Abstract

We present a cost-effective in vivo two-photon microscope with a highly flexible frontend for in vivo research. Our design ensures fast and reproducible access to the area of interest, including rotation of imaging plane, and maximizes space for auxiliary experimental equipment in the vicinity of the animal. Mechanical flexibility is achieved with large motorized linear stages that move the objective in the X, Y, and Z directions up to 130 mm. 360° rotation of the frontend (rotational freedom for one axis) is achieved with the combination of a motorized high precision bearing and gearing. Additionally, the modular design of the frontend, based on commercially available optomechanical parts, allows straightforward updates to future scanning technologies. The design exceeds the mobility of previous movable microscope designs while maintaining high optical performance.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
Ultra-compact fiber-optic two-photon microscope for functional fluorescence imaging in vivo

Christoph J. Engelbrecht, Richard S. Johnston, Eric J. Seibel, and Fritjof Helmchen
Opt. Express 16(8) 5556-5564 (2008)

Chip-on-the-tip compact flexible endoscopic epifluorescence video-microscope for in-vivo imaging in medicine and biomedical research

Gregor Matz, Bernhard Messerschmidt, Werner Göbel, Severin Filser, Christian S. Betz, Matthias Kirsch, Ortrud Uckermann, Marcel Kunze, Sven Flämig, André Ehrhardt, Klaus-Martin Irion, Mareike Haack, Mario M. Dorostkar, Jochen Herms, and Herbert Gross
Biomed. Opt. Express 8(7) 3329-3342 (2017)

Optical alignment device for two-photon microscopy

Gregorio L. Galiñanes, Paul J. Marchand, Raphaël Turcotte, Sebastien Pellat, Na Ji, and Daniel Huber
Biomed. Opt. Express 9(8) 3624-3639 (2018)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. B. Weber and F. Helmchen, Optical Imaging of Neocortical Dynamics (New York: Springer, 2014).
  2. W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, “Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy,” Science 248(4951), 73–76 (1990).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. F. Helmchen and W. Denk, “Deep tissue two-photon microscopy,” Nat. Methods 2(12), 932–940 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. K. Svoboda and R. Yasuda, “Principles of two-photon excitation microscopy and its applications to neuroscience,” Neuron 50(6), 823–839 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. A. M. Hall, C. Crawford, R. J. Unwin, M. R. Duchen, and C. M. Peppiatt-Wildman, “Multiphoton imaging of the functioning kidney,” J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 22(7), 1297–1304 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. A. M. Hall and B. A. Molitoris, “Dynamic multiphoton microscopy: focusing light on acute kidney injury,” Physiology (Bethesda) 29(5), 334–342 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. C. Schuh, D. Haenni, E. Craigie, U. Ziegler, B. Weber, O. Devuyst, and A. Hall, “Intravital imaging of the kidney using long wavelength multiphoton excitation,” in press.
  8. D. Huber, D. A. Gutnisky, S. Peron, D. H. O’Connor, J. S. Wiegert, L. Tian, T. G. Oertner, L. L. Looger, and K. Svoboda, “Multiple dynamic representations in the motor cortex during sensorimotor learning,” Nature 484(7395), 473–478 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. D. J. Margolis, H. Lütcke, K. Schulz, F. Haiss, B. Weber, S. Kügler, M. T. Hasan, and F. Helmchen, “Reorganization of cortical population activity imaged throughout long-term sensory deprivation,” Nat. Neurosci. 15(11), 1539–1546 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. J. M. Mayrhofer, F. Haiss, F. Helmchen, and B. Weber, “Sparse, reliable, and long-term stable representation of periodic whisker deflections in the mouse barrel cortex,” Neuroimage 115, 52–63 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. L. J. Gentet, M. Avermann, F. Matyas, J. F. Staiger, and C. C. H. Petersen, “Membrane Potential Dynamics of GABAergic Neurons in the Barrel Cortex of Behaving mice,” Neuron 65(3), 422–435 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. L. J. Gentet, Y. Kremer, H. Taniguchi, Z. J. Huang, J. F. Staiger, and C. C. H. Petersen, “Unique functional properties of somatostatin-expressing GABAergic neurons in mouse barrel cortex,” Nat. Neurosci. 15(4), 607–612 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. A. Holtmaat and K. Svoboda, “Experience-dependent structural synaptic plasticity in the mammalian brain,” Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 10(9), 647–658 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. M. L. Andermann, “Chronic cellular imaging of mouse visual cortex during operant behavior and passive viewing,” Front. Cellullar Neurosci., 2010.
  15. D. A. Dombeck, A. N. Khabbaz, F. Collman, T. L. Adelman, and D. W. Tank, “Imaging Large-Scale Neural Activity with Cellular Resolution in Awake, Mobile Mice,” Neuron 56(1), 43–57 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. J. M. Mayrhofer, V. Skreb, W. von der Behrens, S. Musall, B. Weber, and F. Haiss, “Novel two-alternative forced choice paradigm for bilateral vibrotactile whisker frequency discrimination in head-fixed mice and rats,” J. Neurophysiol. 109(1), 273–284 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. D. H. O’Connor, N. G. Clack, D. Huber, T. Komiyama, E. W. Myers, and K. Svoboda, “Vibrissa-Based Object Localization in Head-Fixed Mice,” J. Neurosci. 30(5), 1947–1967 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. S. Sachidhanandam, V. Sreenivasan, A. Kyriakatos, Y. Kremer, and C. C. H. Petersen, “Membrane potential correlates of sensory perception in mouse barrel cortex,” Nat. Neurosci. 16(11), 1671–1677 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. C. Schwarz, H. Hentschke, S. Butovas, F. Haiss, M. C. Stüttgen, T. V. Gerdjikov, C. G. Bergner, and C. Waiblinger, “The head-fixed behaving rat--Procedures and pitfalls,” Somatosens. Mot. Res. 27(4), 131–148 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. H. C. Johannssen and F. Helmchen, “In vivo Ca2+ imaging of dorsal horn neuronal populations in mouse spinal cord,” J. Physiol. 588(18), 3397–3402 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. R. Prakash, O. Yizhar, B. Grewe, C. Ramakrishnan, N. Wang, I. Goshen, A. M. Packer, D. S. Peterka, R. Yuste, M. J. Schnitzer, and K. Deisseroth, “Two-photon optogenetic toolbox for fast inhibition, excitation and bistable modulation,” Nat. Methods 9(12), 1171–1179 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. M. L. Andermann, N. B. Gilfoy, G. J. Goldey, R. N. S. Sachdev, M. Wölfel, D. A. McCormick, R. C. Reid, and M. J. Levene, “Chronic cellular imaging of entire cortical columns in awake mice using microprisms,” Neuron 80(4), 900–913 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. T. A. Pologruto, B. L. Sabatini, and K. Svoboda, “ScanImage: flexible software for operating laser scanning microscopes,” Biomed. Eng. Online 2(1), 13 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. A. San Martín, S. Ceballo, F. Baeza-Lehnert, R. Lerchundi, R. Valdebenito, Y. Contreras-Baeza, K. Alegría, and L. F. Barros, “Imaging Mitochondrial Flux in Single Cells with a Fret Sensor for Pyruvate,” PLoS One 9(1), e85780 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  25. T. Euler, S. E. Hausselt, D. J. Margolis, T. Breuninger, X. Castell, P. B. Detwiler, and W. Denk, “Eyecup scope-optical recordings of light stimulus-evoked fluorescence signals in the retina,” Pflüg. Arch. - Eur. J. Phys. 457(6), 1393–1414 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  26. D. D. Stettler, H. Yamahachi, W. Li, W. Denk, and C. D. Gilbert, “Axons and synaptic boutons are highly dynamic in adult visual cortex,” Neuron 49(6), 877–887 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  27. D. Flickinger, V. Iyer, D. Huber, D. O’Connor, S. Peron, N. Clack, J. Chandrashekar, and K. Svoboda, “MIMMS: a modular, open design microscopy platform for in vivo imaging of neural tissues.,” presented at the SfN 2010, 2010.
  28. W. Göbel, J. N. D. Kerr, A. Nimmerjahn, and F. Helmchen, “Miniaturized two-photon microscope based on a flexible coherent fiber bundle and a gradient-index lens objective,” Opt. Lett. 29(21), 2521–2523 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  29. J. Sawinski, D. J. Wallace, D. S. Greenberg, S. Grossmann, W. Denk, and J. N. D. Kerr, “Visually evoked activity in cortical cells imaged in freely moving animals,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(46), 19557–19562 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  30. D. J. Wallace, D. S. Greenberg, J. Sawinski, S. Rulla, G. Notaro, and J. N. D. Kerr, “Rats maintain an overhead binocular field at the expense of constant fusion,” Nature 498(7452), 65–69 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  31. B. F. Grewe, F. F. Voigt, M. van ’t Hoff, and F. Helmchen, “Fast two-layer two-photon imaging of neuronal cell populations using an electrically tunable lens,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(7), 2035–2046 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (1)

