Abstract

The characterization of white blood cells (WBCs) is crucial for blood analyses and disease diagnoses. However, current standard techniques rely on cell labeling, a process which imposes significant limitations. Here we present three-dimensional (3D) optical measurements and the label-free characterization of mouse WBCs using optical diffraction tomography. 3D refractive index (RI) tomograms of individual WBCs are constructed from multiple two-dimensional quantitative phase images of samples illuminated at various angles of incidence. Measurements of the 3D RI tomogram of WBCs enable the separation of heterogeneous populations of WBCs using quantitative morphological and biochemical information. Time-lapse tomographic measurements also provide the 3D trajectory of micrometer-sized beads ingested by WBCs. These results demonstrate that optical diffraction tomography can be a useful and versatile tool for the study of WBCs.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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2015 (2)

H. Park, S.-H. Hong, K. Kim, S.-H. Cho, W.-J. Lee, Y. Kim, S.-E. Lee, and Y. Park, “Characterizations of individual mouse red blood cells parasitized by Babesia microti using 3-D holographic microscopy,” Sci. Rep. 5, 10827 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Kim, J. Yoon, and Y. Park, “Simultaneous 3D visualization and position tracking of optically trapped particles using optical diffraction tomography,” Optica 2(4), 343–346 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (9)

T. A. Zangle and M. A. Teitell, “Live-cell mass profiling: an emerging approach in quantitative biophysics,” Nat. Methods 11(12), 1221–1228 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Lee and Y. Park, “Quantitative phase imaging unit,” Opt. Lett. 39(12), 3630–3633 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Kim, Z. Yaqoob, K. Lee, J. W. Kang, Y. Choi, P. Hosseini, P. T. So, and Y. Park, “Diffraction optical tomography using a quantitative phase imaging unit,” Opt. Lett. 39(24), 6935–6938 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Jung, K. Kim, H. Yu, K. Lee, S. Lee, S. Nahm, H. Park, and Y. Park, “Biomedical applications of holographic microspectroscopy [Invited],” Appl. Opt. 53(27), G111–G122 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Mir, T. Kim, A. Majumder, M. Xiang, R. Wang, S. C. Liu, M. U. Gillette, S. Stice, and G. Popescu, “Label-free characterization of emerging human neuronal networks,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4434 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Kim, H. Shim, K. Kim, H. Park, J. H. Heo, J. Yoon, C. Choi, S. Jang, and Y. Park, “Common-path diffraction optical tomography for investigation of three-dimensional structures and dynamics of biological cells,” Opt. Express 22(9), 10398–10407 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Lee, K. Kim, A. Mubarok, A. Panduwirawan, K. Lee, S. Lee, H. Park, and Y. Park, “High-Resolution 3-D Refractive Index Tomography and 2-D Synthetic Aperture Imaging of Live Phytoplankton,” J. Opt. Soc. Korea 18(6), 691–697 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. T. Heneka, M. P. Kummer, and E. Latz, “Innate immune activation in neurodegenerative disease,” Nat. Rev. Immunol. 14(7), 463–477 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Kim, H. Shim, K. Kim, H. Park, S. Jang, and Y. Park, “Profiling individual human red blood cells using common-path diffraction optical tomography,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6659 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (7)

C. Zuo, Q. Chen, W. Qu, and A. Asundi, “Noninterferometric single-shot quantitative phase microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 38(18), 3538–3541 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Kim, H. Yoon, M. Diez-Silva, M. Dao, R. R. Dasari, and Y. Park, “High-resolution three-dimensional imaging of red blood cells parasitized by Plasmodium falciparum and in situ hemozoin crystals using optical diffraction tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(1), 011005 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Lee, K. Kim, J. Jung, J. Heo, S. Cho, S. Lee, G. Chang, Y. Jo, H. Park, and Y. Park, “Quantitative phase imaging techniques for the study of cell pathophysiology: from principles to applications,” Sensors (Basel) 13(4), 4170–4191 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. A. Zangle, D. Burnes, C. Mathis, O. N. Witte, and M. A. Teitell, “Quantifying biomass changes of single CD8+ T cells during antigen specific cytotoxicity,” PLoS One 8(7), e68916 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. E. Ekpenyong, S. M. Man, S. Achouri, C. E. Bryant, J. Guck, and K. J. Chalut, “Bacterial infection of macrophages induces decrease in refractive index,” J. Biophotonics 6(5), 393–397 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Judkewitz, Y. M. Wang, R. Horstmeyer, A. Mathy, and C. Yang, “Speckle-scale focusing in the diffusive regime with time-reversal of variance-encoded light (TROVE),” Nat. Photonics 7(4), 300–305 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Kim, K. S. Kim, H. Park, J. C. Ye, and Y. Park, “Real-time visualization of 3-D dynamic microscopic objects using optical diffraction tomography,” Opt. Express 21(26), 32269–32278 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (6)

Y. Jang, J. Jang, and Y. Park, “Dynamic spectroscopic phase microscopy for quantifying hemoglobin concentration and dynamic membrane fluctuation in red blood cells,” Opt. Express 20(9), 9673–9681 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Rinehart, Y. Zhu, and A. Wax, “Quantitative phase spectroscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(5), 958–965 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Kim, J. Jeong, J. Jang, M. W. Kim, and Y. Park, “Polarization holographic microscopy for extracting spatio-temporally resolved Jones matrix,” Opt. Express 20(9), 9948–9955 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Ngkelo, K. Meja, M. Yeadon, I. Adcock, and P. A. Kirkham, “LPS induced inflammatory responses in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells is mediated through NOX4 and Giα dependent PI-3kinase signalling,” J. Inflamm. (Lond.) 9(1), 1 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. J. Chalut, A. E. Ekpenyong, W. L. Clegg, I. C. Melhuish, and J. Guck, “Quantifying cellular differentiation by physical phenotype using digital holographic microscopy,” Integr Biol (Camb) 4(3), 280–284 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Byun, T. R. Hillman, J. M. Higgins, M. Diez-Silva, Z. Peng, M. Dao, R. R. Dasari, S. Suresh, and Y. Park, “Optical measurement of biomechanical properties of individual erythrocytes from a sickle cell patient,” Acta Biomater. 8(11), 4130–4138 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (8)

Y. Park, C. A. Best, T. Kuriabova, M. L. Henle, M. S. Feld, A. J. Levine, and G. Popescu, “Measurement of the nonlinear elasticity of red blood cell membranes,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 83(5), 051925 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Balagopalan, E. Sherman, V. A. Barr, and L. E. Samelson, “Imaging techniques for assaying lymphocyte activation in action,” Nat. Rev. Immunol. 11(1), 21–33 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Lee, Y. R. Kim, J. Y. Lee, J. H. Rhee, C.-S. Park, and D. Y. Kim, “Dynamic analysis of pathogen-infected host cells using quantitative phase microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 036004 (2011).

