Abstract

Coronary artery disease is characterized by atherosclerotic plaque formation. Despite impressive advances in intravascular imaging modalities, in vivo molecular plaque characterization remains challenging, and different multimodality imaging systems have been proposed. We validated an engineered bimodal intravascular ultrasound imaging (IVUS) / near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging catheter in vivo using a balloon injury atherosclerosis rabbit model. Rabbit aortas and right iliac arteries were scanned in vivo after indocyanine green (ICG) injection, and compared to corresponding ex vivo fluorescence and white light images. Areas of ICG accumulation were colocalized with macroscopic atherosclerotic plaque formation. In vivo imaging was performed with the bimodal catheter integrating ICG-induced fluorescence signals into cross-sectional IVUS imaging. In vivo ICG accumulation corresponded to ex vivo fluorescence signal intensity and IVUS identified plaques.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, P. van der Zee, S. Arridge, S. Wray, and J. Wyatt, “Estimation of optical pathlength through tissue from direct time of flight measurement,” Phys. Med. Biol. 33(12), 1433–1442 (1988).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part II,” Circulation 108(15), 1772–1778 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  28. S. Yoneya, T. Saito, Y. Komatsu, I. Koyama, K. Takahashi, and J. Duvoll-Young, “Binding properties of indocyanine green in human blood,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 39(7), 1286–1290 (1998).
    [PubMed]
  29. S. Lee, M. W. Lee, H. S. Cho, J. W. Song, H. S. Nam, D. J. Oh, K. Park, W.-Y. Oh, H. Yoo, and J. W. Kim, “Fully integrated high-speed intravascular optical coherence tomography/near-infrared fluorescence structural/molecular imaging in vivo using a clinically available near-infrared fluorescence-emitting indocyanine green to detect inflamed lipid-rich atheromata in coronary-sized vessels,” Circ. Cardiovasc. Interv. 7(4), 560–569 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  30. H. Yoo, J. W. Kim, M. Shishkov, E. Namati, T. Morse, R. Shubochkin, J. R. McCarthy, V. Ntziachristos, B. E. Bouma, F. A. Jaffer, and G. J. Tearney, “Intra-arterial catheter for simultaneous microstructural and molecular imaging in vivo,” Nat. Med. 17(12), 1680–1684 (2011).
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (4)

G. J. Ughi, J. Verjans, A. M. Fard, H. Wang, E. Osborn, T. Hara, A. Mauskapf, F. A. Jaffer, and G. J. Tearney, “Dual modality intravascular optical coherence tomography (OCT) and near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging: a fully automated algorithm for the distance-calibration of NIRF signal intensity for quantitative molecular imaging,” Int. J. Cardiovasc. Imaging 31, 259–268 (2014).
[PubMed]

J. Bec, D. M. Ma, D. R. Yankelevich, J. Liu, W. T. Ferrier, J. Southard, and L. Marcu, “Multispectral fluorescence lifetime imaging system for intravascular diagnostics with ultrasound guidance: in vivo validation in swine arteries,” J. Biophotonics 7(5), 281–285 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Abran, G. Cloutier, M. H. Cardinal, B. Chayer, J.-C. Tardif, and F. Lesage, “Development of a photoacoustic, ultrasound and fluorescence imaging catheter for the study of atherosclerotic plaque,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Circuits Syst. 8(5), 696–703 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Lee, M. W. Lee, H. S. Cho, J. W. Song, H. S. Nam, D. J. Oh, K. Park, W.-Y. Oh, H. Yoo, and J. W. Kim, “Fully integrated high-speed intravascular optical coherence tomography/near-infrared fluorescence structural/molecular imaging in vivo using a clinically available near-infrared fluorescence-emitting indocyanine green to detect inflamed lipid-rich atheromata in coronary-sized vessels,” Circ. Cardiovasc. Interv. 7(4), 560–569 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (3)

A. J. Dixon and J. A. Hossack, “Intravascular near-infrared fluorescence catheter with ultrasound guidance and blood attenuation correction,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(5), 056009 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Rouleau, R. Berti, V. W. K. Ng, C. Matteau-Pelletier, T. Lam, P. Saboural, A. K. Kakkar, F. Lesage, E. Rhéaume, and J.-C. Tardif, “VCAM-1-targeting gold nanoshell probe for photoacoustic imaging of atherosclerotic plaque in mice,” Contrast Media Mol. Imaging 8(1), 27–39 (2013).
[PubMed]

M. D. Huffman, D. M. Lloyd-Jones, H. Ning, D. R. Labarthe, M. Guzman Castillo, M. O’Flaherty, E. S. Ford, and S. Capewell, “Quantifying options for reducing coronary heart disease mortality by 2020,” Circulation 127(25), 2477–2484 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

P. Libby, “Inflammation in atherosclerosis,” Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 32(9), 2045–2051 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Tahara, T. Morooka, Z. Wang, H. G. Bezerra, A. M. Rollins, D. I. Simon, and M. A. Costa, “Intravascular optical coherence tomography detection of atherosclerosis and inflammation in murine aorta,” Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 32(5), 1150–1157 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (5)

S.-J. Kang, G. S. Mintz, T. Akasaka, D.-W. Park, J.-Y. Lee, W.-J. Kim, S.-W. Lee, Y.-H. Kim, C. Whan Lee, S.-W. Park, and S.-J. Park, “Optical coherence tomographic analysis of in-stent neoatherosclerosis after drug-eluting stent implantation,” Circulation 123(25), 2954–2963 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. A. Jaffer, M. A. Calfon, A. Rosenthal, G. Mallas, R. N. Razansky, A. Mauskapf, R. Weissleder, P. Libby, and V. Ntziachristos, “Two-dimensional intravascular near-infrared fluorescence molecular imaging of inflammation in atherosclerosis and stent-induced vascular injury,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 57(25), 2516–2526 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Vinegoni, I. Botnaru, E. Aikawa, M. A. Calfon, Y. Iwamoto, E. J. Folco, V. Ntziachristos, R. Weissleder, P. Libby, and F. A. Jaffer, “Indocyanine Green Enables Near-Infrared Fluorescence Imaging of Lipid-Rich, Inflamed Atherosclerotic Plaques,” Sci. Transl. Med. 3(84), 84ra45 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J.-C. Tardif, F. Lesage, F. Harel, P. Romeo, and J. Pressacco, “Imaging Biomarkers in Atherosclerosis Trials,” Circ Cardiovasc Imaging 4(3), 319–333 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yoo, J. W. Kim, M. Shishkov, E. Namati, T. Morse, R. Shubochkin, J. R. McCarthy, V. Ntziachristos, B. E. Bouma, F. A. Jaffer, and G. J. Tearney, “Intra-arterial catheter for simultaneous microstructural and molecular imaging in vivo,” Nat. Med. 17(12), 1680–1684 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

D. N. Stephens, J. Park, Y. Sun, T. Papaioannou, and L. Marcu, “Intraluminal fluorescence spectroscopy catheter with ultrasound guidance,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 030505 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. M. Wallis de Vries, J.-L. Hillebrands, G. M. van Dam, R. A. Tio, J. S. de Jong, R. H. J. A. Slart, and C. J. Zeebregts, “Images in cardiovascular medicine. Multispectral near-infrared fluorescence molecular imaging of matrix metalloproteinases in a human carotid plaque using a matrix-degrading metalloproteinase-sensitive activatable fluorescent probe,” Circulation 119(20), e534–e536 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

F. A. Jaffer, C. Vinegoni, M. C. John, E. Aikawa, H. K. Gold, A. V. Finn, V. Ntziachristos, P. Libby, and R. Weissleder, “Real-time catheter molecular sensing of inflammation in proteolytically active atherosclerosis,” Circulation 118(18), 1802–1809 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Busseuil, Y. Shi, M. Mecteau, G. Brand, A.-E. Kernaleguen, E. Thorin, J.-G. Latour, E. Rhéaume, and J.-C. Tardif, “Regression of aortic valve stenosis by ApoA-I mimetic peptide infusions in rabbits,” Br. J. Pharmacol. 154(4), 765–773 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

M. Nahrendorf, F. A. Jaffer, K. A. Kelly, D. E. Sosnovik, E. Aikawa, P. Libby, and R. Weissleder, “Noninvasive vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 imaging identifies inflammatory activation of cells in atherosclerosis,” Circulation 114(14), 1504–1511 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Libby, “Atherosclerosis: disease biology affecting the coronary vasculature,” Am. J. Cardiol. 98(1212A), 3Q–9Q (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J.-C. Tardif, J. Grégoire, P. L. L’Allier, R. Ibrahim, M.-A. Lavoie, M. LeMay, E. Cohen, S. Levesque, P.-F. Keller, T. Heinonen, and M.-C. Guertin, “Effect of atherosclerotic regression on total luminal size of coronary arteries as determined by intravascular ultrasound,” Am. J. Cardiol. 98(1), 23–27 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

N. D. Desai, S. Miwa, D. Kodama, G. Cohen, G. T. Christakis, B. S. Goldman, M. O. Baerlocher, M. P. Pelletier, and S. E. Fremes, “Improving the quality of coronary bypass surgery with intraoperative angiography: validation of a new technique,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 46(8), 1521–1525 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part II,” Circulation 108(15), 1772–1778 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

P. Libby, “Inflammation in atherosclerosis,” Nature 420(6917), 868–874 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

S. E. Nissen and P. Yock, “Intravascular ultrasound: novel pathophysiological insights and current clinical applications,” Circulation 103(4), 604–616 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

T. Desmettre, J. M. Devoisselle, and S. Mordon, “Fluorescence Properties and Metabolic Features of Indocyanine Green (ICG) as Related to Angiography,” Surv. Ophthalmol. 45(1), 15–27 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

S. Yoneya, T. Saito, Y. Komatsu, I. Koyama, K. Takahashi, and J. Duvoll-Young, “Binding properties of indocyanine green in human blood,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 39(7), 1286–1290 (1998).
[PubMed]

1988 (1)

D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, P. van der Zee, S. Arridge, S. Wray, and J. Wyatt, “Estimation of optical pathlength through tissue from direct time of flight measurement,” Phys. Med. Biol. 33(12), 1433–1442 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1985 (1)

D. N. Ku, D. P. Giddens, C. K. Zarins, and S. Glagov, “Pulsatile flow and atherosclerosis in the human carotid bifurcation. Positive correlation between plaque location and low oscillating shear stress,” Arteriosclerosis 5(3), 293–302 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1976 (1)

R. W. Flower and B. F. Hochheimer, “Indocyanine green dye fluorescence and infrared absorption choroidal angiography performed simultaneously with fluorescein angiography,” Johns Hopkins Med. J. 138(2), 33–42 (1976).
[PubMed]

1961 (1)

J. Caesar, S. Shaldon, L. Chiandussi, L. Guevara, and S. Sherlock, “The use of indocyanine green in the measurement of hepatic blood flow and as a test of hepatic function,” Clin. Sci. 21, 43–57 (1961).
[PubMed]

Abran, M.

