Abstract

Photoacoustic tomography systems that uses Q-switched Nd:YAG/OPO pulsed lasers are expensive, bulky, and hence limits its use in clinical applications. The low pulse repetition rate of these lasers makes it unsuitable for real-time imaging when used with single-element ultrasound detector. In this work, we present a pulsed laser diode photoacoustic tomography (PLD-PAT) system that integrates a compact PLD inside a single-detector circular scanning geometry. We compared its performance against the traditional Nd:YAG/OPO based PAT system in terms of imaging depth, resolution, imaging time etc. The PLD provides near-infrared pulses at ~803 nm wavelength with pulse energy ~1.4 mJ/pulse at 7 kHz repetition rate. The PLD-PAT system is capable of providing 2D image in scan time as small as 3 sec with a signal-to-noise ratio ~30. High-speed and deep-tissue imaging is demonstrated on phantoms and biological samples. The PLD-PAT system is inexpensive, portable, allows high-speed PAT imaging, and its performance is as good as traditional expensive OPO based PAT system. Therefore, it holds promises for future translational biomedical imaging applications.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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2015 (1)

2014 (5)

2013 (3)

P. LeBoulluec, H. Liu, and B. Yuan, “A cost-efficient frequency-domain photoacoustic imaging system,” Am. J. Phys. 81(9), 712 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Xia, D. Piras, M. K. A. Singh, J. C. G. van Hespen, T. G. van Leeuwen, W. Steenbergen, and S. Manohar, “Design and evaluation of a laboratory prototype system for 3D photoacoustic full breast tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(11), 2555–2569 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Huang, K. Wang, L. Nie, L. V. Wang, and M. A. Anastasio, “Full-Wave Iterative Image Reconstruction in Photoacoustic Tomography with Acoustically Inhomogeneous Media,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 32(6), 1097–1110 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (3)

2011 (3)

P. Beard, “Biomedical photoacoustic imaging,” Interface Focus 1(4), 602–631 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Wang, J. B. Fowlkes, J. M. Cannata, C. Hu, and P. L. Carson, “Photoacoustic imaging with a commercial ultrasound system and a custom probe,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 37(3), 484–492 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Lashkari and A. Mandelis, “Comparison between pulsed laser and frequency-domain photoacoustic modalities: signal-to-noise ratio, contrast, resolution, and maximum depth detectivity,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82(9), 094903 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (5)

T. N. Erpelding, C. Kim, M. Pramanik, L. Jankovic, K. Maslov, Z. Guo, J. A. Margenthaler, M. D. Pashley, and L. V. Wang, “Sentinel lymph nodes in the rat: noninvasive photoacoustic and US imaging with a clinical US system,” Radiology 256(1), 102–110 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. A. Kruger, R. B. Lam, D. R. Reinecke, S. P. Del Rio, and R. P. Doyle, “Photoacoustic angiography of the breast,” Med. Phys. 37(11), 6096–6100 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Kim, C. Favazza, and L. V. Wang, “In vivo photoacoustic tomography of chemicals: high-resolution functional and molecular optical imaging at new depths,” Chem. Rev. 110(5), 2756–2782 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Li, A. Aguirre, J. Gamelin, A. Maurudis, Q. Zhu, and L. V. Wang, “Real-time photoacoustic tomography of cortical hemodynamics in small animals,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(1), 010509 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Piras, W. Steenbergen, T. G. van Leeuwen, and S. Manohar, “Photoacoustic imaging of the breast using the twente photoacoustic mammoscope: present status and future perspectives,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(4), 730–739 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (5)

M. Pramanik, M. Swierczewska, D. Green, B. Sitharaman, and L. V. Wang, “Single-walled carbon nanotubes as a multimodal-thermoacoustic and photoacoustic-contrast agent,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 034018 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Pan, M. Pramanik, A. Senpan, X. Yang, K. H. Song, M. J. Scott, H. Zhang, P. J. Gaffney, S. A. Wickline, L. V. Wang, and G. M. Lanza, “Molecular photoacoustic tomography with colloidal nanobeacons,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 48(23), 4170–4173 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Ma, A. Taruttis, V. Ntziachristos, and D. Razansky, “Multispectral optoacoustic tomography (MSOT) scanner for whole-body small animal imaging,” Opt. Express 17(24), 21414–21426 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Li and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic tomography and sensing in biomedicine,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54(19), R59–R97 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. V. Wang, “Multiscale photoacoustic microscopy and computed tomography,” Nat. Photonics 3(9), 503–509 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (4)