N. T. Shaked, L. L. Satterwhite, M. J. Telen, G. A. Truskey, and A. Wax, “Quantitative microscopy and nanoscopy of sickle red blood cells performed by wide field digital interferometry,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(3), 030506 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Jourdain, N. Pavillon, C. Moratal, D. Boss, B. Rappaz, C. Depeursinge, P. Marquet, and P. J. Magistretti, “Determination of transmembrane water fluxes in neurons elicited by glutamate ionotropic receptors and by the cotransporters KCC2 and NKCC1: a digital holographic microscopy study,” J. Neurosci. 31(33), 11846–11854 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. K. Debnath and Y. Park, “Real-time quantitative phase imaging with a spatial phase-shifting algorithm,” Opt. Lett. 36(23), 4677–4679 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Mir, Z. Wang, Z. Shen, M. Bednarz, R. Bashir, I. Golding, S. G. Prasanth, and G. Popescu, “Optical measurement of cycle-dependent cell growth,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(32), 13124–13129 (2011).
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P. J. Murray and T. A. Wynn, “Protective and pathogenic functions of macrophage subsets,” Nat. Rev. Immunol. 11(11), 723–737 (2011).
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2010 (5)

A. Ray and B. N. Dittel, “Isolation of mouse peritoneal cavity cells,” J. Vis. Exp. 35, 1488 (2010).
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S. S. Kou, L. Waller, G. Barbastathis, and C. J. Sheppard, “Transport-of-intensity approach to differential interference contrast (TI-DIC) microscopy for quantitative phase imaging,” Opt. Lett. 35(3), 447–449 (2010).
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W. Zou and N. P. Restifo, “T(H)17 cells in tumour immunity and immunotherapy,” Nat. Rev. Immunol. 10(4), 248–256 (2010).
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Y. Park, C. A. Best, T. Auth, N. S. Gov, S. A. Safran, G. Popescu, S. Suresh, and M. S. Feld, “Metabolic remodeling of the human red blood cell membrane,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(4), 1289–1294 (2010).
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Y. Park, C. A. Best, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, T. Kuriabova, M. L. Henle, A. J. Levine, and G. Popescu, “Measurement of red blood cell mechanics during morphological changes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(15), 6731–6736 (2010).
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2009 (5)

D. Wirtz, “Particle-tracking microrheology of living cells: principles and applications,” Annu. Rev. Biophys. 38(1), 301–326 (2009).
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C. P. Brangwynne, G. H. Koenderink, F. C. MacKintosh, and D. A. Weitz, “Intracellular transport by active diffusion,” Trends Cell Biol. 19(9), 423–427 (2009).
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Y. Park, T. Yamauchi, W. Choi, R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Spectroscopic phase microscopy for quantifying hemoglobin concentrations in intact red blood cells,” Opt. Lett. 34(23), 3668–3670 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Sung, W. Choi, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Optical diffraction tomography for high resolution live cell imaging,” Opt. Express 17(1), 266–277 (2009).
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D. G. Russell, B. C. Vanderven, S. Glennie, H. Mwandumba, and R. S. Heyderman, “The macrophage marches on its phagosome: dynamic assays of phagosome function,” Nat. Rev. Immunol. 9(8), 594–600 (2009).
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2008 (5)

Z. Wang, L. J. Millet, M. U. Gillette, and G. Popescu, “Jones phase microscopy of transparent and anisotropic samples,” Opt. Lett. 33(11), 1270–1272 (2008).
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G. Popescu, Y. Park, N. Lue, C. Best-Popescu, L. Deflores, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and K. Badizadegan, “Optical imaging of cell mass and growth dynamics,” Am. J. Physiol. Cell Physiol. 295(2), C538–C544 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Park, M. Diez-Silva, G. Popescu, G. Lykotrafitis, W. Choi, M. S. Feld, and S. Suresh, “Refractive index maps and membrane dynamics of human red blood cells parasitized by Plasmodium falciparum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(37), 13730–13735 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Popescu, Y. Park, W. Choi, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and K. Badizadegan, “Imaging red blood cell dynamics by quantitative phase microscopy,” Blood Cells Mol. Dis. 41(1), 10–16 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Rappaz, A. Barbul, Y. Emery, R. Korenstein, C. Depeursinge, P. J. Magistretti, and P. Marquet, “Comparative study of human erythrocytes by digital holographic microscopy, confocal microscopy, and impedance volume analyzer,” Cytometry A 73(10), 895–903 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (4)

J. C. Edwards and G. Cambridge, “B-cell targeting in rheumatoid arthritis and other autoimmune diseases,” Nat. Rev. Immunol. 6(5), 394–403 (2006).
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R. Scott Brock, X.-H. Hu, D. A. Weidner, J. R. Mourant, and J. Q. Lu, “Effect of detailed cell structure on light scattering distribution: FDTD study of a B-cell with 3D structure constructed from confocal images,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 102(1), 25–36 (2006).
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M. Nieminen, T. Henttinen, M. Merinen, F. Marttila-Ichihara, J. E. Eriksson, and S. Jalkanen, “Vimentin function in lymphocyte adhesion and transcellular migration,” Nat. Cell Biol. 8(2), 156–162 (2006).
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Y. Park, G. Popescu, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diffraction phase and fluorescence microscopy,” Opt. Express 14(18), 8263–8268 (2006).
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2005 (1)

2004 (2)

K. E. Handwerger, J. A. Cordero, and J. G. Gall, “Cajal bodies, nucleoli, and speckles in the Xenopus oocyte nucleus have a low-density, sponge-like structure,” Mol. Biol. Cell 16(1), 202–211 (2004).
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N. S. Majhail and A. E. Lichtin, “Acute leukemia with a very high leukocyte count: confronting a medical emergency,” Cleve. Clin. J. Med. 71(8), 633–637 (2004).
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2002 (2)