M. Abran, G. Cloutier, M. H. Cardinal, B. Chayer, J.-C. Tardif, and F. Lesage, “Development of a photoacoustic, ultrasound and fluorescence imaging catheter for the study of atherosclerotic plaque,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Circuits Syst. 8(5), 696–703 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aikawa, E.

C. Vinegoni, I. Botnaru, E. Aikawa, M. A. Calfon, Y. Iwamoto, E. J. Folco, V. Ntziachristos, R. Weissleder, P. Libby, and F. A. Jaffer, “Indocyanine Green Enables Near-Infrared Fluorescence Imaging of Lipid-Rich, Inflamed Atherosclerotic Plaques,” Sci. Transl. Med. 3(84), 84ra45 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. A. Jaffer, C. Vinegoni, M. C. John, E. Aikawa, H. K. Gold, A. V. Finn, V. Ntziachristos, P. Libby, and R. Weissleder, “Real-time catheter molecular sensing of inflammation in proteolytically active atherosclerosis,” Circulation 118(18), 1802–1809 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Nahrendorf, F. A. Jaffer, K. A. Kelly, D. E. Sosnovik, E. Aikawa, P. Libby, and R. Weissleder, “Noninvasive vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 imaging identifies inflammatory activation of cells in atherosclerosis,” Circulation 114(14), 1504–1511 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aikawa, M.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part II,” Circulation 108(15), 1772–1778 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Airaksinen, K. E.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part II,” Circulation 108(15), 1772–1778 (2003).
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Akasaka, T.

S.-J. Kang, G. S. Mintz, T. Akasaka, D.-W. Park, J.-Y. Lee, W.-J. Kim, S.-W. Lee, Y.-H. Kim, C. Whan Lee, S.-W. Park, and S.-J. Park, “Optical coherence tomographic analysis of in-stent neoatherosclerosis after drug-eluting stent implantation,” Circulation 123(25), 2954–2963 (2011).
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Arridge, S.

D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, P. van der Zee, S. Arridge, S. Wray, and J. Wyatt, “Estimation of optical pathlength through tissue from direct time of flight measurement,” Phys. Med. Biol. 33(12), 1433–1442 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Assmann, G.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part II,” Circulation 108(15), 1772–1778 (2003).
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Badimon, J. J.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part II,” Circulation 108(15), 1772–1778 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baerlocher, M. O.

N. D. Desai, S. Miwa, D. Kodama, G. Cohen, G. T. Christakis, B. S. Goldman, M. O. Baerlocher, M. P. Pelletier, and S. E. Fremes, “Improving the quality of coronary bypass surgery with intraoperative angiography: validation of a new technique,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 46(8), 1521–1525 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bahr, R.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part II,” Circulation 108(15), 1772–1778 (2003).
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Ballantyne, C.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part II,” Circulation 108(15), 1772–1778 (2003).
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Bec, J.

J. Bec, D. M. Ma, D. R. Yankelevich, J. Liu, W. T. Ferrier, J. Southard, and L. Marcu, “Multispectral fluorescence lifetime imaging system for intravascular diagnostics with ultrasound guidance: in vivo validation in swine arteries,” J. Biophotonics 7(5), 281–285 (2014).
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Becker, C. R.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part II,” Circulation 108(15), 1772–1778 (2003).
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Berti, R.

L. Rouleau, R. Berti, V. W. K. Ng, C. Matteau-Pelletier, T. Lam, P. Saboural, A. K. Kakkar, F. Lesage, E. Rhéaume, and J.-C. Tardif, “VCAM-1-targeting gold nanoshell probe for photoacoustic imaging of atherosclerotic plaque in mice,” Contrast Media Mol. Imaging 8(1), 27–39 (2013).
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Bezerra, H. G.

S. Tahara, T. Morooka, Z. Wang, H. G. Bezerra, A. M. Rollins, D. I. Simon, and M. A. Costa, “Intravascular optical coherence tomography detection of atherosclerosis and inflammation in murine aorta,” Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 32(5), 1150–1157 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boerwinkle, E.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part II,” Circulation 108(15), 1772–1778 (2003).
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Botnaru, I.

C. Vinegoni, I. Botnaru, E. Aikawa, M. A. Calfon, Y. Iwamoto, E. J. Folco, V. Ntziachristos, R. Weissleder, P. Libby, and F. A. Jaffer, “Indocyanine Green Enables Near-Infrared Fluorescence Imaging of Lipid-Rich, Inflamed Atherosclerotic Plaques,” Sci. Transl. Med. 3(84), 84ra45 (2011).
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Bouma, B. E.

H. Yoo, J. W. Kim, M. Shishkov, E. Namati, T. Morse, R. Shubochkin, J. R. McCarthy, V. Ntziachristos, B. E. Bouma, F. A. Jaffer, and G. J. Tearney, “Intra-arterial catheter for simultaneous microstructural and molecular imaging in vivo,” Nat. Med. 17(12), 1680–1684 (2011).
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Brand, G.

D. Busseuil, Y. Shi, M. Mecteau, G. Brand, A.-E. Kernaleguen, E. Thorin, J.-G. Latour, E. Rhéaume, and J.-C. Tardif, “Regression of aortic valve stenosis by ApoA-I mimetic peptide infusions in rabbits,” Br. J. Pharmacol. 154(4), 765–773 (2008).
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Burke, A.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part II,” Circulation 108(15), 1772–1778 (2003).
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Busseuil, D.

D. Busseuil, Y. Shi, M. Mecteau, G. Brand, A.-E. Kernaleguen, E. Thorin, J.-G. Latour, E. Rhéaume, and J.-C. Tardif, “Regression of aortic valve stenosis by ApoA-I mimetic peptide infusions in rabbits,” Br. J. Pharmacol. 154(4), 765–773 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Caesar, J.

J. Caesar, S. Shaldon, L. Chiandussi, L. Guevara, and S. Sherlock, “The use of indocyanine green in the measurement of hepatic blood flow and as a test of hepatic function,” Clin. Sci. 21, 43–57 (1961).
[PubMed]

Calfon, M. A.

C. Vinegoni, I. Botnaru, E. Aikawa, M. A. Calfon, Y. Iwamoto, E. J. Folco, V. Ntziachristos, R. Weissleder, P. Libby, and F. A. Jaffer, “Indocyanine Green Enables Near-Infrared Fluorescence Imaging of Lipid-Rich, Inflamed Atherosclerotic Plaques,” Sci. Transl. Med. 3(84), 84ra45 (2011).
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F. A. Jaffer, M. A. Calfon, A. Rosenthal, G. Mallas, R. N. Razansky, A. Mauskapf, R. Weissleder, P. Libby, and V. Ntziachristos, “Two-dimensional intravascular near-infrared fluorescence molecular imaging of inflammation in atherosclerosis and stent-induced vascular injury,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 57(25), 2516–2526 (2011).
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Capewell, S.

M. D. Huffman, D. M. Lloyd-Jones, H. Ning, D. R. Labarthe, M. Guzman Castillo, M. O’Flaherty, E. S. Ford, and S. Capewell, “Quantifying options for reducing coronary heart disease mortality by 2020,” Circulation 127(25), 2477–2484 (2013).
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Cardinal, M. H.

M. Abran, G. Cloutier, M. H. Cardinal, B. Chayer, J.-C. Tardif, and F. Lesage, “Development of a photoacoustic, ultrasound and fluorescence imaging catheter for the study of atherosclerotic plaque,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Circuits Syst. 8(5), 696–703 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Casscells, S. W.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part II,” Circulation 108(15), 1772–1778 (2003).
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Chayer, B.

M. Abran, G. Cloutier, M. H. Cardinal, B. Chayer, J.-C. Tardif, and F. Lesage, “Development of a photoacoustic, ultrasound and fluorescence imaging catheter for the study of atherosclerotic plaque,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Circuits Syst. 8(5), 696–703 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chesebro, J. H.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part II,” Circulation 108(15), 1772–1778 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chiandussi, L.

J. Caesar, S. Shaldon, L. Chiandussi, L. Guevara, and S. Sherlock, “The use of indocyanine green in the measurement of hepatic blood flow and as a test of hepatic function,” Clin. Sci. 21, 43–57 (1961).
[PubMed]

Cho, H. S.

S. Lee, M. W. Lee, H. S. Cho, J. W. Song, H. S. Nam, D. J. Oh, K. Park, W.-Y. Oh, H. Yoo, and J. W. Kim, “Fully integrated high-speed intravascular optical coherence tomography/near-infrared fluorescence structural/molecular imaging in vivo using a clinically available near-infrared fluorescence-emitting indocyanine green to detect inflamed lipid-rich atheromata in coronary-sized vessels,” Circ. Cardiovasc. Interv. 7(4), 560–569 (2014).
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Christakis, G. T.

N. D. Desai, S. Miwa, D. Kodama, G. Cohen, G. T. Christakis, B. S. Goldman, M. O. Baerlocher, M. P. Pelletier, and S. E. Fremes, “Improving the quality of coronary bypass surgery with intraoperative angiography: validation of a new technique,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 46(8), 1521–1525 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cloutier, G.

M. Abran, G. Cloutier, M. H. Cardinal, B. Chayer, J.-C. Tardif, and F. Lesage, “Development of a photoacoustic, ultrasound and fluorescence imaging catheter for the study of atherosclerotic plaque,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Circuits Syst. 8(5), 696–703 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cohen, E.

J.-C. Tardif, J. Grégoire, P. L. L’Allier, R. Ibrahim, M.-A. Lavoie, M. LeMay, E. Cohen, S. Levesque, P.-F. Keller, T. Heinonen, and M.-C. Guertin, “Effect of atherosclerotic regression on total luminal size of coronary arteries as determined by intravascular ultrasound,” Am. J. Cardiol. 98(1), 23–27 (2006).
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Cohen, G.

