Abstract

Three-dimensional (3D) printing offers the promise of fabricating optical phantoms with arbitrary geometry, but commercially available thermoplastics provide only a small range of physiologically relevant absorption (µa) and reduced scattering (µs`) values. Here we demonstrate customizable acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) filaments for dual extrusion 3D printing of tissue mimicking optical phantoms. µa and µs` values were adjusted by incorporating nigrosin and titanium dioxide (TiO2) in the filament extrusion process. A wide range of physiologically relevant optical properties was demonstrated with an average repeatability within 11.5% for µa and 7.71% for µs`. Additionally, a mouse-simulating phantom, which mimicked both the geometry and optical properties of a hairless mouse with an implanted xenograft tumor, was printed using dual extrusion methods. 3D printed tumor optical properties matched the live tumor with less than 3% error at a wavelength of 659 nm. 3D printing with user defined optical properties may provide a viable method for durable optically diffusive phantoms for instrument characterization and calibration.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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  1. B. W. Pogue and M. S. Patterson, “Review of tissue simulating phantoms for optical spectroscopy, imaging and dosimetry,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 041102 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. A. E. Cerussi, R. Warren, B. Hill, D. Roblyer, A. Leproux, A. F. Durkin, T. D. O’Sullivan, S. Keene, H. Haghany, T. Quang, W. M. Mantulin, and B. J. Tromberg, “Tissue phantoms in multicenter clinical trials for diffuse optical technologies,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(5), 966–971 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. G. Quarto, A. Pifferi, I. Bargigia, A. Farina, R. Cubeddu, and P. Taroni, “Recipes to make organic phantoms for diffusive optical spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 52(11), 2494–2502 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. R. Cubeddu, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, A. Torricelli, and G. Valentini, “A solid tissue phantom for photon migration studies,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42(10), 1971–1979 (1997).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. S. Merritt, G. Gulsen, G. Chiou, Y. Chu, C. Deng, A. E. Cerussi, A. J. Durkin, B. J. Tromberg, and O. Nalcioglu, “Comparison of water and lipid content measurements using diffuse optical spectroscopy and MRI in emulsion phantoms,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 2(6), 563–569 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. G. J. Greening, R. Istfan, L. M. Higgins, K. Balachandran, D. Roblyer, M. C. Pierce, and T. J. Muldoon, “Characterization of thin poly(dimethylsiloxane)-based tissue-simulating phantoms with tunable reduced scattering and absorption coefficients at visible and near-infrared wavelengths,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(11), 115002 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. T. T. Nguyen, H. N. Le, M. Vo, Z. Wang, L. Luu, and J. C. Ramella-Roman, “Three-dimensional phantoms for curvature correction in spatial frequency domain imaging,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(6), 1200–1214 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. J. Wang, J. Coburn, C. P. Liang, N. Woolsey, J. C. Ramella-Roman, Y. Chen, and T. J. Pfefer, “Three-dimensional printing of tissue phantoms for biophotonic imaging,” Opt. Lett. 39(10), 3010–3013 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. D. J. Cuccia, F. Bevilacqua, A. J. Durkin, F. R. Ayers, and B. J. Tromberg, “Quantitation and mapping of tissue optical properties using modulated imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024012 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. M. Martinelli, A. Gardner, D. Cuccia, C. Hayakawa, J. Spanier, and V. Venugopalan, “Analysis of single Monte Carlo methods for prediction of reflectance from turbid media,” Opt. Express 19(20), 19627–19642 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. R. P. Singh-Moon, D. M. Roblyer, I. J. Bigio, and S. Joshi, “Spatial mapping of drug delivery to brain tissue using hyperspectral spatial frequency-domain imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(9), 096003 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. S. Gioux, A. Mazhar, D. J. Cuccia, A. J. Durkin, B. J. Tromberg, and J. V. Frangioni, “Three-dimensional surface profile intensity correction for spatially modulated imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 034045 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. R. B. Saager, A. Truong, D. J. Cuccia, and A. J. Durkin, “Method for depth-resolved quantitation of optical properties in layered media using spatially modulated quantitative spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(7), 077002 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. T. Durduran, R. Choe, J. P. Culver, L. Zubkov, M. J. Holboke, J. Giammarco, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, “Bulk optical properties of healthy female breast tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(16), 2847–2861 (2002).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. A. Cerussi, N. Shah, D. Hsiang, A. Durkin, J. Butler, and B. J. Tromberg, “In vivo absorption, scattering, and physiologic properties of 58 malignant breast tumors determined by broadband diffuse optical spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 044005 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. S. C. Gebhart, W. C. Lin, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “In vitro determination of normal and neoplastic human brain tissue optical properties using inverse adding-doubling,” Phys. Med. Biol. 51(8), 2011–2027 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. S. L. Jacques, “Optical properties of biological tissues: a review,” Phys. Med. Biol. 58(11), R37–R61 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. K. E. Michaelsen, V. Krishnaswamy, A. Shenoy, E. Jordan, B. W. Pogue, and K. D. Paulsen, “Anthropomorphic breast phantoms with physiological water, lipid, and hemoglobin content for near-infrared spectral tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(2), 026012 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. J. S. Miller, K. R. Stevens, M. T. Yang, B. M. Baker, D. H. Nguyen, D. M. Cohen, E. Toro, A. A. Chen, P. A. Galie, X. Yu, R. Chaturvedi, S. N. Bhatia, and C. S. Chen, “Rapid casting of patterned vascular networks for perfusable engineered three-dimensional tissues,” Nat. Mater. 11(9), 768–774 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (4)