M. Guha and N. Mackman, “The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Akt pathway limits lipopolysaccharide activation of signaling pathways and expression of inflammatory mediators in human monocytic cells,” J. Biol. Chem. 277(35), 32124–32132 (2002).
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V. Lauer, “New approach to optical diffraction tomography yielding a vector equation of diffraction tomography and a novel tomographic microscope,” J. Microsc. 205(2), 165–176 (2002).
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2001 (1)

M. Mohty, D. Jarrossay, M. Lafage-Pochitaloff, C. Zandotti, F. Brière, X.-N. de Lamballeri, D. Isnardon, D. Sainty, D. Olive, and B. Gaugler, “Circulating blood dendritic cells from myeloid leukemia patients display quantitative and cytogenetic abnormalities as well as functional impairment,” Blood 98(13), 3750–3756 (2001).
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1989 (1)

J. S. Savill, A. H. Wyllie, J. E. Henson, M. J. Walport, P. M. Henson, and C. Haslett, “Macrophage phagocytosis of aging neutrophils in inflammation. Programmed cell death in the neutrophil leads to its recognition by macrophages,” J. Clin. Invest. 83(3), 865–875 (1989).
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1983 (1)

S. N. Vogel, M. L. Hilfiker, and M. J. Caulfield, “Endotoxin-induced T lymphocyte proliferation,” J. Immunol. 130(4), 1774–1779 (1983).
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1981 (1)

T. Timonen, J. R. Ortaldo, and R. B. Herberman, “Characteristics of human large granular lymphocytes and relationship to natural killer and K cells,” J. Exp. Med. 153(3), 569–582 (1981).
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1978 (2)

R. A. Miller, S. Gartner, and H. S. Kaplan, “Stimulation of mitogenic responses in human peripheral blood lymphocytes by lipopolysaccharide: serum and T helper cell requirements,” J. Immunol. 121(6), 2160–2164 (1978).
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C. E. Grossi, S. R. Webb, A. Zicca, P. M. Lydyard, L. Moretta, M. C. Mingari, and M. D. Cooper, “Morphological and histochemical analyses of two human T-cell subpopulations bearing receptors for IgM or IgG,” J. Exp. Med. 147(5), 1405–1417 (1978).
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1974 (1)

R. Gerchberg, “Super-resolution through error energy reduction,” J. Mod. Opt. 21, 709–720 (1974).

1973 (1)

R. M. Steinman and Z. A. Cohn, “Identification of a novel cell type in peripheral lymphoid organs of mice. I. Morphology, quantitation, tissue distribution,” J. Exp. Med. 137(5), 1142–1162 (1973).
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1962 (1)

A. Szenberg and N. Warner, “Quantitative Aspects of the Simonsen Phenomenon: I. The Role of the Large Lymphocyte,” Br. J. Exp. Pathol. 43, 123 (1962).

1954 (1)

R. Barer and S. Tkaczyk, “Refractive index of concentrated protein solutions,” Nature 173(4409), 821–822 (1954).
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1953 (1)

R. Barer, “Determination of dry mass, thickness, solid and water concentration in living cells,” Nature 172(4389), 1097–1098 (1953).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Achouri, S.

A. E. Ekpenyong, S. M. Man, S. Achouri, C. E. Bryant, J. Guck, and K. J. Chalut, “Bacterial infection of macrophages induces decrease in refractive index,” J. Biophotonics 6(5), 393–397 (2013).
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Adcock, I.

A. Ngkelo, K. Meja, M. Yeadon, I. Adcock, and P. A. Kirkham, “LPS induced inflammatory responses in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells is mediated through NOX4 and Giα dependent PI-3kinase signalling,” J. Inflamm. (Lond.) 9(1), 1 (2012).
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Asundi, A.

Auth, T.

Y. Park, C. A. Best, T. Auth, N. S. Gov, S. A. Safran, G. Popescu, S. Suresh, and M. S. Feld, “Metabolic remodeling of the human red blood cell membrane,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(4), 1289–1294 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Badizadegan, K.

Y. Park, C. A. Best, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, T. Kuriabova, M. L. Henle, A. J. Levine, and G. Popescu, “Measurement of red blood cell mechanics during morphological changes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(15), 6731–6736 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Sung, W. Choi, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Optical diffraction tomography for high resolution live cell imaging,” Opt. Express 17(1), 266–277 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Popescu, Y. Park, N. Lue, C. Best-Popescu, L. Deflores, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and K. Badizadegan, “Optical imaging of cell mass and growth dynamics,” Am. J. Physiol. Cell Physiol. 295(2), C538–C544 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Popescu, Y. Park, W. Choi, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and K. Badizadegan, “Imaging red blood cell dynamics by quantitative phase microscopy,” Blood Cells Mol. Dis. 41(1), 10–16 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Park, G. Popescu, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diffraction phase and fluorescence microscopy,” Opt. Express 14(18), 8263–8268 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Balagopalan, L.

L. Balagopalan, E. Sherman, V. A. Barr, and L. E. Samelson, “Imaging techniques for assaying lymphocyte activation in action,” Nat. Rev. Immunol. 11(1), 21–33 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barbastathis, G.

Barbul, A.

B. Rappaz, A. Barbul, Y. Emery, R. Korenstein, C. Depeursinge, P. J. Magistretti, and P. Marquet, “Comparative study of human erythrocytes by digital holographic microscopy, confocal microscopy, and impedance volume analyzer,” Cytometry A 73(10), 895–903 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barer, R.

R. Barer and S. Tkaczyk, “Refractive index of concentrated protein solutions,” Nature 173(4409), 821–822 (1954).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Barer, “Determination of dry mass, thickness, solid and water concentration in living cells,” Nature 172(4389), 1097–1098 (1953).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barr, V. A.

L. Balagopalan, E. Sherman, V. A. Barr, and L. E. Samelson, “Imaging techniques for assaying lymphocyte activation in action,” Nat. Rev. Immunol. 11(1), 21–33 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bashir, R.

M. Mir, Z. Wang, Z. Shen, M. Bednarz, R. Bashir, I. Golding, S. G. Prasanth, and G. Popescu, “Optical measurement of cycle-dependent cell growth,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(32), 13124–13129 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bednarz, M.

M. Mir, Z. Wang, Z. Shen, M. Bednarz, R. Bashir, I. Golding, S. G. Prasanth, and G. Popescu, “Optical measurement of cycle-dependent cell growth,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(32), 13124–13129 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Best, C. A.