L. V. Wang, “Prospects of photoacoustic tomography,” Med. Phys. 35(12), 5758–5767 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Pramanik, G. Ku, C. Li, and L. V. Wang, “Design and evaluation of a novel breast cancer detection system combining both thermoacoustic (TA) and photoacoustic (PA) tomography,” Med. Phys. 35(6), 2218–2223 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. V. Wang, “Tutorial on Photoacoustic Microscopy and Computed Tomography,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(1), 171–179 (2008).
[Crossref]

K. Maslov and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic imaging of biological tissue with intensity-modulated continuous-wave laser,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 024006 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

T. J. Allen and P. C. Beard, “Pulsed near-infrared laser diode excitation system for biomedical photoacoustic imaging,” Opt. Lett. 31(23), 3462–3464 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. G. M. Kolkman, W. Steenbergen, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “In vivo photoacoustic imaging of blood vessels with a pulsed laser diode,” Lasers Med. Sci. 21(3), 134–139 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Xu and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic imaging in biomedicine,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77(4), 041101 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

M. Xu and L. V. Wang, “Universal back-projection algorithm for photoacoustic computed tomography,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 71(1), 016706 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

G. Ku, X. Wang, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Multiple-bandwidth photoacoustic tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 49(7), 1329–1338 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

R. A. Kruger, P. Liu, Y. R. Fang, and C. R. Appledorn, “Photoacoustic ultrasound (PAUS) - reconstruction tomography,” Med. Phys. 22(10), 1605–1609 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aguirre, A.

C. Li, A. Aguirre, J. Gamelin, A. Maurudis, Q. Zhu, and L. V. Wang, “Real-time photoacoustic tomography of cortical hemodynamics in small animals,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(1), 010509 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Allen, T. J.

Anastasio, M. A.

C. Huang, K. Wang, L. Nie, L. V. Wang, and M. A. Anastasio, “Full-Wave Iterative Image Reconstruction in Photoacoustic Tomography with Acoustically Inhomogeneous Media,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 32(6), 1097–1110 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appledorn, C. R.

R. A. Kruger, P. Liu, Y. R. Fang, and C. R. Appledorn, “Photoacoustic ultrasound (PAUS) - reconstruction tomography,” Med. Phys. 22(10), 1605–1609 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beard, P.

P. Beard, “Biomedical photoacoustic imaging,” Interface Focus 1(4), 602–631 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beard, P. C.

Biswas, S. K.

P. van Es, S. K. Biswas, H. J. Moens, W. Steenbergen, and S. Manohar, “Initial results of finger imaging using photoacoustic computed tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(6), 060501 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brands, P.

Buehler, A.

Cannata, J. M.

X. Wang, J. B. Fowlkes, J. M. Cannata, C. Hu, and P. L. Carson, “Photoacoustic imaging with a commercial ultrasound system and a custom probe,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 37(3), 484–492 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Carson, P. L.

X. Wang, J. B. Fowlkes, J. M. Cannata, C. Hu, and P. L. Carson, “Photoacoustic imaging with a commercial ultrasound system and a custom probe,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 37(3), 484–492 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, S.

Claussen, J.

Daoudi, K.

Deán-Ben, X. L.

C. Lutzweiler, X. L. Deán-Ben, and D. Razansky, “Expediting model-based optoacoustic reconstructions with tomographic symmetries,” Med. Phys. 41(1), 013302 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Buehler, X. L. Deán-Ben, J. Claussen, V. Ntziachristos, and D. Razansky, “Three-dimensional optoacoustic tomography at video rate,” Opt. Express 20(20), 22712–22719 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Del Rio, S. P.

R. A. Kruger, R. B. Lam, D. R. Reinecke, S. P. Del Rio, and R. P. Doyle, “Photoacoustic angiography of the breast,” Med. Phys. 37(11), 6096–6100 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dong, B.

Doyle, R. P.

R. A. Kruger, R. B. Lam, D. R. Reinecke, S. P. Del Rio, and R. P. Doyle, “Photoacoustic angiography of the breast,” Med. Phys. 37(11), 6096–6100 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Erpelding, T. N.

T. N. Erpelding, C. Kim, M. Pramanik, L. Jankovic, K. Maslov, Z. Guo, J. A. Margenthaler, M. D. Pashley, and L. V. Wang, “Sentinel lymph nodes in the rat: noninvasive photoacoustic and US imaging with a clinical US system,” Radiology 256(1), 102–110 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fang, Y. R.

R. A. Kruger, P. Liu, Y. R. Fang, and C. R. Appledorn, “Photoacoustic ultrasound (PAUS) - reconstruction tomography,” Med. Phys. 22(10), 1605–1609 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Favazza, C.

C. Kim, C. Favazza, and L. V. Wang, “In vivo photoacoustic tomography of chemicals: high-resolution functional and molecular optical imaging at new depths,” Chem. Rev. 110(5), 2756–2782 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fowlkes, J. B.