G. J. Greening, R. Istfan, L. M. Higgins, K. Balachandran, D. Roblyer, M. C. Pierce, and T. J. Muldoon, “Characterization of thin poly(dimethylsiloxane)-based tissue-simulating phantoms with tunable reduced scattering and absorption coefficients at visible and near-infrared wavelengths,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(11), 115002 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, J. Coburn, C. P. Liang, N. Woolsey, J. C. Ramella-Roman, Y. Chen, and T. J. Pfefer, “Three-dimensional printing of tissue phantoms for biophotonic imaging,” Opt. Lett. 39(10), 3010–3013 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. P. Singh-Moon, D. M. Roblyer, I. J. Bigio, and S. Joshi, “Spatial mapping of drug delivery to brain tissue using hyperspectral spatial frequency-domain imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(9), 096003 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. E. Michaelsen, V. Krishnaswamy, A. Shenoy, E. Jordan, B. W. Pogue, and K. D. Paulsen, “Anthropomorphic breast phantoms with physiological water, lipid, and hemoglobin content for near-infrared spectral tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(2), 026012 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (2)

2012 (3)

2011 (2)

M. Martinelli, A. Gardner, D. Cuccia, C. Hayakawa, J. Spanier, and V. Venugopalan, “Analysis of single Monte Carlo methods for prediction of reflectance from turbid media,” Opt. Express 19(20), 19627–19642 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. B. Saager, A. Truong, D. J. Cuccia, and A. J. Durkin, “Method for depth-resolved quantitation of optical properties in layered media using spatially modulated quantitative spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(7), 077002 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

S. Gioux, A. Mazhar, D. J. Cuccia, A. J. Durkin, B. J. Tromberg, and J. V. Frangioni, “Three-dimensional surface profile intensity correction for spatially modulated imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 034045 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Cuccia, F. Bevilacqua, A. J. Durkin, F. R. Ayers, and B. J. Tromberg, “Quantitation and mapping of tissue optical properties using modulated imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024012 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

B. W. Pogue and M. S. Patterson, “Review of tissue simulating phantoms for optical spectroscopy, imaging and dosimetry,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 041102 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Cerussi, N. Shah, D. Hsiang, A. Durkin, J. Butler, and B. J. Tromberg, “In vivo absorption, scattering, and physiologic properties of 58 malignant breast tumors determined by broadband diffuse optical spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 044005 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. C. Gebhart, W. C. Lin, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “In vitro determination of normal and neoplastic human brain tissue optical properties using inverse adding-doubling,” Phys. Med. Biol. 51(8), 2011–2027 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

S. Merritt, G. Gulsen, G. Chiou, Y. Chu, C. Deng, A. E. Cerussi, A. J. Durkin, B. J. Tromberg, and O. Nalcioglu, “Comparison of water and lipid content measurements using diffuse optical spectroscopy and MRI in emulsion phantoms,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 2(6), 563–569 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

T. Durduran, R. Choe, J. P. Culver, L. Zubkov, M. J. Holboke, J. Giammarco, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, “Bulk optical properties of healthy female breast tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(16), 2847–2861 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

R. Cubeddu, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, A. Torricelli, and G. Valentini, “A solid tissue phantom for photon migration studies,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42(10), 1971–1979 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ayers, F. R.

D. J. Cuccia, F. Bevilacqua, A. J. Durkin, F. R. Ayers, and B. J. Tromberg, “Quantitation and mapping of tissue optical properties using modulated imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024012 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baker, B. M.

J. S. Miller, K. R. Stevens, M. T. Yang, B. M. Baker, D. H. Nguyen, D. M. Cohen, E. Toro, A. A. Chen, P. A. Galie, X. Yu, R. Chaturvedi, S. N. Bhatia, and C. S. Chen, “Rapid casting of patterned vascular networks for perfusable engineered three-dimensional tissues,” Nat. Mater. 11(9), 768–774 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Balachandran, K.