Y. Park, C. A. Best, T. Kuriabova, M. L. Henle, M. S. Feld, A. J. Levine, and G. Popescu, “Measurement of the nonlinear elasticity of red blood cell membranes,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 83(5), 051925 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Park, C. A. Best, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, T. Kuriabova, M. L. Henle, A. J. Levine, and G. Popescu, “Measurement of red blood cell mechanics during morphological changes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(15), 6731–6736 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Park, C. A. Best, T. Auth, N. S. Gov, S. A. Safran, G. Popescu, S. Suresh, and M. S. Feld, “Metabolic remodeling of the human red blood cell membrane,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(4), 1289–1294 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Best-Popescu, C.

G. Popescu, Y. Park, N. Lue, C. Best-Popescu, L. Deflores, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and K. Badizadegan, “Optical imaging of cell mass and growth dynamics,” Am. J. Physiol. Cell Physiol. 295(2), C538–C544 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boss, D.

P. Jourdain, N. Pavillon, C. Moratal, D. Boss, B. Rappaz, C. Depeursinge, P. Marquet, and P. J. Magistretti, “Determination of transmembrane water fluxes in neurons elicited by glutamate ionotropic receptors and by the cotransporters KCC2 and NKCC1: a digital holographic microscopy study,” J. Neurosci. 31(33), 11846–11854 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brangwynne, C. P.

C. P. Brangwynne, G. H. Koenderink, F. C. MacKintosh, and D. A. Weitz, “Intracellular transport by active diffusion,” Trends Cell Biol. 19(9), 423–427 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brière, F.

M. Mohty, D. Jarrossay, M. Lafage-Pochitaloff, C. Zandotti, F. Brière, X.-N. de Lamballeri, D. Isnardon, D. Sainty, D. Olive, and B. Gaugler, “Circulating blood dendritic cells from myeloid leukemia patients display quantitative and cytogenetic abnormalities as well as functional impairment,” Blood 98(13), 3750–3756 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bryant, C. E.

A. E. Ekpenyong, S. M. Man, S. Achouri, C. E. Bryant, J. Guck, and K. J. Chalut, “Bacterial infection of macrophages induces decrease in refractive index,” J. Biophotonics 6(5), 393–397 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Burnes, D.

T. A. Zangle, D. Burnes, C. Mathis, O. N. Witte, and M. A. Teitell, “Quantifying biomass changes of single CD8+ T cells during antigen specific cytotoxicity,” PLoS One 8(7), e68916 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Byun, H.

H. Byun, T. R. Hillman, J. M. Higgins, M. Diez-Silva, Z. Peng, M. Dao, R. R. Dasari, S. Suresh, and Y. Park, “Optical measurement of biomechanical properties of individual erythrocytes from a sickle cell patient,” Acta Biomater. 8(11), 4130–4138 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cambridge, G.

J. C. Edwards and G. Cambridge, “B-cell targeting in rheumatoid arthritis and other autoimmune diseases,” Nat. Rev. Immunol. 6(5), 394–403 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Caulfield, M. J.

S. N. Vogel, M. L. Hilfiker, and M. J. Caulfield, “Endotoxin-induced T lymphocyte proliferation,” J. Immunol. 130(4), 1774–1779 (1983).
[PubMed]

Chalut, K. J.

A. E. Ekpenyong, S. M. Man, S. Achouri, C. E. Bryant, J. Guck, and K. J. Chalut, “Bacterial infection of macrophages induces decrease in refractive index,” J. Biophotonics 6(5), 393–397 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. J. Chalut, A. E. Ekpenyong, W. L. Clegg, I. C. Melhuish, and J. Guck, “Quantifying cellular differentiation by physical phenotype using digital holographic microscopy,” Integr Biol (Camb) 4(3), 280–284 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, G.

K. Lee, K. Kim, J. Jung, J. Heo, S. Cho, S. Lee, G. Chang, Y. Jo, H. Park, and Y. Park, “Quantitative phase imaging techniques for the study of cell pathophysiology: from principles to applications,” Sensors (Basel) 13(4), 4170–4191 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Q.

Cho, S.

K. Lee, K. Kim, J. Jung, J. Heo, S. Cho, S. Lee, G. Chang, Y. Jo, H. Park, and Y. Park, “Quantitative phase imaging techniques for the study of cell pathophysiology: from principles to applications,” Sensors (Basel) 13(4), 4170–4191 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cho, S.-H.

H. Park, S.-H. Hong, K. Kim, S.-H. Cho, W.-J. Lee, Y. Kim, S.-E. Lee, and Y. Park, “Characterizations of individual mouse red blood cells parasitized by Babesia microti using 3-D holographic microscopy,” Sci. Rep. 5, 10827 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choi, C.

Choi, W.

Y. Sung, W. Choi, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Optical diffraction tomography for high resolution live cell imaging,” Opt. Express 17(1), 266–277 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Park, T. Yamauchi, W. Choi, R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Spectroscopic phase microscopy for quantifying hemoglobin concentrations in intact red blood cells,” Opt. Lett. 34(23), 3668–3670 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Park, M. Diez-Silva, G. Popescu, G. Lykotrafitis, W. Choi, M. S. Feld, and S. Suresh, “Refractive index maps and membrane dynamics of human red blood cells parasitized by Plasmodium falciparum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(37), 13730–13735 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Popescu, Y. Park, W. Choi, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and K. Badizadegan, “Imaging red blood cell dynamics by quantitative phase microscopy,” Blood Cells Mol. Dis. 41(1), 10–16 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choi, Y.

Clegg, W. L.

K. J. Chalut, A. E. Ekpenyong, W. L. Clegg, I. C. Melhuish, and J. Guck, “Quantifying cellular differentiation by physical phenotype using digital holographic microscopy,” Integr Biol (Camb) 4(3), 280–284 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cohn, Z. A.

R. M. Steinman and Z. A. Cohn, “Identification of a novel cell type in peripheral lymphoid organs of mice. I. Morphology, quantitation, tissue distribution,” J. Exp. Med. 137(5), 1142–1162 (1973).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Colomb, T.

Cooper, M. D.

C. E. Grossi, S. R. Webb, A. Zicca, P. M. Lydyard, L. Moretta, M. C. Mingari, and M. D. Cooper, “Morphological and histochemical analyses of two human T-cell subpopulations bearing receptors for IgM or IgG,” J. Exp. Med. 147(5), 1405–1417 (1978).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cordero, J. A.