X. Wang, J. B. Fowlkes, J. M. Cannata, C. Hu, and P. L. Carson, “Photoacoustic imaging with a commercial ultrasound system and a custom probe,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 37(3), 484–492 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gaffney, P. J.

D. Pan, M. Pramanik, A. Senpan, X. Yang, K. H. Song, M. J. Scott, H. Zhang, P. J. Gaffney, S. A. Wickline, L. V. Wang, and G. M. Lanza, “Molecular photoacoustic tomography with colloidal nanobeacons,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 48(23), 4170–4173 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gamelin, J.

C. Li, A. Aguirre, J. Gamelin, A. Maurudis, Q. Zhu, and L. V. Wang, “Real-time photoacoustic tomography of cortical hemodynamics in small animals,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(1), 010509 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Green, D.

M. Pramanik, M. Swierczewska, D. Green, B. Sitharaman, and L. V. Wang, “Single-walled carbon nanotubes as a multimodal-thermoacoustic and photoacoustic-contrast agent,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 034018 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guo, Z.

T. N. Erpelding, C. Kim, M. Pramanik, L. Jankovic, K. Maslov, Z. Guo, J. A. Margenthaler, M. D. Pashley, and L. V. Wang, “Sentinel lymph nodes in the rat: noninvasive photoacoustic and US imaging with a clinical US system,” Radiology 256(1), 102–110 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hu, C.

X. Wang, J. B. Fowlkes, J. M. Cannata, C. Hu, and P. L. Carson, “Photoacoustic imaging with a commercial ultrasound system and a custom probe,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 37(3), 484–492 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hu, S.

L. V. Wang and S. Hu, “Photoacoustic Tomography: In Vivo Imaging from Organelles to Organs,” Science 335(6075), 1458–1462 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, C.

C. Huang, K. Wang, L. Nie, L. V. Wang, and M. A. Anastasio, “Full-Wave Iterative Image Reconstruction in Photoacoustic Tomography with Acoustically Inhomogeneous Media,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 32(6), 1097–1110 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jankovic, L.

T. N. Erpelding, C. Kim, M. Pramanik, L. Jankovic, K. Maslov, Z. Guo, J. A. Margenthaler, M. D. Pashley, and L. V. Wang, “Sentinel lymph nodes in the rat: noninvasive photoacoustic and US imaging with a clinical US system,” Radiology 256(1), 102–110 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ji, X.

Kim, C.

C. Kim, C. Favazza, and L. V. Wang, “In vivo photoacoustic tomography of chemicals: high-resolution functional and molecular optical imaging at new depths,” Chem. Rev. 110(5), 2756–2782 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. N. Erpelding, C. Kim, M. Pramanik, L. Jankovic, K. Maslov, Z. Guo, J. A. Margenthaler, M. D. Pashley, and L. V. Wang, “Sentinel lymph nodes in the rat: noninvasive photoacoustic and US imaging with a clinical US system,” Radiology 256(1), 102–110 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kohl, A.

Kolkman, R. G. M.

R. G. M. Kolkman, W. Steenbergen, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “In vivo photoacoustic imaging of blood vessels with a pulsed laser diode,” Lasers Med. Sci. 21(3), 134–139 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kruger, R. A.

R. A. Kruger, R. B. Lam, D. R. Reinecke, S. P. Del Rio, and R. P. Doyle, “Photoacoustic angiography of the breast,” Med. Phys. 37(11), 6096–6100 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. A. Kruger, P. Liu, Y. R. Fang, and C. R. Appledorn, “Photoacoustic ultrasound (PAUS) - reconstruction tomography,” Med. Phys. 22(10), 1605–1609 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ku, G.

M. Pramanik, G. Ku, C. Li, and L. V. Wang, “Design and evaluation of a novel breast cancer detection system combining both thermoacoustic (TA) and photoacoustic (PA) tomography,” Med. Phys. 35(6), 2218–2223 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Ku, X. Wang, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Multiple-bandwidth photoacoustic tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 49(7), 1329–1338 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kumavor, P. D.

Lam, R. B.

R. A. Kruger, R. B. Lam, D. R. Reinecke, S. P. Del Rio, and R. P. Doyle, “Photoacoustic angiography of the breast,” Med. Phys. 37(11), 6096–6100 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lanza, G. M.

D. Pan, M. Pramanik, A. Senpan, X. Yang, K. H. Song, M. J. Scott, H. Zhang, P. J. Gaffney, S. A. Wickline, L. V. Wang, and G. M. Lanza, “Molecular photoacoustic tomography with colloidal nanobeacons,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 48(23), 4170–4173 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lashkari, B.

B. Lashkari and A. Mandelis, “Comparison between pulsed laser and frequency-domain photoacoustic modalities: signal-to-noise ratio, contrast, resolution, and maximum depth detectivity,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82(9), 094903 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

LeBoulluec, P.