G. J. Greening, R. Istfan, L. M. Higgins, K. Balachandran, D. Roblyer, M. C. Pierce, and T. J. Muldoon, “Characterization of thin poly(dimethylsiloxane)-based tissue-simulating phantoms with tunable reduced scattering and absorption coefficients at visible and near-infrared wavelengths,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(11), 115002 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bargigia, I.

Bevilacqua, F.

D. J. Cuccia, F. Bevilacqua, A. J. Durkin, F. R. Ayers, and B. J. Tromberg, “Quantitation and mapping of tissue optical properties using modulated imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024012 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bhatia, S. N.

J. S. Miller, K. R. Stevens, M. T. Yang, B. M. Baker, D. H. Nguyen, D. M. Cohen, E. Toro, A. A. Chen, P. A. Galie, X. Yu, R. Chaturvedi, S. N. Bhatia, and C. S. Chen, “Rapid casting of patterned vascular networks for perfusable engineered three-dimensional tissues,” Nat. Mater. 11(9), 768–774 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bigio, I. J.

R. P. Singh-Moon, D. M. Roblyer, I. J. Bigio, and S. Joshi, “Spatial mapping of drug delivery to brain tissue using hyperspectral spatial frequency-domain imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(9), 096003 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Butler, J.

A. Cerussi, N. Shah, D. Hsiang, A. Durkin, J. Butler, and B. J. Tromberg, “In vivo absorption, scattering, and physiologic properties of 58 malignant breast tumors determined by broadband diffuse optical spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 044005 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cerussi, A.

A. Cerussi, N. Shah, D. Hsiang, A. Durkin, J. Butler, and B. J. Tromberg, “In vivo absorption, scattering, and physiologic properties of 58 malignant breast tumors determined by broadband diffuse optical spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 044005 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cerussi, A. E.

A. E. Cerussi, R. Warren, B. Hill, D. Roblyer, A. Leproux, A. F. Durkin, T. D. O’Sullivan, S. Keene, H. Haghany, T. Quang, W. M. Mantulin, and B. J. Tromberg, “Tissue phantoms in multicenter clinical trials for diffuse optical technologies,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(5), 966–971 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Merritt, G. Gulsen, G. Chiou, Y. Chu, C. Deng, A. E. Cerussi, A. J. Durkin, B. J. Tromberg, and O. Nalcioglu, “Comparison of water and lipid content measurements using diffuse optical spectroscopy and MRI in emulsion phantoms,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 2(6), 563–569 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chance, B.

T. Durduran, R. Choe, J. P. Culver, L. Zubkov, M. J. Holboke, J. Giammarco, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, “Bulk optical properties of healthy female breast tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(16), 2847–2861 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chaturvedi, R.

J. S. Miller, K. R. Stevens, M. T. Yang, B. M. Baker, D. H. Nguyen, D. M. Cohen, E. Toro, A. A. Chen, P. A. Galie, X. Yu, R. Chaturvedi, S. N. Bhatia, and C. S. Chen, “Rapid casting of patterned vascular networks for perfusable engineered three-dimensional tissues,” Nat. Mater. 11(9), 768–774 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, A. A.

J. S. Miller, K. R. Stevens, M. T. Yang, B. M. Baker, D. H. Nguyen, D. M. Cohen, E. Toro, A. A. Chen, P. A. Galie, X. Yu, R. Chaturvedi, S. N. Bhatia, and C. S. Chen, “Rapid casting of patterned vascular networks for perfusable engineered three-dimensional tissues,” Nat. Mater. 11(9), 768–774 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, C. S.

J. S. Miller, K. R. Stevens, M. T. Yang, B. M. Baker, D. H. Nguyen, D. M. Cohen, E. Toro, A. A. Chen, P. A. Galie, X. Yu, R. Chaturvedi, S. N. Bhatia, and C. S. Chen, “Rapid casting of patterned vascular networks for perfusable engineered three-dimensional tissues,” Nat. Mater. 11(9), 768–774 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.

Chiou, G.

S. Merritt, G. Gulsen, G. Chiou, Y. Chu, C. Deng, A. E. Cerussi, A. J. Durkin, B. J. Tromberg, and O. Nalcioglu, “Comparison of water and lipid content measurements using diffuse optical spectroscopy and MRI in emulsion phantoms,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 2(6), 563–569 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choe, R.

T. Durduran, R. Choe, J. P. Culver, L. Zubkov, M. J. Holboke, J. Giammarco, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, “Bulk optical properties of healthy female breast tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(16), 2847–2861 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chu, Y.

S. Merritt, G. Gulsen, G. Chiou, Y. Chu, C. Deng, A. E. Cerussi, A. J. Durkin, B. J. Tromberg, and O. Nalcioglu, “Comparison of water and lipid content measurements using diffuse optical spectroscopy and MRI in emulsion phantoms,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 2(6), 563–569 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Coburn, J.