K. E. Handwerger, J. A. Cordero, and J. G. Gall, “Cajal bodies, nucleoli, and speckles in the Xenopus oocyte nucleus have a low-density, sponge-like structure,” Mol. Biol. Cell 16(1), 202–211 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cuche, E.

Dao, M.

K. Kim, H. Yoon, M. Diez-Silva, M. Dao, R. R. Dasari, and Y. Park, “High-resolution three-dimensional imaging of red blood cells parasitized by Plasmodium falciparum and in situ hemozoin crystals using optical diffraction tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(1), 011005 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Byun, T. R. Hillman, J. M. Higgins, M. Diez-Silva, Z. Peng, M. Dao, R. R. Dasari, S. Suresh, and Y. Park, “Optical measurement of biomechanical properties of individual erythrocytes from a sickle cell patient,” Acta Biomater. 8(11), 4130–4138 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dasari, R.

Dasari, R. R.

K. Kim, H. Yoon, M. Diez-Silva, M. Dao, R. R. Dasari, and Y. Park, “High-resolution three-dimensional imaging of red blood cells parasitized by Plasmodium falciparum and in situ hemozoin crystals using optical diffraction tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(1), 011005 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Byun, T. R. Hillman, J. M. Higgins, M. Diez-Silva, Z. Peng, M. Dao, R. R. Dasari, S. Suresh, and Y. Park, “Optical measurement of biomechanical properties of individual erythrocytes from a sickle cell patient,” Acta Biomater. 8(11), 4130–4138 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Park, C. A. Best, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, T. Kuriabova, M. L. Henle, A. J. Levine, and G. Popescu, “Measurement of red blood cell mechanics during morphological changes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(15), 6731–6736 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Sung, W. Choi, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Optical diffraction tomography for high resolution live cell imaging,” Opt. Express 17(1), 266–277 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Popescu, Y. Park, N. Lue, C. Best-Popescu, L. Deflores, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and K. Badizadegan, “Optical imaging of cell mass and growth dynamics,” Am. J. Physiol. Cell Physiol. 295(2), C538–C544 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Popescu, Y. Park, W. Choi, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and K. Badizadegan, “Imaging red blood cell dynamics by quantitative phase microscopy,” Blood Cells Mol. Dis. 41(1), 10–16 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Park, G. Popescu, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diffraction phase and fluorescence microscopy,” Opt. Express 14(18), 8263–8268 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

de Lamballeri, X.-N.

M. Mohty, D. Jarrossay, M. Lafage-Pochitaloff, C. Zandotti, F. Brière, X.-N. de Lamballeri, D. Isnardon, D. Sainty, D. Olive, and B. Gaugler, “Circulating blood dendritic cells from myeloid leukemia patients display quantitative and cytogenetic abnormalities as well as functional impairment,” Blood 98(13), 3750–3756 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Debnath, S. K.

Deflores, L.

G. Popescu, Y. Park, N. Lue, C. Best-Popescu, L. Deflores, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and K. Badizadegan, “Optical imaging of cell mass and growth dynamics,” Am. J. Physiol. Cell Physiol. 295(2), C538–C544 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Depeursinge, C.

P. Jourdain, N. Pavillon, C. Moratal, D. Boss, B. Rappaz, C. Depeursinge, P. Marquet, and P. J. Magistretti, “Determination of transmembrane water fluxes in neurons elicited by glutamate ionotropic receptors and by the cotransporters KCC2 and NKCC1: a digital holographic microscopy study,” J. Neurosci. 31(33), 11846–11854 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Rappaz, A. Barbul, Y. Emery, R. Korenstein, C. Depeursinge, P. J. Magistretti, and P. Marquet, “Comparative study of human erythrocytes by digital holographic microscopy, confocal microscopy, and impedance volume analyzer,” Cytometry A 73(10), 895–903 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Colomb, F. Dürr, E. Cuche, P. Marquet, H. G. Limberger, R.-P. Salathé, and C. Depeursinge, “Polarization microscopy by use of digital holography: application to optical-fiber birefringence measurements,” Appl. Opt. 44(21), 4461–4469 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Diez-Silva, M.

K. Kim, H. Yoon, M. Diez-Silva, M. Dao, R. R. Dasari, and Y. Park, “High-resolution three-dimensional imaging of red blood cells parasitized by Plasmodium falciparum and in situ hemozoin crystals using optical diffraction tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(1), 011005 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Byun, T. R. Hillman, J. M. Higgins, M. Diez-Silva, Z. Peng, M. Dao, R. R. Dasari, S. Suresh, and Y. Park, “Optical measurement of biomechanical properties of individual erythrocytes from a sickle cell patient,” Acta Biomater. 8(11), 4130–4138 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Park, M. Diez-Silva, G. Popescu, G. Lykotrafitis, W. Choi, M. S. Feld, and S. Suresh, “Refractive index maps and membrane dynamics of human red blood cells parasitized by Plasmodium falciparum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(37), 13730–13735 (2008).
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M. Mir, T. Kim, A. Majumder, M. Xiang, R. Wang, S. C. Liu, M. U. Gillette, S. Stice, and G. Popescu, “Label-free characterization of emerging human neuronal networks,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4434 (2014).
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M. Mir, Z. Wang, Z. Shen, M. Bednarz, R. Bashir, I. Golding, S. G. Prasanth, and G. Popescu, “Optical measurement of cycle-dependent cell growth,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(32), 13124–13129 (2011).
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P. Jourdain, N. Pavillon, C. Moratal, D. Boss, B. Rappaz, C. Depeursinge, P. Marquet, and P. J. Magistretti, “Determination of transmembrane water fluxes in neurons elicited by glutamate ionotropic receptors and by the cotransporters KCC2 and NKCC1: a digital holographic microscopy study,” J. Neurosci. 31(33), 11846–11854 (2011).
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Park, H.