N. D. Desai, S. Miwa, D. Kodama, G. Cohen, G. T. Christakis, B. S. Goldman, M. O. Baerlocher, M. P. Pelletier, and S. E. Fremes, “Improving the quality of coronary bypass surgery with intraoperative angiography: validation of a new technique,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 46(8), 1521–1525 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Colombo, A.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part II,” Circulation 108(15), 1772–1778 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cope, M.

D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, P. van der Zee, S. Arridge, S. Wray, and J. Wyatt, “Estimation of optical pathlength through tissue from direct time of flight measurement,” Phys. Med. Biol. 33(12), 1433–1442 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Costa, M. A.

S. Tahara, T. Morooka, Z. Wang, H. G. Bezerra, A. M. Rollins, D. I. Simon, and M. A. Costa, “Intravascular optical coherence tomography detection of atherosclerosis and inflammation in murine aorta,” Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 32(5), 1150–1157 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

de Jong, J. S.

B. M. Wallis de Vries, J.-L. Hillebrands, G. M. van Dam, R. A. Tio, J. S. de Jong, R. H. J. A. Slart, and C. J. Zeebregts, “Images in cardiovascular medicine. Multispectral near-infrared fluorescence molecular imaging of matrix metalloproteinases in a human carotid plaque using a matrix-degrading metalloproteinase-sensitive activatable fluorescent probe,” Circulation 119(20), e534–e536 (2009).
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de Korte, C. L.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part II,” Circulation 108(15), 1772–1778 (2003).
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Delpy, D. T.

D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, P. van der Zee, S. Arridge, S. Wray, and J. Wyatt, “Estimation of optical pathlength through tissue from direct time of flight measurement,” Phys. Med. Biol. 33(12), 1433–1442 (1988).
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Demirovic, J.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part II,” Circulation 108(15), 1772–1778 (2003).
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Desai, N. D.

N. D. Desai, S. Miwa, D. Kodama, G. Cohen, G. T. Christakis, B. S. Goldman, M. O. Baerlocher, M. P. Pelletier, and S. E. Fremes, “Improving the quality of coronary bypass surgery with intraoperative angiography: validation of a new technique,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 46(8), 1521–1525 (2005).
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T. Desmettre, J. M. Devoisselle, and S. Mordon, “Fluorescence Properties and Metabolic Features of Indocyanine Green (ICG) as Related to Angiography,” Surv. Ophthalmol. 45(1), 15–27 (2000).
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Devoisselle, J. M.

T. Desmettre, J. M. Devoisselle, and S. Mordon, “Fluorescence Properties and Metabolic Features of Indocyanine Green (ICG) as Related to Angiography,” Surv. Ophthalmol. 45(1), 15–27 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dixon, A. J.

A. J. Dixon and J. A. Hossack, “Intravascular near-infrared fluorescence catheter with ultrasound guidance and blood attenuation correction,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(5), 056009 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Drexler, H.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part II,” Circulation 108(15), 1772–1778 (2003).
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S. Yoneya, T. Saito, Y. Komatsu, I. Koyama, K. Takahashi, and J. Duvoll-Young, “Binding properties of indocyanine green in human blood,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 39(7), 1286–1290 (1998).
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M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part II,” Circulation 108(15), 1772–1778 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Farb, A.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part II,” Circulation 108(15), 1772–1778 (2003).
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G. J. Ughi, J. Verjans, A. M. Fard, H. Wang, E. Osborn, T. Hara, A. Mauskapf, F. A. Jaffer, and G. J. Tearney, “Dual modality intravascular optical coherence tomography (OCT) and near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging: a fully automated algorithm for the distance-calibration of NIRF signal intensity for quantitative molecular imaging,” Int. J. Cardiovasc. Imaging 31, 259–268 (2014).
[PubMed]

Faxon, D. P.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part II,” Circulation 108(15), 1772–1778 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fayad, Z.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part II,” Circulation 108(15), 1772–1778 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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J. Bec, D. M. Ma, D. R. Yankelevich, J. Liu, W. T. Ferrier, J. Southard, and L. Marcu, “Multispectral fluorescence lifetime imaging system for intravascular diagnostics with ultrasound guidance: in vivo validation in swine arteries,” J. Biophotonics 7(5), 281–285 (2014).
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F. A. Jaffer, C. Vinegoni, M. C. John, E. Aikawa, H. K. Gold, A. V. Finn, V. Ntziachristos, P. Libby, and R. Weissleder, “Real-time catheter molecular sensing of inflammation in proteolytically active atherosclerosis,” Circulation 118(18), 1802–1809 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fitzgerald, P. J.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part II,” Circulation 108(15), 1772–1778 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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R. W. Flower and B. F. Hochheimer, “Indocyanine green dye fluorescence and infrared absorption choroidal angiography performed simultaneously with fluorescein angiography,” Johns Hopkins Med. J. 138(2), 33–42 (1976).
[PubMed]

Folco, E. J.

C. Vinegoni, I. Botnaru, E. Aikawa, M. A. Calfon, Y. Iwamoto, E. J. Folco, V. Ntziachristos, R. Weissleder, P. Libby, and F. A. Jaffer, “Indocyanine Green Enables Near-Infrared Fluorescence Imaging of Lipid-Rich, Inflamed Atherosclerotic Plaques,” Sci. Transl. Med. 3(84), 84ra45 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ford, E. S.

M. D. Huffman, D. M. Lloyd-Jones, H. Ning, D. R. Labarthe, M. Guzman Castillo, M. O’Flaherty, E. S. Ford, and S. Capewell, “Quantifying options for reducing coronary heart disease mortality by 2020,” Circulation 127(25), 2477–2484 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fremes, S. E.

N. D. Desai, S. Miwa, D. Kodama, G. Cohen, G. T. Christakis, B. S. Goldman, M. O. Baerlocher, M. P. Pelletier, and S. E. Fremes, “Improving the quality of coronary bypass surgery with intraoperative angiography: validation of a new technique,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 46(8), 1521–1525 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part II,” Circulation 108(15), 1772–1778 (2003).
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F. A. Jaffer, C. Vinegoni, M. C. John, E. Aikawa, H. K. Gold, A. V. Finn, V. Ntziachristos, P. Libby, and R. Weissleder, “Real-time catheter molecular sensing of inflammation in proteolytically active atherosclerosis,” Circulation 118(18), 1802–1809 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Goldman, B. S.

N. D. Desai, S. Miwa, D. Kodama, G. Cohen, G. T. Christakis, B. S. Goldman, M. O. Baerlocher, M. P. Pelletier, and S. E. Fremes, “Improving the quality of coronary bypass surgery with intraoperative angiography: validation of a new technique,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 46(8), 1521–1525 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Greenland, P.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part II,” Circulation 108(15), 1772–1778 (2003).
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J.-C. Tardif, J. Grégoire, P. L. L’Allier, R. Ibrahim, M.-A. Lavoie, M. LeMay, E. Cohen, S. Levesque, P.-F. Keller, T. Heinonen, and M.-C. Guertin, “Effect of atherosclerotic regression on total luminal size of coronary arteries as determined by intravascular ultrasound,” Am. J. Cardiol. 98(1), 23–27 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grundy, S. M.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part II,” Circulation 108(15), 1772–1778 (2003).
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Guertin, M.-C.

J.-C. Tardif, J. Grégoire, P. L. L’Allier, R. Ibrahim, M.-A. Lavoie, M. LeMay, E. Cohen, S. Levesque, P.-F. Keller, T. Heinonen, and M.-C. Guertin, “Effect of atherosclerotic regression on total luminal size of coronary arteries as determined by intravascular ultrasound,” Am. J. Cardiol. 98(1), 23–27 (2006).
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J. Caesar, S. Shaldon, L. Chiandussi, L. Guevara, and S. Sherlock, “The use of indocyanine green in the measurement of hepatic blood flow and as a test of hepatic function,” Clin. Sci. 21, 43–57 (1961).
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Guzman Castillo, M.

M. D. Huffman, D. M. Lloyd-Jones, H. Ning, D. R. Labarthe, M. Guzman Castillo, M. O’Flaherty, E. S. Ford, and S. Capewell, “Quantifying options for reducing coronary heart disease mortality by 2020,” Circulation 127(25), 2477–2484 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hansson, G. K.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part II,” Circulation 108(15), 1772–1778 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hara, T.

G. J. Ughi, J. Verjans, A. M. Fard, H. Wang, E. Osborn, T. Hara, A. Mauskapf, F. A. Jaffer, and G. J. Tearney, “Dual modality intravascular optical coherence tomography (OCT) and near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging: a fully automated algorithm for the distance-calibration of NIRF signal intensity for quantitative molecular imaging,” Int. J. Cardiovasc. Imaging 31, 259–268 (2014).
[PubMed]

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J.-C. Tardif, F. Lesage, F. Harel, P. Romeo, and J. Pressacco, “Imaging Biomarkers in Atherosclerosis Trials,” Circ Cardiovasc Imaging 4(3), 319–333 (2011).
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J.-C. Tardif, J. Grégoire, P. L. L’Allier, R. Ibrahim, M.-A. Lavoie, M. LeMay, E. Cohen, S. Levesque, P.-F. Keller, T. Heinonen, and M.-C. Guertin, “Effect of atherosclerotic regression on total luminal size of coronary arteries as determined by intravascular ultrasound,” Am. J. Cardiol. 98(1), 23–27 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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R. W. Flower and B. F. Hochheimer, “Indocyanine green dye fluorescence and infrared absorption choroidal angiography performed simultaneously with fluorescein angiography,” Johns Hopkins Med. J. 138(2), 33–42 (1976).
[PubMed]

Hossack, J. A.

A. J. Dixon and J. A. Hossack, “Intravascular near-infrared fluorescence catheter with ultrasound guidance and blood attenuation correction,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(5), 056009 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huffman, M. D.

M. D. Huffman, D. M. Lloyd-Jones, H. Ning, D. R. Labarthe, M. Guzman Castillo, M. O’Flaherty, E. S. Ford, and S. Capewell, “Quantifying options for reducing coronary heart disease mortality by 2020,” Circulation 127(25), 2477–2484 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ibrahim, R.

J.-C. Tardif, J. Grégoire, P. L. L’Allier, R. Ibrahim, M.-A. Lavoie, M. LeMay, E. Cohen, S. Levesque, P.-F. Keller, T. Heinonen, and M.-C. Guertin, “Effect of atherosclerotic regression on total luminal size of coronary arteries as determined by intravascular ultrasound,” Am. J. Cardiol. 98(1), 23–27 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Insull, W.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part II,” Circulation 108(15), 1772–1778 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Iwamoto, Y.