Cohen, D. M.

J. S. Miller, K. R. Stevens, M. T. Yang, B. M. Baker, D. H. Nguyen, D. M. Cohen, E. Toro, A. A. Chen, P. A. Galie, X. Yu, R. Chaturvedi, S. N. Bhatia, and C. S. Chen, “Rapid casting of patterned vascular networks for perfusable engineered three-dimensional tissues,” Nat. Mater. 11(9), 768–774 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cubeddu, R.

G. Quarto, A. Pifferi, I. Bargigia, A. Farina, R. Cubeddu, and P. Taroni, “Recipes to make organic phantoms for diffusive optical spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 52(11), 2494–2502 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Cubeddu, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, A. Torricelli, and G. Valentini, “A solid tissue phantom for photon migration studies,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42(10), 1971–1979 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cuccia, D.

Cuccia, D. J.

R. B. Saager, A. Truong, D. J. Cuccia, and A. J. Durkin, “Method for depth-resolved quantitation of optical properties in layered media using spatially modulated quantitative spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(7), 077002 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Gioux, A. Mazhar, D. J. Cuccia, A. J. Durkin, B. J. Tromberg, and J. V. Frangioni, “Three-dimensional surface profile intensity correction for spatially modulated imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 034045 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Cuccia, F. Bevilacqua, A. J. Durkin, F. R. Ayers, and B. J. Tromberg, “Quantitation and mapping of tissue optical properties using modulated imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024012 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Culver, J. P.

T. Durduran, R. Choe, J. P. Culver, L. Zubkov, M. J. Holboke, J. Giammarco, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, “Bulk optical properties of healthy female breast tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(16), 2847–2861 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Deng, C.

S. Merritt, G. Gulsen, G. Chiou, Y. Chu, C. Deng, A. E. Cerussi, A. J. Durkin, B. J. Tromberg, and O. Nalcioglu, “Comparison of water and lipid content measurements using diffuse optical spectroscopy and MRI in emulsion phantoms,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 2(6), 563–569 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Durduran, T.

T. Durduran, R. Choe, J. P. Culver, L. Zubkov, M. J. Holboke, J. Giammarco, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, “Bulk optical properties of healthy female breast tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(16), 2847–2861 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Durkin, A.

A. Cerussi, N. Shah, D. Hsiang, A. Durkin, J. Butler, and B. J. Tromberg, “In vivo absorption, scattering, and physiologic properties of 58 malignant breast tumors determined by broadband diffuse optical spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 044005 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Durkin, A. F.

Durkin, A. J.

R. B. Saager, A. Truong, D. J. Cuccia, and A. J. Durkin, “Method for depth-resolved quantitation of optical properties in layered media using spatially modulated quantitative spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(7), 077002 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Gioux, A. Mazhar, D. J. Cuccia, A. J. Durkin, B. J. Tromberg, and J. V. Frangioni, “Three-dimensional surface profile intensity correction for spatially modulated imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 034045 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Cuccia, F. Bevilacqua, A. J. Durkin, F. R. Ayers, and B. J. Tromberg, “Quantitation and mapping of tissue optical properties using modulated imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024012 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Merritt, G. Gulsen, G. Chiou, Y. Chu, C. Deng, A. E. Cerussi, A. J. Durkin, B. J. Tromberg, and O. Nalcioglu, “Comparison of water and lipid content measurements using diffuse optical spectroscopy and MRI in emulsion phantoms,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 2(6), 563–569 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Farina, A.

Frangioni, J. V.

S. Gioux, A. Mazhar, D. J. Cuccia, A. J. Durkin, B. J. Tromberg, and J. V. Frangioni, “Three-dimensional surface profile intensity correction for spatially modulated imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 034045 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Galie, P. A.

J. S. Miller, K. R. Stevens, M. T. Yang, B. M. Baker, D. H. Nguyen, D. M. Cohen, E. Toro, A. A. Chen, P. A. Galie, X. Yu, R. Chaturvedi, S. N. Bhatia, and C. S. Chen, “Rapid casting of patterned vascular networks for perfusable engineered three-dimensional tissues,” Nat. Mater. 11(9), 768–774 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gardner, A.

Gebhart, S. C.

S. C. Gebhart, W. C. Lin, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “In vitro determination of normal and neoplastic human brain tissue optical properties using inverse adding-doubling,” Phys. Med. Biol. 51(8), 2011–2027 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Giammarco, J.

T. Durduran, R. Choe, J. P. Culver, L. Zubkov, M. J. Holboke, J. Giammarco, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, “Bulk optical properties of healthy female breast tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(16), 2847–2861 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gioux, S.

S. Gioux, A. Mazhar, D. J. Cuccia, A. J. Durkin, B. J. Tromberg, and J. V. Frangioni, “Three-dimensional surface profile intensity correction for spatially modulated imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 034045 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Greening, G. J.

G. J. Greening, R. Istfan, L. M. Higgins, K. Balachandran, D. Roblyer, M. C. Pierce, and T. J. Muldoon, “Characterization of thin poly(dimethylsiloxane)-based tissue-simulating phantoms with tunable reduced scattering and absorption coefficients at visible and near-infrared wavelengths,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(11), 115002 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gulsen, G.

S. Merritt, G. Gulsen, G. Chiou, Y. Chu, C. Deng, A. E. Cerussi, A. J. Durkin, B. J. Tromberg, and O. Nalcioglu, “Comparison of water and lipid content measurements using diffuse optical spectroscopy and MRI in emulsion phantoms,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 2(6), 563–569 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Haghany, H.

Hayakawa, C.

Higgins, L. M.

G. J. Greening, R. Istfan, L. M. Higgins, K. Balachandran, D. Roblyer, M. C. Pierce, and T. J. Muldoon, “Characterization of thin poly(dimethylsiloxane)-based tissue-simulating phantoms with tunable reduced scattering and absorption coefficients at visible and near-infrared wavelengths,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(11), 115002 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hill, B.

Holboke, M. J.

T. Durduran, R. Choe, J. P. Culver, L. Zubkov, M. J. Holboke, J. Giammarco, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, “Bulk optical properties of healthy female breast tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(16), 2847–2861 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hsiang, D.

A. Cerussi, N. Shah, D. Hsiang, A. Durkin, J. Butler, and B. J. Tromberg, “In vivo absorption, scattering, and physiologic properties of 58 malignant breast tumors determined by broadband diffuse optical spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 044005 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Istfan, R.

G. J. Greening, R. Istfan, L. M. Higgins, K. Balachandran, D. Roblyer, M. C. Pierce, and T. J. Muldoon, “Characterization of thin poly(dimethylsiloxane)-based tissue-simulating phantoms with tunable reduced scattering and absorption coefficients at visible and near-infrared wavelengths,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(11), 115002 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jacques, S. L.

S. L. Jacques, “Optical properties of biological tissues: a review,” Phys. Med. Biol. 58(11), R37–R61 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jordan, E.

K. E. Michaelsen, V. Krishnaswamy, A. Shenoy, E. Jordan, B. W. Pogue, and K. D. Paulsen, “Anthropomorphic breast phantoms with physiological water, lipid, and hemoglobin content for near-infrared spectral tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(2), 026012 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Joshi, S.

R. P. Singh-Moon, D. M. Roblyer, I. J. Bigio, and S. Joshi, “Spatial mapping of drug delivery to brain tissue using hyperspectral spatial frequency-domain imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(9), 096003 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Keene, S.

Krishnaswamy, V.

K. E. Michaelsen, V. Krishnaswamy, A. Shenoy, E. Jordan, B. W. Pogue, and K. D. Paulsen, “Anthropomorphic breast phantoms with physiological water, lipid, and hemoglobin content for near-infrared spectral tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(2), 026012 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Le, H. N.

Leproux, A.

Liang, C. P.

Lin, W. C.

S. C. Gebhart, W. C. Lin, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “In vitro determination of normal and neoplastic human brain tissue optical properties using inverse adding-doubling,” Phys. Med. Biol. 51(8), 2011–2027 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Luu, L.

Mahadevan-Jansen, A.

S. C. Gebhart, W. C. Lin, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “In vitro determination of normal and neoplastic human brain tissue optical properties using inverse adding-doubling,” Phys. Med. Biol. 51(8), 2011–2027 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mantulin, W. M.

Martinelli, M.

Mazhar, A.

S. Gioux, A. Mazhar, D. J. Cuccia, A. J. Durkin, B. J. Tromberg, and J. V. Frangioni, “Three-dimensional surface profile intensity correction for spatially modulated imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 034045 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Merritt, S.

S. Merritt, G. Gulsen, G. Chiou, Y. Chu, C. Deng, A. E. Cerussi, A. J. Durkin, B. J. Tromberg, and O. Nalcioglu, “Comparison of water and lipid content measurements using diffuse optical spectroscopy and MRI in emulsion phantoms,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 2(6), 563–569 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Michaelsen, K. E.

K. E. Michaelsen, V. Krishnaswamy, A. Shenoy, E. Jordan, B. W. Pogue, and K. D. Paulsen, “Anthropomorphic breast phantoms with physiological water, lipid, and hemoglobin content for near-infrared spectral tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(2), 026012 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Miller, J. S.

J. S. Miller, K. R. Stevens, M. T. Yang, B. M. Baker, D. H. Nguyen, D. M. Cohen, E. Toro, A. A. Chen, P. A. Galie, X. Yu, R. Chaturvedi, S. N. Bhatia, and C. S. Chen, “Rapid casting of patterned vascular networks for perfusable engineered three-dimensional tissues,” Nat. Mater. 11(9), 768–774 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Muldoon, T. J.

G. J. Greening, R. Istfan, L. M. Higgins, K. Balachandran, D. Roblyer, M. C. Pierce, and T. J. Muldoon, “Characterization of thin poly(dimethylsiloxane)-based tissue-simulating phantoms with tunable reduced scattering and absorption coefficients at visible and near-infrared wavelengths,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(11), 115002 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nalcioglu, O.

S. Merritt, G. Gulsen, G. Chiou, Y. Chu, C. Deng, A. E. Cerussi, A. J. Durkin, B. J. Tromberg, and O. Nalcioglu, “Comparison of water and lipid content measurements using diffuse optical spectroscopy and MRI in emulsion phantoms,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 2(6), 563–569 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nguyen, D. H.

J. S. Miller, K. R. Stevens, M. T. Yang, B. M. Baker, D. H. Nguyen, D. M. Cohen, E. Toro, A. A. Chen, P. A. Galie, X. Yu, R. Chaturvedi, S. N. Bhatia, and C. S. Chen, “Rapid casting of patterned vascular networks for perfusable engineered three-dimensional tissues,” Nat. Mater. 11(9), 768–774 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nguyen, T. T.

O’Sullivan, T. D.

Patterson, M. S.

B. W. Pogue and M. S. Patterson, “Review of tissue simulating phantoms for optical spectroscopy, imaging and dosimetry,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 041102 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Paulsen, K. D.

K. E. Michaelsen, V. Krishnaswamy, A. Shenoy, E. Jordan, B. W. Pogue, and K. D. Paulsen, “Anthropomorphic breast phantoms with physiological water, lipid, and hemoglobin content for near-infrared spectral tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(2), 026012 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pfefer, T. J.

Pierce, M. C.

G. J. Greening, R. Istfan, L. M. Higgins, K. Balachandran, D. Roblyer, M. C. Pierce, and T. J. Muldoon, “Characterization of thin poly(dimethylsiloxane)-based tissue-simulating phantoms with tunable reduced scattering and absorption coefficients at visible and near-infrared wavelengths,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(11), 115002 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pifferi, A.

G. Quarto, A. Pifferi, I. Bargigia, A. Farina, R. Cubeddu, and P. Taroni, “Recipes to make organic phantoms for diffusive optical spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 52(11), 2494–2502 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Cubeddu, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, A. Torricelli, and G. Valentini, “A solid tissue phantom for photon migration studies,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42(10), 1971–1979 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pogue, B. W.

K. E. Michaelsen, V. Krishnaswamy, A. Shenoy, E. Jordan, B. W. Pogue, and K. D. Paulsen, “Anthropomorphic breast phantoms with physiological water, lipid, and hemoglobin content for near-infrared spectral tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(2), 026012 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. W. Pogue and M. S. Patterson, “Review of tissue simulating phantoms for optical spectroscopy, imaging and dosimetry,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 041102 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Quang, T.

Quarto, G.

Ramella-Roman, J. C.

Roblyer, D.

G. J. Greening, R. Istfan, L. M. Higgins, K. Balachandran, D. Roblyer, M. C. Pierce, and T. J. Muldoon, “Characterization of thin poly(dimethylsiloxane)-based tissue-simulating phantoms with tunable reduced scattering and absorption coefficients at visible and near-infrared wavelengths,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(11), 115002 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. E. Cerussi, R. Warren, B. Hill, D. Roblyer, A. Leproux, A. F. Durkin, T. D. O’Sullivan, S. Keene, H. Haghany, T. Quang, W. M. Mantulin, and B. J. Tromberg, “Tissue phantoms in multicenter clinical trials for diffuse optical technologies,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(5), 966–971 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Roblyer, D. M.

R. P. Singh-Moon, D. M. Roblyer, I. J. Bigio, and S. Joshi, “Spatial mapping of drug delivery to brain tissue using hyperspectral spatial frequency-domain imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(9), 096003 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Saager, R. B.

R. B. Saager, A. Truong, D. J. Cuccia, and A. J. Durkin, “Method for depth-resolved quantitation of optical properties in layered media using spatially modulated quantitative spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(7), 077002 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shah, N.

A. Cerussi, N. Shah, D. Hsiang, A. Durkin, J. Butler, and B. J. Tromberg, “In vivo absorption, scattering, and physiologic properties of 58 malignant breast tumors determined by broadband diffuse optical spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 044005 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shenoy, A.

K. E. Michaelsen, V. Krishnaswamy, A. Shenoy, E. Jordan, B. W. Pogue, and K. D. Paulsen, “Anthropomorphic breast phantoms with physiological water, lipid, and hemoglobin content for near-infrared spectral tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(2), 026012 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Singh-Moon, R. P.

R. P. Singh-Moon, D. M. Roblyer, I. J. Bigio, and S. Joshi, “Spatial mapping of drug delivery to brain tissue using hyperspectral spatial frequency-domain imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(9), 096003 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Spanier, J.

Stevens, K. R.

J. S. Miller, K. R. Stevens, M. T. Yang, B. M. Baker, D. H. Nguyen, D. M. Cohen, E. Toro, A. A. Chen, P. A. Galie, X. Yu, R. Chaturvedi, S. N. Bhatia, and C. S. Chen, “Rapid casting of patterned vascular networks for perfusable engineered three-dimensional tissues,” Nat. Mater. 11(9), 768–774 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Taroni, P.

G. Quarto, A. Pifferi, I. Bargigia, A. Farina, R. Cubeddu, and P. Taroni, “Recipes to make organic phantoms for diffusive optical spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 52(11), 2494–2502 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Cubeddu, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, A. Torricelli, and G. Valentini, “A solid tissue phantom for photon migration studies,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42(10), 1971–1979 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Toro, E.

J. S. Miller, K. R. Stevens, M. T. Yang, B. M. Baker, D. H. Nguyen, D. M. Cohen, E. Toro, A. A. Chen, P. A. Galie, X. Yu, R. Chaturvedi, S. N. Bhatia, and C. S. Chen, “Rapid casting of patterned vascular networks for perfusable engineered three-dimensional tissues,” Nat. Mater. 11(9), 768–774 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Torricelli, A.

R. Cubeddu, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, A. Torricelli, and G. Valentini, “A solid tissue phantom for photon migration studies,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42(10), 1971–1979 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tromberg, B. J.

A. E. Cerussi, R. Warren, B. Hill, D. Roblyer, A. Leproux, A. F. Durkin, T. D. O’Sullivan, S. Keene, H. Haghany, T. Quang, W. M. Mantulin, and B. J. Tromberg, “Tissue phantoms in multicenter clinical trials for diffuse optical technologies,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(5), 966–971 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Cuccia, F. Bevilacqua, A. J. Durkin, F. R. Ayers, and B. J. Tromberg, “Quantitation and mapping of tissue optical properties using modulated imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024012 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Gioux, A. Mazhar, D. J. Cuccia, A. J. Durkin, B. J. Tromberg, and J. V. Frangioni, “Three-dimensional surface profile intensity correction for spatially modulated imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 034045 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Cerussi, N. Shah, D. Hsiang, A. Durkin, J. Butler, and B. J. Tromberg, “In vivo absorption, scattering, and physiologic properties of 58 malignant breast tumors determined by broadband diffuse optical spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 044005 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Merritt, G. Gulsen, G. Chiou, Y. Chu, C. Deng, A. E. Cerussi, A. J. Durkin, B. J. Tromberg, and O. Nalcioglu, “Comparison of water and lipid content measurements using diffuse optical spectroscopy and MRI in emulsion phantoms,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 2(6), 563–569 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Truong, A.

R. B. Saager, A. Truong, D. J. Cuccia, and A. J. Durkin, “Method for depth-resolved quantitation of optical properties in layered media using spatially modulated quantitative spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(7), 077002 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Valentini, G.

R. Cubeddu, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, A. Torricelli, and G. Valentini, “A solid tissue phantom for photon migration studies,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42(10), 1971–1979 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Venugopalan, V.

Vo, M.

Wang, J.

Wang, Z.

Warren, R.

Woolsey, N.

Yang, M. T.

J. S. Miller, K. R. Stevens, M. T. Yang, B. M. Baker, D. H. Nguyen, D. M. Cohen, E. Toro, A. A. Chen, P. A. Galie, X. Yu, R. Chaturvedi, S. N. Bhatia, and C. S. Chen, “Rapid casting of patterned vascular networks for perfusable engineered three-dimensional tissues,” Nat. Mater. 11(9), 768–774 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yodh, A. G.

T. Durduran, R. Choe, J. P. Culver, L. Zubkov, M. J. Holboke, J. Giammarco, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, “Bulk optical properties of healthy female breast tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(16), 2847–2861 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, X.

J. S. Miller, K. R. Stevens, M. T. Yang, B. M. Baker, D. H. Nguyen, D. M. Cohen, E. Toro, A. A. Chen, P. A. Galie, X. Yu, R. Chaturvedi, S. N. Bhatia, and C. S. Chen, “Rapid casting of patterned vascular networks for perfusable engineered three-dimensional tissues,” Nat. Mater. 11(9), 768–774 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zubkov, L.

T. Durduran, R. Choe, J. P. Culver, L. Zubkov, M. J. Holboke, J. Giammarco, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, “Bulk optical properties of healthy female breast tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(16), 2847–2861 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Biomed. Opt. Express (2)

J. Biomed. Opt. (8)

K. E. Michaelsen, V. Krishnaswamy, A. Shenoy, E. Jordan, B. W. Pogue, and K. D. Paulsen, “Anthropomorphic breast phantoms with physiological water, lipid, and hemoglobin content for near-infrared spectral tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(2), 026012 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. J. Greening, R. Istfan, L. M. Higgins, K. Balachandran, D. Roblyer, M. C. Pierce, and T. J. Muldoon, “Characterization of thin poly(dimethylsiloxane)-based tissue-simulating phantoms with tunable reduced scattering and absorption coefficients at visible and near-infrared wavelengths,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(11), 115002 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. W. Pogue and M. S. Patterson, “Review of tissue simulating phantoms for optical spectroscopy, imaging and dosimetry,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 041102 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Cuccia, F. Bevilacqua, A. J. Durkin, F. R. Ayers, and B. J. Tromberg, “Quantitation and mapping of tissue optical properties using modulated imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024012 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. P. Singh-Moon, D. M. Roblyer, I. J. Bigio, and S. Joshi, “Spatial mapping of drug delivery to brain tissue using hyperspectral spatial frequency-domain imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(9), 096003 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Gioux, A. Mazhar, D. J. Cuccia, A. J. Durkin, B. J. Tromberg, and J. V. Frangioni, “Three-dimensional surface profile intensity correction for spatially modulated imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 034045 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. B. Saager, A. Truong, D. J. Cuccia, and A. J. Durkin, “Method for depth-resolved quantitation of optical properties in layered media using spatially modulated quantitative spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(7), 077002 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Cerussi, N. Shah, D. Hsiang, A. Durkin, J. Butler, and B. J. Tromberg, “In vivo absorption, scattering, and physiologic properties of 58 malignant breast tumors determined by broadband diffuse optical spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 044005 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (1)

J. S. Miller, K. R. Stevens, M. T. Yang, B. M. Baker, D. H. Nguyen, D. M. Cohen, E. Toro, A. A. Chen, P. A. Galie, X. Yu, R. Chaturvedi, S. N. Bhatia, and C. S. Chen, “Rapid casting of patterned vascular networks for perfusable engineered three-dimensional tissues,” Nat. Mater. 11(9), 768–774 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Med. Biol. (4)

S. C. Gebhart, W. C. Lin, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “In vitro determination of normal and neoplastic human brain tissue optical properties using inverse adding-doubling,” Phys. Med. Biol. 51(8), 2011–2027 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. L. Jacques, “Optical properties of biological tissues: a review,” Phys. Med. Biol. 58(11), R37–R61 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Cubeddu, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, A. Torricelli, and G. Valentini, “A solid tissue phantom for photon migration studies,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42(10), 1971–1979 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Durduran, R. Choe, J. P. Culver, L. Zubkov, M. J. Holboke, J. Giammarco, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, “Bulk optical properties of healthy female breast tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(16), 2847–2861 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. (1)

S. Merritt, G. Gulsen, G. Chiou, Y. Chu, C. Deng, A. E. Cerussi, A. J. Durkin, B. J. Tromberg, and O. Nalcioglu, “Comparison of water and lipid content measurements using diffuse optical spectroscopy and MRI in emulsion phantoms,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 2(6), 563–569 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Raw materials for custom 3D printing filament. (1) ABS pellets, (2) nigrosin chips of 2 x 2 mm, (3) TiO2 chips of 2 x 2 mm, and (4) Filabot Wee extruder. The resulting filament of 1.75 mm in diameter is illustrated in (5).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 White light image (left), and SFDI maps of absorption (middle) and reduced scattering (right) at 471 nm.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Absorption, averaged over all TiO2 concentrations, and reduced scattering, averaged over all nigrosin concentrations, of all 3D printed cubes for 471, 526, 591, 621, 659, 691, 731 and 851 nm.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Absorption and reduced scattering for different nigrosin and titanium dioxide (TiO2) mass fractions at three representative wavelengths. Data points are slightly offset of the x-axis values for clarity in error bars.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Planar images, µa maps, and µs` maps of the live and printed mouse at 691 nm. The red circle in (B.) shows the user defined ROI of 380 pixels (0.31cm2) used to calculate average optical properties of the tumors. An identical ROI was used for 5B-C and 5E-F. The live and custom mice were imaged on different background phantoms.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Mean ± standard deviation µa and µs` values for all cubes at 471nm. Nigrosin (%)

Tables Icon

Table 2 Mean ± standard deviations of µa and µs` for the live and custom printed mouse.

Metrics