H. Park, S.-H. Hong, K. Kim, S.-H. Cho, W.-J. Lee, Y. Kim, S.-E. Lee, and Y. Park, “Characterizations of individual mouse red blood cells parasitized by Babesia microti using 3-D holographic microscopy,” Sci. Rep. 5, 10827 (2015).
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Y. Kim, H. Shim, K. Kim, H. Park, S. Jang, and Y. Park, “Profiling individual human red blood cells using common-path diffraction optical tomography,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6659 (2014).
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S. Lee, K. Kim, A. Mubarok, A. Panduwirawan, K. Lee, S. Lee, H. Park, and Y. Park, “High-Resolution 3-D Refractive Index Tomography and 2-D Synthetic Aperture Imaging of Live Phytoplankton,” J. Opt. Soc. Korea 18(6), 691–697 (2014).
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J. Jung, K. Kim, H. Yu, K. Lee, S. Lee, S. Nahm, H. Park, and Y. Park, “Biomedical applications of holographic microspectroscopy [Invited],” Appl. Opt. 53(27), G111–G122 (2014).
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Y. Kim, H. Shim, K. Kim, H. Park, J. H. Heo, J. Yoon, C. Choi, S. Jang, and Y. Park, “Common-path diffraction optical tomography for investigation of three-dimensional structures and dynamics of biological cells,” Opt. Express 22(9), 10398–10407 (2014).
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K. Lee, K. Kim, J. Jung, J. Heo, S. Cho, S. Lee, G. Chang, Y. Jo, H. Park, and Y. Park, “Quantitative phase imaging techniques for the study of cell pathophysiology: from principles to applications,” Sensors (Basel) 13(4), 4170–4191 (2013).
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K. Kim, K. S. Kim, H. Park, J. C. Ye, and Y. Park, “Real-time visualization of 3-D dynamic microscopic objects using optical diffraction tomography,” Opt. Express 21(26), 32269–32278 (2013).
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Park, Y.

H. Park, S.-H. Hong, K. Kim, S.-H. Cho, W.-J. Lee, Y. Kim, S.-E. Lee, and Y. Park, “Characterizations of individual mouse red blood cells parasitized by Babesia microti using 3-D holographic microscopy,” Sci. Rep. 5, 10827 (2015).
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K. Kim, J. Yoon, and Y. Park, “Simultaneous 3D visualization and position tracking of optically trapped particles using optical diffraction tomography,” Optica 2(4), 343–346 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Jung, K. Kim, H. Yu, K. Lee, S. Lee, S. Nahm, H. Park, and Y. Park, “Biomedical applications of holographic microspectroscopy [Invited],” Appl. Opt. 53(27), G111–G122 (2014).
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K. Lee and Y. Park, “Quantitative phase imaging unit,” Opt. Lett. 39(12), 3630–3633 (2014).
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Y. Kim, H. Shim, K. Kim, H. Park, J. H. Heo, J. Yoon, C. Choi, S. Jang, and Y. Park, “Common-path diffraction optical tomography for investigation of three-dimensional structures and dynamics of biological cells,” Opt. Express 22(9), 10398–10407 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Lee, K. Kim, A. Mubarok, A. Panduwirawan, K. Lee, S. Lee, H. Park, and Y. Park, “High-Resolution 3-D Refractive Index Tomography and 2-D Synthetic Aperture Imaging of Live Phytoplankton,” J. Opt. Soc. Korea 18(6), 691–697 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. Kim, Z. Yaqoob, K. Lee, J. W. Kang, Y. Choi, P. Hosseini, P. T. So, and Y. Park, “Diffraction optical tomography using a quantitative phase imaging unit,” Opt. Lett. 39(24), 6935–6938 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Kim, H. Shim, K. Kim, H. Park, S. Jang, and Y. Park, “Profiling individual human red blood cells using common-path diffraction optical tomography,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6659 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Lee, K. Kim, J. Jung, J. Heo, S. Cho, S. Lee, G. Chang, Y. Jo, H. Park, and Y. Park, “Quantitative phase imaging techniques for the study of cell pathophysiology: from principles to applications,” Sensors (Basel) 13(4), 4170–4191 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Kim, H. Yoon, M. Diez-Silva, M. Dao, R. R. Dasari, and Y. Park, “High-resolution three-dimensional imaging of red blood cells parasitized by Plasmodium falciparum and in situ hemozoin crystals using optical diffraction tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(1), 011005 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Kim, K. S. Kim, H. Park, J. C. Ye, and Y. Park, “Real-time visualization of 3-D dynamic microscopic objects using optical diffraction tomography,” Opt. Express 21(26), 32269–32278 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Kim, J. Jeong, J. Jang, M. W. Kim, and Y. Park, “Polarization holographic microscopy for extracting spatio-temporally resolved Jones matrix,” Opt. Express 20(9), 9948–9955 (2012).
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Y. Jang, J. Jang, and Y. Park, “Dynamic spectroscopic phase microscopy for quantifying hemoglobin concentration and dynamic membrane fluctuation in red blood cells,” Opt. Express 20(9), 9673–9681 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Byun, T. R. Hillman, J. M. Higgins, M. Diez-Silva, Z. Peng, M. Dao, R. R. Dasari, S. Suresh, and Y. Park, “Optical measurement of biomechanical properties of individual erythrocytes from a sickle cell patient,” Acta Biomater. 8(11), 4130–4138 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Park, C. A. Best, T. Kuriabova, M. L. Henle, M. S. Feld, A. J. Levine, and G. Popescu, “Measurement of the nonlinear elasticity of red blood cell membranes,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 83(5), 051925 (2011).
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S. K. Debnath and Y. Park, “Real-time quantitative phase imaging with a spatial phase-shifting algorithm,” Opt. Lett. 36(23), 4677–4679 (2011).
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Y. Park, C. A. Best, T. Auth, N. S. Gov, S. A. Safran, G. Popescu, S. Suresh, and M. S. Feld, “Metabolic remodeling of the human red blood cell membrane,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(4), 1289–1294 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Park, C. A. Best, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, T. Kuriabova, M. L. Henle, A. J. Levine, and G. Popescu, “Measurement of red blood cell mechanics during morphological changes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(15), 6731–6736 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Park, T. Yamauchi, W. Choi, R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Spectroscopic phase microscopy for quantifying hemoglobin concentrations in intact red blood cells,” Opt. Lett. 34(23), 3668–3670 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Popescu, Y. Park, N. Lue, C. Best-Popescu, L. Deflores, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and K. Badizadegan, “Optical imaging of cell mass and growth dynamics,” Am. J. Physiol. Cell Physiol. 295(2), C538–C544 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Park, M. Diez-Silva, G. Popescu, G. Lykotrafitis, W. Choi, M. S. Feld, and S. Suresh, “Refractive index maps and membrane dynamics of human red blood cells parasitized by Plasmodium falciparum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(37), 13730–13735 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Popescu, Y. Park, W. Choi, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and K. Badizadegan, “Imaging red blood cell dynamics by quantitative phase microscopy,” Blood Cells Mol. Dis. 41(1), 10–16 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Park, G. Popescu, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diffraction phase and fluorescence microscopy,” Opt. Express 14(18), 8263–8268 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pavillon, N.