P. LeBoulluec, H. Liu, and B. Yuan, “A cost-efficient frequency-domain photoacoustic imaging system,” Am. J. Phys. 81(9), 712 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, C.

C. Li, A. Aguirre, J. Gamelin, A. Maurudis, Q. Zhu, and L. V. Wang, “Real-time photoacoustic tomography of cortical hemodynamics in small animals,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(1), 010509 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Li and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic tomography and sensing in biomedicine,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54(19), R59–R97 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Pramanik, G. Ku, C. Li, and L. V. Wang, “Design and evaluation of a novel breast cancer detection system combining both thermoacoustic (TA) and photoacoustic (PA) tomography,” Med. Phys. 35(6), 2218–2223 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, H.

Liu, G.

Liu, H.

P. LeBoulluec, H. Liu, and B. Yuan, “A cost-efficient frequency-domain photoacoustic imaging system,” Am. J. Phys. 81(9), 712 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, P.

R. A. Kruger, P. Liu, Y. R. Fang, and C. R. Appledorn, “Photoacoustic ultrasound (PAUS) - reconstruction tomography,” Med. Phys. 22(10), 1605–1609 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lutzweiler, C.

C. Lutzweiler, X. L. Deán-Ben, and D. Razansky, “Expediting model-based optoacoustic reconstructions with tomographic symmetries,” Med. Phys. 41(1), 013302 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ma, R.

Mandelis, A.

B. Lashkari and A. Mandelis, “Comparison between pulsed laser and frequency-domain photoacoustic modalities: signal-to-noise ratio, contrast, resolution, and maximum depth detectivity,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82(9), 094903 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Manohar, S.

P. van Es, S. K. Biswas, H. J. Moens, W. Steenbergen, and S. Manohar, “Initial results of finger imaging using photoacoustic computed tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(6), 060501 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Xia, D. Piras, M. K. A. Singh, J. C. G. van Hespen, T. G. van Leeuwen, W. Steenbergen, and S. Manohar, “Design and evaluation of a laboratory prototype system for 3D photoacoustic full breast tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(11), 2555–2569 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Piras, W. Steenbergen, T. G. van Leeuwen, and S. Manohar, “Photoacoustic imaging of the breast using the twente photoacoustic mammoscope: present status and future perspectives,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(4), 730–739 (2010).
[Crossref]

Margenthaler, J. A.

T. N. Erpelding, C. Kim, M. Pramanik, L. Jankovic, K. Maslov, Z. Guo, J. A. Margenthaler, M. D. Pashley, and L. V. Wang, “Sentinel lymph nodes in the rat: noninvasive photoacoustic and US imaging with a clinical US system,” Radiology 256(1), 102–110 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maslov, K.

T. N. Erpelding, C. Kim, M. Pramanik, L. Jankovic, K. Maslov, Z. Guo, J. A. Margenthaler, M. D. Pashley, and L. V. Wang, “Sentinel lymph nodes in the rat: noninvasive photoacoustic and US imaging with a clinical US system,” Radiology 256(1), 102–110 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Maslov and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic imaging of biological tissue with intensity-modulated continuous-wave laser,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 024006 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maurudis, A.

C. Li, A. Aguirre, J. Gamelin, A. Maurudis, Q. Zhu, and L. V. Wang, “Real-time photoacoustic tomography of cortical hemodynamics in small animals,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(1), 010509 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moens, H. J.

P. van Es, S. K. Biswas, H. J. Moens, W. Steenbergen, and S. Manohar, “Initial results of finger imaging using photoacoustic computed tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(6), 060501 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nandy, S.

Nie, L.

C. Huang, K. Wang, L. Nie, L. V. Wang, and M. A. Anastasio, “Full-Wave Iterative Image Reconstruction in Photoacoustic Tomography with Acoustically Inhomogeneous Media,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 32(6), 1097–1110 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ntziachristos, V.

Pan, D.

D. Pan, M. Pramanik, A. Senpan, X. Yang, K. H. Song, M. J. Scott, H. Zhang, P. J. Gaffney, S. A. Wickline, L. V. Wang, and G. M. Lanza, “Molecular photoacoustic tomography with colloidal nanobeacons,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 48(23), 4170–4173 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pashley, M. D.

T. N. Erpelding, C. Kim, M. Pramanik, L. Jankovic, K. Maslov, Z. Guo, J. A. Margenthaler, M. D. Pashley, and L. V. Wang, “Sentinel lymph nodes in the rat: noninvasive photoacoustic and US imaging with a clinical US system,” Radiology 256(1), 102–110 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Piras, D.

