Abstract

Visualization of cellular dynamics in the gastrointestinal tract of living mouse model to investigate the pathophysiology has been a long-pursuing goal. Especially, for chronic disease such as Crohn’s disease, a longitudinal observation of the luminal surface of the small intestine in the single mouse is highly desirable to investigate the complex pathogenesis in sequential time points. In this work, by utilizing a micro-GRIN lens based side-view endomicroscope integrated into a video-rate confocal microscopy system, we successfully performed minimally-invasive in vivo cellular-level visualization of various fluorescent cells and microvasculature in the small intestinal villi. Also, with a transgenic mouse universally expressing photoconvertible protein, Kaede, we demonstrated repetitive cellular-level confocal endoscopic visualization of same area in the small intestinal lumen of a single mouse, which revealed the continuous homeostatic renewal of the small intestinal epithelium.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
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References

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  22. I. Choi, H. K. Chung, S. Ramu, H. N. Lee, K. E. Kim, S. Lee, J. Yoo, D. Choi, Y. S. Lee, B. Aguilar, and Y. K. Hong, “Visualization of lymphatic vessels by Prox1-promoter directed GFP reporter in a bacterial artificial chromosome-based transgenic mouse,” Blood 117(1), 362–365 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (1)

H. Seo, Y. Hwang, K. Choe, and P. Kim, “In vivo image-based quantitation of circulating tumor cells by real-time video-rate confocal microscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 32(3), 237–238 (2015).

2014 (3)

2013 (4)

K. Choe, Y. Hwang, H. Seo, and P. Kim, “In vivo high spatiotemporal resolution visualization of circulating T lymphocytes in high endothelial venules of lymph nodes,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(3), 036005 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Kang, R. W. Carruth, M. Kim, S. C. Schlachter, M. Shishkov, K. Woods, N. Tabatabaei, T. Wu, and G. J. Tearney, “Endoscopic probe optics for spectrally encoded confocal microscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(10), 1925–1936 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. M. Huland, K. Charan, D. G. Ouzounov, J. S. Jones, N. Nishimura, and C. Xu, “Three-photon excited fluorescence imaging of unstained tissue using a GRIN lens endoscope,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(5), 652–658 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Barker, “Adult intestinal stem cells: critical drivers of epithelial homeostasis and regeneration,” Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 15(1), 19–33 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (3)

J. R. McDole, L. W. Wheeler, K. G. McDonald, B. Wang, V. Konjufca, K. A. Knoop, R. D. Newberry, and M. J. Miller, “Goblet cells deliver luminal antigen to CD103+ dendritic cells in the small intestine,” Nature 483(7389), 345–349 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Foersch, A. Heimann, A. Ayyad, G. A. Spoden, L. Florin, K. Mpoukouvalas, R. Kiesslich, O. Kempski, M. Goetz, and P. Charalampaki, “Confocal laser endomicroscopy for diagnosis and histomorphologic imaging of brain tumors in vivo,” PLoS One 7(7), e41760 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. K. Kim, W. M. Lee, P. Kim, M. Choi, K. Jung, S. Kim, and S. H. Yun, “Fabrication and operation of GRIN probes for in vivo fluorescence cellular imaging of internal organs in small animals,” Nat. Protoc. 7(8), 1456–1469 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (4)

H. Tian, B. Biehs, S. Warming, K. G. Leong, L. Rangell, O. D. Klein, and F. J. de Sauvage, “A reserve stem cell population in small intestine renders Lgr5-positive cells dispensable,” Nature 478(7368), 255–259 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Merlos-Suárez, F. M. Barriga, P. Jung, M. Iglesias, M. V. Céspedes, D. Rossell, M. Sevillano, X. Hernando-Momblona, V. da Silva-Diz, P. Muñoz, H. Clevers, E. Sancho, R. Mangues, and E. Batlle, “The intestinal stem cell signature identifies colorectal cancer stem cells and predicts disease relapse,” Cell Stem Cell 8(5), 511–524 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Moussata, M. Goetz, A. Gloeckner, M. Kerner, B. Campbell, A. Hoffman, S. Biesterfeld, B. Flourie, J. C. Saurin, P. R. Galle, M. F. Neurath, A. J. Watson, and R. Kiesslich, “Confocal laser endomicroscopy is a new imaging modality for recognition of intramucosal bacteria in inflammatory bowel disease in vivo,” Gut 60(1), 26–33 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Choi, H. K. Chung, S. Ramu, H. N. Lee, K. E. Kim, S. Lee, J. Yoo, D. Choi, Y. S. Lee, B. Aguilar, and Y. K. Hong, “Visualization of lymphatic vessels by Prox1-promoter directed GFP reporter in a bacterial artificial chromosome-based transgenic mouse,” Blood 117(1), 362–365 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (4)

C. Varol, E. Zigmond, and S. Jung, “Securing the immune tightrope: mononuclear phagocytes in the intestinal lamina propria,” Nat. Rev. Immunol. 10(6), 415–426 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Kim, E. Chung, H. Yamashita, K. E. Hung, A. Mizoguchi, R. Kucherlapati, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and S. H. Yun, “In vivo wide-area cellular imaging by side-view endomicroscopy,” Nat. Methods 7(4), 303–305 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Foersch, R. Kiesslich, M. J. Waldner, P. Delaney, P. R. Galle, M. F. Neurath, and M. Goetz, “Molecular imaging of VEGF in gastrointestinal cancer in vivo using confocal laser endomicroscopy,” Gut 59(8), 1046–1055 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Cadwell, K. K. Patel, N. S. Maloney, T. C. Liu, A. C. Ng, C. E. Storer, R. D. Head, R. Xavier, T. S. Stappenbeck, and H. W. Virgin, “Virus-plus-susceptibility gene interaction determines Crohn’s disease gene Atg16L1 phenotypes in intestine,” Cell 141(7), 1135–1145 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

J. Zhu, B. Lee, K. K. Buhman, and J. X. Cheng, “A dynamic, cytoplasmic triacylglycerol pool in enterocytes revealed by ex vivo and in vivo coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering imaging,” J. Lipid Res. 50(6), 1080–1089 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

S. K. Mazmanian, J. L. Round, and D. L. Kasper, “A microbial symbiosis factor prevents intestinal inflammatory disease,” Nature 453(7195), 620–625 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Tomura, N. Yoshida, J. Tanaka, S. Karasawa, Y. Miwa, A. Miyawaki, and O. Kanagawa, “Monitoring cellular movement in vivo with photoconvertible fluorescence protein “Kaede” transgenic mice,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(31), 10871–10876 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

M. Latta, K. Mohan, and T. B. Issekutz, “CXCR6 is expressed on T cells in both T helper type 1 (Th1) inflammation and allergen-induced Th2 lung inflammation but is only a weak mediator of chemotaxis,” Immunology 121(4), 555–564 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. J. Xavier and D. K. Podolsky, “Unravelling the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease,” Nature 448(7152), 427–434 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

M. Chieppa, M. Rescigno, A. Y. Huang, and R. N. Germain, “Dynamic imaging of dendritic cell extension into the small bowel lumen in response to epithelial cell TLR engagement,” J. Exp. Med. 203(13), 2841–2852 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

M. Gironella, J. L. Iovanna, M. Sans, F. Gil, M. Peñalva, D. Closa, R. Miquel, J. M. Piqué, and J. Panés, “Anti-inflammatory effects of pancreatitis associated protein in inflammatory bowel disease,” Gut 54(9), 1244–1253 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

E. V. Loftus., “Clinical epidemiology of inflammatory bowel disease: incidence, prevalence, and environmental influences,” Gastroenterology 126(6), 1504–1517 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

G. Bouma and W. Strober, “The immunological and genetic basis of inflammatory bowel disease,” Nat. Rev. Immunol. 3(7), 521–533 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

R. Ando, H. Hama, M. Yamamoto-Hino, H. Mizuno, and A. Miyawaki, “An optical marker based on the UV-induced green-to-red photoconversion of a fluorescent protein,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99(20), 12651–12656 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aguilar, B.