P. Jourdain, N. Pavillon, C. Moratal, D. Boss, B. Rappaz, C. Depeursinge, P. Marquet, and P. J. Magistretti, “Determination of transmembrane water fluxes in neurons elicited by glutamate ionotropic receptors and by the cotransporters KCC2 and NKCC1: a digital holographic microscopy study,” J. Neurosci. 31(33), 11846–11854 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Peng, Z.

H. Byun, T. R. Hillman, J. M. Higgins, M. Diez-Silva, Z. Peng, M. Dao, R. R. Dasari, S. Suresh, and Y. Park, “Optical measurement of biomechanical properties of individual erythrocytes from a sickle cell patient,” Acta Biomater. 8(11), 4130–4138 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Popescu, G.

M. Mir, T. Kim, A. Majumder, M. Xiang, R. Wang, S. C. Liu, M. U. Gillette, S. Stice, and G. Popescu, “Label-free characterization of emerging human neuronal networks,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4434 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Park, C. A. Best, T. Kuriabova, M. L. Henle, M. S. Feld, A. J. Levine, and G. Popescu, “Measurement of the nonlinear elasticity of red blood cell membranes,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 83(5), 051925 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Mir, Z. Wang, Z. Shen, M. Bednarz, R. Bashir, I. Golding, S. G. Prasanth, and G. Popescu, “Optical measurement of cycle-dependent cell growth,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(32), 13124–13129 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Park, C. A. Best, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, T. Kuriabova, M. L. Henle, A. J. Levine, and G. Popescu, “Measurement of red blood cell mechanics during morphological changes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(15), 6731–6736 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Park, C. A. Best, T. Auth, N. S. Gov, S. A. Safran, G. Popescu, S. Suresh, and M. S. Feld, “Metabolic remodeling of the human red blood cell membrane,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(4), 1289–1294 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Park, M. Diez-Silva, G. Popescu, G. Lykotrafitis, W. Choi, M. S. Feld, and S. Suresh, “Refractive index maps and membrane dynamics of human red blood cells parasitized by Plasmodium falciparum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(37), 13730–13735 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Popescu, Y. Park, W. Choi, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and K. Badizadegan, “Imaging red blood cell dynamics by quantitative phase microscopy,” Blood Cells Mol. Dis. 41(1), 10–16 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Popescu, Y. Park, N. Lue, C. Best-Popescu, L. Deflores, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and K. Badizadegan, “Optical imaging of cell mass and growth dynamics,” Am. J. Physiol. Cell Physiol. 295(2), C538–C544 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Wang, L. J. Millet, M. U. Gillette, and G. Popescu, “Jones phase microscopy of transparent and anisotropic samples,” Opt. Lett. 33(11), 1270–1272 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Park, G. Popescu, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diffraction phase and fluorescence microscopy,” Opt. Express 14(18), 8263–8268 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Prasanth, S. G.

M. Mir, Z. Wang, Z. Shen, M. Bednarz, R. Bashir, I. Golding, S. G. Prasanth, and G. Popescu, “Optical measurement of cycle-dependent cell growth,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(32), 13124–13129 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qu, W.

Rappaz, B.

P. Jourdain, N. Pavillon, C. Moratal, D. Boss, B. Rappaz, C. Depeursinge, P. Marquet, and P. J. Magistretti, “Determination of transmembrane water fluxes in neurons elicited by glutamate ionotropic receptors and by the cotransporters KCC2 and NKCC1: a digital holographic microscopy study,” J. Neurosci. 31(33), 11846–11854 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Rappaz, A. Barbul, Y. Emery, R. Korenstein, C. Depeursinge, P. J. Magistretti, and P. Marquet, “Comparative study of human erythrocytes by digital holographic microscopy, confocal microscopy, and impedance volume analyzer,” Cytometry A 73(10), 895–903 (2008).
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S. Lee, Y. R. Kim, J. Y. Lee, J. H. Rhee, C.-S. Park, and D. Y. Kim, “Dynamic analysis of pathogen-infected host cells using quantitative phase microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 036004 (2011).

Rinehart, M.

Russell, D. G.

D. G. Russell, B. C. Vanderven, S. Glennie, H. Mwandumba, and R. S. Heyderman, “The macrophage marches on its phagosome: dynamic assays of phagosome function,” Nat. Rev. Immunol. 9(8), 594–600 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Safran, S. A.

Y. Park, C. A. Best, T. Auth, N. S. Gov, S. A. Safran, G. Popescu, S. Suresh, and M. S. Feld, “Metabolic remodeling of the human red blood cell membrane,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(4), 1289–1294 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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M. Mohty, D. Jarrossay, M. Lafage-Pochitaloff, C. Zandotti, F. Brière, X.-N. de Lamballeri, D. Isnardon, D. Sainty, D. Olive, and B. Gaugler, “Circulating blood dendritic cells from myeloid leukemia patients display quantitative and cytogenetic abnormalities as well as functional impairment,” Blood 98(13), 3750–3756 (2001).
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N. T. Shaked, L. L. Satterwhite, M. J. Telen, G. A. Truskey, and A. Wax, “Quantitative microscopy and nanoscopy of sickle red blood cells performed by wide field digital interferometry,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(3), 030506 (2011).
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M. Mir, Z. Wang, Z. Shen, M. Bednarz, R. Bashir, I. Golding, S. G. Prasanth, and G. Popescu, “Optical measurement of cycle-dependent cell growth,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(32), 13124–13129 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Sherman, E.

L. Balagopalan, E. Sherman, V. A. Barr, and L. E. Samelson, “Imaging techniques for assaying lymphocyte activation in action,” Nat. Rev. Immunol. 11(1), 21–33 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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So, P. T.