W. Xia, D. Piras, M. K. A. Singh, J. C. G. van Hespen, T. G. van Leeuwen, W. Steenbergen, and S. Manohar, “Design and evaluation of a laboratory prototype system for 3D photoacoustic full breast tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(11), 2555–2569 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Piras, W. Steenbergen, T. G. van Leeuwen, and S. Manohar, “Photoacoustic imaging of the breast using the twente photoacoustic mammoscope: present status and future perspectives,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(4), 730–739 (2010).
[Crossref]

Prakash, J.

Pramanik, M.

J. Prakash, A. S. Raju, C. B. Shaw, M. Pramanik, and P. K. Yalavarthy, “Basis pursuit deconvolution for improving model-based reconstructed images in photoacoustic tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(5), 1363–1377 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. N. Erpelding, C. Kim, M. Pramanik, L. Jankovic, K. Maslov, Z. Guo, J. A. Margenthaler, M. D. Pashley, and L. V. Wang, “Sentinel lymph nodes in the rat: noninvasive photoacoustic and US imaging with a clinical US system,” Radiology 256(1), 102–110 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Pan, M. Pramanik, A. Senpan, X. Yang, K. H. Song, M. J. Scott, H. Zhang, P. J. Gaffney, S. A. Wickline, L. V. Wang, and G. M. Lanza, “Molecular photoacoustic tomography with colloidal nanobeacons,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 48(23), 4170–4173 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Pramanik, M. Swierczewska, D. Green, B. Sitharaman, and L. V. Wang, “Single-walled carbon nanotubes as a multimodal-thermoacoustic and photoacoustic-contrast agent,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 034018 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Pramanik, G. Ku, C. Li, and L. V. Wang, “Design and evaluation of a novel breast cancer detection system combining both thermoacoustic (TA) and photoacoustic (PA) tomography,” Med. Phys. 35(6), 2218–2223 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rabot, O.

Raju, A. S.

Razansky, D.

Reinecke, D. R.

R. A. Kruger, R. B. Lam, D. R. Reinecke, S. P. Del Rio, and R. P. Doyle, “Photoacoustic angiography of the breast,” Med. Phys. 37(11), 6096–6100 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Salehi, H. S.

Scott, M. J.

D. Pan, M. Pramanik, A. Senpan, X. Yang, K. H. Song, M. J. Scott, H. Zhang, P. J. Gaffney, S. A. Wickline, L. V. Wang, and G. M. Lanza, “Molecular photoacoustic tomography with colloidal nanobeacons,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 48(23), 4170–4173 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Senpan, A.

D. Pan, M. Pramanik, A. Senpan, X. Yang, K. H. Song, M. J. Scott, H. Zhang, P. J. Gaffney, S. A. Wickline, L. V. Wang, and G. M. Lanza, “Molecular photoacoustic tomography with colloidal nanobeacons,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 48(23), 4170–4173 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shaw, C. B.

Singh, M. K. A.

Sitharaman, B.

M. Pramanik, M. Swierczewska, D. Green, B. Sitharaman, and L. V. Wang, “Single-walled carbon nanotubes as a multimodal-thermoacoustic and photoacoustic-contrast agent,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 034018 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Song, K. H.

D. Pan, M. Pramanik, A. Senpan, X. Yang, K. H. Song, M. J. Scott, H. Zhang, P. J. Gaffney, S. A. Wickline, L. V. Wang, and G. M. Lanza, “Molecular photoacoustic tomography with colloidal nanobeacons,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 48(23), 4170–4173 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Steenbergen, W.

K. Daoudi, P. J. van den Berg, O. Rabot, A. Kohl, S. Tisserand, P. Brands, and W. Steenbergen, “Handheld probe integrating laser diode and ultrasound transducer array for ultrasound/photoacoustic dual modality imaging,” Opt. Express 22(21), 26365–26374 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. van Es, S. K. Biswas, H. J. Moens, W. Steenbergen, and S. Manohar, “Initial results of finger imaging using photoacoustic computed tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(6), 060501 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Xia, D. Piras, M. K. A. Singh, J. C. G. van Hespen, T. G. van Leeuwen, W. Steenbergen, and S. Manohar, “Design and evaluation of a laboratory prototype system for 3D photoacoustic full breast tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(11), 2555–2569 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Piras, W. Steenbergen, T. G. van Leeuwen, and S. Manohar, “Photoacoustic imaging of the breast using the twente photoacoustic mammoscope: present status and future perspectives,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(4), 730–739 (2010).
[Crossref]

R. G. M. Kolkman, W. Steenbergen, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “In vivo photoacoustic imaging of blood vessels with a pulsed laser diode,” Lasers Med. Sci. 21(3), 134–139 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stoica, G.

G. Ku, X. Wang, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Multiple-bandwidth photoacoustic tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 49(7), 1329–1338 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sun, C.

Swierczewska, M.

M. Pramanik, M. Swierczewska, D. Green, B. Sitharaman, and L. V. Wang, “Single-walled carbon nanotubes as a multimodal-thermoacoustic and photoacoustic-contrast agent,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 034018 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Taruttis, A.

Tisserand, S.

van den Berg, P. J.

van Es, P.

P. van Es, S. K. Biswas, H. J. Moens, W. Steenbergen, and S. Manohar, “Initial results of finger imaging using photoacoustic computed tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(6), 060501 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

van Hespen, J. C. G.

van Leeuwen, T. G.

W. Xia, D. Piras, M. K. A. Singh, J. C. G. van Hespen, T. G. van Leeuwen, W. Steenbergen, and S. Manohar, “Design and evaluation of a laboratory prototype system for 3D photoacoustic full breast tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(11), 2555–2569 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Piras, W. Steenbergen, T. G. van Leeuwen, and S. Manohar, “Photoacoustic imaging of the breast using the twente photoacoustic mammoscope: present status and future perspectives,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(4), 730–739 (2010).
[Crossref]

R. G. M. Kolkman, W. Steenbergen, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “In vivo photoacoustic imaging of blood vessels with a pulsed laser diode,” Lasers Med. Sci. 21(3), 134–139 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, K.

C. Huang, K. Wang, L. Nie, L. V. Wang, and M. A. Anastasio, “Full-Wave Iterative Image Reconstruction in Photoacoustic Tomography with Acoustically Inhomogeneous Media,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 32(6), 1097–1110 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, L. V.

C. Huang, K. Wang, L. Nie, L. V. Wang, and M. A. Anastasio, “Full-Wave Iterative Image Reconstruction in Photoacoustic Tomography with Acoustically Inhomogeneous Media,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 32(6), 1097–1110 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. V. Wang and S. Hu, “Photoacoustic Tomography: In Vivo Imaging from Organelles to Organs,” Science 335(6075), 1458–1462 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Li, A. Aguirre, J. Gamelin, A. Maurudis, Q. Zhu, and L. V. Wang, “Real-time photoacoustic tomography of cortical hemodynamics in small animals,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(1), 010509 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. N. Erpelding, C. Kim, M. Pramanik, L. Jankovic, K. Maslov, Z. Guo, J. A. Margenthaler, M. D. Pashley, and L. V. Wang, “Sentinel lymph nodes in the rat: noninvasive photoacoustic and US imaging with a clinical US system,” Radiology 256(1), 102–110 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Kim, C. Favazza, and L. V. Wang, “In vivo photoacoustic tomography of chemicals: high-resolution functional and molecular optical imaging at new depths,” Chem. Rev. 110(5), 2756–2782 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Pramanik, M. Swierczewska, D. Green, B. Sitharaman, and L. V. Wang, “Single-walled carbon nanotubes as a multimodal-thermoacoustic and photoacoustic-contrast agent,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 034018 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Pan, M. Pramanik, A. Senpan, X. Yang, K. H. Song, M. J. Scott, H. Zhang, P. J. Gaffney, S. A. Wickline, L. V. Wang, and G. M. Lanza, “Molecular photoacoustic tomography with colloidal nanobeacons,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 48(23), 4170–4173 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Li and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic tomography and sensing in biomedicine,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54(19), R59–R97 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. V. Wang, “Multiscale photoacoustic microscopy and computed tomography,” Nat. Photonics 3(9), 503–509 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Pramanik, G. Ku, C. Li, and L. V. Wang, “Design and evaluation of a novel breast cancer detection system combining both thermoacoustic (TA) and photoacoustic (PA) tomography,” Med. Phys. 35(6), 2218–2223 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. V. Wang, “Prospects of photoacoustic tomography,” Med. Phys. 35(12), 5758–5767 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. V. Wang, “Tutorial on Photoacoustic Microscopy and Computed Tomography,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(1), 171–179 (2008).
[Crossref]

K. Maslov and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic imaging of biological tissue with intensity-modulated continuous-wave laser,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 024006 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Xu and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic imaging in biomedicine,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77(4), 041101 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. Xu and L. V. Wang, “Universal back-projection algorithm for photoacoustic computed tomography,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 71(1), 016706 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Ku, X. Wang, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Multiple-bandwidth photoacoustic tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 49(7), 1329–1338 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, T.

Wang, X.

X. Wang, J. B. Fowlkes, J. M. Cannata, C. Hu, and P. L. Carson, “Photoacoustic imaging with a commercial ultrasound system and a custom probe,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 37(3), 484–492 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Ku, X. Wang, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Multiple-bandwidth photoacoustic tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 49(7), 1329–1338 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wickline, S. A.

D. Pan, M. Pramanik, A. Senpan, X. Yang, K. H. Song, M. J. Scott, H. Zhang, P. J. Gaffney, S. A. Wickline, L. V. Wang, and G. M. Lanza, “Molecular photoacoustic tomography with colloidal nanobeacons,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 48(23), 4170–4173 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xia, W.

Xu, M.

M. Xu and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic imaging in biomedicine,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77(4), 041101 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. Xu and L. V. Wang, “Universal back-projection algorithm for photoacoustic computed tomography,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 71(1), 016706 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yalavarthy, P. K.

Yang, D.

Yang, X.

D. Pan, M. Pramanik, A. Senpan, X. Yang, K. H. Song, M. J. Scott, H. Zhang, P. J. Gaffney, S. A. Wickline, L. V. Wang, and G. M. Lanza, “Molecular photoacoustic tomography with colloidal nanobeacons,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 48(23), 4170–4173 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yuan, B.

P. LeBoulluec, H. Liu, and B. Yuan, “A cost-efficient frequency-domain photoacoustic imaging system,” Am. J. Phys. 81(9), 712 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zeng, L.

Zhang, H.

D. Pan, M. Pramanik, A. Senpan, X. Yang, K. H. Song, M. J. Scott, H. Zhang, P. J. Gaffney, S. A. Wickline, L. V. Wang, and G. M. Lanza, “Molecular photoacoustic tomography with colloidal nanobeacons,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 48(23), 4170–4173 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, H. F.

Zhang, K.

Zhang, Z.

Zhu, Q.

T. Wang, S. Nandy, H. S. Salehi, P. D. Kumavor, and Q. Zhu, “A low-cost photoacoustic microscopy system with a laser diode excitation,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(9), 3053–3058 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Li, A. Aguirre, J. Gamelin, A. Maurudis, Q. Zhu, and L. V. Wang, “Real-time photoacoustic tomography of cortical hemodynamics in small animals,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(1), 010509 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Am. J. Phys. (1)

P. LeBoulluec, H. Liu, and B. Yuan, “A cost-efficient frequency-domain photoacoustic imaging system,” Am. J. Phys. 81(9), 712 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. (1)

D. Pan, M. Pramanik, A. Senpan, X. Yang, K. H. Song, M. J. Scott, H. Zhang, P. J. Gaffney, S. A. Wickline, L. V. Wang, and G. M. Lanza, “Molecular photoacoustic tomography with colloidal nanobeacons,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 48(23), 4170–4173 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biomed. Opt. Express (3)

Chem. Rev. (1)

C. Kim, C. Favazza, and L. V. Wang, “In vivo photoacoustic tomography of chemicals: high-resolution functional and molecular optical imaging at new depths,” Chem. Rev. 110(5), 2756–2782 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

D. Piras, W. Steenbergen, T. G. van Leeuwen, and S. Manohar, “Photoacoustic imaging of the breast using the twente photoacoustic mammoscope: present status and future perspectives,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(4), 730–739 (2010).
[Crossref]

L. V. Wang, “Tutorial on Photoacoustic Microscopy and Computed Tomography,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(1), 171–179 (2008).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging (1)

C. Huang, K. Wang, L. Nie, L. V. Wang, and M. A. Anastasio, “Full-Wave Iterative Image Reconstruction in Photoacoustic Tomography with Acoustically Inhomogeneous Media,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 32(6), 1097–1110 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Interface Focus (1)

P. Beard, “Biomedical photoacoustic imaging,” Interface Focus 1(4), 602–631 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (4)

P. van Es, S. K. Biswas, H. J. Moens, W. Steenbergen, and S. Manohar, “Initial results of finger imaging using photoacoustic computed tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(6), 060501 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Li, A. Aguirre, J. Gamelin, A. Maurudis, Q. Zhu, and L. V. Wang, “Real-time photoacoustic tomography of cortical hemodynamics in small animals,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(1), 010509 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Pramanik, M. Swierczewska, D. Green, B. Sitharaman, and L. V. Wang, “Single-walled carbon nanotubes as a multimodal-thermoacoustic and photoacoustic-contrast agent,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 034018 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Maslov and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic imaging of biological tissue with intensity-modulated continuous-wave laser,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 024006 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lasers Med. Sci. (1)

R. G. M. Kolkman, W. Steenbergen, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “In vivo photoacoustic imaging of blood vessels with a pulsed laser diode,” Lasers Med. Sci. 21(3), 134–139 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Med. Phys. (5)

R. A. Kruger, P. Liu, Y. R. Fang, and C. R. Appledorn, “Photoacoustic ultrasound (PAUS) - reconstruction tomography,” Med. Phys. 22(10), 1605–1609 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Pramanik, G. Ku, C. Li, and L. V. Wang, “Design and evaluation of a novel breast cancer detection system combining both thermoacoustic (TA) and photoacoustic (PA) tomography,” Med. Phys. 35(6), 2218–2223 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. A. Kruger, R. B. Lam, D. R. Reinecke, S. P. Del Rio, and R. P. Doyle, “Photoacoustic angiography of the breast,” Med. Phys. 37(11), 6096–6100 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. V. Wang, “Prospects of photoacoustic tomography,” Med. Phys. 35(12), 5758–5767 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Lutzweiler, X. L. Deán-Ben, and D. Razansky, “Expediting model-based optoacoustic reconstructions with tomographic symmetries,” Med. Phys. 41(1), 013302 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

L. V. Wang, “Multiscale photoacoustic microscopy and computed tomography,” Nat. Photonics 3(9), 503–509 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Optica (1)

Phys. Med. Biol. (2)

C. Li and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic tomography and sensing in biomedicine,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54(19), R59–R97 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Ku, X. Wang, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Multiple-bandwidth photoacoustic tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 49(7), 1329–1338 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. (1)

M. Xu and L. V. Wang, “Universal back-projection algorithm for photoacoustic computed tomography,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 71(1), 016706 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Radiology (1)

T. N. Erpelding, C. Kim, M. Pramanik, L. Jankovic, K. Maslov, Z. Guo, J. A. Margenthaler, M. D. Pashley, and L. V. Wang, “Sentinel lymph nodes in the rat: noninvasive photoacoustic and US imaging with a clinical US system,” Radiology 256(1), 102–110 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (2)

B. Lashkari and A. Mandelis, “Comparison between pulsed laser and frequency-domain photoacoustic modalities: signal-to-noise ratio, contrast, resolution, and maximum depth detectivity,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82(9), 094903 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Xu and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic imaging in biomedicine,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77(4), 041101 (2006).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

L. V. Wang and S. Hu, “Photoacoustic Tomography: In Vivo Imaging from Organelles to Organs,” Science 335(6075), 1458–1462 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ultrasound Med. Biol. (1)

X. Wang, J. B. Fowlkes, J. M. Cannata, C. Hu, and P. L. Carson, “Photoacoustic imaging with a commercial ultrasound system and a custom probe,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 37(3), 484–492 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (2)

American National Standard for Safe Use of Lasers, ANSI Standard Z136.1–2000, NY (2000).

T. J. Allen, B. T. Cox, and P. C. Beard, “Generating photoacoustic signals using high-peak power pulsed laser diodes,” in Proceedings of SPIE (2005), pp. 233–242.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic diagram, and (b) Photograph of the PLD-PAT system, (c) Schematic of the OPO-PAT system. Here PLD: Pulsed laser diode, LDU: Laser driver unit, CSP: Circular scanning plate, S: Sample, MPS: Motor pulley system, M: Motor, DAQ: Data Acquisition card, R/A/F: Ultrasound signal receiver, amplifier, and filter, UST: Ultrasound transducer, LP: Long pass filter, GG: Ground glass, P: Antireflection coated right angle prism, L1 and L2: Convex lenses, L3: Concave lens, OPO: Optical parametric oscillator, (d) schematic illustration of laser pulse illumination and A-line signal collection in 3 second continuous scanning setup.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Reconstructed images of horse-hair phantom using 2.25 MHz transducer: (a) Photograph of the horse-hair phantom glued on transparent plastic tubes, PAT images acquired using PLD-PAT (b-f) and OPO-PAT (g-m). All images have the same scale bar as shown in b. Scan time (full 360 degree rotation) for image acquisition was indicated on the top-right corner of the images. (n) line scan profiles along A and B, (o) signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) as a function of scan time.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Reconstructed images of horse-hair phantom using 5 MHz transducer: PAT images acquired using PLD-PAT (a-e) and OPO-PAT (f-l). All images have the same scale bar as shown in a. (m) line scan profile along A and B, (n) signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) as a function of scan time.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Reconstructed images of blood embedded in a chicken breast tissue (CBT) using 2.25 MHz transducer: Photograph of the (a) LDPE tube filled with blood placed on the CBT, (b) stack of CBT layers inside which the blood tube was placed. PAT images acquired using PLD-PAT (c, e) and OPO-PAT (d, f, g). All images have the same scale bar as shown in c. (h) signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of images acquired in 30 s as a function of imaging depth (D).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Deep-tissue imaging of blood and ICG tubes inside chicken breast tissue using PLD-PAT system. PAT images acquired using 2.25 MHz transducer at 1 cm (a,b), and 2 cm (c,d) depth from the chicken breast tissue surface.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Comparison of various parameters between PLD-PAT and OPO-PAT.

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