I. Choi, H. K. Chung, S. Ramu, H. N. Lee, K. E. Kim, S. Lee, J. Yoo, D. Choi, Y. S. Lee, B. Aguilar, and Y. K. Hong, “Visualization of lymphatic vessels by Prox1-promoter directed GFP reporter in a bacterial artificial chromosome-based transgenic mouse,” Blood 117(1), 362–365 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ahn, G. O.

Ahn, J.

Ando, R.

R. Ando, H. Hama, M. Yamamoto-Hino, H. Mizuno, and A. Miyawaki, “An optical marker based on the UV-induced green-to-red photoconversion of a fluorescent protein,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99(20), 12651–12656 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ayyad, A.

S. Foersch, A. Heimann, A. Ayyad, G. A. Spoden, L. Florin, K. Mpoukouvalas, R. Kiesslich, O. Kempski, M. Goetz, and P. Charalampaki, “Confocal laser endomicroscopy for diagnosis and histomorphologic imaging of brain tumors in vivo,” PLoS One 7(7), e41760 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bae, S.

Barker, N.

N. Barker, “Adult intestinal stem cells: critical drivers of epithelial homeostasis and regeneration,” Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 15(1), 19–33 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barriga, F. M.

A. Merlos-Suárez, F. M. Barriga, P. Jung, M. Iglesias, M. V. Céspedes, D. Rossell, M. Sevillano, X. Hernando-Momblona, V. da Silva-Diz, P. Muñoz, H. Clevers, E. Sancho, R. Mangues, and E. Batlle, “The intestinal stem cell signature identifies colorectal cancer stem cells and predicts disease relapse,” Cell Stem Cell 8(5), 511–524 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Batlle, E.

A. Merlos-Suárez, F. M. Barriga, P. Jung, M. Iglesias, M. V. Céspedes, D. Rossell, M. Sevillano, X. Hernando-Momblona, V. da Silva-Diz, P. Muñoz, H. Clevers, E. Sancho, R. Mangues, and E. Batlle, “The intestinal stem cell signature identifies colorectal cancer stem cells and predicts disease relapse,” Cell Stem Cell 8(5), 511–524 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biehs, B.

H. Tian, B. Biehs, S. Warming, K. G. Leong, L. Rangell, O. D. Klein, and F. J. de Sauvage, “A reserve stem cell population in small intestine renders Lgr5-positive cells dispensable,” Nature 478(7368), 255–259 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biesterfeld, S.

D. Moussata, M. Goetz, A. Gloeckner, M. Kerner, B. Campbell, A. Hoffman, S. Biesterfeld, B. Flourie, J. C. Saurin, P. R. Galle, M. F. Neurath, A. J. Watson, and R. Kiesslich, “Confocal laser endomicroscopy is a new imaging modality for recognition of intramucosal bacteria in inflammatory bowel disease in vivo,” Gut 60(1), 26–33 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bouma, G.

G. Bouma and W. Strober, “The immunological and genetic basis of inflammatory bowel disease,” Nat. Rev. Immunol. 3(7), 521–533 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Buhman, K. K.

J. Zhu, B. Lee, K. K. Buhman, and J. X. Cheng, “A dynamic, cytoplasmic triacylglycerol pool in enterocytes revealed by ex vivo and in vivo coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering imaging,” J. Lipid Res. 50(6), 1080–1089 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cadwell, K.

K. Cadwell, K. K. Patel, N. S. Maloney, T. C. Liu, A. C. Ng, C. E. Storer, R. D. Head, R. Xavier, T. S. Stappenbeck, and H. W. Virgin, “Virus-plus-susceptibility gene interaction determines Crohn’s disease gene Atg16L1 phenotypes in intestine,” Cell 141(7), 1135–1145 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Campbell, B.

D. Moussata, M. Goetz, A. Gloeckner, M. Kerner, B. Campbell, A. Hoffman, S. Biesterfeld, B. Flourie, J. C. Saurin, P. R. Galle, M. F. Neurath, A. J. Watson, and R. Kiesslich, “Confocal laser endomicroscopy is a new imaging modality for recognition of intramucosal bacteria in inflammatory bowel disease in vivo,” Gut 60(1), 26–33 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Carruth, R. W.

Céspedes, M. V.

A. Merlos-Suárez, F. M. Barriga, P. Jung, M. Iglesias, M. V. Céspedes, D. Rossell, M. Sevillano, X. Hernando-Momblona, V. da Silva-Diz, P. Muñoz, H. Clevers, E. Sancho, R. Mangues, and E. Batlle, “The intestinal stem cell signature identifies colorectal cancer stem cells and predicts disease relapse,” Cell Stem Cell 8(5), 511–524 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Charalampaki, P.

S. Foersch, A. Heimann, A. Ayyad, G. A. Spoden, L. Florin, K. Mpoukouvalas, R. Kiesslich, O. Kempski, M. Goetz, and P. Charalampaki, “Confocal laser endomicroscopy for diagnosis and histomorphologic imaging of brain tumors in vivo,” PLoS One 7(7), e41760 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Charan, K.

Cheng, J. X.

J. Zhu, B. Lee, K. K. Buhman, and J. X. Cheng, “A dynamic, cytoplasmic triacylglycerol pool in enterocytes revealed by ex vivo and in vivo coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering imaging,” J. Lipid Res. 50(6), 1080–1089 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chieppa, M.

M. Chieppa, M. Rescigno, A. Y. Huang, and R. N. Germain, “Dynamic imaging of dendritic cell extension into the small bowel lumen in response to epithelial cell TLR engagement,” J. Exp. Med. 203(13), 2841–2852 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choe, K.

H. Seo, Y. Hwang, K. Choe, and P. Kim, “In vivo image-based quantitation of circulating tumor cells by real-time video-rate confocal microscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 32(3), 237–238 (2015).

K. Choe, Y. Hwang, H. Seo, and P. Kim, “In vivo high spatiotemporal resolution visualization of circulating T lymphocytes in high endothelial venules of lymph nodes,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(3), 036005 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choi, D.

I. Choi, H. K. Chung, S. Ramu, H. N. Lee, K. E. Kim, S. Lee, J. Yoo, D. Choi, Y. S. Lee, B. Aguilar, and Y. K. Hong, “Visualization of lymphatic vessels by Prox1-promoter directed GFP reporter in a bacterial artificial chromosome-based transgenic mouse,” Blood 117(1), 362–365 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choi, I.

I. Choi, H. K. Chung, S. Ramu, H. N. Lee, K. E. Kim, S. Lee, J. Yoo, D. Choi, Y. S. Lee, B. Aguilar, and Y. K. Hong, “Visualization of lymphatic vessels by Prox1-promoter directed GFP reporter in a bacterial artificial chromosome-based transgenic mouse,” Blood 117(1), 362–365 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choi, M.

J. K. Kim, W. M. Lee, P. Kim, M. Choi, K. Jung, S. Kim, and S. H. Yun, “Fabrication and operation of GRIN probes for in vivo fluorescence cellular imaging of internal organs in small animals,” Nat. Protoc. 7(8), 1456–1469 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chung, E.

Chung, H. K.

I. Choi, H. K. Chung, S. Ramu, H. N. Lee, K. E. Kim, S. Lee, J. Yoo, D. Choi, Y. S. Lee, B. Aguilar, and Y. K. Hong, “Visualization of lymphatic vessels by Prox1-promoter directed GFP reporter in a bacterial artificial chromosome-based transgenic mouse,” Blood 117(1), 362–365 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chung, W. K.

Clevers, H.

A. Merlos-Suárez, F. M. Barriga, P. Jung, M. Iglesias, M. V. Céspedes, D. Rossell, M. Sevillano, X. Hernando-Momblona, V. da Silva-Diz, P. Muñoz, H. Clevers, E. Sancho, R. Mangues, and E. Batlle, “The intestinal stem cell signature identifies colorectal cancer stem cells and predicts disease relapse,” Cell Stem Cell 8(5), 511–524 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Closa, D.

M. Gironella, J. L. Iovanna, M. Sans, F. Gil, M. Peñalva, D. Closa, R. Miquel, J. M. Piqué, and J. Panés, “Anti-inflammatory effects of pancreatitis associated protein in inflammatory bowel disease,” Gut 54(9), 1244–1253 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

da Silva-Diz, V.