C. Vinegoni, I. Botnaru, E. Aikawa, M. A. Calfon, Y. Iwamoto, E. J. Folco, V. Ntziachristos, R. Weissleder, P. Libby, and F. A. Jaffer, “Indocyanine Green Enables Near-Infrared Fluorescence Imaging of Lipid-Rich, Inflamed Atherosclerotic Plaques,” Sci. Transl. Med. 3(84), 84ra45 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jackson, C.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part II,” Circulation 108(15), 1772–1778 (2003).
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Jaffer, F. A.

G. J. Ughi, J. Verjans, A. M. Fard, H. Wang, E. Osborn, T. Hara, A. Mauskapf, F. A. Jaffer, and G. J. Tearney, “Dual modality intravascular optical coherence tomography (OCT) and near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging: a fully automated algorithm for the distance-calibration of NIRF signal intensity for quantitative molecular imaging,” Int. J. Cardiovasc. Imaging 31, 259–268 (2014).
[PubMed]

C. Vinegoni, I. Botnaru, E. Aikawa, M. A. Calfon, Y. Iwamoto, E. J. Folco, V. Ntziachristos, R. Weissleder, P. Libby, and F. A. Jaffer, “Indocyanine Green Enables Near-Infrared Fluorescence Imaging of Lipid-Rich, Inflamed Atherosclerotic Plaques,” Sci. Transl. Med. 3(84), 84ra45 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. A. Jaffer, M. A. Calfon, A. Rosenthal, G. Mallas, R. N. Razansky, A. Mauskapf, R. Weissleder, P. Libby, and V. Ntziachristos, “Two-dimensional intravascular near-infrared fluorescence molecular imaging of inflammation in atherosclerosis and stent-induced vascular injury,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 57(25), 2516–2526 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yoo, J. W. Kim, M. Shishkov, E. Namati, T. Morse, R. Shubochkin, J. R. McCarthy, V. Ntziachristos, B. E. Bouma, F. A. Jaffer, and G. J. Tearney, “Intra-arterial catheter for simultaneous microstructural and molecular imaging in vivo,” Nat. Med. 17(12), 1680–1684 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. A. Jaffer, C. Vinegoni, M. C. John, E. Aikawa, H. K. Gold, A. V. Finn, V. Ntziachristos, P. Libby, and R. Weissleder, “Real-time catheter molecular sensing of inflammation in proteolytically active atherosclerosis,” Circulation 118(18), 1802–1809 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Nahrendorf, F. A. Jaffer, K. A. Kelly, D. E. Sosnovik, E. Aikawa, P. Libby, and R. Weissleder, “Noninvasive vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 imaging identifies inflammatory activation of cells in atherosclerosis,” Circulation 114(14), 1504–1511 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jang, I. K.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part II,” Circulation 108(15), 1772–1778 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

John, M. C.

F. A. Jaffer, C. Vinegoni, M. C. John, E. Aikawa, H. K. Gold, A. V. Finn, V. Ntziachristos, P. Libby, and R. Weissleder, “Real-time catheter molecular sensing of inflammation in proteolytically active atherosclerosis,” Circulation 118(18), 1802–1809 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kakkar, A. K.

L. Rouleau, R. Berti, V. W. K. Ng, C. Matteau-Pelletier, T. Lam, P. Saboural, A. K. Kakkar, F. Lesage, E. Rhéaume, and J.-C. Tardif, “VCAM-1-targeting gold nanoshell probe for photoacoustic imaging of atherosclerotic plaque in mice,” Contrast Media Mol. Imaging 8(1), 27–39 (2013).
[PubMed]

Kang, S.-J.

S.-J. Kang, G. S. Mintz, T. Akasaka, D.-W. Park, J.-Y. Lee, W.-J. Kim, S.-W. Lee, Y.-H. Kim, C. Whan Lee, S.-W. Park, and S.-J. Park, “Optical coherence tomographic analysis of in-stent neoatherosclerosis after drug-eluting stent implantation,” Circulation 123(25), 2954–2963 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kaul, S.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part II,” Circulation 108(15), 1772–1778 (2003).
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Keller, P.-F.

J.-C. Tardif, J. Grégoire, P. L. L’Allier, R. Ibrahim, M.-A. Lavoie, M. LeMay, E. Cohen, S. Levesque, P.-F. Keller, T. Heinonen, and M.-C. Guertin, “Effect of atherosclerotic regression on total luminal size of coronary arteries as determined by intravascular ultrasound,” Am. J. Cardiol. 98(1), 23–27 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kelly, K. A.

M. Nahrendorf, F. A. Jaffer, K. A. Kelly, D. E. Sosnovik, E. Aikawa, P. Libby, and R. Weissleder, “Noninvasive vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 imaging identifies inflammatory activation of cells in atherosclerosis,” Circulation 114(14), 1504–1511 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kernaleguen, A.-E.

D. Busseuil, Y. Shi, M. Mecteau, G. Brand, A.-E. Kernaleguen, E. Thorin, J.-G. Latour, E. Rhéaume, and J.-C. Tardif, “Regression of aortic valve stenosis by ApoA-I mimetic peptide infusions in rabbits,” Br. J. Pharmacol. 154(4), 765–773 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, J. W.

S. Lee, M. W. Lee, H. S. Cho, J. W. Song, H. S. Nam, D. J. Oh, K. Park, W.-Y. Oh, H. Yoo, and J. W. Kim, “Fully integrated high-speed intravascular optical coherence tomography/near-infrared fluorescence structural/molecular imaging in vivo using a clinically available near-infrared fluorescence-emitting indocyanine green to detect inflamed lipid-rich atheromata in coronary-sized vessels,” Circ. Cardiovasc. Interv. 7(4), 560–569 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yoo, J. W. Kim, M. Shishkov, E. Namati, T. Morse, R. Shubochkin, J. R. McCarthy, V. Ntziachristos, B. E. Bouma, F. A. Jaffer, and G. J. Tearney, “Intra-arterial catheter for simultaneous microstructural and molecular imaging in vivo,” Nat. Med. 17(12), 1680–1684 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, W.-J.

S.-J. Kang, G. S. Mintz, T. Akasaka, D.-W. Park, J.-Y. Lee, W.-J. Kim, S.-W. Lee, Y.-H. Kim, C. Whan Lee, S.-W. Park, and S.-J. Park, “Optical coherence tomographic analysis of in-stent neoatherosclerosis after drug-eluting stent implantation,” Circulation 123(25), 2954–2963 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, Y.-H.

S.-J. Kang, G. S. Mintz, T. Akasaka, D.-W. Park, J.-Y. Lee, W.-J. Kim, S.-W. Lee, Y.-H. Kim, C. Whan Lee, S.-W. Park, and S.-J. Park, “Optical coherence tomographic analysis of in-stent neoatherosclerosis after drug-eluting stent implantation,” Circulation 123(25), 2954–2963 (2011).
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Kodama, D.

N. D. Desai, S. Miwa, D. Kodama, G. Cohen, G. T. Christakis, B. S. Goldman, M. O. Baerlocher, M. P. Pelletier, and S. E. Fremes, “Improving the quality of coronary bypass surgery with intraoperative angiography: validation of a new technique,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 46(8), 1521–1525 (2005).
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Koenig, W.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part II,” Circulation 108(15), 1772–1778 (2003).
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S. Yoneya, T. Saito, Y. Komatsu, I. Koyama, K. Takahashi, and J. Duvoll-Young, “Binding properties of indocyanine green in human blood,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 39(7), 1286–1290 (1998).
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Koyama, I.

S. Yoneya, T. Saito, Y. Komatsu, I. Koyama, K. Takahashi, and J. Duvoll-Young, “Binding properties of indocyanine green in human blood,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 39(7), 1286–1290 (1998).
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Ku, D. N.

D. N. Ku, D. P. Giddens, C. K. Zarins, and S. Glagov, “Pulsatile flow and atherosclerosis in the human carotid bifurcation. Positive correlation between plaque location and low oscillating shear stress,” Arteriosclerosis 5(3), 293–302 (1985).
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L’Allier, P. L.

J.-C. Tardif, J. Grégoire, P. L. L’Allier, R. Ibrahim, M.-A. Lavoie, M. LeMay, E. Cohen, S. Levesque, P.-F. Keller, T. Heinonen, and M.-C. Guertin, “Effect of atherosclerotic regression on total luminal size of coronary arteries as determined by intravascular ultrasound,” Am. J. Cardiol. 98(1), 23–27 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Labarthe, D. R.

M. D. Huffman, D. M. Lloyd-Jones, H. Ning, D. R. Labarthe, M. Guzman Castillo, M. O’Flaherty, E. S. Ford, and S. Capewell, “Quantifying options for reducing coronary heart disease mortality by 2020,” Circulation 127(25), 2477–2484 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lam, T.

L. Rouleau, R. Berti, V. W. K. Ng, C. Matteau-Pelletier, T. Lam, P. Saboural, A. K. Kakkar, F. Lesage, E. Rhéaume, and J.-C. Tardif, “VCAM-1-targeting gold nanoshell probe for photoacoustic imaging of atherosclerotic plaque in mice,” Contrast Media Mol. Imaging 8(1), 27–39 (2013).
[PubMed]

Latour, J.-G.

D. Busseuil, Y. Shi, M. Mecteau, G. Brand, A.-E. Kernaleguen, E. Thorin, J.-G. Latour, E. Rhéaume, and J.-C. Tardif, “Regression of aortic valve stenosis by ApoA-I mimetic peptide infusions in rabbits,” Br. J. Pharmacol. 154(4), 765–773 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lavoie, M.-A.

J.-C. Tardif, J. Grégoire, P. L. L’Allier, R. Ibrahim, M.-A. Lavoie, M. LeMay, E. Cohen, S. Levesque, P.-F. Keller, T. Heinonen, and M.-C. Guertin, “Effect of atherosclerotic regression on total luminal size of coronary arteries as determined by intravascular ultrasound,” Am. J. Cardiol. 98(1), 23–27 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, J.-Y.

S.-J. Kang, G. S. Mintz, T. Akasaka, D.-W. Park, J.-Y. Lee, W.-J. Kim, S.-W. Lee, Y.-H. Kim, C. Whan Lee, S.-W. Park, and S.-J. Park, “Optical coherence tomographic analysis of in-stent neoatherosclerosis after drug-eluting stent implantation,” Circulation 123(25), 2954–2963 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, M. W.

S. Lee, M. W. Lee, H. S. Cho, J. W. Song, H. S. Nam, D. J. Oh, K. Park, W.-Y. Oh, H. Yoo, and J. W. Kim, “Fully integrated high-speed intravascular optical coherence tomography/near-infrared fluorescence structural/molecular imaging in vivo using a clinically available near-infrared fluorescence-emitting indocyanine green to detect inflamed lipid-rich atheromata in coronary-sized vessels,” Circ. Cardiovasc. Interv. 7(4), 560–569 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, S.

S. Lee, M. W. Lee, H. S. Cho, J. W. Song, H. S. Nam, D. J. Oh, K. Park, W.-Y. Oh, H. Yoo, and J. W. Kim, “Fully integrated high-speed intravascular optical coherence tomography/near-infrared fluorescence structural/molecular imaging in vivo using a clinically available near-infrared fluorescence-emitting indocyanine green to detect inflamed lipid-rich atheromata in coronary-sized vessels,” Circ. Cardiovasc. Interv. 7(4), 560–569 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, S.-W.

S.-J. Kang, G. S. Mintz, T. Akasaka, D.-W. Park, J.-Y. Lee, W.-J. Kim, S.-W. Lee, Y.-H. Kim, C. Whan Lee, S.-W. Park, and S.-J. Park, “Optical coherence tomographic analysis of in-stent neoatherosclerosis after drug-eluting stent implantation,” Circulation 123(25), 2954–2963 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

LeMay, M.

J.-C. Tardif, J. Grégoire, P. L. L’Allier, R. Ibrahim, M.-A. Lavoie, M. LeMay, E. Cohen, S. Levesque, P.-F. Keller, T. Heinonen, and M.-C. Guertin, “Effect of atherosclerotic regression on total luminal size of coronary arteries as determined by intravascular ultrasound,” Am. J. Cardiol. 98(1), 23–27 (2006).
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Lesage, F.

M. Abran, G. Cloutier, M. H. Cardinal, B. Chayer, J.-C. Tardif, and F. Lesage, “Development of a photoacoustic, ultrasound and fluorescence imaging catheter for the study of atherosclerotic plaque,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Circuits Syst. 8(5), 696–703 (2014).
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L. Rouleau, R. Berti, V. W. K. Ng, C. Matteau-Pelletier, T. Lam, P. Saboural, A. K. Kakkar, F. Lesage, E. Rhéaume, and J.-C. Tardif, “VCAM-1-targeting gold nanoshell probe for photoacoustic imaging of atherosclerotic plaque in mice,” Contrast Media Mol. Imaging 8(1), 27–39 (2013).
[PubMed]

J.-C. Tardif, F. Lesage, F. Harel, P. Romeo, and J. Pressacco, “Imaging Biomarkers in Atherosclerosis Trials,” Circ Cardiovasc Imaging 4(3), 319–333 (2011).
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Levesque, S.

J.-C. Tardif, J. Grégoire, P. L. L’Allier, R. Ibrahim, M.-A. Lavoie, M. LeMay, E. Cohen, S. Levesque, P.-F. Keller, T. Heinonen, and M.-C. Guertin, “Effect of atherosclerotic regression on total luminal size of coronary arteries as determined by intravascular ultrasound,” Am. J. Cardiol. 98(1), 23–27 (2006).
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Libby, P.

P. Libby, “Inflammation in atherosclerosis,” Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 32(9), 2045–2051 (2012).
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F. A. Jaffer, M. A. Calfon, A. Rosenthal, G. Mallas, R. N. Razansky, A. Mauskapf, R. Weissleder, P. Libby, and V. Ntziachristos, “Two-dimensional intravascular near-infrared fluorescence molecular imaging of inflammation in atherosclerosis and stent-induced vascular injury,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 57(25), 2516–2526 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Vinegoni, I. Botnaru, E. Aikawa, M. A. Calfon, Y. Iwamoto, E. J. Folco, V. Ntziachristos, R. Weissleder, P. Libby, and F. A. Jaffer, “Indocyanine Green Enables Near-Infrared Fluorescence Imaging of Lipid-Rich, Inflamed Atherosclerotic Plaques,” Sci. Transl. Med. 3(84), 84ra45 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. A. Jaffer, C. Vinegoni, M. C. John, E. Aikawa, H. K. Gold, A. V. Finn, V. Ntziachristos, P. Libby, and R. Weissleder, “Real-time catheter molecular sensing of inflammation in proteolytically active atherosclerosis,” Circulation 118(18), 1802–1809 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Nahrendorf, F. A. Jaffer, K. A. Kelly, D. E. Sosnovik, E. Aikawa, P. Libby, and R. Weissleder, “Noninvasive vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 imaging identifies inflammatory activation of cells in atherosclerosis,” Circulation 114(14), 1504–1511 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Libby, “Atherosclerosis: disease biology affecting the coronary vasculature,” Am. J. Cardiol. 98(1212A), 3Q–9Q (2006).
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M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part II,” Circulation 108(15), 1772–1778 (2003).
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P. Libby, “Inflammation in atherosclerosis,” Nature 420(6917), 868–874 (2002).
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Litovsky, S.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part II,” Circulation 108(15), 1772–1778 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, J.

J. Bec, D. M. Ma, D. R. Yankelevich, J. Liu, W. T. Ferrier, J. Southard, and L. Marcu, “Multispectral fluorescence lifetime imaging system for intravascular diagnostics with ultrasound guidance: in vivo validation in swine arteries,” J. Biophotonics 7(5), 281–285 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lloyd-Jones, D. M.

M. D. Huffman, D. M. Lloyd-Jones, H. Ning, D. R. Labarthe, M. Guzman Castillo, M. O’Flaherty, E. S. Ford, and S. Capewell, “Quantifying options for reducing coronary heart disease mortality by 2020,” Circulation 127(25), 2477–2484 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lodder, R. A.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part II,” Circulation 108(15), 1772–1778 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ma, D. M.

J. Bec, D. M. Ma, D. R. Yankelevich, J. Liu, W. T. Ferrier, J. Southard, and L. Marcu, “Multispectral fluorescence lifetime imaging system for intravascular diagnostics with ultrasound guidance: in vivo validation in swine arteries,” J. Biophotonics 7(5), 281–285 (2014).
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Madjid, M.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part II,” Circulation 108(15), 1772–1778 (2003).
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Mallas, G.

F. A. Jaffer, M. A. Calfon, A. Rosenthal, G. Mallas, R. N. Razansky, A. Mauskapf, R. Weissleder, P. Libby, and V. Ntziachristos, “Two-dimensional intravascular near-infrared fluorescence molecular imaging of inflammation in atherosclerosis and stent-induced vascular injury,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 57(25), 2516–2526 (2011).
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March, K.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part II,” Circulation 108(15), 1772–1778 (2003).
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Marcu, L.

J. Bec, D. M. Ma, D. R. Yankelevich, J. Liu, W. T. Ferrier, J. Southard, and L. Marcu, “Multispectral fluorescence lifetime imaging system for intravascular diagnostics with ultrasound guidance: in vivo validation in swine arteries,” J. Biophotonics 7(5), 281–285 (2014).
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D. N. Stephens, J. Park, Y. Sun, T. Papaioannou, and L. Marcu, “Intraluminal fluorescence spectroscopy catheter with ultrasound guidance,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 030505 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Matteau-Pelletier, C.

L. Rouleau, R. Berti, V. W. K. Ng, C. Matteau-Pelletier, T. Lam, P. Saboural, A. K. Kakkar, F. Lesage, E. Rhéaume, and J.-C. Tardif, “VCAM-1-targeting gold nanoshell probe for photoacoustic imaging of atherosclerotic plaque in mice,” Contrast Media Mol. Imaging 8(1), 27–39 (2013).
[PubMed]

Mauskapf, A.

G. J. Ughi, J. Verjans, A. M. Fard, H. Wang, E. Osborn, T. Hara, A. Mauskapf, F. A. Jaffer, and G. J. Tearney, “Dual modality intravascular optical coherence tomography (OCT) and near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging: a fully automated algorithm for the distance-calibration of NIRF signal intensity for quantitative molecular imaging,” Int. J. Cardiovasc. Imaging 31, 259–268 (2014).
[PubMed]

F. A. Jaffer, M. A. Calfon, A. Rosenthal, G. Mallas, R. N. Razansky, A. Mauskapf, R. Weissleder, P. Libby, and V. Ntziachristos, “Two-dimensional intravascular near-infrared fluorescence molecular imaging of inflammation in atherosclerosis and stent-induced vascular injury,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 57(25), 2516–2526 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McCarthy, J. R.

H. Yoo, J. W. Kim, M. Shishkov, E. Namati, T. Morse, R. Shubochkin, J. R. McCarthy, V. Ntziachristos, B. E. Bouma, F. A. Jaffer, and G. J. Tearney, “Intra-arterial catheter for simultaneous microstructural and molecular imaging in vivo,” Nat. Med. 17(12), 1680–1684 (2011).
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Mecteau, M.

D. Busseuil, Y. Shi, M. Mecteau, G. Brand, A.-E. Kernaleguen, E. Thorin, J.-G. Latour, E. Rhéaume, and J.-C. Tardif, “Regression of aortic valve stenosis by ApoA-I mimetic peptide infusions in rabbits,” Br. J. Pharmacol. 154(4), 765–773 (2008).
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Mehran, R.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part II,” Circulation 108(15), 1772–1778 (2003).
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Mintz, G. S.

S.-J. Kang, G. S. Mintz, T. Akasaka, D.-W. Park, J.-Y. Lee, W.-J. Kim, S.-W. Lee, Y.-H. Kim, C. Whan Lee, S.-W. Park, and S.-J. Park, “Optical coherence tomographic analysis of in-stent neoatherosclerosis after drug-eluting stent implantation,” Circulation 123(25), 2954–2963 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Miwa, S.

N. D. Desai, S. Miwa, D. Kodama, G. Cohen, G. T. Christakis, B. S. Goldman, M. O. Baerlocher, M. P. Pelletier, and S. E. Fremes, “Improving the quality of coronary bypass surgery with intraoperative angiography: validation of a new technique,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 46(8), 1521–1525 (2005).
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Mordon, S.

T. Desmettre, J. M. Devoisselle, and S. Mordon, “Fluorescence Properties and Metabolic Features of Indocyanine Green (ICG) as Related to Angiography,” Surv. Ophthalmol. 45(1), 15–27 (2000).
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Moreno, P.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part II,” Circulation 108(15), 1772–1778 (2003).
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Morooka, T.

S. Tahara, T. Morooka, Z. Wang, H. G. Bezerra, A. M. Rollins, D. I. Simon, and M. A. Costa, “Intravascular optical coherence tomography detection of atherosclerosis and inflammation in murine aorta,” Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 32(5), 1150–1157 (2012).
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Morse, T.

H. Yoo, J. W. Kim, M. Shishkov, E. Namati, T. Morse, R. Shubochkin, J. R. McCarthy, V. Ntziachristos, B. E. Bouma, F. A. Jaffer, and G. J. Tearney, “Intra-arterial catheter for simultaneous microstructural and molecular imaging in vivo,” Nat. Med. 17(12), 1680–1684 (2011).
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Muller, J. E.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part II,” Circulation 108(15), 1772–1778 (2003).
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Naghavi, M.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part II,” Circulation 108(15), 1772–1778 (2003).
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Nahrendorf, M.

M. Nahrendorf, F. A. Jaffer, K. A. Kelly, D. E. Sosnovik, E. Aikawa, P. Libby, and R. Weissleder, “Noninvasive vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 imaging identifies inflammatory activation of cells in atherosclerosis,” Circulation 114(14), 1504–1511 (2006).
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Nam, H. S.

S. Lee, M. W. Lee, H. S. Cho, J. W. Song, H. S. Nam, D. J. Oh, K. Park, W.-Y. Oh, H. Yoo, and J. W. Kim, “Fully integrated high-speed intravascular optical coherence tomography/near-infrared fluorescence structural/molecular imaging in vivo using a clinically available near-infrared fluorescence-emitting indocyanine green to detect inflamed lipid-rich atheromata in coronary-sized vessels,” Circ. Cardiovasc. Interv. 7(4), 560–569 (2014).
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Namati, E.

H. Yoo, J. W. Kim, M. Shishkov, E. Namati, T. Morse, R. Shubochkin, J. R. McCarthy, V. Ntziachristos, B. E. Bouma, F. A. Jaffer, and G. J. Tearney, “Intra-arterial catheter for simultaneous microstructural and molecular imaging in vivo,” Nat. Med. 17(12), 1680–1684 (2011).
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Navab, M.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part II,” Circulation 108(15), 1772–1778 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ng, V. W. K.

L. Rouleau, R. Berti, V. W. K. Ng, C. Matteau-Pelletier, T. Lam, P. Saboural, A. K. Kakkar, F. Lesage, E. Rhéaume, and J.-C. Tardif, “VCAM-1-targeting gold nanoshell probe for photoacoustic imaging of atherosclerotic plaque in mice,” Contrast Media Mol. Imaging 8(1), 27–39 (2013).
[PubMed]

Ning, H.

M. D. Huffman, D. M. Lloyd-Jones, H. Ning, D. R. Labarthe, M. Guzman Castillo, M. O’Flaherty, E. S. Ford, and S. Capewell, “Quantifying options for reducing coronary heart disease mortality by 2020,” Circulation 127(25), 2477–2484 (2013).
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S. E. Nissen and P. Yock, “Intravascular ultrasound: novel pathophysiological insights and current clinical applications,” Circulation 103(4), 604–616 (2001).
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Ntziachristos, V.

F. A. Jaffer, M. A. Calfon, A. Rosenthal, G. Mallas, R. N. Razansky, A. Mauskapf, R. Weissleder, P. Libby, and V. Ntziachristos, “Two-dimensional intravascular near-infrared fluorescence molecular imaging of inflammation in atherosclerosis and stent-induced vascular injury,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 57(25), 2516–2526 (2011).
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C. Vinegoni, I. Botnaru, E. Aikawa, M. A. Calfon, Y. Iwamoto, E. J. Folco, V. Ntziachristos, R. Weissleder, P. Libby, and F. A. Jaffer, “Indocyanine Green Enables Near-Infrared Fluorescence Imaging of Lipid-Rich, Inflamed Atherosclerotic Plaques,” Sci. Transl. Med. 3(84), 84ra45 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yoo, J. W. Kim, M. Shishkov, E. Namati, T. Morse, R. Shubochkin, J. R. McCarthy, V. Ntziachristos, B. E. Bouma, F. A. Jaffer, and G. J. Tearney, “Intra-arterial catheter for simultaneous microstructural and molecular imaging in vivo,” Nat. Med. 17(12), 1680–1684 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. A. Jaffer, C. Vinegoni, M. C. John, E. Aikawa, H. K. Gold, A. V. Finn, V. Ntziachristos, P. Libby, and R. Weissleder, “Real-time catheter molecular sensing of inflammation in proteolytically active atherosclerosis,” Circulation 118(18), 1802–1809 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O’Flaherty, M.

M. D. Huffman, D. M. Lloyd-Jones, H. Ning, D. R. Labarthe, M. Guzman Castillo, M. O’Flaherty, E. S. Ford, and S. Capewell, “Quantifying options for reducing coronary heart disease mortality by 2020,” Circulation 127(25), 2477–2484 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Oh, D. J.

S. Lee, M. W. Lee, H. S. Cho, J. W. Song, H. S. Nam, D. J. Oh, K. Park, W.-Y. Oh, H. Yoo, and J. W. Kim, “Fully integrated high-speed intravascular optical coherence tomography/near-infrared fluorescence structural/molecular imaging in vivo using a clinically available near-infrared fluorescence-emitting indocyanine green to detect inflamed lipid-rich atheromata in coronary-sized vessels,” Circ. Cardiovasc. Interv. 7(4), 560–569 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Oh, W.-Y.

S. Lee, M. W. Lee, H. S. Cho, J. W. Song, H. S. Nam, D. J. Oh, K. Park, W.-Y. Oh, H. Yoo, and J. W. Kim, “Fully integrated high-speed intravascular optical coherence tomography/near-infrared fluorescence structural/molecular imaging in vivo using a clinically available near-infrared fluorescence-emitting indocyanine green to detect inflamed lipid-rich atheromata in coronary-sized vessels,” Circ. Cardiovasc. Interv. 7(4), 560–569 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Osborn, E.

G. J. Ughi, J. Verjans, A. M. Fard, H. Wang, E. Osborn, T. Hara, A. Mauskapf, F. A. Jaffer, and G. J. Tearney, “Dual modality intravascular optical coherence tomography (OCT) and near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging: a fully automated algorithm for the distance-calibration of NIRF signal intensity for quantitative molecular imaging,” Int. J. Cardiovasc. Imaging 31, 259–268 (2014).
[PubMed]

Papaioannou, T.

D. N. Stephens, J. Park, Y. Sun, T. Papaioannou, and L. Marcu, “Intraluminal fluorescence spectroscopy catheter with ultrasound guidance,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 030505 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, D.-W.

S.-J. Kang, G. S. Mintz, T. Akasaka, D.-W. Park, J.-Y. Lee, W.-J. Kim, S.-W. Lee, Y.-H. Kim, C. Whan Lee, S.-W. Park, and S.-J. Park, “Optical coherence tomographic analysis of in-stent neoatherosclerosis after drug-eluting stent implantation,” Circulation 123(25), 2954–2963 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, J.

D. N. Stephens, J. Park, Y. Sun, T. Papaioannou, and L. Marcu, “Intraluminal fluorescence spectroscopy catheter with ultrasound guidance,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 030505 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, K.

S. Lee, M. W. Lee, H. S. Cho, J. W. Song, H. S. Nam, D. J. Oh, K. Park, W.-Y. Oh, H. Yoo, and J. W. Kim, “Fully integrated high-speed intravascular optical coherence tomography/near-infrared fluorescence structural/molecular imaging in vivo using a clinically available near-infrared fluorescence-emitting indocyanine green to detect inflamed lipid-rich atheromata in coronary-sized vessels,” Circ. Cardiovasc. Interv. 7(4), 560–569 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, S.-J.

S.-J. Kang, G. S. Mintz, T. Akasaka, D.-W. Park, J.-Y. Lee, W.-J. Kim, S.-W. Lee, Y.-H. Kim, C. Whan Lee, S.-W. Park, and S.-J. Park, “Optical coherence tomographic analysis of in-stent neoatherosclerosis after drug-eluting stent implantation,” Circulation 123(25), 2954–2963 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, S.-W.

S.-J. Kang, G. S. Mintz, T. Akasaka, D.-W. Park, J.-Y. Lee, W.-J. Kim, S.-W. Lee, Y.-H. Kim, C. Whan Lee, S.-W. Park, and S.-J. Park, “Optical coherence tomographic analysis of in-stent neoatherosclerosis after drug-eluting stent implantation,” Circulation 123(25), 2954–2963 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pasterkamp, G.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part II,” Circulation 108(15), 1772–1778 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pelletier, M. P.

N. D. Desai, S. Miwa, D. Kodama, G. Cohen, G. T. Christakis, B. S. Goldman, M. O. Baerlocher, M. P. Pelletier, and S. E. Fremes, “Improving the quality of coronary bypass surgery with intraoperative angiography: validation of a new technique,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 46(8), 1521–1525 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pressacco, J.

J.-C. Tardif, F. Lesage, F. Harel, P. Romeo, and J. Pressacco, “Imaging Biomarkers in Atherosclerosis Trials,” Circ Cardiovasc Imaging 4(3), 319–333 (2011).
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Priori, S. G.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part II,” Circulation 108(15), 1772–1778 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Raggi, P.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part II,” Circulation 108(15), 1772–1778 (2003).
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Razansky, R. N.

F. A. Jaffer, M. A. Calfon, A. Rosenthal, G. Mallas, R. N. Razansky, A. Mauskapf, R. Weissleder, P. Libby, and V. Ntziachristos, “Two-dimensional intravascular near-infrared fluorescence molecular imaging of inflammation in atherosclerosis and stent-induced vascular injury,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 57(25), 2516–2526 (2011).
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Rekhter, M. D.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part II,” Circulation 108(15), 1772–1778 (2003).
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Rhéaume, E.

L. Rouleau, R. Berti, V. W. K. Ng, C. Matteau-Pelletier, T. Lam, P. Saboural, A. K. Kakkar, F. Lesage, E. Rhéaume, and J.-C. Tardif, “VCAM-1-targeting gold nanoshell probe for photoacoustic imaging of atherosclerotic plaque in mice,” Contrast Media Mol. Imaging 8(1), 27–39 (2013).
[PubMed]

D. Busseuil, Y. Shi, M. Mecteau, G. Brand, A.-E. Kernaleguen, E. Thorin, J.-G. Latour, E. Rhéaume, and J.-C. Tardif, “Regression of aortic valve stenosis by ApoA-I mimetic peptide infusions in rabbits,” Br. J. Pharmacol. 154(4), 765–773 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ridker, P. M.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part II,” Circulation 108(15), 1772–1778 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rollins, A. M.

S. Tahara, T. Morooka, Z. Wang, H. G. Bezerra, A. M. Rollins, D. I. Simon, and M. A. Costa, “Intravascular optical coherence tomography detection of atherosclerosis and inflammation in murine aorta,” Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 32(5), 1150–1157 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Romeo, P.

J.-C. Tardif, F. Lesage, F. Harel, P. Romeo, and J. Pressacco, “Imaging Biomarkers in Atherosclerosis Trials,” Circ Cardiovasc Imaging 4(3), 319–333 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rosenthal, A.

F. A. Jaffer, M. A. Calfon, A. Rosenthal, G. Mallas, R. N. Razansky, A. Mauskapf, R. Weissleder, P. Libby, and V. Ntziachristos, “Two-dimensional intravascular near-infrared fluorescence molecular imaging of inflammation in atherosclerosis and stent-induced vascular injury,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 57(25), 2516–2526 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rouleau, L.

L. Rouleau, R. Berti, V. W. K. Ng, C. Matteau-Pelletier, T. Lam, P. Saboural, A. K. Kakkar, F. Lesage, E. Rhéaume, and J.-C. Tardif, “VCAM-1-targeting gold nanoshell probe for photoacoustic imaging of atherosclerotic plaque in mice,” Contrast Media Mol. Imaging 8(1), 27–39 (2013).
[PubMed]

Rumberger, J.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part II,” Circulation 108(15), 1772–1778 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Saboural, P.

L. Rouleau, R. Berti, V. W. K. Ng, C. Matteau-Pelletier, T. Lam, P. Saboural, A. K. Kakkar, F. Lesage, E. Rhéaume, and J.-C. Tardif, “VCAM-1-targeting gold nanoshell probe for photoacoustic imaging of atherosclerotic plaque in mice,” Contrast Media Mol. Imaging 8(1), 27–39 (2013).
[PubMed]

Saito, T.

S. Yoneya, T. Saito, Y. Komatsu, I. Koyama, K. Takahashi, and J. Duvoll-Young, “Binding properties of indocyanine green in human blood,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 39(7), 1286–1290 (1998).
[PubMed]

Schwartz, R. S.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part II,” Circulation 108(15), 1772–1778 (2003).
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Serruys, P. W.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part II,” Circulation 108(15), 1772–1778 (2003).
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Shah, P. K.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part II,” Circulation 108(15), 1772–1778 (2003).
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D. Busseuil, Y. Shi, M. Mecteau, G. Brand, A.-E. Kernaleguen, E. Thorin, J.-G. Latour, E. Rhéaume, and J.-C. Tardif, “Regression of aortic valve stenosis by ApoA-I mimetic peptide infusions in rabbits,” Br. J. Pharmacol. 154(4), 765–773 (2008).
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H. Yoo, J. W. Kim, M. Shishkov, E. Namati, T. Morse, R. Shubochkin, J. R. McCarthy, V. Ntziachristos, B. E. Bouma, F. A. Jaffer, and G. J. Tearney, “Intra-arterial catheter for simultaneous microstructural and molecular imaging in vivo,” Nat. Med. 17(12), 1680–1684 (2011).
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H. Yoo, J. W. Kim, M. Shishkov, E. Namati, T. Morse, R. Shubochkin, J. R. McCarthy, V. Ntziachristos, B. E. Bouma, F. A. Jaffer, and G. J. Tearney, “Intra-arterial catheter for simultaneous microstructural and molecular imaging in vivo,” Nat. Med. 17(12), 1680–1684 (2011).
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S. Tahara, T. Morooka, Z. Wang, H. G. Bezerra, A. M. Rollins, D. I. Simon, and M. A. Costa, “Intravascular optical coherence tomography detection of atherosclerosis and inflammation in murine aorta,” Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 32(5), 1150–1157 (2012).
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Siscovick, D. S.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part II,” Circulation 108(15), 1772–1778 (2003).
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B. M. Wallis de Vries, J.-L. Hillebrands, G. M. van Dam, R. A. Tio, J. S. de Jong, R. H. J. A. Slart, and C. J. Zeebregts, “Images in cardiovascular medicine. Multispectral near-infrared fluorescence molecular imaging of matrix metalloproteinases in a human carotid plaque using a matrix-degrading metalloproteinase-sensitive activatable fluorescent probe,” Circulation 119(20), e534–e536 (2009).
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M. Nahrendorf, F. A. Jaffer, K. A. Kelly, D. E. Sosnovik, E. Aikawa, P. Libby, and R. Weissleder, “Noninvasive vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 imaging identifies inflammatory activation of cells in atherosclerosis,” Circulation 114(14), 1504–1511 (2006).
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J. Bec, D. M. Ma, D. R. Yankelevich, J. Liu, W. T. Ferrier, J. Southard, and L. Marcu, “Multispectral fluorescence lifetime imaging system for intravascular diagnostics with ultrasound guidance: in vivo validation in swine arteries,” J. Biophotonics 7(5), 281–285 (2014).
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M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part II,” Circulation 108(15), 1772–1778 (2003).
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M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part II,” Circulation 108(15), 1772–1778 (2003).
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Sun, Y.

D. N. Stephens, J. Park, Y. Sun, T. Papaioannou, and L. Marcu, “Intraluminal fluorescence spectroscopy catheter with ultrasound guidance,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 030505 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tahara, S.

S. Tahara, T. Morooka, Z. Wang, H. G. Bezerra, A. M. Rollins, D. I. Simon, and M. A. Costa, “Intravascular optical coherence tomography detection of atherosclerosis and inflammation in murine aorta,” Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 32(5), 1150–1157 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Takahashi, K.

S. Yoneya, T. Saito, Y. Komatsu, I. Koyama, K. Takahashi, and J. Duvoll-Young, “Binding properties of indocyanine green in human blood,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 39(7), 1286–1290 (1998).
[PubMed]

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L. Rouleau, R. Berti, V. W. K. Ng, C. Matteau-Pelletier, T. Lam, P. Saboural, A. K. Kakkar, F. Lesage, E. Rhéaume, and J.-C. Tardif, “VCAM-1-targeting gold nanoshell probe for photoacoustic imaging of atherosclerotic plaque in mice,” Contrast Media Mol. Imaging 8(1), 27–39 (2013).
[PubMed]

J.-C. Tardif, F. Lesage, F. Harel, P. Romeo, and J. Pressacco, “Imaging Biomarkers in Atherosclerosis Trials,” Circ Cardiovasc Imaging 4(3), 319–333 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Busseuil, Y. Shi, M. Mecteau, G. Brand, A.-E. Kernaleguen, E. Thorin, J.-G. Latour, E. Rhéaume, and J.-C. Tardif, “Regression of aortic valve stenosis by ApoA-I mimetic peptide infusions in rabbits,” Br. J. Pharmacol. 154(4), 765–773 (2008).
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[PubMed]

H. Yoo, J. W. Kim, M. Shishkov, E. Namati, T. Morse, R. Shubochkin, J. R. McCarthy, V. Ntziachristos, B. E. Bouma, F. A. Jaffer, and G. J. Tearney, “Intra-arterial catheter for simultaneous microstructural and molecular imaging in vivo,” Nat. Med. 17(12), 1680–1684 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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D. Busseuil, Y. Shi, M. Mecteau, G. Brand, A.-E. Kernaleguen, E. Thorin, J.-G. Latour, E. Rhéaume, and J.-C. Tardif, “Regression of aortic valve stenosis by ApoA-I mimetic peptide infusions in rabbits,” Br. J. Pharmacol. 154(4), 765–773 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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B. M. Wallis de Vries, J.-L. Hillebrands, G. M. van Dam, R. A. Tio, J. S. de Jong, R. H. J. A. Slart, and C. J. Zeebregts, “Images in cardiovascular medicine. Multispectral near-infrared fluorescence molecular imaging of matrix metalloproteinases in a human carotid plaque using a matrix-degrading metalloproteinase-sensitive activatable fluorescent probe,” Circulation 119(20), e534–e536 (2009).
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Virmani, R.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part II,” Circulation 108(15), 1772–1778 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vogel, R.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part II,” Circulation 108(15), 1772–1778 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wallis de Vries, B. M.

B. M. Wallis de Vries, J.-L. Hillebrands, G. M. van Dam, R. A. Tio, J. S. de Jong, R. H. J. A. Slart, and C. J. Zeebregts, “Images in cardiovascular medicine. Multispectral near-infrared fluorescence molecular imaging of matrix metalloproteinases in a human carotid plaque using a matrix-degrading metalloproteinase-sensitive activatable fluorescent probe,” Circulation 119(20), e534–e536 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, H.

G. J. Ughi, J. Verjans, A. M. Fard, H. Wang, E. Osborn, T. Hara, A. Mauskapf, F. A. Jaffer, and G. J. Tearney, “Dual modality intravascular optical coherence tomography (OCT) and near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging: a fully automated algorithm for the distance-calibration of NIRF signal intensity for quantitative molecular imaging,” Int. J. Cardiovasc. Imaging 31, 259–268 (2014).
[PubMed]

Wang, Z.

S. Tahara, T. Morooka, Z. Wang, H. G. Bezerra, A. M. Rollins, D. I. Simon, and M. A. Costa, “Intravascular optical coherence tomography detection of atherosclerosis and inflammation in murine aorta,” Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 32(5), 1150–1157 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Waxman, S.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part II,” Circulation 108(15), 1772–1778 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weissleder, R.

F. A. Jaffer, M. A. Calfon, A. Rosenthal, G. Mallas, R. N. Razansky, A. Mauskapf, R. Weissleder, P. Libby, and V. Ntziachristos, “Two-dimensional intravascular near-infrared fluorescence molecular imaging of inflammation in atherosclerosis and stent-induced vascular injury,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 57(25), 2516–2526 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Vinegoni, I. Botnaru, E. Aikawa, M. A. Calfon, Y. Iwamoto, E. J. Folco, V. Ntziachristos, R. Weissleder, P. Libby, and F. A. Jaffer, “Indocyanine Green Enables Near-Infrared Fluorescence Imaging of Lipid-Rich, Inflamed Atherosclerotic Plaques,” Sci. Transl. Med. 3(84), 84ra45 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. A. Jaffer, C. Vinegoni, M. C. John, E. Aikawa, H. K. Gold, A. V. Finn, V. Ntziachristos, P. Libby, and R. Weissleder, “Real-time catheter molecular sensing of inflammation in proteolytically active atherosclerosis,” Circulation 118(18), 1802–1809 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Nahrendorf, F. A. Jaffer, K. A. Kelly, D. E. Sosnovik, E. Aikawa, P. Libby, and R. Weissleder, “Noninvasive vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 imaging identifies inflammatory activation of cells in atherosclerosis,” Circulation 114(14), 1504–1511 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Whan Lee, C.

S.-J. Kang, G. S. Mintz, T. Akasaka, D.-W. Park, J.-Y. Lee, W.-J. Kim, S.-W. Lee, Y.-H. Kim, C. Whan Lee, S.-W. Park, and S.-J. Park, “Optical coherence tomographic analysis of in-stent neoatherosclerosis after drug-eluting stent implantation,” Circulation 123(25), 2954–2963 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Willerson, J. T.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part II,” Circulation 108(15), 1772–1778 (2003).
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Wray, S.

D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, P. van der Zee, S. Arridge, S. Wray, and J. Wyatt, “Estimation of optical pathlength through tissue from direct time of flight measurement,” Phys. Med. Biol. 33(12), 1433–1442 (1988).
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Wyatt, J.

D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, P. van der Zee, S. Arridge, S. Wray, and J. Wyatt, “Estimation of optical pathlength through tissue from direct time of flight measurement,” Phys. Med. Biol. 33(12), 1433–1442 (1988).
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Yankelevich, D. R.

J. Bec, D. M. Ma, D. R. Yankelevich, J. Liu, W. T. Ferrier, J. Southard, and L. Marcu, “Multispectral fluorescence lifetime imaging system for intravascular diagnostics with ultrasound guidance: in vivo validation in swine arteries,” J. Biophotonics 7(5), 281–285 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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S. E. Nissen and P. Yock, “Intravascular ultrasound: novel pathophysiological insights and current clinical applications,” Circulation 103(4), 604–616 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yoneya, S.

S. Yoneya, T. Saito, Y. Komatsu, I. Koyama, K. Takahashi, and J. Duvoll-Young, “Binding properties of indocyanine green in human blood,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 39(7), 1286–1290 (1998).
[PubMed]

Yoo, H.

S. Lee, M. W. Lee, H. S. Cho, J. W. Song, H. S. Nam, D. J. Oh, K. Park, W.-Y. Oh, H. Yoo, and J. W. Kim, “Fully integrated high-speed intravascular optical coherence tomography/near-infrared fluorescence structural/molecular imaging in vivo using a clinically available near-infrared fluorescence-emitting indocyanine green to detect inflamed lipid-rich atheromata in coronary-sized vessels,” Circ. Cardiovasc. Interv. 7(4), 560–569 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yoo, J. W. Kim, M. Shishkov, E. Namati, T. Morse, R. Shubochkin, J. R. McCarthy, V. Ntziachristos, B. E. Bouma, F. A. Jaffer, and G. J. Tearney, “Intra-arterial catheter for simultaneous microstructural and molecular imaging in vivo,” Nat. Med. 17(12), 1680–1684 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yuan, C.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part II,” Circulation 108(15), 1772–1778 (2003).
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D. N. Ku, D. P. Giddens, C. K. Zarins, and S. Glagov, “Pulsatile flow and atherosclerosis in the human carotid bifurcation. Positive correlation between plaque location and low oscillating shear stress,” Arteriosclerosis 5(3), 293–302 (1985).
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Zarrabi, A.

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part II,” Circulation 108(15), 1772–1778 (2003).
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Zeebregts, C. J.

B. M. Wallis de Vries, J.-L. Hillebrands, G. M. van Dam, R. A. Tio, J. S. de Jong, R. H. J. A. Slart, and C. J. Zeebregts, “Images in cardiovascular medicine. Multispectral near-infrared fluorescence molecular imaging of matrix metalloproteinases in a human carotid plaque using a matrix-degrading metalloproteinase-sensitive activatable fluorescent probe,” Circulation 119(20), e534–e536 (2009).
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M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part II,” Circulation 108(15), 1772–1778 (2003).
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D. N. Ku, D. P. Giddens, C. K. Zarins, and S. Glagov, “Pulsatile flow and atherosclerosis in the human carotid bifurcation. Positive correlation between plaque location and low oscillating shear stress,” Arteriosclerosis 5(3), 293–302 (1985).
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Circulation (7)

M. Naghavi, P. Libby, E. Falk, S. W. Casscells, S. Litovsky, J. Rumberger, J. J. Badimon, C. Stefanadis, P. Moreno, G. Pasterkamp, Z. Fayad, P. H. Stone, S. Waxman, P. Raggi, M. Madjid, A. Zarrabi, A. Burke, C. Yuan, P. J. Fitzgerald, D. S. Siscovick, C. L. de Korte, M. Aikawa, K. E. Airaksinen, G. Assmann, C. R. Becker, J. H. Chesebro, A. Farb, Z. S. Galis, C. Jackson, I. K. Jang, W. Koenig, R. A. Lodder, K. March, J. Demirovic, M. Navab, S. G. Priori, M. D. Rekhter, R. Bahr, S. M. Grundy, R. Mehran, A. Colombo, E. Boerwinkle, C. Ballantyne, W. Insull, R. S. Schwartz, R. Vogel, P. W. Serruys, G. K. Hansson, D. P. Faxon, S. Kaul, H. Drexler, P. Greenland, J. E. Muller, R. Virmani, P. M. Ridker, D. P. Zipes, P. K. Shah, and J. T. Willerson, “From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part II,” Circulation 108(15), 1772–1778 (2003).
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S.-J. Kang, G. S. Mintz, T. Akasaka, D.-W. Park, J.-Y. Lee, W.-J. Kim, S.-W. Lee, Y.-H. Kim, C. Whan Lee, S.-W. Park, and S.-J. Park, “Optical coherence tomographic analysis of in-stent neoatherosclerosis after drug-eluting stent implantation,” Circulation 123(25), 2954–2963 (2011).
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F. A. Jaffer, C. Vinegoni, M. C. John, E. Aikawa, H. K. Gold, A. V. Finn, V. Ntziachristos, P. Libby, and R. Weissleder, “Real-time catheter molecular sensing of inflammation in proteolytically active atherosclerosis,” Circulation 118(18), 1802–1809 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Nahrendorf, F. A. Jaffer, K. A. Kelly, D. E. Sosnovik, E. Aikawa, P. Libby, and R. Weissleder, “Noninvasive vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 imaging identifies inflammatory activation of cells in atherosclerosis,” Circulation 114(14), 1504–1511 (2006).
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B. M. Wallis de Vries, J.-L. Hillebrands, G. M. van Dam, R. A. Tio, J. S. de Jong, R. H. J. A. Slart, and C. J. Zeebregts, “Images in cardiovascular medicine. Multispectral near-infrared fluorescence molecular imaging of matrix metalloproteinases in a human carotid plaque using a matrix-degrading metalloproteinase-sensitive activatable fluorescent probe,” Circulation 119(20), e534–e536 (2009).
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S. Yoneya, T. Saito, Y. Komatsu, I. Koyama, K. Takahashi, and J. Duvoll-Young, “Binding properties of indocyanine green in human blood,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 39(7), 1286–1290 (1998).
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[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Overview of the IVUS-NIRF imaging system with a diagram of the catheter’s tip. PMT stands for photomultiplier tube and is the optical detector in NIRF.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Ex vivo near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) images of rabbit aortas. Each column represents a different group, with 3 rabbits per group. Rabbit aortas were cut in two sections to fit in the field of view of the imaging system. For each panel, the upper part represents the aortic arch, the thoracic aorta and the proximal abdominal aorta. The lower part represents the continuation of the abdominal aorta and the left (top) and right (bottom) iliac arteries. Green brackets indicate areas of balloon injury. A.U., arbitrary units.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Signal comparison for selected arterial segments in ex vivo near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) images. The distal 0-40 mm abdominal aorta and the right iliac artery are the balloon-injured regions, when performed. The ratios were obtained by dividing the mean right iliac artery (or distal 0-40 mm abdominal aorta) signal by the mean left iliac artery (or distal 40-80 mm abdominal aorta) signal for each animal. The error bars are the standard errors on the mean for the three rabbits of each group.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Paired ex vivo near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) and white light images of three longitudinally opened rabbit aortas, one for each group. (a, c, e) Ex vivo fluorescence images of excised aorta and iliac arteries showing increased ICG-accumulation in balloon-injured areas and in rabbits fed a cholesterol-enriched diet. (b, d, f) White light images of excised aorta and iliac arteries showing corresponding macroscopic plaque formation. The red circle shows scar tissue caused by the balloon injury. The green arrows show the regions that underwent balloon injury, including the right iliac artery (bottom).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Integrated intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging in vivo. (a-e) Integrated IVUS/NIRF images of aortic segments of rabbits fed a cholesterol-enriched diet; (f) image of a rabbit on a regular diet, outside balloon-dilated area. The contour in the IVUS image represents the fluorescence signal intensity. Red arrows show increased echogenicity in (a, e) and intimal thickening in (b, f). Scale bar is 1 mm. A.U., arbitrary units.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Comparison of in vivo and ex vivo near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) images and corresponding white light images of rabbit aortas. (a, e) In vivo fluorescence imaging; (b, f) corresponding ex vivo fluorescence imaging; (c, g) white light images of longitudinally opened abdominal aorta and iliac arteries of 2 balloon-injured rabbits. The green arrows show the regions that underwent balloon injury, including the right iliac artery (bottom). The red arrows show corresponding enhanced ICG-accumulation visible in both in vivo and ex vivo fluorescence imaging. (d, h) Integrated intravascular ultrasound (IVUS)/NIRF cross-sectional images at the locations indicated by the red arrows.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Effect of blood attenuation compensation on in vivo fluorescence images. (a, d, g) In vivo fluorescence images of the abdominal aortas of 3 rabbits without blood attenuation compensation; (b, e, h) Corresponding in vivo fluorescence images after blood attenuation compensation; (c, f) Corresponding ex vivo fluorescence images; (g, h) Integrated intravascular ultrasound (IVUS)/near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) cross-sectional images (g) without and (h) with blood attenuation compensation.

Equations (1)

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F c ( θ )= F m ( θ ) e 2µd(θ)

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