J. M. Mayrhofer, F. Haiss, F. Helmchen, and B. Weber, “Sparse, reliable, and long-term stable representation of periodic whisker deflections in the mouse barrel cortex,” Neuroimage 115, 52–63 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (2)

A. M. Hall and B. A. Molitoris, “Dynamic multiphoton microscopy: focusing light on acute kidney injury,” Physiology (Bethesda) 29(5), 334–342 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. San Martín, S. Ceballo, F. Baeza-Lehnert, R. Lerchundi, R. Valdebenito, Y. Contreras-Baeza, K. Alegría, and L. F. Barros, “Imaging Mitochondrial Flux in Single Cells with a Fret Sensor for Pyruvate,” PLoS One 9(1), e85780 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (4)

D. J. Wallace, D. S. Greenberg, J. Sawinski, S. Rulla, G. Notaro, and J. N. D. Kerr, “Rats maintain an overhead binocular field at the expense of constant fusion,” Nature 498(7452), 65–69 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Mayrhofer, V. Skreb, W. von der Behrens, S. Musall, B. Weber, and F. Haiss, “Novel two-alternative forced choice paradigm for bilateral vibrotactile whisker frequency discrimination in head-fixed mice and rats,” J. Neurophysiol. 109(1), 273–284 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Sachidhanandam, V. Sreenivasan, A. Kyriakatos, Y. Kremer, and C. C. H. Petersen, “Membrane potential correlates of sensory perception in mouse barrel cortex,” Nat. Neurosci. 16(11), 1671–1677 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. L. Andermann, N. B. Gilfoy, G. J. Goldey, R. N. S. Sachdev, M. Wölfel, D. A. McCormick, R. C. Reid, and M. J. Levene, “Chronic cellular imaging of entire cortical columns in awake mice using microprisms,” Neuron 80(4), 900–913 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (4)

L. J. Gentet, Y. Kremer, H. Taniguchi, Z. J. Huang, J. F. Staiger, and C. C. H. Petersen, “Unique functional properties of somatostatin-expressing GABAergic neurons in mouse barrel cortex,” Nat. Neurosci. 15(4), 607–612 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Huber, D. A. Gutnisky, S. Peron, D. H. O’Connor, J. S. Wiegert, L. Tian, T. G. Oertner, L. L. Looger, and K. Svoboda, “Multiple dynamic representations in the motor cortex during sensorimotor learning,” Nature 484(7395), 473–478 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Margolis, H. Lütcke, K. Schulz, F. Haiss, B. Weber, S. Kügler, M. T. Hasan, and F. Helmchen, “Reorganization of cortical population activity imaged throughout long-term sensory deprivation,” Nat. Neurosci. 15(11), 1539–1546 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Prakash, O. Yizhar, B. Grewe, C. Ramakrishnan, N. Wang, I. Goshen, A. M. Packer, D. S. Peterka, R. Yuste, M. J. Schnitzer, and K. Deisseroth, “Two-photon optogenetic toolbox for fast inhibition, excitation and bistable modulation,” Nat. Methods 9(12), 1171–1179 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

B. F. Grewe, F. F. Voigt, M. van ’t Hoff, and F. Helmchen, “Fast two-layer two-photon imaging of neuronal cell populations using an electrically tunable lens,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(7), 2035–2046 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. M. Hall, C. Crawford, R. J. Unwin, M. R. Duchen, and C. M. Peppiatt-Wildman, “Multiphoton imaging of the functioning kidney,” J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 22(7), 1297–1304 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (4)

L. J. Gentet, M. Avermann, F. Matyas, J. F. Staiger, and C. C. H. Petersen, “Membrane Potential Dynamics of GABAergic Neurons in the Barrel Cortex of Behaving mice,” Neuron 65(3), 422–435 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. H. O’Connor, N. G. Clack, D. Huber, T. Komiyama, E. W. Myers, and K. Svoboda, “Vibrissa-Based Object Localization in Head-Fixed Mice,” J. Neurosci. 30(5), 1947–1967 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Schwarz, H. Hentschke, S. Butovas, F. Haiss, M. C. Stüttgen, T. V. Gerdjikov, C. G. Bergner, and C. Waiblinger, “The head-fixed behaving rat--Procedures and pitfalls,” Somatosens. Mot. Res. 27(4), 131–148 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. C. Johannssen and F. Helmchen, “In vivo Ca2+ imaging of dorsal horn neuronal populations in mouse spinal cord,” J. Physiol. 588(18), 3397–3402 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (3)

A. Holtmaat and K. Svoboda, “Experience-dependent structural synaptic plasticity in the mammalian brain,” Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 10(9), 647–658 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Sawinski, D. J. Wallace, D. S. Greenberg, S. Grossmann, W. Denk, and J. N. D. Kerr, “Visually evoked activity in cortical cells imaged in freely moving animals,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(46), 19557–19562 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Euler, S. E. Hausselt, D. J. Margolis, T. Breuninger, X. Castell, P. B. Detwiler, and W. Denk, “Eyecup scope-optical recordings of light stimulus-evoked fluorescence signals in the retina,” Pflüg. Arch. - Eur. J. Phys. 457(6), 1393–1414 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

D. A. Dombeck, A. N. Khabbaz, F. Collman, T. L. Adelman, and D. W. Tank, “Imaging Large-Scale Neural Activity with Cellular Resolution in Awake, Mobile Mice,” Neuron 56(1), 43–57 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

K. Svoboda and R. Yasuda, “Principles of two-photon excitation microscopy and its applications to neuroscience,” Neuron 50(6), 823–839 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. D. Stettler, H. Yamahachi, W. Li, W. Denk, and C. D. Gilbert, “Axons and synaptic boutons are highly dynamic in adult visual cortex,” Neuron 49(6), 877–887 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

F. Helmchen and W. Denk, “Deep tissue two-photon microscopy,” Nat. Methods 2(12), 932–940 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

T. A. Pologruto, B. L. Sabatini, and K. Svoboda, “ScanImage: flexible software for operating laser scanning microscopes,” Biomed. Eng. Online 2(1), 13 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, “Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy,” Science 248(4951), 73–76 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adelman, T. L.

D. A. Dombeck, A. N. Khabbaz, F. Collman, T. L. Adelman, and D. W. Tank, “Imaging Large-Scale Neural Activity with Cellular Resolution in Awake, Mobile Mice,” Neuron 56(1), 43–57 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alegría, K.

A. San Martín, S. Ceballo, F. Baeza-Lehnert, R. Lerchundi, R. Valdebenito, Y. Contreras-Baeza, K. Alegría, and L. F. Barros, “Imaging Mitochondrial Flux in Single Cells with a Fret Sensor for Pyruvate,” PLoS One 9(1), e85780 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Andermann, M. L.

M. L. Andermann, N. B. Gilfoy, G. J. Goldey, R. N. S. Sachdev, M. Wölfel, D. A. McCormick, R. C. Reid, and M. J. Levene, “Chronic cellular imaging of entire cortical columns in awake mice using microprisms,” Neuron 80(4), 900–913 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Avermann, M.

L. J. Gentet, M. Avermann, F. Matyas, J. F. Staiger, and C. C. H. Petersen, “Membrane Potential Dynamics of GABAergic Neurons in the Barrel Cortex of Behaving mice,” Neuron 65(3), 422–435 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baeza-Lehnert, F.

A. San Martín, S. Ceballo, F. Baeza-Lehnert, R. Lerchundi, R. Valdebenito, Y. Contreras-Baeza, K. Alegría, and L. F. Barros, “Imaging Mitochondrial Flux in Single Cells with a Fret Sensor for Pyruvate,” PLoS One 9(1), e85780 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barros, L. F.

A. San Martín, S. Ceballo, F. Baeza-Lehnert, R. Lerchundi, R. Valdebenito, Y. Contreras-Baeza, K. Alegría, and L. F. Barros, “Imaging Mitochondrial Flux in Single Cells with a Fret Sensor for Pyruvate,” PLoS One 9(1), e85780 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bergner, C. G.

C. Schwarz, H. Hentschke, S. Butovas, F. Haiss, M. C. Stüttgen, T. V. Gerdjikov, C. G. Bergner, and C. Waiblinger, “The head-fixed behaving rat--Procedures and pitfalls,” Somatosens. Mot. Res. 27(4), 131–148 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Breuninger, T.

T. Euler, S. E. Hausselt, D. J. Margolis, T. Breuninger, X. Castell, P. B. Detwiler, and W. Denk, “Eyecup scope-optical recordings of light stimulus-evoked fluorescence signals in the retina,” Pflüg. Arch. - Eur. J. Phys. 457(6), 1393–1414 (2009).
[Crossref]

Butovas, S.

C. Schwarz, H. Hentschke, S. Butovas, F. Haiss, M. C. Stüttgen, T. V. Gerdjikov, C. G. Bergner, and C. Waiblinger, “The head-fixed behaving rat--Procedures and pitfalls,” Somatosens. Mot. Res. 27(4), 131–148 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Castell, X.

T. Euler, S. E. Hausselt, D. J. Margolis, T. Breuninger, X. Castell, P. B. Detwiler, and W. Denk, “Eyecup scope-optical recordings of light stimulus-evoked fluorescence signals in the retina,” Pflüg. Arch. - Eur. J. Phys. 457(6), 1393–1414 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ceballo, S.

A. San Martín, S. Ceballo, F. Baeza-Lehnert, R. Lerchundi, R. Valdebenito, Y. Contreras-Baeza, K. Alegría, and L. F. Barros, “Imaging Mitochondrial Flux in Single Cells with a Fret Sensor for Pyruvate,” PLoS One 9(1), e85780 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Clack, N. G.

D. H. O’Connor, N. G. Clack, D. Huber, T. Komiyama, E. W. Myers, and K. Svoboda, “Vibrissa-Based Object Localization in Head-Fixed Mice,” J. Neurosci. 30(5), 1947–1967 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Collman, F.

D. A. Dombeck, A. N. Khabbaz, F. Collman, T. L. Adelman, and D. W. Tank, “Imaging Large-Scale Neural Activity with Cellular Resolution in Awake, Mobile Mice,” Neuron 56(1), 43–57 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Contreras-Baeza, Y.

A. San Martín, S. Ceballo, F. Baeza-Lehnert, R. Lerchundi, R. Valdebenito, Y. Contreras-Baeza, K. Alegría, and L. F. Barros, “Imaging Mitochondrial Flux in Single Cells with a Fret Sensor for Pyruvate,” PLoS One 9(1), e85780 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Craigie, E.

C. Schuh, D. Haenni, E. Craigie, U. Ziegler, B. Weber, O. Devuyst, and A. Hall, “Intravital imaging of the kidney using long wavelength multiphoton excitation,” in press.

Crawford, C.

A. M. Hall, C. Crawford, R. J. Unwin, M. R. Duchen, and C. M. Peppiatt-Wildman, “Multiphoton imaging of the functioning kidney,” J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 22(7), 1297–1304 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Deisseroth, K.

R. Prakash, O. Yizhar, B. Grewe, C. Ramakrishnan, N. Wang, I. Goshen, A. M. Packer, D. S. Peterka, R. Yuste, M. J. Schnitzer, and K. Deisseroth, “Two-photon optogenetic toolbox for fast inhibition, excitation and bistable modulation,” Nat. Methods 9(12), 1171–1179 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Denk, W.

T. Euler, S. E. Hausselt, D. J. Margolis, T. Breuninger, X. Castell, P. B. Detwiler, and W. Denk, “Eyecup scope-optical recordings of light stimulus-evoked fluorescence signals in the retina,” Pflüg. Arch. - Eur. J. Phys. 457(6), 1393–1414 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Sawinski, D. J. Wallace, D. S. Greenberg, S. Grossmann, W. Denk, and J. N. D. Kerr, “Visually evoked activity in cortical cells imaged in freely moving animals,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(46), 19557–19562 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. D. Stettler, H. Yamahachi, W. Li, W. Denk, and C. D. Gilbert, “Axons and synaptic boutons are highly dynamic in adult visual cortex,” Neuron 49(6), 877–887 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Helmchen and W. Denk, “Deep tissue two-photon microscopy,” Nat. Methods 2(12), 932–940 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, “Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy,” Science 248(4951), 73–76 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Detwiler, P. B.

T. Euler, S. E. Hausselt, D. J. Margolis, T. Breuninger, X. Castell, P. B. Detwiler, and W. Denk, “Eyecup scope-optical recordings of light stimulus-evoked fluorescence signals in the retina,” Pflüg. Arch. - Eur. J. Phys. 457(6), 1393–1414 (2009).
[Crossref]

Devuyst, O.

C. Schuh, D. Haenni, E. Craigie, U. Ziegler, B. Weber, O. Devuyst, and A. Hall, “Intravital imaging of the kidney using long wavelength multiphoton excitation,” in press.

Dombeck, D. A.

D. A. Dombeck, A. N. Khabbaz, F. Collman, T. L. Adelman, and D. W. Tank, “Imaging Large-Scale Neural Activity with Cellular Resolution in Awake, Mobile Mice,” Neuron 56(1), 43–57 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Duchen, M. R.

A. M. Hall, C. Crawford, R. J. Unwin, M. R. Duchen, and C. M. Peppiatt-Wildman, “Multiphoton imaging of the functioning kidney,” J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 22(7), 1297–1304 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Euler, T.

T. Euler, S. E. Hausselt, D. J. Margolis, T. Breuninger, X. Castell, P. B. Detwiler, and W. Denk, “Eyecup scope-optical recordings of light stimulus-evoked fluorescence signals in the retina,” Pflüg. Arch. - Eur. J. Phys. 457(6), 1393–1414 (2009).
[Crossref]

Gentet, L. J.

L. J. Gentet, Y. Kremer, H. Taniguchi, Z. J. Huang, J. F. Staiger, and C. C. H. Petersen, “Unique functional properties of somatostatin-expressing GABAergic neurons in mouse barrel cortex,” Nat. Neurosci. 15(4), 607–612 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. J. Gentet, M. Avermann, F. Matyas, J. F. Staiger, and C. C. H. Petersen, “Membrane Potential Dynamics of GABAergic Neurons in the Barrel Cortex of Behaving mice,” Neuron 65(3), 422–435 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gerdjikov, T. V.

C. Schwarz, H. Hentschke, S. Butovas, F. Haiss, M. C. Stüttgen, T. V. Gerdjikov, C. G. Bergner, and C. Waiblinger, “The head-fixed behaving rat--Procedures and pitfalls,” Somatosens. Mot. Res. 27(4), 131–148 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gilbert, C. D.

D. D. Stettler, H. Yamahachi, W. Li, W. Denk, and C. D. Gilbert, “Axons and synaptic boutons are highly dynamic in adult visual cortex,” Neuron 49(6), 877–887 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gilfoy, N. B.

M. L. Andermann, N. B. Gilfoy, G. J. Goldey, R. N. S. Sachdev, M. Wölfel, D. A. McCormick, R. C. Reid, and M. J. Levene, “Chronic cellular imaging of entire cortical columns in awake mice using microprisms,” Neuron 80(4), 900–913 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Göbel, W.

Goldey, G. J.

M. L. Andermann, N. B. Gilfoy, G. J. Goldey, R. N. S. Sachdev, M. Wölfel, D. A. McCormick, R. C. Reid, and M. J. Levene, “Chronic cellular imaging of entire cortical columns in awake mice using microprisms,” Neuron 80(4), 900–913 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Goshen, I.

R. Prakash, O. Yizhar, B. Grewe, C. Ramakrishnan, N. Wang, I. Goshen, A. M. Packer, D. S. Peterka, R. Yuste, M. J. Schnitzer, and K. Deisseroth, “Two-photon optogenetic toolbox for fast inhibition, excitation and bistable modulation,” Nat. Methods 9(12), 1171–1179 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Greenberg, D. S.

D. J. Wallace, D. S. Greenberg, J. Sawinski, S. Rulla, G. Notaro, and J. N. D. Kerr, “Rats maintain an overhead binocular field at the expense of constant fusion,” Nature 498(7452), 65–69 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Sawinski, D. J. Wallace, D. S. Greenberg, S. Grossmann, W. Denk, and J. N. D. Kerr, “Visually evoked activity in cortical cells imaged in freely moving animals,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(46), 19557–19562 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grewe, B.

R. Prakash, O. Yizhar, B. Grewe, C. Ramakrishnan, N. Wang, I. Goshen, A. M. Packer, D. S. Peterka, R. Yuste, M. J. Schnitzer, and K. Deisseroth, “Two-photon optogenetic toolbox for fast inhibition, excitation and bistable modulation,” Nat. Methods 9(12), 1171–1179 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grewe, B. F.

Grossmann, S.

J. Sawinski, D. J. Wallace, D. S. Greenberg, S. Grossmann, W. Denk, and J. N. D. Kerr, “Visually evoked activity in cortical cells imaged in freely moving animals,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(46), 19557–19562 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gutnisky, D. A.

D. Huber, D. A. Gutnisky, S. Peron, D. H. O’Connor, J. S. Wiegert, L. Tian, T. G. Oertner, L. L. Looger, and K. Svoboda, “Multiple dynamic representations in the motor cortex during sensorimotor learning,” Nature 484(7395), 473–478 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Haenni, D.

C. Schuh, D. Haenni, E. Craigie, U. Ziegler, B. Weber, O. Devuyst, and A. Hall, “Intravital imaging of the kidney using long wavelength multiphoton excitation,” in press.

Haiss, F.

J. M. Mayrhofer, F. Haiss, F. Helmchen, and B. Weber, “Sparse, reliable, and long-term stable representation of periodic whisker deflections in the mouse barrel cortex,” Neuroimage 115, 52–63 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Mayrhofer, V. Skreb, W. von der Behrens, S. Musall, B. Weber, and F. Haiss, “Novel two-alternative forced choice paradigm for bilateral vibrotactile whisker frequency discrimination in head-fixed mice and rats,” J. Neurophysiol. 109(1), 273–284 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Margolis, H. Lütcke, K. Schulz, F. Haiss, B. Weber, S. Kügler, M. T. Hasan, and F. Helmchen, “Reorganization of cortical population activity imaged throughout long-term sensory deprivation,” Nat. Neurosci. 15(11), 1539–1546 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Schwarz, H. Hentschke, S. Butovas, F. Haiss, M. C. Stüttgen, T. V. Gerdjikov, C. G. Bergner, and C. Waiblinger, “The head-fixed behaving rat--Procedures and pitfalls,” Somatosens. Mot. Res. 27(4), 131–148 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hall, A.

C. Schuh, D. Haenni, E. Craigie, U. Ziegler, B. Weber, O. Devuyst, and A. Hall, “Intravital imaging of the kidney using long wavelength multiphoton excitation,” in press.

Hall, A. M.

A. M. Hall and B. A. Molitoris, “Dynamic multiphoton microscopy: focusing light on acute kidney injury,” Physiology (Bethesda) 29(5), 334–342 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. M. Hall, C. Crawford, R. J. Unwin, M. R. Duchen, and C. M. Peppiatt-Wildman, “Multiphoton imaging of the functioning kidney,” J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 22(7), 1297–1304 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hasan, M. T.

D. J. Margolis, H. Lütcke, K. Schulz, F. Haiss, B. Weber, S. Kügler, M. T. Hasan, and F. Helmchen, “Reorganization of cortical population activity imaged throughout long-term sensory deprivation,” Nat. Neurosci. 15(11), 1539–1546 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hausselt, S. E.

T. Euler, S. E. Hausselt, D. J. Margolis, T. Breuninger, X. Castell, P. B. Detwiler, and W. Denk, “Eyecup scope-optical recordings of light stimulus-evoked fluorescence signals in the retina,” Pflüg. Arch. - Eur. J. Phys. 457(6), 1393–1414 (2009).
[Crossref]

Helmchen, F.

J. M. Mayrhofer, F. Haiss, F. Helmchen, and B. Weber, “Sparse, reliable, and long-term stable representation of periodic whisker deflections in the mouse barrel cortex,” Neuroimage 115, 52–63 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Margolis, H. Lütcke, K. Schulz, F. Haiss, B. Weber, S. Kügler, M. T. Hasan, and F. Helmchen, “Reorganization of cortical population activity imaged throughout long-term sensory deprivation,” Nat. Neurosci. 15(11), 1539–1546 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. F. Grewe, F. F. Voigt, M. van ’t Hoff, and F. Helmchen, “Fast two-layer two-photon imaging of neuronal cell populations using an electrically tunable lens,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(7), 2035–2046 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. C. Johannssen and F. Helmchen, “In vivo Ca2+ imaging of dorsal horn neuronal populations in mouse spinal cord,” J. Physiol. 588(18), 3397–3402 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Helmchen and W. Denk, “Deep tissue two-photon microscopy,” Nat. Methods 2(12), 932–940 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Göbel, J. N. D. Kerr, A. Nimmerjahn, and F. Helmchen, “Miniaturized two-photon microscope based on a flexible coherent fiber bundle and a gradient-index lens objective,” Opt. Lett. 29(21), 2521–2523 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hentschke, H.

C. Schwarz, H. Hentschke, S. Butovas, F. Haiss, M. C. Stüttgen, T. V. Gerdjikov, C. G. Bergner, and C. Waiblinger, “The head-fixed behaving rat--Procedures and pitfalls,” Somatosens. Mot. Res. 27(4), 131–148 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Holtmaat, A.

A. Holtmaat and K. Svoboda, “Experience-dependent structural synaptic plasticity in the mammalian brain,” Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 10(9), 647–658 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, Z. J.

L. J. Gentet, Y. Kremer, H. Taniguchi, Z. J. Huang, J. F. Staiger, and C. C. H. Petersen, “Unique functional properties of somatostatin-expressing GABAergic neurons in mouse barrel cortex,” Nat. Neurosci. 15(4), 607–612 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huber, D.

D. Huber, D. A. Gutnisky, S. Peron, D. H. O’Connor, J. S. Wiegert, L. Tian, T. G. Oertner, L. L. Looger, and K. Svoboda, “Multiple dynamic representations in the motor cortex during sensorimotor learning,” Nature 484(7395), 473–478 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. H. O’Connor, N. G. Clack, D. Huber, T. Komiyama, E. W. Myers, and K. Svoboda, “Vibrissa-Based Object Localization in Head-Fixed Mice,” J. Neurosci. 30(5), 1947–1967 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Johannssen, H. C.

H. C. Johannssen and F. Helmchen, “In vivo Ca2+ imaging of dorsal horn neuronal populations in mouse spinal cord,” J. Physiol. 588(18), 3397–3402 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kerr, J. N. D.

D. J. Wallace, D. S. Greenberg, J. Sawinski, S. Rulla, G. Notaro, and J. N. D. Kerr, “Rats maintain an overhead binocular field at the expense of constant fusion,” Nature 498(7452), 65–69 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Sawinski, D. J. Wallace, D. S. Greenberg, S. Grossmann, W. Denk, and J. N. D. Kerr, “Visually evoked activity in cortical cells imaged in freely moving animals,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(46), 19557–19562 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Göbel, J. N. D. Kerr, A. Nimmerjahn, and F. Helmchen, “Miniaturized two-photon microscope based on a flexible coherent fiber bundle and a gradient-index lens objective,” Opt. Lett. 29(21), 2521–2523 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Khabbaz, A. N.

D. A. Dombeck, A. N. Khabbaz, F. Collman, T. L. Adelman, and D. W. Tank, “Imaging Large-Scale Neural Activity with Cellular Resolution in Awake, Mobile Mice,” Neuron 56(1), 43–57 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Komiyama, T.

D. H. O’Connor, N. G. Clack, D. Huber, T. Komiyama, E. W. Myers, and K. Svoboda, “Vibrissa-Based Object Localization in Head-Fixed Mice,” J. Neurosci. 30(5), 1947–1967 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kremer, Y.

S. Sachidhanandam, V. Sreenivasan, A. Kyriakatos, Y. Kremer, and C. C. H. Petersen, “Membrane potential correlates of sensory perception in mouse barrel cortex,” Nat. Neurosci. 16(11), 1671–1677 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. J. Gentet, Y. Kremer, H. Taniguchi, Z. J. Huang, J. F. Staiger, and C. C. H. Petersen, “Unique functional properties of somatostatin-expressing GABAergic neurons in mouse barrel cortex,” Nat. Neurosci. 15(4), 607–612 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kügler, S.

D. J. Margolis, H. Lütcke, K. Schulz, F. Haiss, B. Weber, S. Kügler, M. T. Hasan, and F. Helmchen, “Reorganization of cortical population activity imaged throughout long-term sensory deprivation,” Nat. Neurosci. 15(11), 1539–1546 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kyriakatos, A.

S. Sachidhanandam, V. Sreenivasan, A. Kyriakatos, Y. Kremer, and C. C. H. Petersen, “Membrane potential correlates of sensory perception in mouse barrel cortex,” Nat. Neurosci. 16(11), 1671–1677 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lerchundi, R.

A. San Martín, S. Ceballo, F. Baeza-Lehnert, R. Lerchundi, R. Valdebenito, Y. Contreras-Baeza, K. Alegría, and L. F. Barros, “Imaging Mitochondrial Flux in Single Cells with a Fret Sensor for Pyruvate,” PLoS One 9(1), e85780 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Levene, M. J.

M. L. Andermann, N. B. Gilfoy, G. J. Goldey, R. N. S. Sachdev, M. Wölfel, D. A. McCormick, R. C. Reid, and M. J. Levene, “Chronic cellular imaging of entire cortical columns in awake mice using microprisms,” Neuron 80(4), 900–913 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, W.

D. D. Stettler, H. Yamahachi, W. Li, W. Denk, and C. D. Gilbert, “Axons and synaptic boutons are highly dynamic in adult visual cortex,” Neuron 49(6), 877–887 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Looger, L. L.

D. Huber, D. A. Gutnisky, S. Peron, D. H. O’Connor, J. S. Wiegert, L. Tian, T. G. Oertner, L. L. Looger, and K. Svoboda, “Multiple dynamic representations in the motor cortex during sensorimotor learning,” Nature 484(7395), 473–478 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lütcke, H.

D. J. Margolis, H. Lütcke, K. Schulz, F. Haiss, B. Weber, S. Kügler, M. T. Hasan, and F. Helmchen, “Reorganization of cortical population activity imaged throughout long-term sensory deprivation,” Nat. Neurosci. 15(11), 1539–1546 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Margolis, D. J.

D. J. Margolis, H. Lütcke, K. Schulz, F. Haiss, B. Weber, S. Kügler, M. T. Hasan, and F. Helmchen, “Reorganization of cortical population activity imaged throughout long-term sensory deprivation,” Nat. Neurosci. 15(11), 1539–1546 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Euler, S. E. Hausselt, D. J. Margolis, T. Breuninger, X. Castell, P. B. Detwiler, and W. Denk, “Eyecup scope-optical recordings of light stimulus-evoked fluorescence signals in the retina,” Pflüg. Arch. - Eur. J. Phys. 457(6), 1393–1414 (2009).
[Crossref]

Matyas, F.

L. J. Gentet, M. Avermann, F. Matyas, J. F. Staiger, and C. C. H. Petersen, “Membrane Potential Dynamics of GABAergic Neurons in the Barrel Cortex of Behaving mice,” Neuron 65(3), 422–435 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mayrhofer, J. M.

J. M. Mayrhofer, F. Haiss, F. Helmchen, and B. Weber, “Sparse, reliable, and long-term stable representation of periodic whisker deflections in the mouse barrel cortex,” Neuroimage 115, 52–63 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Mayrhofer, V. Skreb, W. von der Behrens, S. Musall, B. Weber, and F. Haiss, “Novel two-alternative forced choice paradigm for bilateral vibrotactile whisker frequency discrimination in head-fixed mice and rats,” J. Neurophysiol. 109(1), 273–284 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McCormick, D. A.

M. L. Andermann, N. B. Gilfoy, G. J. Goldey, R. N. S. Sachdev, M. Wölfel, D. A. McCormick, R. C. Reid, and M. J. Levene, “Chronic cellular imaging of entire cortical columns in awake mice using microprisms,” Neuron 80(4), 900–913 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Molitoris, B. A.

A. M. Hall and B. A. Molitoris, “Dynamic multiphoton microscopy: focusing light on acute kidney injury,” Physiology (Bethesda) 29(5), 334–342 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Musall, S.

J. M. Mayrhofer, V. Skreb, W. von der Behrens, S. Musall, B. Weber, and F. Haiss, “Novel two-alternative forced choice paradigm for bilateral vibrotactile whisker frequency discrimination in head-fixed mice and rats,” J. Neurophysiol. 109(1), 273–284 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Myers, E. W.

D. H. O’Connor, N. G. Clack, D. Huber, T. Komiyama, E. W. Myers, and K. Svoboda, “Vibrissa-Based Object Localization in Head-Fixed Mice,” J. Neurosci. 30(5), 1947–1967 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nimmerjahn, A.

Notaro, G.

D. J. Wallace, D. S. Greenberg, J. Sawinski, S. Rulla, G. Notaro, and J. N. D. Kerr, “Rats maintain an overhead binocular field at the expense of constant fusion,” Nature 498(7452), 65–69 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O’Connor, D. H.

D. Huber, D. A. Gutnisky, S. Peron, D. H. O’Connor, J. S. Wiegert, L. Tian, T. G. Oertner, L. L. Looger, and K. Svoboda, “Multiple dynamic representations in the motor cortex during sensorimotor learning,” Nature 484(7395), 473–478 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. H. O’Connor, N. G. Clack, D. Huber, T. Komiyama, E. W. Myers, and K. Svoboda, “Vibrissa-Based Object Localization in Head-Fixed Mice,” J. Neurosci. 30(5), 1947–1967 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Oertner, T. G.

D. Huber, D. A. Gutnisky, S. Peron, D. H. O’Connor, J. S. Wiegert, L. Tian, T. G. Oertner, L. L. Looger, and K. Svoboda, “Multiple dynamic representations in the motor cortex during sensorimotor learning,” Nature 484(7395), 473–478 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Packer, A. M.

R. Prakash, O. Yizhar, B. Grewe, C. Ramakrishnan, N. Wang, I. Goshen, A. M. Packer, D. S. Peterka, R. Yuste, M. J. Schnitzer, and K. Deisseroth, “Two-photon optogenetic toolbox for fast inhibition, excitation and bistable modulation,” Nat. Methods 9(12), 1171–1179 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Peppiatt-Wildman, C. M.

A. M. Hall, C. Crawford, R. J. Unwin, M. R. Duchen, and C. M. Peppiatt-Wildman, “Multiphoton imaging of the functioning kidney,” J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 22(7), 1297–1304 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Peron, S.

D. Huber, D. A. Gutnisky, S. Peron, D. H. O’Connor, J. S. Wiegert, L. Tian, T. G. Oertner, L. L. Looger, and K. Svoboda, “Multiple dynamic representations in the motor cortex during sensorimotor learning,” Nature 484(7395), 473–478 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Peterka, D. S.

R. Prakash, O. Yizhar, B. Grewe, C. Ramakrishnan, N. Wang, I. Goshen, A. M. Packer, D. S. Peterka, R. Yuste, M. J. Schnitzer, and K. Deisseroth, “Two-photon optogenetic toolbox for fast inhibition, excitation and bistable modulation,” Nat. Methods 9(12), 1171–1179 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Petersen, C. C. H.

S. Sachidhanandam, V. Sreenivasan, A. Kyriakatos, Y. Kremer, and C. C. H. Petersen, “Membrane potential correlates of sensory perception in mouse barrel cortex,” Nat. Neurosci. 16(11), 1671–1677 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. J. Gentet, Y. Kremer, H. Taniguchi, Z. J. Huang, J. F. Staiger, and C. C. H. Petersen, “Unique functional properties of somatostatin-expressing GABAergic neurons in mouse barrel cortex,” Nat. Neurosci. 15(4), 607–612 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. J. Gentet, M. Avermann, F. Matyas, J. F. Staiger, and C. C. H. Petersen, “Membrane Potential Dynamics of GABAergic Neurons in the Barrel Cortex of Behaving mice,” Neuron 65(3), 422–435 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pologruto, T. A.

T. A. Pologruto, B. L. Sabatini, and K. Svoboda, “ScanImage: flexible software for operating laser scanning microscopes,” Biomed. Eng. Online 2(1), 13 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Prakash, R.

R. Prakash, O. Yizhar, B. Grewe, C. Ramakrishnan, N. Wang, I. Goshen, A. M. Packer, D. S. Peterka, R. Yuste, M. J. Schnitzer, and K. Deisseroth, “Two-photon optogenetic toolbox for fast inhibition, excitation and bistable modulation,” Nat. Methods 9(12), 1171–1179 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ramakrishnan, C.

R. Prakash, O. Yizhar, B. Grewe, C. Ramakrishnan, N. Wang, I. Goshen, A. M. Packer, D. S. Peterka, R. Yuste, M. J. Schnitzer, and K. Deisseroth, “Two-photon optogenetic toolbox for fast inhibition, excitation and bistable modulation,” Nat. Methods 9(12), 1171–1179 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reid, R. C.

M. L. Andermann, N. B. Gilfoy, G. J. Goldey, R. N. S. Sachdev, M. Wölfel, D. A. McCormick, R. C. Reid, and M. J. Levene, “Chronic cellular imaging of entire cortical columns in awake mice using microprisms,” Neuron 80(4), 900–913 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rulla, S.

D. J. Wallace, D. S. Greenberg, J. Sawinski, S. Rulla, G. Notaro, and J. N. D. Kerr, “Rats maintain an overhead binocular field at the expense of constant fusion,” Nature 498(7452), 65–69 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sabatini, B. L.

T. A. Pologruto, B. L. Sabatini, and K. Svoboda, “ScanImage: flexible software for operating laser scanning microscopes,” Biomed. Eng. Online 2(1), 13 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sachdev, R. N. S.

M. L. Andermann, N. B. Gilfoy, G. J. Goldey, R. N. S. Sachdev, M. Wölfel, D. A. McCormick, R. C. Reid, and M. J. Levene, “Chronic cellular imaging of entire cortical columns in awake mice using microprisms,” Neuron 80(4), 900–913 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sachidhanandam, S.

S. Sachidhanandam, V. Sreenivasan, A. Kyriakatos, Y. Kremer, and C. C. H. Petersen, “Membrane potential correlates of sensory perception in mouse barrel cortex,” Nat. Neurosci. 16(11), 1671–1677 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

San Martín, A.

A. San Martín, S. Ceballo, F. Baeza-Lehnert, R. Lerchundi, R. Valdebenito, Y. Contreras-Baeza, K. Alegría, and L. F. Barros, “Imaging Mitochondrial Flux in Single Cells with a Fret Sensor for Pyruvate,” PLoS One 9(1), e85780 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sawinski, J.

D. J. Wallace, D. S. Greenberg, J. Sawinski, S. Rulla, G. Notaro, and J. N. D. Kerr, “Rats maintain an overhead binocular field at the expense of constant fusion,” Nature 498(7452), 65–69 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Sawinski, D. J. Wallace, D. S. Greenberg, S. Grossmann, W. Denk, and J. N. D. Kerr, “Visually evoked activity in cortical cells imaged in freely moving animals,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(46), 19557–19562 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schnitzer, M. J.

R. Prakash, O. Yizhar, B. Grewe, C. Ramakrishnan, N. Wang, I. Goshen, A. M. Packer, D. S. Peterka, R. Yuste, M. J. Schnitzer, and K. Deisseroth, “Two-photon optogenetic toolbox for fast inhibition, excitation and bistable modulation,” Nat. Methods 9(12), 1171–1179 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schuh, C.

C. Schuh, D. Haenni, E. Craigie, U. Ziegler, B. Weber, O. Devuyst, and A. Hall, “Intravital imaging of the kidney using long wavelength multiphoton excitation,” in press.

Schulz, K.

D. J. Margolis, H. Lütcke, K. Schulz, F. Haiss, B. Weber, S. Kügler, M. T. Hasan, and F. Helmchen, “Reorganization of cortical population activity imaged throughout long-term sensory deprivation,” Nat. Neurosci. 15(11), 1539–1546 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schwarz, C.

C. Schwarz, H. Hentschke, S. Butovas, F. Haiss, M. C. Stüttgen, T. V. Gerdjikov, C. G. Bergner, and C. Waiblinger, “The head-fixed behaving rat--Procedures and pitfalls,” Somatosens. Mot. Res. 27(4), 131–148 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Skreb, V.

J. M. Mayrhofer, V. Skreb, W. von der Behrens, S. Musall, B. Weber, and F. Haiss, “Novel two-alternative forced choice paradigm for bilateral vibrotactile whisker frequency discrimination in head-fixed mice and rats,” J. Neurophysiol. 109(1), 273–284 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sreenivasan, V.

S. Sachidhanandam, V. Sreenivasan, A. Kyriakatos, Y. Kremer, and C. C. H. Petersen, “Membrane potential correlates of sensory perception in mouse barrel cortex,” Nat. Neurosci. 16(11), 1671–1677 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Staiger, J. F.

L. J. Gentet, Y. Kremer, H. Taniguchi, Z. J. Huang, J. F. Staiger, and C. C. H. Petersen, “Unique functional properties of somatostatin-expressing GABAergic neurons in mouse barrel cortex,” Nat. Neurosci. 15(4), 607–612 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. J. Gentet, M. Avermann, F. Matyas, J. F. Staiger, and C. C. H. Petersen, “Membrane Potential Dynamics of GABAergic Neurons in the Barrel Cortex of Behaving mice,” Neuron 65(3), 422–435 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stettler, D. D.

D. D. Stettler, H. Yamahachi, W. Li, W. Denk, and C. D. Gilbert, “Axons and synaptic boutons are highly dynamic in adult visual cortex,” Neuron 49(6), 877–887 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Strickler, J. H.

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, “Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy,” Science 248(4951), 73–76 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stüttgen, M. C.

C. Schwarz, H. Hentschke, S. Butovas, F. Haiss, M. C. Stüttgen, T. V. Gerdjikov, C. G. Bergner, and C. Waiblinger, “The head-fixed behaving rat--Procedures and pitfalls,” Somatosens. Mot. Res. 27(4), 131–148 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Svoboda, K.

D. Huber, D. A. Gutnisky, S. Peron, D. H. O’Connor, J. S. Wiegert, L. Tian, T. G. Oertner, L. L. Looger, and K. Svoboda, “Multiple dynamic representations in the motor cortex during sensorimotor learning,” Nature 484(7395), 473–478 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. H. O’Connor, N. G. Clack, D. Huber, T. Komiyama, E. W. Myers, and K. Svoboda, “Vibrissa-Based Object Localization in Head-Fixed Mice,” J. Neurosci. 30(5), 1947–1967 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Holtmaat and K. Svoboda, “Experience-dependent structural synaptic plasticity in the mammalian brain,” Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 10(9), 647–658 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Svoboda and R. Yasuda, “Principles of two-photon excitation microscopy and its applications to neuroscience,” Neuron 50(6), 823–839 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. A. Pologruto, B. L. Sabatini, and K. Svoboda, “ScanImage: flexible software for operating laser scanning microscopes,” Biomed. Eng. Online 2(1), 13 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Taniguchi, H.

L. J. Gentet, Y. Kremer, H. Taniguchi, Z. J. Huang, J. F. Staiger, and C. C. H. Petersen, “Unique functional properties of somatostatin-expressing GABAergic neurons in mouse barrel cortex,” Nat. Neurosci. 15(4), 607–612 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tank, D. W.

D. A. Dombeck, A. N. Khabbaz, F. Collman, T. L. Adelman, and D. W. Tank, “Imaging Large-Scale Neural Activity with Cellular Resolution in Awake, Mobile Mice,” Neuron 56(1), 43–57 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tian, L.

D. Huber, D. A. Gutnisky, S. Peron, D. H. O’Connor, J. S. Wiegert, L. Tian, T. G. Oertner, L. L. Looger, and K. Svoboda, “Multiple dynamic representations in the motor cortex during sensorimotor learning,” Nature 484(7395), 473–478 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Unwin, R. J.

A. M. Hall, C. Crawford, R. J. Unwin, M. R. Duchen, and C. M. Peppiatt-Wildman, “Multiphoton imaging of the functioning kidney,” J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 22(7), 1297–1304 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Valdebenito, R.

A. San Martín, S. Ceballo, F. Baeza-Lehnert, R. Lerchundi, R. Valdebenito, Y. Contreras-Baeza, K. Alegría, and L. F. Barros, “Imaging Mitochondrial Flux in Single Cells with a Fret Sensor for Pyruvate,” PLoS One 9(1), e85780 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

van ’t Hoff, M.

Voigt, F. F.

von der Behrens, W.

J. M. Mayrhofer, V. Skreb, W. von der Behrens, S. Musall, B. Weber, and F. Haiss, “Novel two-alternative forced choice paradigm for bilateral vibrotactile whisker frequency discrimination in head-fixed mice and rats,” J. Neurophysiol. 109(1), 273–284 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Waiblinger, C.

C. Schwarz, H. Hentschke, S. Butovas, F. Haiss, M. C. Stüttgen, T. V. Gerdjikov, C. G. Bergner, and C. Waiblinger, “The head-fixed behaving rat--Procedures and pitfalls,” Somatosens. Mot. Res. 27(4), 131–148 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wallace, D. J.

D. J. Wallace, D. S. Greenberg, J. Sawinski, S. Rulla, G. Notaro, and J. N. D. Kerr, “Rats maintain an overhead binocular field at the expense of constant fusion,” Nature 498(7452), 65–69 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Sawinski, D. J. Wallace, D. S. Greenberg, S. Grossmann, W. Denk, and J. N. D. Kerr, “Visually evoked activity in cortical cells imaged in freely moving animals,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(46), 19557–19562 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, N.

R. Prakash, O. Yizhar, B. Grewe, C. Ramakrishnan, N. Wang, I. Goshen, A. M. Packer, D. S. Peterka, R. Yuste, M. J. Schnitzer, and K. Deisseroth, “Two-photon optogenetic toolbox for fast inhibition, excitation and bistable modulation,” Nat. Methods 9(12), 1171–1179 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Webb, W. W.

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, “Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy,” Science 248(4951), 73–76 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weber, B.

J. M. Mayrhofer, F. Haiss, F. Helmchen, and B. Weber, “Sparse, reliable, and long-term stable representation of periodic whisker deflections in the mouse barrel cortex,” Neuroimage 115, 52–63 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Mayrhofer, V. Skreb, W. von der Behrens, S. Musall, B. Weber, and F. Haiss, “Novel two-alternative forced choice paradigm for bilateral vibrotactile whisker frequency discrimination in head-fixed mice and rats,” J. Neurophysiol. 109(1), 273–284 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Margolis, H. Lütcke, K. Schulz, F. Haiss, B. Weber, S. Kügler, M. T. Hasan, and F. Helmchen, “Reorganization of cortical population activity imaged throughout long-term sensory deprivation,” Nat. Neurosci. 15(11), 1539–1546 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Schuh, D. Haenni, E. Craigie, U. Ziegler, B. Weber, O. Devuyst, and A. Hall, “Intravital imaging of the kidney using long wavelength multiphoton excitation,” in press.

Wiegert, J. S.

D. Huber, D. A. Gutnisky, S. Peron, D. H. O’Connor, J. S. Wiegert, L. Tian, T. G. Oertner, L. L. Looger, and K. Svoboda, “Multiple dynamic representations in the motor cortex during sensorimotor learning,” Nature 484(7395), 473–478 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wölfel, M.

M. L. Andermann, N. B. Gilfoy, G. J. Goldey, R. N. S. Sachdev, M. Wölfel, D. A. McCormick, R. C. Reid, and M. J. Levene, “Chronic cellular imaging of entire cortical columns in awake mice using microprisms,” Neuron 80(4), 900–913 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yamahachi, H.

D. D. Stettler, H. Yamahachi, W. Li, W. Denk, and C. D. Gilbert, “Axons and synaptic boutons are highly dynamic in adult visual cortex,” Neuron 49(6), 877–887 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yasuda, R.

K. Svoboda and R. Yasuda, “Principles of two-photon excitation microscopy and its applications to neuroscience,” Neuron 50(6), 823–839 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yizhar, O.

R. Prakash, O. Yizhar, B. Grewe, C. Ramakrishnan, N. Wang, I. Goshen, A. M. Packer, D. S. Peterka, R. Yuste, M. J. Schnitzer, and K. Deisseroth, “Two-photon optogenetic toolbox for fast inhibition, excitation and bistable modulation,” Nat. Methods 9(12), 1171–1179 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yuste, R.

R. Prakash, O. Yizhar, B. Grewe, C. Ramakrishnan, N. Wang, I. Goshen, A. M. Packer, D. S. Peterka, R. Yuste, M. J. Schnitzer, and K. Deisseroth, “Two-photon optogenetic toolbox for fast inhibition, excitation and bistable modulation,” Nat. Methods 9(12), 1171–1179 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ziegler, U.

C. Schuh, D. Haenni, E. Craigie, U. Ziegler, B. Weber, O. Devuyst, and A. Hall, “Intravital imaging of the kidney using long wavelength multiphoton excitation,” in press.