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R. M. Steinman and Z. A. Cohn, “Identification of a novel cell type in peripheral lymphoid organs of mice. I. Morphology, quantitation, tissue distribution,” J. Exp. Med. 137(5), 1142–1162 (1973).
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M. Mir, T. Kim, A. Majumder, M. Xiang, R. Wang, S. C. Liu, M. U. Gillette, S. Stice, and G. Popescu, “Label-free characterization of emerging human neuronal networks,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4434 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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H. Byun, T. R. Hillman, J. M. Higgins, M. Diez-Silva, Z. Peng, M. Dao, R. R. Dasari, S. Suresh, and Y. Park, “Optical measurement of biomechanical properties of individual erythrocytes from a sickle cell patient,” Acta Biomater. 8(11), 4130–4138 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Park, C. A. Best, T. Auth, N. S. Gov, S. A. Safran, G. Popescu, S. Suresh, and M. S. Feld, “Metabolic remodeling of the human red blood cell membrane,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(4), 1289–1294 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Park, M. Diez-Silva, G. Popescu, G. Lykotrafitis, W. Choi, M. S. Feld, and S. Suresh, “Refractive index maps and membrane dynamics of human red blood cells parasitized by Plasmodium falciparum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(37), 13730–13735 (2008).
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A. Szenberg and N. Warner, “Quantitative Aspects of the Simonsen Phenomenon: I. The Role of the Large Lymphocyte,” Br. J. Exp. Pathol. 43, 123 (1962).

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T. A. Zangle and M. A. Teitell, “Live-cell mass profiling: an emerging approach in quantitative biophysics,” Nat. Methods 11(12), 1221–1228 (2014).
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T. A. Zangle, D. Burnes, C. Mathis, O. N. Witte, and M. A. Teitell, “Quantifying biomass changes of single CD8+ T cells during antigen specific cytotoxicity,” PLoS One 8(7), e68916 (2013).
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N. T. Shaked, L. L. Satterwhite, M. J. Telen, G. A. Truskey, and A. Wax, “Quantitative microscopy and nanoscopy of sickle red blood cells performed by wide field digital interferometry,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(3), 030506 (2011).
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T. Timonen, J. R. Ortaldo, and R. B. Herberman, “Characteristics of human large granular lymphocytes and relationship to natural killer and K cells,” J. Exp. Med. 153(3), 569–582 (1981).
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R. Barer and S. Tkaczyk, “Refractive index of concentrated protein solutions,” Nature 173(4409), 821–822 (1954).
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N. T. Shaked, L. L. Satterwhite, M. J. Telen, G. A. Truskey, and A. Wax, “Quantitative microscopy and nanoscopy of sickle red blood cells performed by wide field digital interferometry,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(3), 030506 (2011).
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D. G. Russell, B. C. Vanderven, S. Glennie, H. Mwandumba, and R. S. Heyderman, “The macrophage marches on its phagosome: dynamic assays of phagosome function,” Nat. Rev. Immunol. 9(8), 594–600 (2009).
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J. S. Savill, A. H. Wyllie, J. E. Henson, M. J. Walport, P. M. Henson, and C. Haslett, “Macrophage phagocytosis of aging neutrophils in inflammation. Programmed cell death in the neutrophil leads to its recognition by macrophages,” J. Clin. Invest. 83(3), 865–875 (1989).
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M. Mir, T. Kim, A. Majumder, M. Xiang, R. Wang, S. C. Liu, M. U. Gillette, S. Stice, and G. Popescu, “Label-free characterization of emerging human neuronal networks,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4434 (2014).
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B. Judkewitz, Y. M. Wang, R. Horstmeyer, A. Mathy, and C. Yang, “Speckle-scale focusing in the diffusive regime with time-reversal of variance-encoded light (TROVE),” Nat. Photonics 7(4), 300–305 (2013).
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M. Mir, Z. Wang, Z. Shen, M. Bednarz, R. Bashir, I. Golding, S. G. Prasanth, and G. Popescu, “Optical measurement of cycle-dependent cell growth,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(32), 13124–13129 (2011).
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A. Szenberg and N. Warner, “Quantitative Aspects of the Simonsen Phenomenon: I. The Role of the Large Lymphocyte,” Br. J. Exp. Pathol. 43, 123 (1962).

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R. Scott Brock, X.-H. Hu, D. A. Weidner, J. R. Mourant, and J. Q. Lu, “Effect of detailed cell structure on light scattering distribution: FDTD study of a B-cell with 3D structure constructed from confocal images,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 102(1), 25–36 (2006).
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C. P. Brangwynne, G. H. Koenderink, F. C. MacKintosh, and D. A. Weitz, “Intracellular transport by active diffusion,” Trends Cell Biol. 19(9), 423–427 (2009).
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D. Wirtz, “Particle-tracking microrheology of living cells: principles and applications,” Annu. Rev. Biophys. 38(1), 301–326 (2009).
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T. A. Zangle, D. Burnes, C. Mathis, O. N. Witte, and M. A. Teitell, “Quantifying biomass changes of single CD8+ T cells during antigen specific cytotoxicity,” PLoS One 8(7), e68916 (2013).
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J. S. Savill, A. H. Wyllie, J. E. Henson, M. J. Walport, P. M. Henson, and C. Haslett, “Macrophage phagocytosis of aging neutrophils in inflammation. Programmed cell death in the neutrophil leads to its recognition by macrophages,” J. Clin. Invest. 83(3), 865–875 (1989).
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P. J. Murray and T. A. Wynn, “Protective and pathogenic functions of macrophage subsets,” Nat. Rev. Immunol. 11(11), 723–737 (2011).
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M. Mir, T. Kim, A. Majumder, M. Xiang, R. Wang, S. C. Liu, M. U. Gillette, S. Stice, and G. Popescu, “Label-free characterization of emerging human neuronal networks,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4434 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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B. Judkewitz, Y. M. Wang, R. Horstmeyer, A. Mathy, and C. Yang, “Speckle-scale focusing in the diffusive regime with time-reversal of variance-encoded light (TROVE),” Nat. Photonics 7(4), 300–305 (2013).
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Ye, J. C.

Yeadon, M.

A. Ngkelo, K. Meja, M. Yeadon, I. Adcock, and P. A. Kirkham, “LPS induced inflammatory responses in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells is mediated through NOX4 and Giα dependent PI-3kinase signalling,” J. Inflamm. (Lond.) 9(1), 1 (2012).
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K. Kim, H. Yoon, M. Diez-Silva, M. Dao, R. R. Dasari, and Y. Park, “High-resolution three-dimensional imaging of red blood cells parasitized by Plasmodium falciparum and in situ hemozoin crystals using optical diffraction tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(1), 011005 (2013).
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M. Mohty, D. Jarrossay, M. Lafage-Pochitaloff, C. Zandotti, F. Brière, X.-N. de Lamballeri, D. Isnardon, D. Sainty, D. