Abstract

Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a promising imaging technique to evaluate small airway remodeling. However, the short-term insertion-reinsertion reproducibility of OCT for evaluating the same bronchial pathway has yet to be established. We evaluated 74 OCT data sets from 38 current or former smokers twice within a single imaging session. Although the overall insertion-reinsertion airway wall thickness (WT) measurement coefficient of variation (CV) was moderate at 12%, much of the variability between repeat imaging was attributed to the observer; CV for repeated measurements of the same airway (intra-observer CV) was 9%. Therefore, reproducibility may be improved by introduction of automated analysis approaches suggesting that OCT has potential to be an in-vivo method for evaluating airway remodeling in future longitudinal and intervention studies.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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2015 (1)

F. B. Lazarow, G. S. Ahuja, A. Chin Loy, E. Su, T. D. Nguyen, G. K. Sharma, A. Wang, J. Jing, Z. Chen, and B. J. Wong, “Intraoperative long range optical coherence tomography as a novel method of imaging the pediatric upper airway before and after adenotonsillectomy,” Int. J. Pediatr. Otorhinolaryngol. 79(1), 63–70 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (2)

A. M. Lee, M. Kirby, K. Ohtani, T. Candido, R. Shalansky, C. MacAulay, J. English, R. Finley, S. Lam, H. O. Coxson, and P. Lane, “Validation of airway wall measurements by optical coherence tomography in porcine airways,” PLoS One 9(6), e100145 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Wijesundara, C. Zdanski, J. Kimbell, H. Price, N. Iftimia, and A. L. Oldenburg, “Quantitative upper airway endoscopy with swept-source anatomical optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(3), 788–799 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (1)

L. P. Hariri, M. B. Applegate, M. M. Kenudson, E. J. Mark, B. D. Medoff, A. D. Luster, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, and M. J. Suter, “Volumetric optical frequency domain imaging of pulmonary pathology with precise correlation to histopathology,” Chest 143, 64–74 (2013).

2011 (1)

J. P. Williamson, R. A. McLaughlin, W. J. Noffsinger, A. L. James, V. A. Baker, A. Curatolo, J. J. Armstrong, A. Regli, K. L. Shepherd, G. B. Marks, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Elastic properties of the central airways in obstructive lung diseases measured using anatomical optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 183(5), 612–619 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

R. G. Michel, G. T. Kinasewitz, K. M. Fung, and J. I. Keddissi, “Optical coherence tomography as an adjunct to flexible bronchoscopy in the diagnosis of lung cancer: a pilot study,” Chest 138(4), 984–988 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

J. Yin, G. Liu, J. Zhang, L. Yu, S. Mahon, D. Mukai, M. Brenner, and Z. Chen, “In vivo early detection of smoke-induced airway injury using three-dimensional swept-source optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(6), 060503 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

H. O. Coxson, B. Quiney, D. D. Sin, L. Xing, A. M. McWilliams, J. R. Mayo, and S. Lam, “Airway wall thickness assessed using computed tomography and optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 177(11), 1201–1206 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Cazzola, W. MacNee, F. J. Martinez, K. F. Rabe, L. G. Franciosi, P. J. Barnes, V. Brusasco, P. S. Burge, P. M. Calverley, B. R. Celli, P. W. Jones, D. A. Mahler, B. Make, M. Miravitlles, C. P. Page, P. Palange, D. Parr, M. Pistolesi, S. I. Rennard, M. P. Rutten-van Mölken, R. Stockley, S. D. Sullivan, J. A. Wedzicha, E. F. Wouters, S. American Thoracic, American Thoracic SocietyEuropean Respiratory Society Task Force on outcomes of COPD, “Outcomes for COPD pharmacological trials: from lung function to biomarkers,” Eur. Respir. J. 31(2), 416–469 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

J. M. Ridgway, G. Ahuja, S. Guo, J. Su, U. Mahmood, Z. Chen, and B. Wong, “Imaging of the pediatric airway using optical coherence tomography,” Laryngoscope 117(12), 2206–2212 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

S. C. Whiteman, Y. Yang, D. Gey van Pittius, M. Stephens, J. Parmer, and M. A. Spiteri, “Optical coherence tomography: real-time imaging of bronchial airways microstructure and detection of inflammatory/neoplastic morphologic changes,” Clin. Cancer Res. 12(3), 813–818 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. J. Armstrong, M. S. Leigh, D. D. Sampson, J. H. Walsh, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Quantitative upper airway imaging with anatomic optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 173(2), 226–233 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

M. Tsuboi, A. Hayashi, N. Ikeda, H. Honda, Y. Kato, S. Ichinose, and H. Kato, “Optical coherence tomography in the diagnosis of bronchial lesions,” Lung Cancer 49(3), 387–394 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Pellegrino, G. Viegi, V. Brusasco, R. O. Crapo, F. Burgos, R. Casaburi, A. Coates, C. P. van der Grinten, P. Gustafsson, J. Hankinson, R. Jensen, D. C. Johnson, N. MacIntyre, R. McKay, M. R. Miller, D. Navajas, O. F. Pedersen, and J. Wanger, “Interpretative strategies for lung function tests,” Eur. Respir. J. 26(5), 948–968 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Nakano, J. C. Wong, P. A. de Jong, L. Buzatu, T. Nagao, H. O. Coxson, W. M. Elliott, J. C. Hogg, and P. D. Paré, “The prediction of small airway dimensions using computed tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 171(2), 142–146 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

B. R. Celli, W. MacNee, A. E. T. Force, and ATS/ERS Task Force, “Standards for the diagnosis and treatment of patients with COPD: a summary of the ATS/ERS position paper,” Eur. Respir. J. 23(6), 932–946 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

A. Dirksen, J. H. Dijkman, F. Madsen, B. Stoel, D. C. Hutchison, C. S. Ulrik, L. T. Skovgaard, A. Kok-Jensen, A. Rudolphus, N. Seersholm, H. A. Vrooman, J. H. Reiber, N. C. Hansen, T. Heckscher, K. Viskum, and J. Stolk, “A randomized clinical trial of alpha(1)-antitrypsin augmentation therapy,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 160(5), 1468–1472 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

G. Atkinson and A. M. Nevill, “Statistical Methods For Assessing Measurement Error (Reliability) in Variables Relevant to Sports Medicine,” Sports Med. 26(4), 217–238 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

H. U. Kauczor, M. Ebert, K. F. Kreitner, H. Nilgens, R. Surkau, W. Heil, D. Hofmann, E. W. Otten, and M. Thelen, “Imaging of the lungs using 3He MRI: preliminary clinical experience in 18 patients with and without lung disease,” J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 7(3), 538–543 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1968 (1)

J. C. Hogg, P. T. Macklem, and W. M. Thurlbeck, “Site and nature of airway obstruction in chronic obstructive lung disease,” N. Engl. J. Med. 278(25), 1355–1360 (1968).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ahuja, G.

J. M. Ridgway, G. Ahuja, S. Guo, J. Su, U. Mahmood, Z. Chen, and B. Wong, “Imaging of the pediatric airway using optical coherence tomography,” Laryngoscope 117(12), 2206–2212 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ahuja, G. S.

F. B. Lazarow, G. S. Ahuja, A. Chin Loy, E. Su, T. D. Nguyen, G. K. Sharma, A. Wang, J. Jing, Z. Chen, and B. J. Wong, “Intraoperative long range optical coherence tomography as a novel method of imaging the pediatric upper airway before and after adenotonsillectomy,” Int. J. Pediatr. Otorhinolaryngol. 79(1), 63–70 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

American Thoracic, S.

M. Cazzola, W. MacNee, F. J. Martinez, K. F. Rabe, L. G. Franciosi, P. J. Barnes, V. Brusasco, P. S. Burge, P. M. Calverley, B. R. Celli, P. W. Jones, D. A. Mahler, B. Make, M. Miravitlles, C. P. Page, P. Palange, D. Parr, M. Pistolesi, S. I. Rennard, M. P. Rutten-van Mölken, R. Stockley, S. D. Sullivan, J. A. Wedzicha, E. F. Wouters, S. American Thoracic, American Thoracic SocietyEuropean Respiratory Society Task Force on outcomes of COPD, “Outcomes for COPD pharmacological trials: from lung function to biomarkers,” Eur. Respir. J. 31(2), 416–469 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Applegate, M. B.

L. P. Hariri, M. B. Applegate, M. M. Kenudson, E. J. Mark, B. D. Medoff, A. D. Luster, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, and M. J. Suter, “Volumetric optical frequency domain imaging of pulmonary pathology with precise correlation to histopathology,” Chest 143, 64–74 (2013).

Armstrong, J. J.

J. P. Williamson, R. A. McLaughlin, W. J. Noffsinger, A. L. James, V. A. Baker, A. Curatolo, J. J. Armstrong, A. Regli, K. L. Shepherd, G. B. Marks, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Elastic properties of the central airways in obstructive lung diseases measured using anatomical optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 183(5), 612–619 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. J. Armstrong, M. S. Leigh, D. D. Sampson, J. H. Walsh, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Quantitative upper airway imaging with anatomic optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 173(2), 226–233 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Atkinson, G.

G. Atkinson and A. M. Nevill, “Statistical Methods For Assessing Measurement Error (Reliability) in Variables Relevant to Sports Medicine,” Sports Med. 26(4), 217–238 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baker, V. A.

J. P. Williamson, R. A. McLaughlin, W. J. Noffsinger, A. L. James, V. A. Baker, A. Curatolo, J. J. Armstrong, A. Regli, K. L. Shepherd, G. B. Marks, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Elastic properties of the central airways in obstructive lung diseases measured using anatomical optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 183(5), 612–619 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barnes, P. J.

M. Cazzola, W. MacNee, F. J. Martinez, K. F. Rabe, L. G. Franciosi, P. J. Barnes, V. Brusasco, P. S. Burge, P. M. Calverley, B. R. Celli, P. W. Jones, D. A. Mahler, B. Make, M. Miravitlles, C. P. Page, P. Palange, D. Parr, M. Pistolesi, S. I. Rennard, M. P. Rutten-van Mölken, R. Stockley, S. D. Sullivan, J. A. Wedzicha, E. F. Wouters, S. American Thoracic, American Thoracic SocietyEuropean Respiratory Society Task Force on outcomes of COPD, “Outcomes for COPD pharmacological trials: from lung function to biomarkers,” Eur. Respir. J. 31(2), 416–469 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bouma, B. E.

L. P. Hariri, M. B. Applegate, M. M. Kenudson, E. J. Mark, B. D. Medoff, A. D. Luster, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, and M. J. Suter, “Volumetric optical frequency domain imaging of pulmonary pathology with precise correlation to histopathology,” Chest 143, 64–74 (2013).

Brenner, M.

J. Yin, G. Liu, J. Zhang, L. Yu, S. Mahon, D. Mukai, M. Brenner, and Z. Chen, “In vivo early detection of smoke-induced airway injury using three-dimensional swept-source optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(6), 060503 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brusasco, V.

M. Cazzola, W. MacNee, F. J. Martinez, K. F. Rabe, L. G. Franciosi, P. J. Barnes, V. Brusasco, P. S. Burge, P. M. Calverley, B. R. Celli, P. W. Jones, D. A. Mahler, B. Make, M. Miravitlles, C. P. Page, P. Palange, D. Parr, M. Pistolesi, S. I. Rennard, M. P. Rutten-van Mölken, R. Stockley, S. D. Sullivan, J. A. Wedzicha, E. F. Wouters, S. American Thoracic, American Thoracic SocietyEuropean Respiratory Society Task Force on outcomes of COPD, “Outcomes for COPD pharmacological trials: from lung function to biomarkers,” Eur. Respir. J. 31(2), 416–469 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Pellegrino, G. Viegi, V. Brusasco, R. O. Crapo, F. Burgos, R. Casaburi, A. Coates, C. P. van der Grinten, P. Gustafsson, J. Hankinson, R. Jensen, D. C. Johnson, N. MacIntyre, R. McKay, M. R. Miller, D. Navajas, O. F. Pedersen, and J. Wanger, “Interpretative strategies for lung function tests,” Eur. Respir. J. 26(5), 948–968 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Burge, P. S.

M. Cazzola, W. MacNee, F. J. Martinez, K. F. Rabe, L. G. Franciosi, P. J. Barnes, V. Brusasco, P. S. Burge, P. M. Calverley, B. R. Celli, P. W. Jones, D. A. Mahler, B. Make, M. Miravitlles, C. P. Page, P. Palange, D. Parr, M. Pistolesi, S. I. Rennard, M. P. Rutten-van Mölken, R. Stockley, S. D. Sullivan, J. A. Wedzicha, E. F. Wouters, S. American Thoracic, American Thoracic SocietyEuropean Respiratory Society Task Force on outcomes of COPD, “Outcomes for COPD pharmacological trials: from lung function to biomarkers,” Eur. Respir. J. 31(2), 416–469 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Burgos, F.

R. Pellegrino, G. Viegi, V. Brusasco, R. O. Crapo, F. Burgos, R. Casaburi, A. Coates, C. P. van der Grinten, P. Gustafsson, J. Hankinson, R. Jensen, D. C. Johnson, N. MacIntyre, R. McKay, M. R. Miller, D. Navajas, O. F. Pedersen, and J. Wanger, “Interpretative strategies for lung function tests,” Eur. Respir. J. 26(5), 948–968 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Buzatu, L.

Y. Nakano, J. C. Wong, P. A. de Jong, L. Buzatu, T. Nagao, H. O. Coxson, W. M. Elliott, J. C. Hogg, and P. D. Paré, “The prediction of small airway dimensions using computed tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 171(2), 142–146 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Calverley, P. M.

M. Cazzola, W. MacNee, F. J. Martinez, K. F. Rabe, L. G. Franciosi, P. J. Barnes, V. Brusasco, P. S. Burge, P. M. Calverley, B. R. Celli, P. W. Jones, D. A. Mahler, B. Make, M. Miravitlles, C. P. Page, P. Palange, D. Parr, M. Pistolesi, S. I. Rennard, M. P. Rutten-van Mölken, R. Stockley, S. D. Sullivan, J. A. Wedzicha, E. F. Wouters, S. American Thoracic, American Thoracic SocietyEuropean Respiratory Society Task Force on outcomes of COPD, “Outcomes for COPD pharmacological trials: from lung function to biomarkers,” Eur. Respir. J. 31(2), 416–469 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Candido, T.

A. M. Lee, M. Kirby, K. Ohtani, T. Candido, R. Shalansky, C. MacAulay, J. English, R. Finley, S. Lam, H. O. Coxson, and P. Lane, “Validation of airway wall measurements by optical coherence tomography in porcine airways,” PLoS One 9(6), e100145 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Casaburi, R.

R. Pellegrino, G. Viegi, V. Brusasco, R. O. Crapo, F. Burgos, R. Casaburi, A. Coates, C. P. van der Grinten, P. Gustafsson, J. Hankinson, R. Jensen, D. C. Johnson, N. MacIntyre, R. McKay, M. R. Miller, D. Navajas, O. F. Pedersen, and J. Wanger, “Interpretative strategies for lung function tests,” Eur. Respir. J. 26(5), 948–968 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cazzola, M.

M. Cazzola, W. MacNee, F. J. Martinez, K. F. Rabe, L. G. Franciosi, P. J. Barnes, V. Brusasco, P. S. Burge, P. M. Calverley, B. R. Celli, P. W. Jones, D. A. Mahler, B. Make, M. Miravitlles, C. P. Page, P. Palange, D. Parr, M. Pistolesi, S. I. Rennard, M. P. Rutten-van Mölken, R. Stockley, S. D. Sullivan, J. A. Wedzicha, E. F. Wouters, S. American Thoracic, American Thoracic SocietyEuropean Respiratory Society Task Force on outcomes of COPD, “Outcomes for COPD pharmacological trials: from lung function to biomarkers,” Eur. Respir. J. 31(2), 416–469 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Celli, B. R.

M. Cazzola, W. MacNee, F. J. Martinez, K. F. Rabe, L. G. Franciosi, P. J. Barnes, V. Brusasco, P. S. Burge, P. M. Calverley, B. R. Celli, P. W. Jones, D. A. Mahler, B. Make, M. Miravitlles, C. P. Page, P. Palange, D. Parr, M. Pistolesi, S. I. Rennard, M. P. Rutten-van Mölken, R. Stockley, S. D. Sullivan, J. A. Wedzicha, E. F. Wouters, S. American Thoracic, American Thoracic SocietyEuropean Respiratory Society Task Force on outcomes of COPD, “Outcomes for COPD pharmacological trials: from lung function to biomarkers,” Eur. Respir. J. 31(2), 416–469 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. R. Celli, W. MacNee, A. E. T. Force, and ATS/ERS Task Force, “Standards for the diagnosis and treatment of patients with COPD: a summary of the ATS/ERS position paper,” Eur. Respir. J. 23(6), 932–946 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Z.

F. B. Lazarow, G. S. Ahuja, A. Chin Loy, E. Su, T. D. Nguyen, G. K. Sharma, A. Wang, J. Jing, Z. Chen, and B. J. Wong, “Intraoperative long range optical coherence tomography as a novel method of imaging the pediatric upper airway before and after adenotonsillectomy,” Int. J. Pediatr. Otorhinolaryngol. 79(1), 63–70 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yin, G. Liu, J. Zhang, L. Yu, S. Mahon, D. Mukai, M. Brenner, and Z. Chen, “In vivo early detection of smoke-induced airway injury using three-dimensional swept-source optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(6), 060503 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Ridgway, G. Ahuja, S. Guo, J. Su, U. Mahmood, Z. Chen, and B. Wong, “Imaging of the pediatric airway using optical coherence tomography,” Laryngoscope 117(12), 2206–2212 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chin Loy, A.

F. B. Lazarow, G. S. Ahuja, A. Chin Loy, E. Su, T. D. Nguyen, G. K. Sharma, A. Wang, J. Jing, Z. Chen, and B. J. Wong, “Intraoperative long range optical coherence tomography as a novel method of imaging the pediatric upper airway before and after adenotonsillectomy,” Int. J. Pediatr. Otorhinolaryngol. 79(1), 63–70 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Coates, A.

R. Pellegrino, G. Viegi, V. Brusasco, R. O. Crapo, F. Burgos, R. Casaburi, A. Coates, C. P. van der Grinten, P. Gustafsson, J. Hankinson, R. Jensen, D. C. Johnson, N. MacIntyre, R. McKay, M. R. Miller, D. Navajas, O. F. Pedersen, and J. Wanger, “Interpretative strategies for lung function tests,” Eur. Respir. J. 26(5), 948–968 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Coxson, H. O.

A. M. Lee, M. Kirby, K. Ohtani, T. Candido, R. Shalansky, C. MacAulay, J. English, R. Finley, S. Lam, H. O. Coxson, and P. Lane, “Validation of airway wall measurements by optical coherence tomography in porcine airways,” PLoS One 9(6), e100145 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. O. Coxson, B. Quiney, D. D. Sin, L. Xing, A. M. McWilliams, J. R. Mayo, and S. Lam, “Airway wall thickness assessed using computed tomography and optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 177(11), 1201–1206 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Nakano, J. C. Wong, P. A. de Jong, L. Buzatu, T. Nagao, H. O. Coxson, W. M. Elliott, J. C. Hogg, and P. D. Paré, “The prediction of small airway dimensions using computed tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 171(2), 142–146 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Crapo, R. O.

R. Pellegrino, G. Viegi, V. Brusasco, R. O. Crapo, F. Burgos, R. Casaburi, A. Coates, C. P. van der Grinten, P. Gustafsson, J. Hankinson, R. Jensen, D. C. Johnson, N. MacIntyre, R. McKay, M. R. Miller, D. Navajas, O. F. Pedersen, and J. Wanger, “Interpretative strategies for lung function tests,” Eur. Respir. J. 26(5), 948–968 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Curatolo, A.

J. P. Williamson, R. A. McLaughlin, W. J. Noffsinger, A. L. James, V. A. Baker, A. Curatolo, J. J. Armstrong, A. Regli, K. L. Shepherd, G. B. Marks, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Elastic properties of the central airways in obstructive lung diseases measured using anatomical optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 183(5), 612–619 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

de Jong, P. A.

Y. Nakano, J. C. Wong, P. A. de Jong, L. Buzatu, T. Nagao, H. O. Coxson, W. M. Elliott, J. C. Hogg, and P. D. Paré, “The prediction of small airway dimensions using computed tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 171(2), 142–146 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dijkman, J. H.

A. Dirksen, J. H. Dijkman, F. Madsen, B. Stoel, D. C. Hutchison, C. S. Ulrik, L. T. Skovgaard, A. Kok-Jensen, A. Rudolphus, N. Seersholm, H. A. Vrooman, J. H. Reiber, N. C. Hansen, T. Heckscher, K. Viskum, and J. Stolk, “A randomized clinical trial of alpha(1)-antitrypsin augmentation therapy,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 160(5), 1468–1472 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dirksen, A.

A. Dirksen, J. H. Dijkman, F. Madsen, B. Stoel, D. C. Hutchison, C. S. Ulrik, L. T. Skovgaard, A. Kok-Jensen, A. Rudolphus, N. Seersholm, H. A. Vrooman, J. H. Reiber, N. C. Hansen, T. Heckscher, K. Viskum, and J. Stolk, “A randomized clinical trial of alpha(1)-antitrypsin augmentation therapy,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 160(5), 1468–1472 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eastwood, P. R.

J. P. Williamson, R. A. McLaughlin, W. J. Noffsinger, A. L. James, V. A. Baker, A. Curatolo, J. J. Armstrong, A. Regli, K. L. Shepherd, G. B. Marks, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Elastic properties of the central airways in obstructive lung diseases measured using anatomical optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 183(5), 612–619 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. J. Armstrong, M. S. Leigh, D. D. Sampson, J. H. Walsh, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Quantitative upper airway imaging with anatomic optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 173(2), 226–233 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ebert, M.

H. U. Kauczor, M. Ebert, K. F. Kreitner, H. Nilgens, R. Surkau, W. Heil, D. Hofmann, E. W. Otten, and M. Thelen, “Imaging of the lungs using 3He MRI: preliminary clinical experience in 18 patients with and without lung disease,” J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 7(3), 538–543 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Elliott, W. M.

Y. Nakano, J. C. Wong, P. A. de Jong, L. Buzatu, T. Nagao, H. O. Coxson, W. M. Elliott, J. C. Hogg, and P. D. Paré, “The prediction of small airway dimensions using computed tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 171(2), 142–146 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

English, J.

A. M. Lee, M. Kirby, K. Ohtani, T. Candido, R. Shalansky, C. MacAulay, J. English, R. Finley, S. Lam, H. O. Coxson, and P. Lane, “Validation of airway wall measurements by optical coherence tomography in porcine airways,” PLoS One 9(6), e100145 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Finley, R.

A. M. Lee, M. Kirby, K. Ohtani, T. Candido, R. Shalansky, C. MacAulay, J. English, R. Finley, S. Lam, H. O. Coxson, and P. Lane, “Validation of airway wall measurements by optical coherence tomography in porcine airways,” PLoS One 9(6), e100145 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Force, A. E. T.

B. R. Celli, W. MacNee, A. E. T. Force, and ATS/ERS Task Force, “Standards for the diagnosis and treatment of patients with COPD: a summary of the ATS/ERS position paper,” Eur. Respir. J. 23(6), 932–946 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Franciosi, L. G.

M. Cazzola, W. MacNee, F. J. Martinez, K. F. Rabe, L. G. Franciosi, P. J. Barnes, V. Brusasco, P. S. Burge, P. M. Calverley, B. R. Celli, P. W. Jones, D. A. Mahler, B. Make, M. Miravitlles, C. P. Page, P. Palange, D. Parr, M. Pistolesi, S. I. Rennard, M. P. Rutten-van Mölken, R. Stockley, S. D. Sullivan, J. A. Wedzicha, E. F. Wouters, S. American Thoracic, American Thoracic SocietyEuropean Respiratory Society Task Force on outcomes of COPD, “Outcomes for COPD pharmacological trials: from lung function to biomarkers,” Eur. Respir. J. 31(2), 416–469 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fung, K. M.

R. G. Michel, G. T. Kinasewitz, K. M. Fung, and J. I. Keddissi, “Optical coherence tomography as an adjunct to flexible bronchoscopy in the diagnosis of lung cancer: a pilot study,” Chest 138(4), 984–988 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gey van Pittius, D.

S. C. Whiteman, Y. Yang, D. Gey van Pittius, M. Stephens, J. Parmer, and M. A. Spiteri, “Optical coherence tomography: real-time imaging of bronchial airways microstructure and detection of inflammatory/neoplastic morphologic changes,” Clin. Cancer Res. 12(3), 813–818 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guo, S.

J. M. Ridgway, G. Ahuja, S. Guo, J. Su, U. Mahmood, Z. Chen, and B. Wong, “Imaging of the pediatric airway using optical coherence tomography,” Laryngoscope 117(12), 2206–2212 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gustafsson, P.

R. Pellegrino, G. Viegi, V. Brusasco, R. O. Crapo, F. Burgos, R. Casaburi, A. Coates, C. P. van der Grinten, P. Gustafsson, J. Hankinson, R. Jensen, D. C. Johnson, N. MacIntyre, R. McKay, M. R. Miller, D. Navajas, O. F. Pedersen, and J. Wanger, “Interpretative strategies for lung function tests,” Eur. Respir. J. 26(5), 948–968 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hankinson, J.

R. Pellegrino, G. Viegi, V. Brusasco, R. O. Crapo, F. Burgos, R. Casaburi, A. Coates, C. P. van der Grinten, P. Gustafsson, J. Hankinson, R. Jensen, D. C. Johnson, N. MacIntyre, R. McKay, M. R. Miller, D. Navajas, O. F. Pedersen, and J. Wanger, “Interpretative strategies for lung function tests,” Eur. Respir. J. 26(5), 948–968 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hansen, N. C.

A. Dirksen, J. H. Dijkman, F. Madsen, B. Stoel, D. C. Hutchison, C. S. Ulrik, L. T. Skovgaard, A. Kok-Jensen, A. Rudolphus, N. Seersholm, H. A. Vrooman, J. H. Reiber, N. C. Hansen, T. Heckscher, K. Viskum, and J. Stolk, “A randomized clinical trial of alpha(1)-antitrypsin augmentation therapy,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 160(5), 1468–1472 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hariri, L. P.

L. P. Hariri, M. B. Applegate, M. M. Kenudson, E. J. Mark, B. D. Medoff, A. D. Luster, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, and M. J. Suter, “Volumetric optical frequency domain imaging of pulmonary pathology with precise correlation to histopathology,” Chest 143, 64–74 (2013).

Hayashi, A.

M. Tsuboi, A. Hayashi, N. Ikeda, H. Honda, Y. Kato, S. Ichinose, and H. Kato, “Optical coherence tomography in the diagnosis of bronchial lesions,” Lung Cancer 49(3), 387–394 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Heckscher, T.

A. Dirksen, J. H. Dijkman, F. Madsen, B. Stoel, D. C. Hutchison, C. S. Ulrik, L. T. Skovgaard, A. Kok-Jensen, A. Rudolphus, N. Seersholm, H. A. Vrooman, J. H. Reiber, N. C. Hansen, T. Heckscher, K. Viskum, and J. Stolk, “A randomized clinical trial of alpha(1)-antitrypsin augmentation therapy,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 160(5), 1468–1472 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Heil, W.

H. U. Kauczor, M. Ebert, K. F. Kreitner, H. Nilgens, R. Surkau, W. Heil, D. Hofmann, E. W. Otten, and M. Thelen, “Imaging of the lungs using 3He MRI: preliminary clinical experience in 18 patients with and without lung disease,” J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 7(3), 538–543 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hillman, D. R.

J. P. Williamson, R. A. McLaughlin, W. J. Noffsinger, A. L. James, V. A. Baker, A. Curatolo, J. J. Armstrong, A. Regli, K. L. Shepherd, G. B. Marks, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Elastic properties of the central airways in obstructive lung diseases measured using anatomical optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 183(5), 612–619 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. J. Armstrong, M. S. Leigh, D. D. Sampson, J. H. Walsh, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Quantitative upper airway imaging with anatomic optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 173(2), 226–233 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hofmann, D.

H. U. Kauczor, M. Ebert, K. F. Kreitner, H. Nilgens, R. Surkau, W. Heil, D. Hofmann, E. W. Otten, and M. Thelen, “Imaging of the lungs using 3He MRI: preliminary clinical experience in 18 patients with and without lung disease,” J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 7(3), 538–543 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hogg, J. C.

Y. Nakano, J. C. Wong, P. A. de Jong, L. Buzatu, T. Nagao, H. O. Coxson, W. M. Elliott, J. C. Hogg, and P. D. Paré, “The prediction of small airway dimensions using computed tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 171(2), 142–146 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. C. Hogg, P. T. Macklem, and W. M. Thurlbeck, “Site and nature of airway obstruction in chronic obstructive lung disease,” N. Engl. J. Med. 278(25), 1355–1360 (1968).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Honda, H.

M. Tsuboi, A. Hayashi, N. Ikeda, H. Honda, Y. Kato, S. Ichinose, and H. Kato, “Optical coherence tomography in the diagnosis of bronchial lesions,” Lung Cancer 49(3), 387–394 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hutchison, D. C.

A. Dirksen, J. H. Dijkman, F. Madsen, B. Stoel, D. C. Hutchison, C. S. Ulrik, L. T. Skovgaard, A. Kok-Jensen, A. Rudolphus, N. Seersholm, H. A. Vrooman, J. H. Reiber, N. C. Hansen, T. Heckscher, K. Viskum, and J. Stolk, “A randomized clinical trial of alpha(1)-antitrypsin augmentation therapy,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 160(5), 1468–1472 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ichinose, S.

M. Tsuboi, A. Hayashi, N. Ikeda, H. Honda, Y. Kato, S. Ichinose, and H. Kato, “Optical coherence tomography in the diagnosis of bronchial lesions,” Lung Cancer 49(3), 387–394 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Iftimia, N.

Ikeda, N.

M. Tsuboi, A. Hayashi, N. Ikeda, H. Honda, Y. Kato, S. Ichinose, and H. Kato, “Optical coherence tomography in the diagnosis of bronchial lesions,” Lung Cancer 49(3), 387–394 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

James, A. L.

J. P. Williamson, R. A. McLaughlin, W. J. Noffsinger, A. L. James, V. A. Baker, A. Curatolo, J. J. Armstrong, A. Regli, K. L. Shepherd, G. B. Marks, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Elastic properties of the central airways in obstructive lung diseases measured using anatomical optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 183(5), 612–619 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jensen, R.

R. Pellegrino, G. Viegi, V. Brusasco, R. O. Crapo, F. Burgos, R. Casaburi, A. Coates, C. P. van der Grinten, P. Gustafsson, J. Hankinson, R. Jensen, D. C. Johnson, N. MacIntyre, R. McKay, M. R. Miller, D. Navajas, O. F. Pedersen, and J. Wanger, “Interpretative strategies for lung function tests,” Eur. Respir. J. 26(5), 948–968 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jing, J.

F. B. Lazarow, G. S. Ahuja, A. Chin Loy, E. Su, T. D. Nguyen, G. K. Sharma, A. Wang, J. Jing, Z. Chen, and B. J. Wong, “Intraoperative long range optical coherence tomography as a novel method of imaging the pediatric upper airway before and after adenotonsillectomy,” Int. J. Pediatr. Otorhinolaryngol. 79(1), 63–70 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Johnson, D. C.

R. Pellegrino, G. Viegi, V. Brusasco, R. O. Crapo, F. Burgos, R. Casaburi, A. Coates, C. P. van der Grinten, P. Gustafsson, J. Hankinson, R. Jensen, D. C. Johnson, N. MacIntyre, R. McKay, M. R. Miller, D. Navajas, O. F. Pedersen, and J. Wanger, “Interpretative strategies for lung function tests,” Eur. Respir. J. 26(5), 948–968 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jones, P. W.

M. Cazzola, W. MacNee, F. J. Martinez, K. F. Rabe, L. G. Franciosi, P. J. Barnes, V. Brusasco, P. S. Burge, P. M. Calverley, B. R. Celli, P. W. Jones, D. A. Mahler, B. Make, M. Miravitlles, C. P. Page, P. Palange, D. Parr, M. Pistolesi, S. I. Rennard, M. P. Rutten-van Mölken, R. Stockley, S. D. Sullivan, J. A. Wedzicha, E. F. Wouters, S. American Thoracic, American Thoracic SocietyEuropean Respiratory Society Task Force on outcomes of COPD, “Outcomes for COPD pharmacological trials: from lung function to biomarkers,” Eur. Respir. J. 31(2), 416–469 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kato, H.

M. Tsuboi, A. Hayashi, N. Ikeda, H. Honda, Y. Kato, S. Ichinose, and H. Kato, “Optical coherence tomography in the diagnosis of bronchial lesions,” Lung Cancer 49(3), 387–394 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kato, Y.

M. Tsuboi, A. Hayashi, N. Ikeda, H. Honda, Y. Kato, S. Ichinose, and H. Kato, “Optical coherence tomography in the diagnosis of bronchial lesions,” Lung Cancer 49(3), 387–394 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kauczor, H. U.

H. U. Kauczor, M. Ebert, K. F. Kreitner, H. Nilgens, R. Surkau, W. Heil, D. Hofmann, E. W. Otten, and M. Thelen, “Imaging of the lungs using 3He MRI: preliminary clinical experience in 18 patients with and without lung disease,” J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 7(3), 538–543 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Keddissi, J. I.

R. G. Michel, G. T. Kinasewitz, K. M. Fung, and J. I. Keddissi, “Optical coherence tomography as an adjunct to flexible bronchoscopy in the diagnosis of lung cancer: a pilot study,” Chest 138(4), 984–988 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kenudson, M. M.

L. P. Hariri, M. B. Applegate, M. M. Kenudson, E. J. Mark, B. D. Medoff, A. D. Luster, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, and M. J. Suter, “Volumetric optical frequency domain imaging of pulmonary pathology with precise correlation to histopathology,” Chest 143, 64–74 (2013).

Kimbell, J.

Kinasewitz, G. T.

R. G. Michel, G. T. Kinasewitz, K. M. Fung, and J. I. Keddissi, “Optical coherence tomography as an adjunct to flexible bronchoscopy in the diagnosis of lung cancer: a pilot study,” Chest 138(4), 984–988 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kirby, M.

A. M. Lee, M. Kirby, K. Ohtani, T. Candido, R. Shalansky, C. MacAulay, J. English, R. Finley, S. Lam, H. O. Coxson, and P. Lane, “Validation of airway wall measurements by optical coherence tomography in porcine airways,” PLoS One 9(6), e100145 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kok-Jensen, A.

A. Dirksen, J. H. Dijkman, F. Madsen, B. Stoel, D. C. Hutchison, C. S. Ulrik, L. T. Skovgaard, A. Kok-Jensen, A. Rudolphus, N. Seersholm, H. A. Vrooman, J. H. Reiber, N. C. Hansen, T. Heckscher, K. Viskum, and J. Stolk, “A randomized clinical trial of alpha(1)-antitrypsin augmentation therapy,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 160(5), 1468–1472 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kreitner, K. F.

H. U. Kauczor, M. Ebert, K. F. Kreitner, H. Nilgens, R. Surkau, W. Heil, D. Hofmann, E. W. Otten, and M. Thelen, “Imaging of the lungs using 3He MRI: preliminary clinical experience in 18 patients with and without lung disease,” J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 7(3), 538–543 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lam, S.

A. M. Lee, M. Kirby, K. Ohtani, T. Candido, R. Shalansky, C. MacAulay, J. English, R. Finley, S. Lam, H. O. Coxson, and P. Lane, “Validation of airway wall measurements by optical coherence tomography in porcine airways,” PLoS One 9(6), e100145 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. O. Coxson, B. Quiney, D. D. Sin, L. Xing, A. M. McWilliams, J. R. Mayo, and S. Lam, “Airway wall thickness assessed using computed tomography and optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 177(11), 1201–1206 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lane, P.

A. M. Lee, M. Kirby, K. Ohtani, T. Candido, R. Shalansky, C. MacAulay, J. English, R. Finley, S. Lam, H. O. Coxson, and P. Lane, “Validation of airway wall measurements by optical coherence tomography in porcine airways,” PLoS One 9(6), e100145 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lazarow, F. B.

F. B. Lazarow, G. S. Ahuja, A. Chin Loy, E. Su, T. D. Nguyen, G. K. Sharma, A. Wang, J. Jing, Z. Chen, and B. J. Wong, “Intraoperative long range optical coherence tomography as a novel method of imaging the pediatric upper airway before and after adenotonsillectomy,” Int. J. Pediatr. Otorhinolaryngol. 79(1), 63–70 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, A. M.

A. M. Lee, M. Kirby, K. Ohtani, T. Candido, R. Shalansky, C. MacAulay, J. English, R. Finley, S. Lam, H. O. Coxson, and P. Lane, “Validation of airway wall measurements by optical coherence tomography in porcine airways,” PLoS One 9(6), e100145 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leigh, M. S.

J. J. Armstrong, M. S. Leigh, D. D. Sampson, J. H. Walsh, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Quantitative upper airway imaging with anatomic optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 173(2), 226–233 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, G.

J. Yin, G. Liu, J. Zhang, L. Yu, S. Mahon, D. Mukai, M. Brenner, and Z. Chen, “In vivo early detection of smoke-induced airway injury using three-dimensional swept-source optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(6), 060503 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Luster, A. D.

L. P. Hariri, M. B. Applegate, M. M. Kenudson, E. J. Mark, B. D. Medoff, A. D. Luster, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, and M. J. Suter, “Volumetric optical frequency domain imaging of pulmonary pathology with precise correlation to histopathology,” Chest 143, 64–74 (2013).

MacAulay, C.

A. M. Lee, M. Kirby, K. Ohtani, T. Candido, R. Shalansky, C. MacAulay, J. English, R. Finley, S. Lam, H. O. Coxson, and P. Lane, “Validation of airway wall measurements by optical coherence tomography in porcine airways,” PLoS One 9(6), e100145 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

MacIntyre, N.

R. Pellegrino, G. Viegi, V. Brusasco, R. O. Crapo, F. Burgos, R. Casaburi, A. Coates, C. P. van der Grinten, P. Gustafsson, J. Hankinson, R. Jensen, D. C. Johnson, N. MacIntyre, R. McKay, M. R. Miller, D. Navajas, O. F. Pedersen, and J. Wanger, “Interpretative strategies for lung function tests,” Eur. Respir. J. 26(5), 948–968 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Macklem, P. T.

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M. Cazzola, W. MacNee, F. J. Martinez, K. F. Rabe, L. G. Franciosi, P. J. Barnes, V. Brusasco, P. S. Burge, P. M. Calverley, B. R. Celli, P. W. Jones, D. A. Mahler, B. Make, M. Miravitlles, C. P. Page, P. Palange, D. Parr, M. Pistolesi, S. I. Rennard, M. P. Rutten-van Mölken, R. Stockley, S. D. Sullivan, J. A. Wedzicha, E. F. Wouters, S. American Thoracic, American Thoracic SocietyEuropean Respiratory Society Task Force on outcomes of COPD, “Outcomes for COPD pharmacological trials: from lung function to biomarkers,” Eur. Respir. J. 31(2), 416–469 (2008).
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Mahler, D. A.

M. Cazzola, W. MacNee, F. J. Martinez, K. F. Rabe, L. G. Franciosi, P. J. Barnes, V. Brusasco, P. S. Burge, P. M. Calverley, B. R. Celli, P. W. Jones, D. A. Mahler, B. Make, M. Miravitlles, C. P. Page, P. Palange, D. Parr, M. Pistolesi, S. I. Rennard, M. P. Rutten-van Mölken, R. Stockley, S. D. Sullivan, J. A. Wedzicha, E. F. Wouters, S. American Thoracic, American Thoracic SocietyEuropean Respiratory Society Task Force on outcomes of COPD, “Outcomes for COPD pharmacological trials: from lung function to biomarkers,” Eur. Respir. J. 31(2), 416–469 (2008).
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J. M. Ridgway, G. Ahuja, S. Guo, J. Su, U. Mahmood, Z. Chen, and B. Wong, “Imaging of the pediatric airway using optical coherence tomography,” Laryngoscope 117(12), 2206–2212 (2007).
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J. Yin, G. Liu, J. Zhang, L. Yu, S. Mahon, D. Mukai, M. Brenner, and Z. Chen, “In vivo early detection of smoke-induced airway injury using three-dimensional swept-source optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(6), 060503 (2009).
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M. Cazzola, W. MacNee, F. J. Martinez, K. F. Rabe, L. G. Franciosi, P. J. Barnes, V. Brusasco, P. S. Burge, P. M. Calverley, B. R. Celli, P. W. Jones, D. A. Mahler, B. Make, M. Miravitlles, C. P. Page, P. Palange, D. Parr, M. Pistolesi, S. I. Rennard, M. P. Rutten-van Mölken, R. Stockley, S. D. Sullivan, J. A. Wedzicha, E. F. Wouters, S. American Thoracic, American Thoracic SocietyEuropean Respiratory Society Task Force on outcomes of COPD, “Outcomes for COPD pharmacological trials: from lung function to biomarkers,” Eur. Respir. J. 31(2), 416–469 (2008).
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L. P. Hariri, M. B. Applegate, M. M. Kenudson, E. J. Mark, B. D. Medoff, A. D. Luster, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, and M. J. Suter, “Volumetric optical frequency domain imaging of pulmonary pathology with precise correlation to histopathology,” Chest 143, 64–74 (2013).

Marks, G. B.

J. P. Williamson, R. A. McLaughlin, W. J. Noffsinger, A. L. James, V. A. Baker, A. Curatolo, J. J. Armstrong, A. Regli, K. L. Shepherd, G. B. Marks, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Elastic properties of the central airways in obstructive lung diseases measured using anatomical optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 183(5), 612–619 (2011).
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M. Cazzola, W. MacNee, F. J. Martinez, K. F. Rabe, L. G. Franciosi, P. J. Barnes, V. Brusasco, P. S. Burge, P. M. Calverley, B. R. Celli, P. W. Jones, D. A. Mahler, B. Make, M. Miravitlles, C. P. Page, P. Palange, D. Parr, M. Pistolesi, S. I. Rennard, M. P. Rutten-van Mölken, R. Stockley, S. D. Sullivan, J. A. Wedzicha, E. F. Wouters, S. American Thoracic, American Thoracic SocietyEuropean Respiratory Society Task Force on outcomes of COPD, “Outcomes for COPD pharmacological trials: from lung function to biomarkers,” Eur. Respir. J. 31(2), 416–469 (2008).
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H. O. Coxson, B. Quiney, D. D. Sin, L. Xing, A. M. McWilliams, J. R. Mayo, and S. Lam, “Airway wall thickness assessed using computed tomography and optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 177(11), 1201–1206 (2008).
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R. Pellegrino, G. Viegi, V. Brusasco, R. O. Crapo, F. Burgos, R. Casaburi, A. Coates, C. P. van der Grinten, P. Gustafsson, J. Hankinson, R. Jensen, D. C. Johnson, N. MacIntyre, R. McKay, M. R. Miller, D. Navajas, O. F. Pedersen, and J. Wanger, “Interpretative strategies for lung function tests,” Eur. Respir. J. 26(5), 948–968 (2005).
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J. P. Williamson, R. A. McLaughlin, W. J. Noffsinger, A. L. James, V. A. Baker, A. Curatolo, J. J. Armstrong, A. Regli, K. L. Shepherd, G. B. Marks, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Elastic properties of the central airways in obstructive lung diseases measured using anatomical optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 183(5), 612–619 (2011).
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McWilliams, A. M.

H. O. Coxson, B. Quiney, D. D. Sin, L. Xing, A. M. McWilliams, J. R. Mayo, and S. Lam, “Airway wall thickness assessed using computed tomography and optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 177(11), 1201–1206 (2008).
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Medoff, B. D.

L. P. Hariri, M. B. Applegate, M. M. Kenudson, E. J. Mark, B. D. Medoff, A. D. Luster, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, and M. J. Suter, “Volumetric optical frequency domain imaging of pulmonary pathology with precise correlation to histopathology,” Chest 143, 64–74 (2013).

Michel, R. G.

R. G. Michel, G. T. Kinasewitz, K. M. Fung, and J. I. Keddissi, “Optical coherence tomography as an adjunct to flexible bronchoscopy in the diagnosis of lung cancer: a pilot study,” Chest 138(4), 984–988 (2010).
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Miller, M. R.

R. Pellegrino, G. Viegi, V. Brusasco, R. O. Crapo, F. Burgos, R. Casaburi, A. Coates, C. P. van der Grinten, P. Gustafsson, J. Hankinson, R. Jensen, D. C. Johnson, N. MacIntyre, R. McKay, M. R. Miller, D. Navajas, O. F. Pedersen, and J. Wanger, “Interpretative strategies for lung function tests,” Eur. Respir. J. 26(5), 948–968 (2005).
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Miravitlles, M.

M. Cazzola, W. MacNee, F. J. Martinez, K. F. Rabe, L. G. Franciosi, P. J. Barnes, V. Brusasco, P. S. Burge, P. M. Calverley, B. R. Celli, P. W. Jones, D. A. Mahler, B. Make, M. Miravitlles, C. P. Page, P. Palange, D. Parr, M. Pistolesi, S. I. Rennard, M. P. Rutten-van Mölken, R. Stockley, S. D. Sullivan, J. A. Wedzicha, E. F. Wouters, S. American Thoracic, American Thoracic SocietyEuropean Respiratory Society Task Force on outcomes of COPD, “Outcomes for COPD pharmacological trials: from lung function to biomarkers,” Eur. Respir. J. 31(2), 416–469 (2008).
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Mukai, D.

J. Yin, G. Liu, J. Zhang, L. Yu, S. Mahon, D. Mukai, M. Brenner, and Z. Chen, “In vivo early detection of smoke-induced airway injury using three-dimensional swept-source optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(6), 060503 (2009).
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Nagao, T.

Y. Nakano, J. C. Wong, P. A. de Jong, L. Buzatu, T. Nagao, H. O. Coxson, W. M. Elliott, J. C. Hogg, and P. D. Paré, “The prediction of small airway dimensions using computed tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 171(2), 142–146 (2005).
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Nakano, Y.

Y. Nakano, J. C. Wong, P. A. de Jong, L. Buzatu, T. Nagao, H. O. Coxson, W. M. Elliott, J. C. Hogg, and P. D. Paré, “The prediction of small airway dimensions using computed tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 171(2), 142–146 (2005).
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Navajas, D.

R. Pellegrino, G. Viegi, V. Brusasco, R. O. Crapo, F. Burgos, R. Casaburi, A. Coates, C. P. van der Grinten, P. Gustafsson, J. Hankinson, R. Jensen, D. C. Johnson, N. MacIntyre, R. McKay, M. R. Miller, D. Navajas, O. F. Pedersen, and J. Wanger, “Interpretative strategies for lung function tests,” Eur. Respir. J. 26(5), 948–968 (2005).
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G. Atkinson and A. M. Nevill, “Statistical Methods For Assessing Measurement Error (Reliability) in Variables Relevant to Sports Medicine,” Sports Med. 26(4), 217–238 (1998).
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F. B. Lazarow, G. S. Ahuja, A. Chin Loy, E. Su, T. D. Nguyen, G. K. Sharma, A. Wang, J. Jing, Z. Chen, and B. J. Wong, “Intraoperative long range optical coherence tomography as a novel method of imaging the pediatric upper airway before and after adenotonsillectomy,” Int. J. Pediatr. Otorhinolaryngol. 79(1), 63–70 (2015).
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Nilgens, H.

H. U. Kauczor, M. Ebert, K. F. Kreitner, H. Nilgens, R. Surkau, W. Heil, D. Hofmann, E. W. Otten, and M. Thelen, “Imaging of the lungs using 3He MRI: preliminary clinical experience in 18 patients with and without lung disease,” J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 7(3), 538–543 (1997).
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Noffsinger, W. J.

J. P. Williamson, R. A. McLaughlin, W. J. Noffsinger, A. L. James, V. A. Baker, A. Curatolo, J. J. Armstrong, A. Regli, K. L. Shepherd, G. B. Marks, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Elastic properties of the central airways in obstructive lung diseases measured using anatomical optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 183(5), 612–619 (2011).
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Ohtani, K.

A. M. Lee, M. Kirby, K. Ohtani, T. Candido, R. Shalansky, C. MacAulay, J. English, R. Finley, S. Lam, H. O. Coxson, and P. Lane, “Validation of airway wall measurements by optical coherence tomography in porcine airways,” PLoS One 9(6), e100145 (2014).
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Oldenburg, A. L.

Otten, E. W.

H. U. Kauczor, M. Ebert, K. F. Kreitner, H. Nilgens, R. Surkau, W. Heil, D. Hofmann, E. W. Otten, and M. Thelen, “Imaging of the lungs using 3He MRI: preliminary clinical experience in 18 patients with and without lung disease,” J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 7(3), 538–543 (1997).
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Page, C. P.

M. Cazzola, W. MacNee, F. J. Martinez, K. F. Rabe, L. G. Franciosi, P. J. Barnes, V. Brusasco, P. S. Burge, P. M. Calverley, B. R. Celli, P. W. Jones, D. A. Mahler, B. Make, M. Miravitlles, C. P. Page, P. Palange, D. Parr, M. Pistolesi, S. I. Rennard, M. P. Rutten-van Mölken, R. Stockley, S. D. Sullivan, J. A. Wedzicha, E. F. Wouters, S. American Thoracic, American Thoracic SocietyEuropean Respiratory Society Task Force on outcomes of COPD, “Outcomes for COPD pharmacological trials: from lung function to biomarkers,” Eur. Respir. J. 31(2), 416–469 (2008).
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Palange, P.

M. Cazzola, W. MacNee, F. J. Martinez, K. F. Rabe, L. G. Franciosi, P. J. Barnes, V. Brusasco, P. S. Burge, P. M. Calverley, B. R. Celli, P. W. Jones, D. A. Mahler, B. Make, M. Miravitlles, C. P. Page, P. Palange, D. Parr, M. Pistolesi, S. I. Rennard, M. P. Rutten-van Mölken, R. Stockley, S. D. Sullivan, J. A. Wedzicha, E. F. Wouters, S. American Thoracic, American Thoracic SocietyEuropean Respiratory Society Task Force on outcomes of COPD, “Outcomes for COPD pharmacological trials: from lung function to biomarkers,” Eur. Respir. J. 31(2), 416–469 (2008).
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Paré, P. D.

Y. Nakano, J. C. Wong, P. A. de Jong, L. Buzatu, T. Nagao, H. O. Coxson, W. M. Elliott, J. C. Hogg, and P. D. Paré, “The prediction of small airway dimensions using computed tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 171(2), 142–146 (2005).
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Parmer, J.

S. C. Whiteman, Y. Yang, D. Gey van Pittius, M. Stephens, J. Parmer, and M. A. Spiteri, “Optical coherence tomography: real-time imaging of bronchial airways microstructure and detection of inflammatory/neoplastic morphologic changes,” Clin. Cancer Res. 12(3), 813–818 (2006).
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Parr, D.

M. Cazzola, W. MacNee, F. J. Martinez, K. F. Rabe, L. G. Franciosi, P. J. Barnes, V. Brusasco, P. S. Burge, P. M. Calverley, B. R. Celli, P. W. Jones, D. A. Mahler, B. Make, M. Miravitlles, C. P. Page, P. Palange, D. Parr, M. Pistolesi, S. I. Rennard, M. P. Rutten-van Mölken, R. Stockley, S. D. Sullivan, J. A. Wedzicha, E. F. Wouters, S. American Thoracic, American Thoracic SocietyEuropean Respiratory Society Task Force on outcomes of COPD, “Outcomes for COPD pharmacological trials: from lung function to biomarkers,” Eur. Respir. J. 31(2), 416–469 (2008).
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Pedersen, O. F.

R. Pellegrino, G. Viegi, V. Brusasco, R. O. Crapo, F. Burgos, R. Casaburi, A. Coates, C. P. van der Grinten, P. Gustafsson, J. Hankinson, R. Jensen, D. C. Johnson, N. MacIntyre, R. McKay, M. R. Miller, D. Navajas, O. F. Pedersen, and J. Wanger, “Interpretative strategies for lung function tests,” Eur. Respir. J. 26(5), 948–968 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pellegrino, R.

R. Pellegrino, G. Viegi, V. Brusasco, R. O. Crapo, F. Burgos, R. Casaburi, A. Coates, C. P. van der Grinten, P. Gustafsson, J. Hankinson, R. Jensen, D. C. Johnson, N. MacIntyre, R. McKay, M. R. Miller, D. Navajas, O. F. Pedersen, and J. Wanger, “Interpretative strategies for lung function tests,” Eur. Respir. J. 26(5), 948–968 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pistolesi, M.

M. Cazzola, W. MacNee, F. J. Martinez, K. F. Rabe, L. G. Franciosi, P. J. Barnes, V. Brusasco, P. S. Burge, P. M. Calverley, B. R. Celli, P. W. Jones, D. A. Mahler, B. Make, M. Miravitlles, C. P. Page, P. Palange, D. Parr, M. Pistolesi, S. I. Rennard, M. P. Rutten-van Mölken, R. Stockley, S. D. Sullivan, J. A. Wedzicha, E. F. Wouters, S. American Thoracic, American Thoracic SocietyEuropean Respiratory Society Task Force on outcomes of COPD, “Outcomes for COPD pharmacological trials: from lung function to biomarkers,” Eur. Respir. J. 31(2), 416–469 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Price, H.

Quiney, B.

H. O. Coxson, B. Quiney, D. D. Sin, L. Xing, A. M. McWilliams, J. R. Mayo, and S. Lam, “Airway wall thickness assessed using computed tomography and optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 177(11), 1201–1206 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rabe, K. F.

M. Cazzola, W. MacNee, F. J. Martinez, K. F. Rabe, L. G. Franciosi, P. J. Barnes, V. Brusasco, P. S. Burge, P. M. Calverley, B. R. Celli, P. W. Jones, D. A. Mahler, B. Make, M. Miravitlles, C. P. Page, P. Palange, D. Parr, M. Pistolesi, S. I. Rennard, M. P. Rutten-van Mölken, R. Stockley, S. D. Sullivan, J. A. Wedzicha, E. F. Wouters, S. American Thoracic, American Thoracic SocietyEuropean Respiratory Society Task Force on outcomes of COPD, “Outcomes for COPD pharmacological trials: from lung function to biomarkers,” Eur. Respir. J. 31(2), 416–469 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Regli, A.

J. P. Williamson, R. A. McLaughlin, W. J. Noffsinger, A. L. James, V. A. Baker, A. Curatolo, J. J. Armstrong, A. Regli, K. L. Shepherd, G. B. Marks, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Elastic properties of the central airways in obstructive lung diseases measured using anatomical optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 183(5), 612–619 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reiber, J. H.

A. Dirksen, J. H. Dijkman, F. Madsen, B. Stoel, D. C. Hutchison, C. S. Ulrik, L. T. Skovgaard, A. Kok-Jensen, A. Rudolphus, N. Seersholm, H. A. Vrooman, J. H. Reiber, N. C. Hansen, T. Heckscher, K. Viskum, and J. Stolk, “A randomized clinical trial of alpha(1)-antitrypsin augmentation therapy,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 160(5), 1468–1472 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rennard, S. I.

M. Cazzola, W. MacNee, F. J. Martinez, K. F. Rabe, L. G. Franciosi, P. J. Barnes, V. Brusasco, P. S. Burge, P. M. Calverley, B. R. Celli, P. W. Jones, D. A. Mahler, B. Make, M. Miravitlles, C. P. Page, P. Palange, D. Parr, M. Pistolesi, S. I. Rennard, M. P. Rutten-van Mölken, R. Stockley, S. D. Sullivan, J. A. Wedzicha, E. F. Wouters, S. American Thoracic, American Thoracic SocietyEuropean Respiratory Society Task Force on outcomes of COPD, “Outcomes for COPD pharmacological trials: from lung function to biomarkers,” Eur. Respir. J. 31(2), 416–469 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ridgway, J. M.

J. M. Ridgway, G. Ahuja, S. Guo, J. Su, U. Mahmood, Z. Chen, and B. Wong, “Imaging of the pediatric airway using optical coherence tomography,” Laryngoscope 117(12), 2206–2212 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rudolphus, A.

A. Dirksen, J. H. Dijkman, F. Madsen, B. Stoel, D. C. Hutchison, C. S. Ulrik, L. T. Skovgaard, A. Kok-Jensen, A. Rudolphus, N. Seersholm, H. A. Vrooman, J. H. Reiber, N. C. Hansen, T. Heckscher, K. Viskum, and J. Stolk, “A randomized clinical trial of alpha(1)-antitrypsin augmentation therapy,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 160(5), 1468–1472 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rutten-van Mölken, M. P.

M. Cazzola, W. MacNee, F. J. Martinez, K. F. Rabe, L. G. Franciosi, P. J. Barnes, V. Brusasco, P. S. Burge, P. M. Calverley, B. R. Celli, P. W. Jones, D. A. Mahler, B. Make, M. Miravitlles, C. P. Page, P. Palange, D. Parr, M. Pistolesi, S. I. Rennard, M. P. Rutten-van Mölken, R. Stockley, S. D. Sullivan, J. A. Wedzicha, E. F. Wouters, S. American Thoracic, American Thoracic SocietyEuropean Respiratory Society Task Force on outcomes of COPD, “Outcomes for COPD pharmacological trials: from lung function to biomarkers,” Eur. Respir. J. 31(2), 416–469 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sampson, D. D.

J. P. Williamson, R. A. McLaughlin, W. J. Noffsinger, A. L. James, V. A. Baker, A. Curatolo, J. J. Armstrong, A. Regli, K. L. Shepherd, G. B. Marks, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Elastic properties of the central airways in obstructive lung diseases measured using anatomical optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 183(5), 612–619 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. J. Armstrong, M. S. Leigh, D. D. Sampson, J. H. Walsh, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Quantitative upper airway imaging with anatomic optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 173(2), 226–233 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Seersholm, N.

A. Dirksen, J. H. Dijkman, F. Madsen, B. Stoel, D. C. Hutchison, C. S. Ulrik, L. T. Skovgaard, A. Kok-Jensen, A. Rudolphus, N. Seersholm, H. A. Vrooman, J. H. Reiber, N. C. Hansen, T. Heckscher, K. Viskum, and J. Stolk, “A randomized clinical trial of alpha(1)-antitrypsin augmentation therapy,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 160(5), 1468–1472 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shalansky, R.

A. M. Lee, M. Kirby, K. Ohtani, T. Candido, R. Shalansky, C. MacAulay, J. English, R. Finley, S. Lam, H. O. Coxson, and P. Lane, “Validation of airway wall measurements by optical coherence tomography in porcine airways,” PLoS One 9(6), e100145 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sharma, G. K.

F. B. Lazarow, G. S. Ahuja, A. Chin Loy, E. Su, T. D. Nguyen, G. K. Sharma, A. Wang, J. Jing, Z. Chen, and B. J. Wong, “Intraoperative long range optical coherence tomography as a novel method of imaging the pediatric upper airway before and after adenotonsillectomy,” Int. J. Pediatr. Otorhinolaryngol. 79(1), 63–70 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shepherd, K. L.

J. P. Williamson, R. A. McLaughlin, W. J. Noffsinger, A. L. James, V. A. Baker, A. Curatolo, J. J. Armstrong, A. Regli, K. L. Shepherd, G. B. Marks, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Elastic properties of the central airways in obstructive lung diseases measured using anatomical optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 183(5), 612–619 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sin, D. D.

H. O. Coxson, B. Quiney, D. D. Sin, L. Xing, A. M. McWilliams, J. R. Mayo, and S. Lam, “Airway wall thickness assessed using computed tomography and optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 177(11), 1201–1206 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Skovgaard, L. T.

A. Dirksen, J. H. Dijkman, F. Madsen, B. Stoel, D. C. Hutchison, C. S. Ulrik, L. T. Skovgaard, A. Kok-Jensen, A. Rudolphus, N. Seersholm, H. A. Vrooman, J. H. Reiber, N. C. Hansen, T. Heckscher, K. Viskum, and J. Stolk, “A randomized clinical trial of alpha(1)-antitrypsin augmentation therapy,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 160(5), 1468–1472 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Spiteri, M. A.

S. C. Whiteman, Y. Yang, D. Gey van Pittius, M. Stephens, J. Parmer, and M. A. Spiteri, “Optical coherence tomography: real-time imaging of bronchial airways microstructure and detection of inflammatory/neoplastic morphologic changes,” Clin. Cancer Res. 12(3), 813–818 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stephens, M.

S. C. Whiteman, Y. Yang, D. Gey van Pittius, M. Stephens, J. Parmer, and M. A. Spiteri, “Optical coherence tomography: real-time imaging of bronchial airways microstructure and detection of inflammatory/neoplastic morphologic changes,” Clin. Cancer Res. 12(3), 813–818 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stockley, R.

M. Cazzola, W. MacNee, F. J. Martinez, K. F. Rabe, L. G. Franciosi, P. J. Barnes, V. Brusasco, P. S. Burge, P. M. Calverley, B. R. Celli, P. W. Jones, D. A. Mahler, B. Make, M. Miravitlles, C. P. Page, P. Palange, D. Parr, M. Pistolesi, S. I. Rennard, M. P. Rutten-van Mölken, R. Stockley, S. D. Sullivan, J. A. Wedzicha, E. F. Wouters, S. American Thoracic, American Thoracic SocietyEuropean Respiratory Society Task Force on outcomes of COPD, “Outcomes for COPD pharmacological trials: from lung function to biomarkers,” Eur. Respir. J. 31(2), 416–469 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stoel, B.

A. Dirksen, J. H. Dijkman, F. Madsen, B. Stoel, D. C. Hutchison, C. S. Ulrik, L. T. Skovgaard, A. Kok-Jensen, A. Rudolphus, N. Seersholm, H. A. Vrooman, J. H. Reiber, N. C. Hansen, T. Heckscher, K. Viskum, and J. Stolk, “A randomized clinical trial of alpha(1)-antitrypsin augmentation therapy,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 160(5), 1468–1472 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stolk, J.

A. Dirksen, J. H. Dijkman, F. Madsen, B. Stoel, D. C. Hutchison, C. S. Ulrik, L. T. Skovgaard, A. Kok-Jensen, A. Rudolphus, N. Seersholm, H. A. Vrooman, J. H. Reiber, N. C. Hansen, T. Heckscher, K. Viskum, and J. Stolk, “A randomized clinical trial of alpha(1)-antitrypsin augmentation therapy,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 160(5), 1468–1472 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Su, E.

F. B. Lazarow, G. S. Ahuja, A. Chin Loy, E. Su, T. D. Nguyen, G. K. Sharma, A. Wang, J. Jing, Z. Chen, and B. J. Wong, “Intraoperative long range optical coherence tomography as a novel method of imaging the pediatric upper airway before and after adenotonsillectomy,” Int. J. Pediatr. Otorhinolaryngol. 79(1), 63–70 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Su, J.

J. M. Ridgway, G. Ahuja, S. Guo, J. Su, U. Mahmood, Z. Chen, and B. Wong, “Imaging of the pediatric airway using optical coherence tomography,” Laryngoscope 117(12), 2206–2212 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sullivan, S. D.

M. Cazzola, W. MacNee, F. J. Martinez, K. F. Rabe, L. G. Franciosi, P. J. Barnes, V. Brusasco, P. S. Burge, P. M. Calverley, B. R. Celli, P. W. Jones, D. A. Mahler, B. Make, M. Miravitlles, C. P. Page, P. Palange, D. Parr, M. Pistolesi, S. I. Rennard, M. P. Rutten-van Mölken, R. Stockley, S. D. Sullivan, J. A. Wedzicha, E. F. Wouters, S. American Thoracic, American Thoracic SocietyEuropean Respiratory Society Task Force on outcomes of COPD, “Outcomes for COPD pharmacological trials: from lung function to biomarkers,” Eur. Respir. J. 31(2), 416–469 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Surkau, R.

H. U. Kauczor, M. Ebert, K. F. Kreitner, H. Nilgens, R. Surkau, W. Heil, D. Hofmann, E. W. Otten, and M. Thelen, “Imaging of the lungs using 3He MRI: preliminary clinical experience in 18 patients with and without lung disease,” J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 7(3), 538–543 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Suter, M. J.

L. P. Hariri, M. B. Applegate, M. M. Kenudson, E. J. Mark, B. D. Medoff, A. D. Luster, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, and M. J. Suter, “Volumetric optical frequency domain imaging of pulmonary pathology with precise correlation to histopathology,” Chest 143, 64–74 (2013).

Tearney, G. J.

L. P. Hariri, M. B. Applegate, M. M. Kenudson, E. J. Mark, B. D. Medoff, A. D. Luster, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, and M. J. Suter, “Volumetric optical frequency domain imaging of pulmonary pathology with precise correlation to histopathology,” Chest 143, 64–74 (2013).

Thelen, M.

H. U. Kauczor, M. Ebert, K. F. Kreitner, H. Nilgens, R. Surkau, W. Heil, D. Hofmann, E. W. Otten, and M. Thelen, “Imaging of the lungs using 3He MRI: preliminary clinical experience in 18 patients with and without lung disease,” J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 7(3), 538–543 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thurlbeck, W. M.

J. C. Hogg, P. T. Macklem, and W. M. Thurlbeck, “Site and nature of airway obstruction in chronic obstructive lung disease,” N. Engl. J. Med. 278(25), 1355–1360 (1968).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tsuboi, M.

M. Tsuboi, A. Hayashi, N. Ikeda, H. Honda, Y. Kato, S. Ichinose, and H. Kato, “Optical coherence tomography in the diagnosis of bronchial lesions,” Lung Cancer 49(3), 387–394 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ulrik, C. S.

A. Dirksen, J. H. Dijkman, F. Madsen, B. Stoel, D. C. Hutchison, C. S. Ulrik, L. T. Skovgaard, A. Kok-Jensen, A. Rudolphus, N. Seersholm, H. A. Vrooman, J. H. Reiber, N. C. Hansen, T. Heckscher, K. Viskum, and J. Stolk, “A randomized clinical trial of alpha(1)-antitrypsin augmentation therapy,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 160(5), 1468–1472 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

van der Grinten, C. P.

R. Pellegrino, G. Viegi, V. Brusasco, R. O. Crapo, F. Burgos, R. Casaburi, A. Coates, C. P. van der Grinten, P. Gustafsson, J. Hankinson, R. Jensen, D. C. Johnson, N. MacIntyre, R. McKay, M. R. Miller, D. Navajas, O. F. Pedersen, and J. Wanger, “Interpretative strategies for lung function tests,” Eur. Respir. J. 26(5), 948–968 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Viegi, G.

R. Pellegrino, G. Viegi, V. Brusasco, R. O. Crapo, F. Burgos, R. Casaburi, A. Coates, C. P. van der Grinten, P. Gustafsson, J. Hankinson, R. Jensen, D. C. Johnson, N. MacIntyre, R. McKay, M. R. Miller, D. Navajas, O. F. Pedersen, and J. Wanger, “Interpretative strategies for lung function tests,” Eur. Respir. J. 26(5), 948–968 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Viskum, K.

A. Dirksen, J. H. Dijkman, F. Madsen, B. Stoel, D. C. Hutchison, C. S. Ulrik, L. T. Skovgaard, A. Kok-Jensen, A. Rudolphus, N. Seersholm, H. A. Vrooman, J. H. Reiber, N. C. Hansen, T. Heckscher, K. Viskum, and J. Stolk, “A randomized clinical trial of alpha(1)-antitrypsin augmentation therapy,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 160(5), 1468–1472 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vrooman, H. A.

A. Dirksen, J. H. Dijkman, F. Madsen, B. Stoel, D. C. Hutchison, C. S. Ulrik, L. T. Skovgaard, A. Kok-Jensen, A. Rudolphus, N. Seersholm, H. A. Vrooman, J. H. Reiber, N. C. Hansen, T. Heckscher, K. Viskum, and J. Stolk, “A randomized clinical trial of alpha(1)-antitrypsin augmentation therapy,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 160(5), 1468–1472 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Walsh, J. H.

J. J. Armstrong, M. S. Leigh, D. D. Sampson, J. H. Walsh, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Quantitative upper airway imaging with anatomic optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 173(2), 226–233 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, A.

F. B. Lazarow, G. S. Ahuja, A. Chin Loy, E. Su, T. D. Nguyen, G. K. Sharma, A. Wang, J. Jing, Z. Chen, and B. J. Wong, “Intraoperative long range optical coherence tomography as a novel method of imaging the pediatric upper airway before and after adenotonsillectomy,” Int. J. Pediatr. Otorhinolaryngol. 79(1), 63–70 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wanger, J.

R. Pellegrino, G. Viegi, V. Brusasco, R. O. Crapo, F. Burgos, R. Casaburi, A. Coates, C. P. van der Grinten, P. Gustafsson, J. Hankinson, R. Jensen, D. C. Johnson, N. MacIntyre, R. McKay, M. R. Miller, D. Navajas, O. F. Pedersen, and J. Wanger, “Interpretative strategies for lung function tests,” Eur. Respir. J. 26(5), 948–968 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wedzicha, J. A.

M. Cazzola, W. MacNee, F. J. Martinez, K. F. Rabe, L. G. Franciosi, P. J. Barnes, V. Brusasco, P. S. Burge, P. M. Calverley, B. R. Celli, P. W. Jones, D. A. Mahler, B. Make, M. Miravitlles, C. P. Page, P. Palange, D. Parr, M. Pistolesi, S. I. Rennard, M. P. Rutten-van Mölken, R. Stockley, S. D. Sullivan, J. A. Wedzicha, E. F. Wouters, S. American Thoracic, American Thoracic SocietyEuropean Respiratory Society Task Force on outcomes of COPD, “Outcomes for COPD pharmacological trials: from lung function to biomarkers,” Eur. Respir. J. 31(2), 416–469 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Whiteman, S. C.

S. C. Whiteman, Y. Yang, D. Gey van Pittius, M. Stephens, J. Parmer, and M. A. Spiteri, “Optical coherence tomography: real-time imaging of bronchial airways microstructure and detection of inflammatory/neoplastic morphologic changes,” Clin. Cancer Res. 12(3), 813–818 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wijesundara, K.

Williamson, J. P.

J. P. Williamson, R. A. McLaughlin, W. J. Noffsinger, A. L. James, V. A. Baker, A. Curatolo, J. J. Armstrong, A. Regli, K. L. Shepherd, G. B. Marks, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Elastic properties of the central airways in obstructive lung diseases measured using anatomical optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 183(5), 612–619 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wong, B.

J. M. Ridgway, G. Ahuja, S. Guo, J. Su, U. Mahmood, Z. Chen, and B. Wong, “Imaging of the pediatric airway using optical coherence tomography,” Laryngoscope 117(12), 2206–2212 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wong, B. J.

F. B. Lazarow, G. S. Ahuja, A. Chin Loy, E. Su, T. D. Nguyen, G. K. Sharma, A. Wang, J. Jing, Z. Chen, and B. J. Wong, “Intraoperative long range optical coherence tomography as a novel method of imaging the pediatric upper airway before and after adenotonsillectomy,” Int. J. Pediatr. Otorhinolaryngol. 79(1), 63–70 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wong, J. C.

Y. Nakano, J. C. Wong, P. A. de Jong, L. Buzatu, T. Nagao, H. O. Coxson, W. M. Elliott, J. C. Hogg, and P. D. Paré, “The prediction of small airway dimensions using computed tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 171(2), 142–146 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wouters, E. F.

M. Cazzola, W. MacNee, F. J. Martinez, K. F. Rabe, L. G. Franciosi, P. J. Barnes, V. Brusasco, P. S. Burge, P. M. Calverley, B. R. Celli, P. W. Jones, D. A. Mahler, B. Make, M. Miravitlles, C. P. Page, P. Palange, D. Parr, M. Pistolesi, S. I. Rennard, M. P. Rutten-van Mölken, R. Stockley, S. D. Sullivan, J. A. Wedzicha, E. F. Wouters, S. American Thoracic, American Thoracic SocietyEuropean Respiratory Society Task Force on outcomes of COPD, “Outcomes for COPD pharmacological trials: from lung function to biomarkers,” Eur. Respir. J. 31(2), 416–469 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xing, L.

H. O. Coxson, B. Quiney, D. D. Sin, L. Xing, A. M. McWilliams, J. R. Mayo, and S. Lam, “Airway wall thickness assessed using computed tomography and optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 177(11), 1201–1206 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, Y.

S. C. Whiteman, Y. Yang, D. Gey van Pittius, M. Stephens, J. Parmer, and M. A. Spiteri, “Optical coherence tomography: real-time imaging of bronchial airways microstructure and detection of inflammatory/neoplastic morphologic changes,” Clin. Cancer Res. 12(3), 813–818 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yin, J.

J. Yin, G. Liu, J. Zhang, L. Yu, S. Mahon, D. Mukai, M. Brenner, and Z. Chen, “In vivo early detection of smoke-induced airway injury using three-dimensional swept-source optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(6), 060503 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, L.

J. Yin, G. Liu, J. Zhang, L. Yu, S. Mahon, D. Mukai, M. Brenner, and Z. Chen, “In vivo early detection of smoke-induced airway injury using three-dimensional swept-source optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(6), 060503 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zdanski, C.

Zhang, J.

J. Yin, G. Liu, J. Zhang, L. Yu, S. Mahon, D. Mukai, M. Brenner, and Z. Chen, “In vivo early detection of smoke-induced airway injury using three-dimensional swept-source optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(6), 060503 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. (5)

J. J. Armstrong, M. S. Leigh, D. D. Sampson, J. H. Walsh, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Quantitative upper airway imaging with anatomic optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 173(2), 226–233 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. O. Coxson, B. Quiney, D. D. Sin, L. Xing, A. M. McWilliams, J. R. Mayo, and S. Lam, “Airway wall thickness assessed using computed tomography and optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 177(11), 1201–1206 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. P. Williamson, R. A. McLaughlin, W. J. Noffsinger, A. L. James, V. A. Baker, A. Curatolo, J. J. Armstrong, A. Regli, K. L. Shepherd, G. B. Marks, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, “Elastic properties of the central airways in obstructive lung diseases measured using anatomical optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 183(5), 612–619 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Nakano, J. C. Wong, P. A. de Jong, L. Buzatu, T. Nagao, H. O. Coxson, W. M. Elliott, J. C. Hogg, and P. D. Paré, “The prediction of small airway dimensions using computed tomography,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 171(2), 142–146 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Dirksen, J. H. Dijkman, F. Madsen, B. Stoel, D. C. Hutchison, C. S. Ulrik, L. T. Skovgaard, A. Kok-Jensen, A. Rudolphus, N. Seersholm, H. A. Vrooman, J. H. Reiber, N. C. Hansen, T. Heckscher, K. Viskum, and J. Stolk, “A randomized clinical trial of alpha(1)-antitrypsin augmentation therapy,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 160(5), 1468–1472 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

Chest (2)

L. P. Hariri, M. B. Applegate, M. M. Kenudson, E. J. Mark, B. D. Medoff, A. D. Luster, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, and M. J. Suter, “Volumetric optical frequency domain imaging of pulmonary pathology with precise correlation to histopathology,” Chest 143, 64–74 (2013).

R. G. Michel, G. T. Kinasewitz, K. M. Fung, and J. I. Keddissi, “Optical coherence tomography as an adjunct to flexible bronchoscopy in the diagnosis of lung cancer: a pilot study,” Chest 138(4), 984–988 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Clin. Cancer Res. (1)

S. C. Whiteman, Y. Yang, D. Gey van Pittius, M. Stephens, J. Parmer, and M. A. Spiteri, “Optical coherence tomography: real-time imaging of bronchial airways microstructure and detection of inflammatory/neoplastic morphologic changes,” Clin. Cancer Res. 12(3), 813–818 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eur. Respir. J. (3)

M. Cazzola, W. MacNee, F. J. Martinez, K. F. Rabe, L. G. Franciosi, P. J. Barnes, V. Brusasco, P. S. Burge, P. M. Calverley, B. R. Celli, P. W. Jones, D. A. Mahler, B. Make, M. Miravitlles, C. P. Page, P. Palange, D. Parr, M. Pistolesi, S. I. Rennard, M. P. Rutten-van Mölken, R. Stockley, S. D. Sullivan, J. A. Wedzicha, E. F. Wouters, S. American Thoracic, American Thoracic SocietyEuropean Respiratory Society Task Force on outcomes of COPD, “Outcomes for COPD pharmacological trials: from lung function to biomarkers,” Eur. Respir. J. 31(2), 416–469 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Pellegrino, G. Viegi, V. Brusasco, R. O. Crapo, F. Burgos, R. Casaburi, A. Coates, C. P. van der Grinten, P. Gustafsson, J. Hankinson, R. Jensen, D. C. Johnson, N. MacIntyre, R. McKay, M. R. Miller, D. Navajas, O. F. Pedersen, and J. Wanger, “Interpretative strategies for lung function tests,” Eur. Respir. J. 26(5), 948–968 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. R. Celli, W. MacNee, A. E. T. Force, and ATS/ERS Task Force, “Standards for the diagnosis and treatment of patients with COPD: a summary of the ATS/ERS position paper,” Eur. Respir. J. 23(6), 932–946 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Int. J. Pediatr. Otorhinolaryngol. (1)

F. B. Lazarow, G. S. Ahuja, A. Chin Loy, E. Su, T. D. Nguyen, G. K. Sharma, A. Wang, J. Jing, Z. Chen, and B. J. Wong, “Intraoperative long range optical coherence tomography as a novel method of imaging the pediatric upper airway before and after adenotonsillectomy,” Int. J. Pediatr. Otorhinolaryngol. 79(1), 63–70 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

J. Yin, G. Liu, J. Zhang, L. Yu, S. Mahon, D. Mukai, M. Brenner, and Z. Chen, “In vivo early detection of smoke-induced airway injury using three-dimensional swept-source optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(6), 060503 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Magn. Reson. Imaging (1)

H. U. Kauczor, M. Ebert, K. F. Kreitner, H. Nilgens, R. Surkau, W. Heil, D. Hofmann, E. W. Otten, and M. Thelen, “Imaging of the lungs using 3He MRI: preliminary clinical experience in 18 patients with and without lung disease,” J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 7(3), 538–543 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Laryngoscope (1)

J. M. Ridgway, G. Ahuja, S. Guo, J. Su, U. Mahmood, Z. Chen, and B. Wong, “Imaging of the pediatric airway using optical coherence tomography,” Laryngoscope 117(12), 2206–2212 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lung Cancer (1)

M. Tsuboi, A. Hayashi, N. Ikeda, H. Honda, Y. Kato, S. Ichinose, and H. Kato, “Optical coherence tomography in the diagnosis of bronchial lesions,” Lung Cancer 49(3), 387–394 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Engl. J. Med. (1)

J. C. Hogg, P. T. Macklem, and W. M. Thurlbeck, “Site and nature of airway obstruction in chronic obstructive lung disease,” N. Engl. J. Med. 278(25), 1355–1360 (1968).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

PLoS One (1)

A. M. Lee, M. Kirby, K. Ohtani, T. Candido, R. Shalansky, C. MacAulay, J. English, R. Finley, S. Lam, H. O. Coxson, and P. Lane, “Validation of airway wall measurements by optical coherence tomography in porcine airways,” PLoS One 9(6), e100145 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sports Med. (1)

G. Atkinson and A. M. Nevill, “Statistical Methods For Assessing Measurement Error (Reliability) in Variables Relevant to Sports Medicine,” Sports Med. 26(4), 217–238 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (2)

J. Jekel, D. Katz, D. Wild, and J. Elmore, Epidemiology, biostatistics, and preventive medicine (Elsevier Inc., Philadelphia, 2007).

“Global Initiative for Chronic Lung Disease. Global strategy for the diagnosis, management, and prevention of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease,” (2013. Available from: http://www.goldcopd.org/ .), p. Available from: http://www.goldcopd.org/ .

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

OCT imaging of a completely matched airway. Three-dimensional optical coherence tomography (OCT) images of a sub-segmental airway path obtained by the first insertion (A) and second insertion (B) of the OCT catheter. The branch points are shown by capital and lower case letters respectively. The lower images are cross-sectional OCT images of each branch point.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

OCT imaging of a partially matched airway. Three-dimensional optical coherence tomography (OCT) images of sub-segmental airway path obtained by the first insertion (A) and second insertion (B) of the OCT catheter. Branch points A and B are identical but the catheter takes a different path at branch point C and, therefore, all peripheral branch points are different (yellow letters).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Inter-Observer Reproducibility for OCT-derived WT Measurements for both Proximal and Peripheral Segments of the Airway Path

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Intra-Observer Reproducibility for OCT-derived WT Measurements for both Proximal and Peripheral Segments of the Airway Path

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Insertion-reinsertion Reproducibility. LLL = left lower lobe, LUL = left upper lobe, RLL = right lower lobe, RML = right middle lobe, RUL = right upper lobe

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Insertion-reinsertion Reproducibility for OCT-derived WT Measurements for both Proximal and Peripheral Matched and Un-matched Segments of the Airway Path.

Tables (6)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Subject Demographics

Tables Icon

Table 2 Inter-Observer Reproducibility

Tables Icon

Table 3 Intra-Observer Reproducibility

Tables Icon

Table 4 OCT Measurements for Each Observer at Insertion and Reinsertion

Tables Icon

Table 5 Insertion-reinsertion Measurement Reproducibility for both Proximal and Peripheral Segments of the Airway Path

Tables Icon

Table 6 Comparison between Intra-Observer and Insertion-reinsertion Reproducibility for Peripheral WT Measurements

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Average lumen diameter =2 Ai π
Average outer wall diameter = 2 Ao π
SDD=1.96 2 S D Insertion 1IC C InsertionReinsertion
n= 2 ( Z α + Z β ) 2 S D Diff 2 δ 2

Metrics