Biomed. Eng. Online (1)

T. A. Pologruto, B. L. Sabatini, and K. Svoboda, “ScanImage: flexible software for operating laser scanning microscopes,” Biomed. Eng. Online 2(1), 13 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. (1)

A. M. Hall, C. Crawford, R. J. Unwin, M. R. Duchen, and C. M. Peppiatt-Wildman, “Multiphoton imaging of the functioning kidney,” J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 22(7), 1297–1304 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Neurophysiol. (1)

J. M. Mayrhofer, V. Skreb, W. von der Behrens, S. Musall, B. Weber, and F. Haiss, “Novel two-alternative forced choice paradigm for bilateral vibrotactile whisker frequency discrimination in head-fixed mice and rats,” J. Neurophysiol. 109(1), 273–284 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Neurosci. (1)

D. H. O’Connor, N. G. Clack, D. Huber, T. Komiyama, E. W. Myers, and K. Svoboda, “Vibrissa-Based Object Localization in Head-Fixed Mice,” J. Neurosci. 30(5), 1947–1967 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Physiol. (1)

H. C. Johannssen and F. Helmchen, “In vivo Ca2+ imaging of dorsal horn neuronal populations in mouse spinal cord,” J. Physiol. 588(18), 3397–3402 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Methods (2)

R. Prakash, O. Yizhar, B. Grewe, C. Ramakrishnan, N. Wang, I. Goshen, A. M. Packer, D. S. Peterka, R. Yuste, M. J. Schnitzer, and K. Deisseroth, “Two-photon optogenetic toolbox for fast inhibition, excitation and bistable modulation,” Nat. Methods 9(12), 1171–1179 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Helmchen and W. Denk, “Deep tissue two-photon microscopy,” Nat. Methods 2(12), 932–940 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Neurosci. (3)

D. J. Margolis, H. Lütcke, K. Schulz, F. Haiss, B. Weber, S. Kügler, M. T. Hasan, and F. Helmchen, “Reorganization of cortical population activity imaged throughout long-term sensory deprivation,” Nat. Neurosci. 15(11), 1539–1546 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Sachidhanandam, V. Sreenivasan, A. Kyriakatos, Y. Kremer, and C. C. H. Petersen, “Membrane potential correlates of sensory perception in mouse barrel cortex,” Nat. Neurosci. 16(11), 1671–1677 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. J. Gentet, Y. Kremer, H. Taniguchi, Z. J. Huang, J. F. Staiger, and C. C. H. Petersen, “Unique functional properties of somatostatin-expressing GABAergic neurons in mouse barrel cortex,” Nat. Neurosci. 15(4), 607–612 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Rev. Neurosci. (1)

A. Holtmaat and K. Svoboda, “Experience-dependent structural synaptic plasticity in the mammalian brain,” Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 10(9), 647–658 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nature (2)

D. Huber, D. A. Gutnisky, S. Peron, D. H. O’Connor, J. S. Wiegert, L. Tian, T. G. Oertner, L. L. Looger, and K. Svoboda, “Multiple dynamic representations in the motor cortex during sensorimotor learning,” Nature 484(7395), 473–478 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Wallace, D. S. Greenberg, J. Sawinski, S. Rulla, G. Notaro, and J. N. D. Kerr, “Rats maintain an overhead binocular field at the expense of constant fusion,” Nature 498(7452), 65–69 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Neuroimage (1)

J. M. Mayrhofer, F. Haiss, F. Helmchen, and B. Weber, “Sparse, reliable, and long-term stable representation of periodic whisker deflections in the mouse barrel cortex,” Neuroimage 115, 52–63 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Neuron (5)

L. J. Gentet, M. Avermann, F. Matyas, J. F. Staiger, and C. C. H. Petersen, “Membrane Potential Dynamics of GABAergic Neurons in the Barrel Cortex of Behaving mice,” Neuron 65(3), 422–435 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Svoboda and R. Yasuda, “Principles of two-photon excitation microscopy and its applications to neuroscience,” Neuron 50(6), 823–839 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. A. Dombeck, A. N. Khabbaz, F. Collman, T. L. Adelman, and D. W. Tank, “Imaging Large-Scale Neural Activity with Cellular Resolution in Awake, Mobile Mice,” Neuron 56(1), 43–57 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. L. Andermann, N. B. Gilfoy, G. J. Goldey, R. N. S. Sachdev, M. Wölfel, D. A. McCormick, R. C. Reid, and M. J. Levene, “Chronic cellular imaging of entire cortical columns in awake mice using microprisms,” Neuron 80(4), 900–913 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. D. Stettler, H. Yamahachi, W. Li, W. Denk, and C. D. Gilbert, “Axons and synaptic boutons are highly dynamic in adult visual cortex,” Neuron 49(6), 877–887 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Pflüg. Arch. - Eur. J. Phys. (1)

T. Euler, S. E. Hausselt, D. J. Margolis, T. Breuninger, X. Castell, P. B. Detwiler, and W. Denk, “Eyecup scope-optical recordings of light stimulus-evoked fluorescence signals in the retina,” Pflüg. Arch. - Eur. J. Phys. 457(6), 1393–1414 (2009).
[Crossref]

Physiology (Bethesda) (1)

A. M. Hall and B. A. Molitoris, “Dynamic multiphoton microscopy: focusing light on acute kidney injury,” Physiology (Bethesda) 29(5), 334–342 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

PLoS One (1)

A. San Martín, S. Ceballo, F. Baeza-Lehnert, R. Lerchundi, R. Valdebenito, Y. Contreras-Baeza, K. Alegría, and L. F. Barros, “Imaging Mitochondrial Flux in Single Cells with a Fret Sensor for Pyruvate,” PLoS One 9(1), e85780 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1)

J. Sawinski, D. J. Wallace, D. S. Greenberg, S. Grossmann, W. Denk, and J. N. D. Kerr, “Visually evoked activity in cortical cells imaged in freely moving animals,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(46), 19557–19562 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (1)

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, “Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy,” Science 248(4951), 73–76 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Somatosens. Mot. Res. (1)

C. Schwarz, H. Hentschke, S. Butovas, F. Haiss, M. C. Stüttgen, T. V. Gerdjikov, C. G. Bergner, and C. Waiblinger, “The head-fixed behaving rat--Procedures and pitfalls,” Somatosens. Mot. Res. 27(4), 131–148 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (4)

M. L. Andermann, “Chronic cellular imaging of mouse visual cortex during operant behavior and passive viewing,” Front. Cellullar Neurosci., 2010.

B. Weber and F. Helmchen, Optical Imaging of Neocortical Dynamics (New York: Springer, 2014).

C. Schuh, D. Haenni, E. Craigie, U. Ziegler, B. Weber, O. Devuyst, and A. Hall, “Intravital imaging of the kidney using long wavelength multiphoton excitation,” in press.

D. Flickinger, V. Iyer, D. Huber, D. O’Connor, S. Peron, N. Clack, J. Chandrashekar, and K. Svoboda, “MIMMS: a modular, open design microscopy platform for in vivo imaging of neural tissues.,” presented at the SfN 2010, 2010.

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Mechanical design. (A) Side view of the microscope. Green line indicates 193 mm space behind objective (OBJ). (B) Front view of the microscope. (C) 3D view showing the rotational freedom of microscope frontend (FE). Linear stage for X axis (LSX), linear stage one and two for Y axis (LSY1 and LSY2), linear stage for Z axis (LSZ), stepper motors (SMX, SMY1, SMY2, SMZ, SMR (not shown)), detection system (DS), objective (OBJ), and mounting block for scanners (SCAN). Focal point of OBJ is highlighted with a red dot.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Optical design. (A) Position of optical components of the microscope. Mirror on the X, Y, Z, and rotation axes (MX, MY, MZ, MR1), additional mirrors on microscope head (MR2 and MR3), galvanometric scanner (SCAN), scan lens (SL), tube lenses (TL1 and TL2), dichroic beam splitter (DBS3), camera path mirror (CPM), detection system (DS), and objective (OBJ) (B) optical path of the scan optics and detection path (inset). Labels as in (A), but only X scan mirror of galvo scanners (SCAN) is shown, as well as dichroic beam-splitters (DBS1 and DBS2), condenser lens (CL), dichroic beam-splitter for emission (DBS2), dichroic beam-splitter for camera path (DBS3), and photo multiplier modules (PMM1 and PMM2).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Repositioning accuracy in the in vivo situation. (A) Wide field image of chronic window overlaid with indicator expression (green channel; hsynapsin-Pyronic and GFAP-Pyronic). (B) Schematic of the protocol used to measure the accuracy when repositioning the microscope in the same FOV over different sessions (upper panel). Shifts (x’, y’ and z’) and absolute differences (|Δx’|, |Δy’| and |Δz’|) between the initial FOV and subsequent repositioning in the same FOV. (C) Schematic of the protocol used to measure the repositioning accuracy between two FOVs within the same session (left panel). Differences between the initial FOVs and subsequent repositioning in the same FOV (nomenclature same as in (B)).

Metrics