A. Merlos-Suárez, F. M. Barriga, P. Jung, M. Iglesias, M. V. Céspedes, D. Rossell, M. Sevillano, X. Hernando-Momblona, V. da Silva-Diz, P. Muñoz, H. Clevers, E. Sancho, R. Mangues, and E. Batlle, “The intestinal stem cell signature identifies colorectal cancer stem cells and predicts disease relapse,” Cell Stem Cell 8(5), 511–524 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

de Sauvage, F. J.

H. Tian, B. Biehs, S. Warming, K. G. Leong, L. Rangell, O. D. Klein, and F. J. de Sauvage, “A reserve stem cell population in small intestine renders Lgr5-positive cells dispensable,” Nature 478(7368), 255–259 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Delaney, P.

S. Foersch, R. Kiesslich, M. J. Waldner, P. Delaney, P. R. Galle, M. F. Neurath, and M. Goetz, “Molecular imaging of VEGF in gastrointestinal cancer in vivo using confocal laser endomicroscopy,” Gut 59(8), 1046–1055 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Florin, L.

S. Foersch, A. Heimann, A. Ayyad, G. A. Spoden, L. Florin, K. Mpoukouvalas, R. Kiesslich, O. Kempski, M. Goetz, and P. Charalampaki, “Confocal laser endomicroscopy for diagnosis and histomorphologic imaging of brain tumors in vivo,” PLoS One 7(7), e41760 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Flourie, B.

D. Moussata, M. Goetz, A. Gloeckner, M. Kerner, B. Campbell, A. Hoffman, S. Biesterfeld, B. Flourie, J. C. Saurin, P. R. Galle, M. F. Neurath, A. J. Watson, and R. Kiesslich, “Confocal laser endomicroscopy is a new imaging modality for recognition of intramucosal bacteria in inflammatory bowel disease in vivo,” Gut 60(1), 26–33 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Foersch, S.

S. Foersch, A. Heimann, A. Ayyad, G. A. Spoden, L. Florin, K. Mpoukouvalas, R. Kiesslich, O. Kempski, M. Goetz, and P. Charalampaki, “Confocal laser endomicroscopy for diagnosis and histomorphologic imaging of brain tumors in vivo,” PLoS One 7(7), e41760 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Foersch, R. Kiesslich, M. J. Waldner, P. Delaney, P. R. Galle, M. F. Neurath, and M. Goetz, “Molecular imaging of VEGF in gastrointestinal cancer in vivo using confocal laser endomicroscopy,” Gut 59(8), 1046–1055 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fukumura, D.

P. Kim, E. Chung, H. Yamashita, K. E. Hung, A. Mizoguchi, R. Kucherlapati, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and S. H. Yun, “In vivo wide-area cellular imaging by side-view endomicroscopy,” Nat. Methods 7(4), 303–305 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Galle, P. R.

D. Moussata, M. Goetz, A. Gloeckner, M. Kerner, B. Campbell, A. Hoffman, S. Biesterfeld, B. Flourie, J. C. Saurin, P. R. Galle, M. F. Neurath, A. J. Watson, and R. Kiesslich, “Confocal laser endomicroscopy is a new imaging modality for recognition of intramucosal bacteria in inflammatory bowel disease in vivo,” Gut 60(1), 26–33 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Foersch, R. Kiesslich, M. J. Waldner, P. Delaney, P. R. Galle, M. F. Neurath, and M. Goetz, “Molecular imaging of VEGF in gastrointestinal cancer in vivo using confocal laser endomicroscopy,” Gut 59(8), 1046–1055 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Germain, R. N.

M. Chieppa, M. Rescigno, A. Y. Huang, and R. N. Germain, “Dynamic imaging of dendritic cell extension into the small bowel lumen in response to epithelial cell TLR engagement,” J. Exp. Med. 203(13), 2841–2852 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gil, F.

M. Gironella, J. L. Iovanna, M. Sans, F. Gil, M. Peñalva, D. Closa, R. Miquel, J. M. Piqué, and J. Panés, “Anti-inflammatory effects of pancreatitis associated protein in inflammatory bowel disease,” Gut 54(9), 1244–1253 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gironella, M.

M. Gironella, J. L. Iovanna, M. Sans, F. Gil, M. Peñalva, D. Closa, R. Miquel, J. M. Piqué, and J. Panés, “Anti-inflammatory effects of pancreatitis associated protein in inflammatory bowel disease,” Gut 54(9), 1244–1253 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gloeckner, A.

D. Moussata, M. Goetz, A. Gloeckner, M. Kerner, B. Campbell, A. Hoffman, S. Biesterfeld, B. Flourie, J. C. Saurin, P. R. Galle, M. F. Neurath, A. J. Watson, and R. Kiesslich, “Confocal laser endomicroscopy is a new imaging modality for recognition of intramucosal bacteria in inflammatory bowel disease in vivo,” Gut 60(1), 26–33 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Goetz, M.

S. Foersch, A. Heimann, A. Ayyad, G. A. Spoden, L. Florin, K. Mpoukouvalas, R. Kiesslich, O. Kempski, M. Goetz, and P. Charalampaki, “Confocal laser endomicroscopy for diagnosis and histomorphologic imaging of brain tumors in vivo,” PLoS One 7(7), e41760 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Moussata, M. Goetz, A. Gloeckner, M. Kerner, B. Campbell, A. Hoffman, S. Biesterfeld, B. Flourie, J. C. Saurin, P. R. Galle, M. F. Neurath, A. J. Watson, and R. Kiesslich, “Confocal laser endomicroscopy is a new imaging modality for recognition of intramucosal bacteria in inflammatory bowel disease in vivo,” Gut 60(1), 26–33 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Foersch, R. Kiesslich, M. J. Waldner, P. Delaney, P. R. Galle, M. F. Neurath, and M. Goetz, “Molecular imaging of VEGF in gastrointestinal cancer in vivo using confocal laser endomicroscopy,” Gut 59(8), 1046–1055 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hama, H.

R. Ando, H. Hama, M. Yamamoto-Hino, H. Mizuno, and A. Miyawaki, “An optical marker based on the UV-induced green-to-red photoconversion of a fluorescent protein,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99(20), 12651–12656 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Head, R. D.

K. Cadwell, K. K. Patel, N. S. Maloney, T. C. Liu, A. C. Ng, C. E. Storer, R. D. Head, R. Xavier, T. S. Stappenbeck, and H. W. Virgin, “Virus-plus-susceptibility gene interaction determines Crohn’s disease gene Atg16L1 phenotypes in intestine,” Cell 141(7), 1135–1145 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Heimann, A.

S. Foersch, A. Heimann, A. Ayyad, G. A. Spoden, L. Florin, K. Mpoukouvalas, R. Kiesslich, O. Kempski, M. Goetz, and P. Charalampaki, “Confocal laser endomicroscopy for diagnosis and histomorphologic imaging of brain tumors in vivo,” PLoS One 7(7), e41760 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hernando-Momblona, X.

A. Merlos-Suárez, F. M. Barriga, P. Jung, M. Iglesias, M. V. Céspedes, D. Rossell, M. Sevillano, X. Hernando-Momblona, V. da Silva-Diz, P. Muñoz, H. Clevers, E. Sancho, R. Mangues, and E. Batlle, “The intestinal stem cell signature identifies colorectal cancer stem cells and predicts disease relapse,” Cell Stem Cell 8(5), 511–524 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hoffman, A.

D. Moussata, M. Goetz, A. Gloeckner, M. Kerner, B. Campbell, A. Hoffman, S. Biesterfeld, B. Flourie, J. C. Saurin, P. R. Galle, M. F. Neurath, A. J. Watson, and R. Kiesslich, “Confocal laser endomicroscopy is a new imaging modality for recognition of intramucosal bacteria in inflammatory bowel disease in vivo,” Gut 60(1), 26–33 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hong, Y. K.

I. Choi, H. K. Chung, S. Ramu, H. N. Lee, K. E. Kim, S. Lee, J. Yoo, D. Choi, Y. S. Lee, B. Aguilar, and Y. K. Hong, “Visualization of lymphatic vessels by Prox1-promoter directed GFP reporter in a bacterial artificial chromosome-based transgenic mouse,” Blood 117(1), 362–365 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, A. Y.

M. Chieppa, M. Rescigno, A. Y. Huang, and R. N. Germain, “Dynamic imaging of dendritic cell extension into the small bowel lumen in response to epithelial cell TLR engagement,” J. Exp. Med. 203(13), 2841–2852 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huland, D. M.

Hung, K. E.

P. Kim, E. Chung, H. Yamashita, K. E. Hung, A. Mizoguchi, R. Kucherlapati, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and S. H. Yun, “In vivo wide-area cellular imaging by side-view endomicroscopy,” Nat. Methods 7(4), 303–305 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hwang, Y.

H. Seo, Y. Hwang, K. Choe, and P. Kim, “In vivo image-based quantitation of circulating tumor cells by real-time video-rate confocal microscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 32(3), 237–238 (2015).

Y. Hwang, J. Ahn, J. Mun, S. Bae, Y. U. Jeong, N. A. Vinokurov, and P. Kim, “In vivo analysis of THz wave irradiation induced acute inflammatory response in skin by laser-scanning confocal microscopy,” Opt. Express 22(10), 11465–11475 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Choe, Y. Hwang, H. Seo, and P. Kim, “In vivo high spatiotemporal resolution visualization of circulating T lymphocytes in high endothelial venules of lymph nodes,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(3), 036005 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Iglesias, M.

A. Merlos-Suárez, F. M. Barriga, P. Jung, M. Iglesias, M. V. Céspedes, D. Rossell, M. Sevillano, X. Hernando-Momblona, V. da Silva-Diz, P. Muñoz, H. Clevers, E. Sancho, R. Mangues, and E. Batlle, “The intestinal stem cell signature identifies colorectal cancer stem cells and predicts disease relapse,” Cell Stem Cell 8(5), 511–524 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Iovanna, J. L.

M. Gironella, J. L. Iovanna, M. Sans, F. Gil, M. Peñalva, D. Closa, R. Miquel, J. M. Piqué, and J. Panés, “Anti-inflammatory effects of pancreatitis associated protein in inflammatory bowel disease,” Gut 54(9), 1244–1253 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Issekutz, T. B.

M. Latta, K. Mohan, and T. B. Issekutz, “CXCR6 is expressed on T cells in both T helper type 1 (Th1) inflammation and allergen-induced Th2 lung inflammation but is only a weak mediator of chemotaxis,” Immunology 121(4), 555–564 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jain, R. K.

P. Kim, E. Chung, H. Yamashita, K. E. Hung, A. Mizoguchi, R. Kucherlapati, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and S. H. Yun, “In vivo wide-area cellular imaging by side-view endomicroscopy,” Nat. Methods 7(4), 303–305 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jeong, Y. U.

Jones, J. S.

Jung, K.

J. K. Kim, W. M. Lee, P. Kim, M. Choi, K. Jung, S. Kim, and S. H. Yun, “Fabrication and operation of GRIN probes for in vivo fluorescence cellular imaging of internal organs in small animals,” Nat. Protoc. 7(8), 1456–1469 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jung, P.

A. Merlos-Suárez, F. M. Barriga, P. Jung, M. Iglesias, M. V. Céspedes, D. Rossell, M. Sevillano, X. Hernando-Momblona, V. da Silva-Diz, P. Muñoz, H. Clevers, E. Sancho, R. Mangues, and E. Batlle, “The intestinal stem cell signature identifies colorectal cancer stem cells and predicts disease relapse,” Cell Stem Cell 8(5), 511–524 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jung, S.

C. Varol, E. Zigmond, and S. Jung, “Securing the immune tightrope: mononuclear phagocytes in the intestinal lamina propria,” Nat. Rev. Immunol. 10(6), 415–426 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jung, Y.

Kanagawa, O.

M. Tomura, N. Yoshida, J. Tanaka, S. Karasawa, Y. Miwa, A. Miyawaki, and O. Kanagawa, “Monitoring cellular movement in vivo with photoconvertible fluorescence protein “Kaede” transgenic mice,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(31), 10871–10876 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kang, D.

Karasawa, S.

M. Tomura, N. Yoshida, J. Tanaka, S. Karasawa, Y. Miwa, A. Miyawaki, and O. Kanagawa, “Monitoring cellular movement in vivo with photoconvertible fluorescence protein “Kaede” transgenic mice,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(31), 10871–10876 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kasper, D. L.

S. K. Mazmanian, J. L. Round, and D. L. Kasper, “A microbial symbiosis factor prevents intestinal inflammatory disease,” Nature 453(7195), 620–625 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kempski, O.

S. Foersch, A. Heimann, A. Ayyad, G. A. Spoden, L. Florin, K. Mpoukouvalas, R. Kiesslich, O. Kempski, M. Goetz, and P. Charalampaki, “Confocal laser endomicroscopy for diagnosis and histomorphologic imaging of brain tumors in vivo,” PLoS One 7(7), e41760 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kerner, M.

D. Moussata, M. Goetz, A. Gloeckner, M. Kerner, B. Campbell, A. Hoffman, S. Biesterfeld, B. Flourie, J. C. Saurin, P. R. Galle, M. F. Neurath, A. J. Watson, and R. Kiesslich, “Confocal laser endomicroscopy is a new imaging modality for recognition of intramucosal bacteria in inflammatory bowel disease in vivo,” Gut 60(1), 26–33 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kiesslich, R.

S. Foersch, A. Heimann, A. Ayyad, G. A. Spoden, L. Florin, K. Mpoukouvalas, R. Kiesslich, O. Kempski, M. Goetz, and P. Charalampaki, “Confocal laser endomicroscopy for diagnosis and histomorphologic imaging of brain tumors in vivo,” PLoS One 7(7), e41760 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Moussata, M. Goetz, A. Gloeckner, M. Kerner, B. Campbell, A. Hoffman, S. Biesterfeld, B. Flourie, J. C. Saurin, P. R. Galle, M. F. Neurath, A. J. Watson, and R. Kiesslich, “Confocal laser endomicroscopy is a new imaging modality for recognition of intramucosal bacteria in inflammatory bowel disease in vivo,” Gut 60(1), 26–33 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Foersch, R. Kiesslich, M. J. Waldner, P. Delaney, P. R. Galle, M. F. Neurath, and M. Goetz, “Molecular imaging of VEGF in gastrointestinal cancer in vivo using confocal laser endomicroscopy,” Gut 59(8), 1046–1055 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, J. K.

J. K. Kim, W. M. Lee, P. Kim, M. Choi, K. Jung, S. Kim, and S. H. Yun, “Fabrication and operation of GRIN probes for in vivo fluorescence cellular imaging of internal organs in small animals,” Nat. Protoc. 7(8), 1456–1469 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, K. E.

I. Choi, H. K. Chung, S. Ramu, H. N. Lee, K. E. Kim, S. Lee, J. Yoo, D. Choi, Y. S. Lee, B. Aguilar, and Y. K. Hong, “Visualization of lymphatic vessels by Prox1-promoter directed GFP reporter in a bacterial artificial chromosome-based transgenic mouse,” Blood 117(1), 362–365 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, K. H.

Kim, M.

Kim, P.

H. Seo, Y. Hwang, K. Choe, and P. Kim, “In vivo image-based quantitation of circulating tumor cells by real-time video-rate confocal microscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 32(3), 237–238 (2015).

Y. Hwang, J. Ahn, J. Mun, S. Bae, Y. U. Jeong, N. A. Vinokurov, and P. Kim, “In vivo analysis of THz wave irradiation induced acute inflammatory response in skin by laser-scanning confocal microscopy,” Opt. Express 22(10), 11465–11475 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Wang, Q. Li, P. Xiao, J. Ahn, Y. E. Kim, Y. Park, M. Kim, M. Song, E. Chung, W. K. Chung, G. O. Ahn, S. Kim, P. Kim, S. J. Myung, and K. H. Kim, “Gradient index lens based combined two-photon microscopy and optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 22(11), 12962–12970 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Choe, Y. Hwang, H. Seo, and P. Kim, “In vivo high spatiotemporal resolution visualization of circulating T lymphocytes in high endothelial venules of lymph nodes,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(3), 036005 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. K. Kim, W. M. Lee, P. Kim, M. Choi, K. Jung, S. Kim, and S. H. Yun, “Fabrication and operation of GRIN probes for in vivo fluorescence cellular imaging of internal organs in small animals,” Nat. Protoc. 7(8), 1456–1469 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Kim, E. Chung, H. Yamashita, K. E. Hung, A. Mizoguchi, R. Kucherlapati, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and S. H. Yun, “In vivo wide-area cellular imaging by side-view endomicroscopy,” Nat. Methods 7(4), 303–305 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, S.

Kim, S. Y.

Kim, Y. E.

Klein, O. D.

H. Tian, B. Biehs, S. Warming, K. G. Leong, L. Rangell, O. D. Klein, and F. J. de Sauvage, “A reserve stem cell population in small intestine renders Lgr5-positive cells dispensable,” Nature 478(7368), 255–259 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Knoop, K. A.

J. R. McDole, L. W. Wheeler, K. G. McDonald, B. Wang, V. Konjufca, K. A. Knoop, R. D. Newberry, and M. J. Miller, “Goblet cells deliver luminal antigen to CD103+ dendritic cells in the small intestine,” Nature 483(7389), 345–349 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Konjufca, V.

J. R. McDole, L. W. Wheeler, K. G. McDonald, B. Wang, V. Konjufca, K. A. Knoop, R. D. Newberry, and M. J. Miller, “Goblet cells deliver luminal antigen to CD103+ dendritic cells in the small intestine,” Nature 483(7389), 345–349 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kucherlapati, R.

P. Kim, E. Chung, H. Yamashita, K. E. Hung, A. Mizoguchi, R. Kucherlapati, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and S. H. Yun, “In vivo wide-area cellular imaging by side-view endomicroscopy,” Nat. Methods 7(4), 303–305 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Latta, M.

M. Latta, K. Mohan, and T. B. Issekutz, “CXCR6 is expressed on T cells in both T helper type 1 (Th1) inflammation and allergen-induced Th2 lung inflammation but is only a weak mediator of chemotaxis,” Immunology 121(4), 555–564 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, B.

J. Zhu, B. Lee, K. K. Buhman, and J. X. Cheng, “A dynamic, cytoplasmic triacylglycerol pool in enterocytes revealed by ex vivo and in vivo coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering imaging,” J. Lipid Res. 50(6), 1080–1089 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, H. N.

I. Choi, H. K. Chung, S. Ramu, H. N. Lee, K. E. Kim, S. Lee, J. Yoo, D. Choi, Y. S. Lee, B. Aguilar, and Y. K. Hong, “Visualization of lymphatic vessels by Prox1-promoter directed GFP reporter in a bacterial artificial chromosome-based transgenic mouse,” Blood 117(1), 362–365 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, S.

I. Choi, H. K. Chung, S. Ramu, H. N. Lee, K. E. Kim, S. Lee, J. Yoo, D. Choi, Y. S. Lee, B. Aguilar, and Y. K. Hong, “Visualization of lymphatic vessels by Prox1-promoter directed GFP reporter in a bacterial artificial chromosome-based transgenic mouse,” Blood 117(1), 362–365 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, W. M.

J. K. Kim, W. M. Lee, P. Kim, M. Choi, K. Jung, S. Kim, and S. H. Yun, “Fabrication and operation of GRIN probes for in vivo fluorescence cellular imaging of internal organs in small animals,” Nat. Protoc. 7(8), 1456–1469 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, Y. S.

I. Choi, H. K. Chung, S. Ramu, H. N. Lee, K. E. Kim, S. Lee, J. Yoo, D. Choi, Y. S. Lee, B. Aguilar, and Y. K. Hong, “Visualization of lymphatic vessels by Prox1-promoter directed GFP reporter in a bacterial artificial chromosome-based transgenic mouse,” Blood 117(1), 362–365 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leong, K. G.

H. Tian, B. Biehs, S. Warming, K. G. Leong, L. Rangell, O. D. Klein, and F. J. de Sauvage, “A reserve stem cell population in small intestine renders Lgr5-positive cells dispensable,” Nature 478(7368), 255–259 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, Q.

Liu, T. C.

K. Cadwell, K. K. Patel, N. S. Maloney, T. C. Liu, A. C. Ng, C. E. Storer, R. D. Head, R. Xavier, T. S. Stappenbeck, and H. W. Virgin, “Virus-plus-susceptibility gene interaction determines Crohn’s disease gene Atg16L1 phenotypes in intestine,” Cell 141(7), 1135–1145 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Loftus, E. V.

E. V. Loftus., “Clinical epidemiology of inflammatory bowel disease: incidence, prevalence, and environmental influences,” Gastroenterology 126(6), 1504–1517 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maloney, N. S.

K. Cadwell, K. K. Patel, N. S. Maloney, T. C. Liu, A. C. Ng, C. E. Storer, R. D. Head, R. Xavier, T. S. Stappenbeck, and H. W. Virgin, “Virus-plus-susceptibility gene interaction determines Crohn’s disease gene Atg16L1 phenotypes in intestine,” Cell 141(7), 1135–1145 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mangues, R.

A. Merlos-Suárez, F. M. Barriga, P. Jung, M. Iglesias, M. V. Céspedes, D. Rossell, M. Sevillano, X. Hernando-Momblona, V. da Silva-Diz, P. Muñoz, H. Clevers, E. Sancho, R. Mangues, and E. Batlle, “The intestinal stem cell signature identifies colorectal cancer stem cells and predicts disease relapse,” Cell Stem Cell 8(5), 511–524 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mazmanian, S. K.

S. K. Mazmanian, J. L. Round, and D. L. Kasper, “A microbial symbiosis factor prevents intestinal inflammatory disease,” Nature 453(7195), 620–625 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McDole, J. R.

J. R. McDole, L. W. Wheeler, K. G. McDonald, B. Wang, V. Konjufca, K. A. Knoop, R. D. Newberry, and M. J. Miller, “Goblet cells deliver luminal antigen to CD103+ dendritic cells in the small intestine,” Nature 483(7389), 345–349 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McDonald, K. G.

J. R. McDole, L. W. Wheeler, K. G. McDonald, B. Wang, V. Konjufca, K. A. Knoop, R. D. Newberry, and M. J. Miller, “Goblet cells deliver luminal antigen to CD103+ dendritic cells in the small intestine,” Nature 483(7389), 345–349 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Merlos-Suárez, A.

A. Merlos-Suárez, F. M. Barriga, P. Jung, M. Iglesias, M. V. Céspedes, D. Rossell, M. Sevillano, X. Hernando-Momblona, V. da Silva-Diz, P. Muñoz, H. Clevers, E. Sancho, R. Mangues, and E. Batlle, “The intestinal stem cell signature identifies colorectal cancer stem cells and predicts disease relapse,” Cell Stem Cell 8(5), 511–524 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Miller, M. J.

J. R. McDole, L. W. Wheeler, K. G. McDonald, B. Wang, V. Konjufca, K. A. Knoop, R. D. Newberry, and M. J. Miller, “Goblet cells deliver luminal antigen to CD103+ dendritic cells in the small intestine,” Nature 483(7389), 345–349 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Miquel, R.

M. Gironella, J. L. Iovanna, M. Sans, F. Gil, M. Peñalva, D. Closa, R. Miquel, J. M. Piqué, and J. Panés, “Anti-inflammatory effects of pancreatitis associated protein in inflammatory bowel disease,” Gut 54(9), 1244–1253 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Miwa, Y.

M. Tomura, N. Yoshida, J. Tanaka, S. Karasawa, Y. Miwa, A. Miyawaki, and O. Kanagawa, “Monitoring cellular movement in vivo with photoconvertible fluorescence protein “Kaede” transgenic mice,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(31), 10871–10876 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Miyawaki, A.

M. Tomura, N. Yoshida, J. Tanaka, S. Karasawa, Y. Miwa, A. Miyawaki, and O. Kanagawa, “Monitoring cellular movement in vivo with photoconvertible fluorescence protein “Kaede” transgenic mice,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(31), 10871–10876 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Ando, H. Hama, M. Yamamoto-Hino, H. Mizuno, and A. Miyawaki, “An optical marker based on the UV-induced green-to-red photoconversion of a fluorescent protein,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99(20), 12651–12656 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mizoguchi, A.

P. Kim, E. Chung, H. Yamashita, K. E. Hung, A. Mizoguchi, R. Kucherlapati, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and S. H. Yun, “In vivo wide-area cellular imaging by side-view endomicroscopy,” Nat. Methods 7(4), 303–305 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mizuno, H.

R. Ando, H. Hama, M. Yamamoto-Hino, H. Mizuno, and A. Miyawaki, “An optical marker based on the UV-induced green-to-red photoconversion of a fluorescent protein,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99(20), 12651–12656 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mohan, K.

M. Latta, K. Mohan, and T. B. Issekutz, “CXCR6 is expressed on T cells in both T helper type 1 (Th1) inflammation and allergen-induced Th2 lung inflammation but is only a weak mediator of chemotaxis,” Immunology 121(4), 555–564 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moussata, D.

D. Moussata, M. Goetz, A. Gloeckner, M. Kerner, B. Campbell, A. Hoffman, S. Biesterfeld, B. Flourie, J. C. Saurin, P. R. Galle, M. F. Neurath, A. J. Watson, and R. Kiesslich, “Confocal laser endomicroscopy is a new imaging modality for recognition of intramucosal bacteria in inflammatory bowel disease in vivo,” Gut 60(1), 26–33 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mpoukouvalas, K.

S. Foersch, A. Heimann, A. Ayyad, G. A. Spoden, L. Florin, K. Mpoukouvalas, R. Kiesslich, O. Kempski, M. Goetz, and P. Charalampaki, “Confocal laser endomicroscopy for diagnosis and histomorphologic imaging of brain tumors in vivo,” PLoS One 7(7), e41760 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mun, J.

Muñoz, P.

A. Merlos-Suárez, F. M. Barriga, P. Jung, M. Iglesias, M. V. Céspedes, D. Rossell, M. Sevillano, X. Hernando-Momblona, V. da Silva-Diz, P. Muñoz, H. Clevers, E. Sancho, R. Mangues, and E. Batlle, “The intestinal stem cell signature identifies colorectal cancer stem cells and predicts disease relapse,” Cell Stem Cell 8(5), 511–524 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Myung, S. J.

Neurath, M. F.

D. Moussata, M. Goetz, A. Gloeckner, M. Kerner, B. Campbell, A. Hoffman, S. Biesterfeld, B. Flourie, J. C. Saurin, P. R. Galle, M. F. Neurath, A. J. Watson, and R. Kiesslich, “Confocal laser endomicroscopy is a new imaging modality for recognition of intramucosal bacteria in inflammatory bowel disease in vivo,” Gut 60(1), 26–33 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Foersch, R. Kiesslich, M. J. Waldner, P. Delaney, P. R. Galle, M. F. Neurath, and M. Goetz, “Molecular imaging of VEGF in gastrointestinal cancer in vivo using confocal laser endomicroscopy,” Gut 59(8), 1046–1055 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Newberry, R. D.

J. R. McDole, L. W. Wheeler, K. G. McDonald, B. Wang, V. Konjufca, K. A. Knoop, R. D. Newberry, and M. J. Miller, “Goblet cells deliver luminal antigen to CD103+ dendritic cells in the small intestine,” Nature 483(7389), 345–349 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ng, A. C.

K. Cadwell, K. K. Patel, N. S. Maloney, T. C. Liu, A. C. Ng, C. E. Storer, R. D. Head, R. Xavier, T. S. Stappenbeck, and H. W. Virgin, “Virus-plus-susceptibility gene interaction determines Crohn’s disease gene Atg16L1 phenotypes in intestine,” Cell 141(7), 1135–1145 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nishimura, N.

Oh, G.

Ouzounov, D. G.

Panés, J.

M. Gironella, J. L. Iovanna, M. Sans, F. Gil, M. Peñalva, D. Closa, R. Miquel, J. M. Piqué, and J. Panés, “Anti-inflammatory effects of pancreatitis associated protein in inflammatory bowel disease,” Gut 54(9), 1244–1253 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, Y.

Patel, K. K.

K. Cadwell, K. K. Patel, N. S. Maloney, T. C. Liu, A. C. Ng, C. E. Storer, R. D. Head, R. Xavier, T. S. Stappenbeck, and H. W. Virgin, “Virus-plus-susceptibility gene interaction determines Crohn’s disease gene Atg16L1 phenotypes in intestine,” Cell 141(7), 1135–1145 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Peñalva, M.

M. Gironella, J. L. Iovanna, M. Sans, F. Gil, M. Peñalva, D. Closa, R. Miquel, J. M. Piqué, and J. Panés, “Anti-inflammatory effects of pancreatitis associated protein in inflammatory bowel disease,” Gut 54(9), 1244–1253 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Piqué, J. M.

M. Gironella, J. L. Iovanna, M. Sans, F. Gil, M. Peñalva, D. Closa, R. Miquel, J. M. Piqué, and J. Panés, “Anti-inflammatory effects of pancreatitis associated protein in inflammatory bowel disease,” Gut 54(9), 1244–1253 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Podolsky, D. K.

R. J. Xavier and D. K. Podolsky, “Unravelling the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease,” Nature 448(7152), 427–434 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ramu, S.

I. Choi, H. K. Chung, S. Ramu, H. N. Lee, K. E. Kim, S. Lee, J. Yoo, D. Choi, Y. S. Lee, B. Aguilar, and Y. K. Hong, “Visualization of lymphatic vessels by Prox1-promoter directed GFP reporter in a bacterial artificial chromosome-based transgenic mouse,” Blood 117(1), 362–365 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rangell, L.

H. Tian, B. Biehs, S. Warming, K. G. Leong, L. Rangell, O. D. Klein, and F. J. de Sauvage, “A reserve stem cell population in small intestine renders Lgr5-positive cells dispensable,” Nature 478(7368), 255–259 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rescigno, M.

M. Chieppa, M. Rescigno, A. Y. Huang, and R. N. Germain, “Dynamic imaging of dendritic cell extension into the small bowel lumen in response to epithelial cell TLR engagement,” J. Exp. Med. 203(13), 2841–2852 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rossell, D.

A. Merlos-Suárez, F. M. Barriga, P. Jung, M. Iglesias, M. V. Céspedes, D. Rossell, M. Sevillano, X. Hernando-Momblona, V. da Silva-Diz, P. Muñoz, H. Clevers, E. Sancho, R. Mangues, and E. Batlle, “The intestinal stem cell signature identifies colorectal cancer stem cells and predicts disease relapse,” Cell Stem Cell 8(5), 511–524 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Round, J. L.

S. K. Mazmanian, J. L. Round, and D. L. Kasper, “A microbial symbiosis factor prevents intestinal inflammatory disease,” Nature 453(7195), 620–625 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ryu, Y. M.

Sancho, E.

A. Merlos-Suárez, F. M. Barriga, P. Jung, M. Iglesias, M. V. Céspedes, D. Rossell, M. Sevillano, X. Hernando-Momblona, V. da Silva-Diz, P. Muñoz, H. Clevers, E. Sancho, R. Mangues, and E. Batlle, “The intestinal stem cell signature identifies colorectal cancer stem cells and predicts disease relapse,” Cell Stem Cell 8(5), 511–524 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sans, M.

M. Gironella, J. L. Iovanna, M. Sans, F. Gil, M. Peñalva, D. Closa, R. Miquel, J. M. Piqué, and J. Panés, “Anti-inflammatory effects of pancreatitis associated protein in inflammatory bowel disease,” Gut 54(9), 1244–1253 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Saurin, J. C.

D. Moussata, M. Goetz, A. Gloeckner, M. Kerner, B. Campbell, A. Hoffman, S. Biesterfeld, B. Flourie, J. C. Saurin, P. R. Galle, M. F. Neurath, A. J. Watson, and R. Kiesslich, “Confocal laser endomicroscopy is a new imaging modality for recognition of intramucosal bacteria in inflammatory bowel disease in vivo,” Gut 60(1), 26–33 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schlachter, S. C.

Seo, H.

H. Seo, Y. Hwang, K. Choe, and P. Kim, “In vivo image-based quantitation of circulating tumor cells by real-time video-rate confocal microscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 32(3), 237–238 (2015).

K. Choe, Y. Hwang, H. Seo, and P. Kim, “In vivo high spatiotemporal resolution visualization of circulating T lymphocytes in high endothelial venules of lymph nodes,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(3), 036005 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sevillano, M.

A. Merlos-Suárez, F. M. Barriga, P. Jung, M. Iglesias, M. V. Céspedes, D. Rossell, M. Sevillano, X. Hernando-Momblona, V. da Silva-Diz, P. Muñoz, H. Clevers, E. Sancho, R. Mangues, and E. Batlle, “The intestinal stem cell signature identifies colorectal cancer stem cells and predicts disease relapse,” Cell Stem Cell 8(5), 511–524 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shishkov, M.

Song, M.

Spoden, G. A.

S. Foersch, A. Heimann, A. Ayyad, G. A. Spoden, L. Florin, K. Mpoukouvalas, R. Kiesslich, O. Kempski, M. Goetz, and P. Charalampaki, “Confocal laser endomicroscopy for diagnosis and histomorphologic imaging of brain tumors in vivo,” PLoS One 7(7), e41760 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stappenbeck, T. S.

K. Cadwell, K. K. Patel, N. S. Maloney, T. C. Liu, A. C. Ng, C. E. Storer, R. D. Head, R. Xavier, T. S. Stappenbeck, and H. W. Virgin, “Virus-plus-susceptibility gene interaction determines Crohn’s disease gene Atg16L1 phenotypes in intestine,” Cell 141(7), 1135–1145 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Storer, C. E.

K. Cadwell, K. K. Patel, N. S. Maloney, T. C. Liu, A. C. Ng, C. E. Storer, R. D. Head, R. Xavier, T. S. Stappenbeck, and H. W. Virgin, “Virus-plus-susceptibility gene interaction determines Crohn’s disease gene Atg16L1 phenotypes in intestine,” Cell 141(7), 1135–1145 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Strober, W.

G. Bouma and W. Strober, “The immunological and genetic basis of inflammatory bowel disease,” Nat. Rev. Immunol. 3(7), 521–533 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tabatabaei, N.

Tanaka, J.

M. Tomura, N. Yoshida, J. Tanaka, S. Karasawa, Y. Miwa, A. Miyawaki, and O. Kanagawa, “Monitoring cellular movement in vivo with photoconvertible fluorescence protein “Kaede” transgenic mice,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(31), 10871–10876 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tearney, G. J.

Tian, H.

H. Tian, B. Biehs, S. Warming, K. G. Leong, L. Rangell, O. D. Klein, and F. J. de Sauvage, “A reserve stem cell population in small intestine renders Lgr5-positive cells dispensable,” Nature 478(7368), 255–259 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tomura, M.

M. Tomura, N. Yoshida, J. Tanaka, S. Karasawa, Y. Miwa, A. Miyawaki, and O. Kanagawa, “Monitoring cellular movement in vivo with photoconvertible fluorescence protein “Kaede” transgenic mice,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(31), 10871–10876 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Varol, C.

C. Varol, E. Zigmond, and S. Jung, “Securing the immune tightrope: mononuclear phagocytes in the intestinal lamina propria,” Nat. Rev. Immunol. 10(6), 415–426 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vinokurov, N. A.

Virgin, H. W.

K. Cadwell, K. K. Patel, N. S. Maloney, T. C. Liu, A. C. Ng, C. E. Storer, R. D. Head, R. Xavier, T. S. Stappenbeck, and H. W. Virgin, “Virus-plus-susceptibility gene interaction determines Crohn’s disease gene Atg16L1 phenotypes in intestine,” Cell 141(7), 1135–1145 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Waldner, M. J.

S. Foersch, R. Kiesslich, M. J. Waldner, P. Delaney, P. R. Galle, M. F. Neurath, and M. Goetz, “Molecular imaging of VEGF in gastrointestinal cancer in vivo using confocal laser endomicroscopy,” Gut 59(8), 1046–1055 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, B.

J. R. McDole, L. W. Wheeler, K. G. McDonald, B. Wang, V. Konjufca, K. A. Knoop, R. D. Newberry, and M. J. Miller, “Goblet cells deliver luminal antigen to CD103+ dendritic cells in the small intestine,” Nature 483(7389), 345–349 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, T.

Warming, S.

H. Tian, B. Biehs, S. Warming, K. G. Leong, L. Rangell, O. D. Klein, and F. J. de Sauvage, “A reserve stem cell population in small intestine renders Lgr5-positive cells dispensable,” Nature 478(7368), 255–259 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Watson, A. J.

D. Moussata, M. Goetz, A. Gloeckner, M. Kerner, B. Campbell, A. Hoffman, S. Biesterfeld, B. Flourie, J. C. Saurin, P. R. Galle, M. F. Neurath, A. J. Watson, and R. Kiesslich, “Confocal laser endomicroscopy is a new imaging modality for recognition of intramucosal bacteria in inflammatory bowel disease in vivo,” Gut 60(1), 26–33 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wheeler, L. W.

J. R. McDole, L. W. Wheeler, K. G. McDonald, B. Wang, V. Konjufca, K. A. Knoop, R. D. Newberry, and M. J. Miller, “Goblet cells deliver luminal antigen to CD103+ dendritic cells in the small intestine,” Nature 483(7389), 345–349 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Woods, K.

Wu, T.

Xavier, R.

K. Cadwell, K. K. Patel, N. S. Maloney, T. C. Liu, A. C. Ng, C. E. Storer, R. D. Head, R. Xavier, T. S. Stappenbeck, and H. W. Virgin, “Virus-plus-susceptibility gene interaction determines Crohn’s disease gene Atg16L1 phenotypes in intestine,” Cell 141(7), 1135–1145 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xavier, R. J.

R. J. Xavier and D. K. Podolsky, “Unravelling the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease,” Nature 448(7152), 427–434 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xiao, P.

Xu, C.

Yamamoto-Hino, M.

R. Ando, H. Hama, M. Yamamoto-Hino, H. Mizuno, and A. Miyawaki, “An optical marker based on the UV-induced green-to-red photoconversion of a fluorescent protein,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99(20), 12651–12656 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yamashita, H.

P. Kim, E. Chung, H. Yamashita, K. E. Hung, A. Mizoguchi, R. Kucherlapati, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and S. H. Yun, “In vivo wide-area cellular imaging by side-view endomicroscopy,” Nat. Methods 7(4), 303–305 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yoo, J.

I. Choi, H. K. Chung, S. Ramu, H. N. Lee, K. E. Kim, S. Lee, J. Yoo, D. Choi, Y. S. Lee, B. Aguilar, and Y. K. Hong, “Visualization of lymphatic vessels by Prox1-promoter directed GFP reporter in a bacterial artificial chromosome-based transgenic mouse,” Blood 117(1), 362–365 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yoo, S. W.

Yoshida, N.

M. Tomura, N. Yoshida, J. Tanaka, S. Karasawa, Y. Miwa, A. Miyawaki, and O. Kanagawa, “Monitoring cellular movement in vivo with photoconvertible fluorescence protein “Kaede” transgenic mice,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(31), 10871–10876 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yun, S. H.

J. K. Kim, W. M. Lee, P. Kim, M. Choi, K. Jung, S. Kim, and S. H. Yun, “Fabrication and operation of GRIN probes for in vivo fluorescence cellular imaging of internal organs in small animals,” Nat. Protoc. 7(8), 1456–1469 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Kim, E. Chung, H. Yamashita, K. E. Hung, A. Mizoguchi, R. Kucherlapati, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and S. H. Yun, “In vivo wide-area cellular imaging by side-view endomicroscopy,” Nat. Methods 7(4), 303–305 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhu, J.

J. Zhu, B. Lee, K. K. Buhman, and J. X. Cheng, “A dynamic, cytoplasmic triacylglycerol pool in enterocytes revealed by ex vivo and in vivo coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering imaging,” J. Lipid Res. 50(6), 1080–1089 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zigmond, E.

C. Varol, E. Zigmond, and S. Jung, “Securing the immune tightrope: mononuclear phagocytes in the intestinal lamina propria,” Nat. Rev. Immunol. 10(6), 415–426 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biomed. Opt. Express (4)

Blood (1)

I. Choi, H. K. Chung, S. Ramu, H. N. Lee, K. E. Kim, S. Lee, J. Yoo, D. Choi, Y. S. Lee, B. Aguilar, and Y. K. Hong, “Visualization of lymphatic vessels by Prox1-promoter directed GFP reporter in a bacterial artificial chromosome-based transgenic mouse,” Blood 117(1), 362–365 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cell (1)

K. Cadwell, K. K. Patel, N. S. Maloney, T. C. Liu, A. C. Ng, C. E. Storer, R. D. Head, R. Xavier, T. S. Stappenbeck, and H. W. Virgin, “Virus-plus-susceptibility gene interaction determines Crohn’s disease gene Atg16L1 phenotypes in intestine,” Cell 141(7), 1135–1145 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cell Stem Cell (1)

A. Merlos-Suárez, F. M. Barriga, P. Jung, M. Iglesias, M. V. Céspedes, D. Rossell, M. Sevillano, X. Hernando-Momblona, V. da Silva-Diz, P. Muñoz, H. Clevers, E. Sancho, R. Mangues, and E. Batlle, “The intestinal stem cell signature identifies colorectal cancer stem cells and predicts disease relapse,” Cell Stem Cell 8(5), 511–524 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gastroenterology (1)

E. V. Loftus., “Clinical epidemiology of inflammatory bowel disease: incidence, prevalence, and environmental influences,” Gastroenterology 126(6), 1504–1517 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gut (3)

M. Gironella, J. L. Iovanna, M. Sans, F. Gil, M. Peñalva, D. Closa, R. Miquel, J. M. Piqué, and J. Panés, “Anti-inflammatory effects of pancreatitis associated protein in inflammatory bowel disease,” Gut 54(9), 1244–1253 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Foersch, R. Kiesslich, M. J. Waldner, P. Delaney, P. R. Galle, M. F. Neurath, and M. Goetz, “Molecular imaging of VEGF in gastrointestinal cancer in vivo using confocal laser endomicroscopy,” Gut 59(8), 1046–1055 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Moussata, M. Goetz, A. Gloeckner, M. Kerner, B. Campbell, A. Hoffman, S. Biesterfeld, B. Flourie, J. C. Saurin, P. R. Galle, M. F. Neurath, A. J. Watson, and R. Kiesslich, “Confocal laser endomicroscopy is a new imaging modality for recognition of intramucosal bacteria in inflammatory bowel disease in vivo,” Gut 60(1), 26–33 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Immunology (1)

M. Latta, K. Mohan, and T. B. Issekutz, “CXCR6 is expressed on T cells in both T helper type 1 (Th1) inflammation and allergen-induced Th2 lung inflammation but is only a weak mediator of chemotaxis,” Immunology 121(4), 555–564 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

K. Choe, Y. Hwang, H. Seo, and P. Kim, “In vivo high spatiotemporal resolution visualization of circulating T lymphocytes in high endothelial venules of lymph nodes,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(3), 036005 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Exp. Med. (1)

M. Chieppa, M. Rescigno, A. Y. Huang, and R. N. Germain, “Dynamic imaging of dendritic cell extension into the small bowel lumen in response to epithelial cell TLR engagement,” J. Exp. Med. 203(13), 2841–2852 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Lipid Res. (1)

J. Zhu, B. Lee, K. K. Buhman, and J. X. Cheng, “A dynamic, cytoplasmic triacylglycerol pool in enterocytes revealed by ex vivo and in vivo coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering imaging,” J. Lipid Res. 50(6), 1080–1089 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Methods (1)

P. Kim, E. Chung, H. Yamashita, K. E. Hung, A. Mizoguchi, R. Kucherlapati, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and S. H. Yun, “In vivo wide-area cellular imaging by side-view endomicroscopy,” Nat. Methods 7(4), 303–305 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Protoc. (1)

J. K. Kim, W. M. Lee, P. Kim, M. Choi, K. Jung, S. Kim, and S. H. Yun, “Fabrication and operation of GRIN probes for in vivo fluorescence cellular imaging of internal organs in small animals,” Nat. Protoc. 7(8), 1456–1469 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Rev. Immunol. (2)

G. Bouma and W. Strober, “The immunological and genetic basis of inflammatory bowel disease,” Nat. Rev. Immunol. 3(7), 521–533 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Varol, E. Zigmond, and S. Jung, “Securing the immune tightrope: mononuclear phagocytes in the intestinal lamina propria,” Nat. Rev. Immunol. 10(6), 415–426 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. (1)

N. Barker, “Adult intestinal stem cells: critical drivers of epithelial homeostasis and regeneration,” Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 15(1), 19–33 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nature (4)

H. Tian, B. Biehs, S. Warming, K. G. Leong, L. Rangell, O. D. Klein, and F. J. de Sauvage, “A reserve stem cell population in small intestine renders Lgr5-positive cells dispensable,” Nature 478(7368), 255–259 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. R. McDole, L. W. Wheeler, K. G. McDonald, B. Wang, V. Konjufca, K. A. Knoop, R. D. Newberry, and M. J. Miller, “Goblet cells deliver luminal antigen to CD103+ dendritic cells in the small intestine,” Nature 483(7389), 345–349 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. K. Mazmanian, J. L. Round, and D. L. Kasper, “A microbial symbiosis factor prevents intestinal inflammatory disease,” Nature 453(7195), 620–625 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. J. Xavier and D. K. Podolsky, “Unravelling the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease,” Nature 448(7152), 427–434 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

PLoS One (1)

S. Foersch, A. Heimann, A. Ayyad, G. A. Spoden, L. Florin, K. Mpoukouvalas, R. Kiesslich, O. Kempski, M. Goetz, and P. Charalampaki, “Confocal laser endomicroscopy for diagnosis and histomorphologic imaging of brain tumors in vivo,” PLoS One 7(7), e41760 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2)

M. Tomura, N. Yoshida, J. Tanaka, S. Karasawa, Y. Miwa, A. Miyawaki, and O. Kanagawa, “Monitoring cellular movement in vivo with photoconvertible fluorescence protein “Kaede” transgenic mice,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(31), 10871–10876 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Ando, H. Hama, M. Yamamoto-Hino, H. Mizuno, and A. Miyawaki, “An optical marker based on the UV-induced green-to-red photoconversion of a fluorescent protein,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99(20), 12651–12656 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic and magnified photos of the fabricated side-view endomicroscope incorporating three GRIN lenses (coupling, relay and imaging lens) and an aluminum coated 90° microprism. (b) Schematic and a photo of the custom-built 360° rotation mount for the side-view endomicroscope.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic and photo of a custom-built laser scanning confocal microscopy system integrated with side-view endomicroscope: ND, neutral density filter; DBS, dichroic beam splitter; BPF, band pass filter; M, mirror; PMT, photomultiplier tube; Obj, objective lens.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Representative in vivo images obtained from the small intestine of (a) CX3CR1-GFP mouse, (b) CXCR6-GFP mouse, and (c) Prox1-GFP mouse, respectively, along with capillary blood vessels (red) by using side-view endomicroscope. (d) Real-time fluorescence images of circulating red blood cell (red, white arrowhead) in the blood vessel (green) of the villi. Time interval: 1 sec. Scale bar: 50 μm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Longitudinal repetitive visualization of same area in the small intestine of the single Kaede mouse obtained by side-view endomicroscope in 2 days interval. Lamina propria residing cells (arrow) and enterocytes (arrowhead) were longitudinally monitored. Scale bar: 50 μm.

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