eng. Online 10(93), 1–17 (2011).
[Crossref]

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

Br. J. Anaesth. (1)

O. Mimoz, T. Benard, A. Gaucher, D. Frasca, and B. Debaene, “Accuracy of respiratory rate monitoring using a non-invasive acoustic method after general anaesthesia,” Br. J. Anaesth. 108(5), 872–875 (2012).
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IEEE Syst. J. (1)

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Supplementary Material (2)

NameDescription
» Visualization 1: MP4 (6834 KB)      Animation illustrating the performance of the tracking algorithm.
» Visualization 2: MP4 (9919 KB)      Animation illustrating the performance of the algorithm during dynamic breathing rate.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Temperature variation around the nostrils during inspiration and expiration. Thermograms of the nose during (a) inhalation, and (b) exhalation. The mean temperature of the ROM reaches 31.17 °C and 31.44 °C during inspiration and expiration, respectively. Color maps are depicted on the right side of the thermograms.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Graphic representation of the main steps used to extract BR from thermal imaging. (1) Video sequence is recorded. (2) An automatic detection of the nose (ROI) is performed. Subsequently, a first rough tracking of this region is carried out. (3) Identification of ROM which encloses the nostrils. (4) The breathing waveform is extracted from the mean temperature of the ROM. (5) Breathing rate estimation.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Steps to find the ROI. (a) Illustration of proportions of the head, periorbital region - PR (blue dotted line window), and search windows A (black solid line) and B (green pattern made of crossing lines). (b) Thermogram of the segmented face. (c) Level and windowing adjustment of (b) to allow the visualization of periorbital regions. (d) Thermogram correspondent to search window A. (e) Dilated binary image containing the hot spots, which coincide with periorbital regions. (f) Thermogram correspondent to search window B. (g) Binary image containing the edges of (f) after applying the canny edge detector. (h) Horizontal projection PH(y) of (g). The maximal value of PH(y) is marked with an asterisk. (i) Vertical projection PV (x) of (g). The two asterisks show the left and right extremities of the nose. (j) Dotted line rectangle enclosing the ROI that will be posteriorly tracked.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Experimental Setup (1 - body attached data recording system SOMNOlab 2 (Weinmann GmbH, Hamburg, Germany), 2 - Thermographic camera VarioCAM® HD head 820S/30 mm (InfraTec GmbH, Dresden, Germany)). (b) Small sequence of the breathing waveform displayed in the monitor to simplify the subjects’ task.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Intended breathing pattern sequence used during phase C.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Bland-Altman plots for subjects S9 (phase A), S3 (phase B) and S10 (phase C), respectively. They compare BR obtained with IRT (BRIRT) with reference BR (BRRef). (a) This first plot, correspondent to phase A, shows a bias of 0.004 bpm and limits of agreement of −1.2 bpm to 1.2 bpm. (b) In the second example (subject 3, phase B) the bias is −0.047 and the limits of agreement range from −1.4 bpm to 1.3 bpm. (c) The last Bland-Altman plot (subject 10, phase C) presents a mean difference of 0.12. The 95% limits of agreement vary between −3.7 and 3.9 bpm. As a matter of fact, solid line indicates the bias/mean difference and 95% of limits of agreement are plotted in dashed lines.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a) Thermogram of sequence 2 for subject S3. A short animation illustrating the performance of the tracking algorithm is shown in Visualization 1. (b) Thermogram of sequence 3 for subject S10. A short animation illustrating the performance of the algorithm is shown in Visualization 2.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Top: Spectrogram of the third IRT sequence of subject S4. Middle: Estimated BR (solid line - IRT, dashed line - piezoplethysmography). Bottom: Three 30-seconds segments of IRT (solid line) and piezoplethysmography waveforms (dashed line). The segments A, B and C correspond to eupnea, apnea, tachypnea, respectively.

Tables (3)

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Table 1 Performance of the proposed algorithm for phase A

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Table 2 Performance of the proposed algorithm for phase B

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Table 3 Performance of the proposed algorithm for phase C

Equations (15)

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T = argmax 1 T < L { σ B 2 ( T ) = σ 2 ( T ) σ W 2 ( T ) } ,
σ B 2 ( T ) = ω 1 ( T ) [ μ 1 ( T ) μ ] 2 + ω 2 ( T ) [ μ 2 ( T ) μ ] 2 .
{ T 1 , T 2 , , T M 1 } = argmax 1 T 1 < < T M 1 < L { σ B 2 ( T 1 , T 2 , , T M 1 ) } ,
σ B 2 ( T ) = i = 1 M ω k ( T ) [ μ k ( T ) μ ] 2 .
P H ( y ) = x = 0 P 1 I ( x , y ) ,
P V ( x ) = y = 0 Q 1 I ( x , y ) .
p ( z t | x t ) = j = 1 n 𝒩 ( z ˜ t ( j ) ; 0 , σ 2 ) ,
min c B c y 2 2 + λ c 1 .
s ¯ ( t ) = 1 m n i = 0 m 1 j = 0 n 1 s ( i , j , t ) ,
w i [ v ] = s [ n i + v ] , v { L / 2 , , L / 2 } ,
E AC [ m ] = 1 m v = 0 m w [ v ] w [ v m ] .
E AAMDF [ m ] = ( 1 m v = 0 m | w [ v ] w [ v m ] | ) 1 .
E MAP [ m ] = max v { 0 , , m } ( w [ v ] + w [ v m ] ) .
P ( m | E AC , E AAMDF , E MAP ) P ( m | E AC ) P ( m | E AAMDF ) P ( m | E MAP ) .
CAND = 1 = | BR T ¯ BR G ¯ | BR G ¯ ,

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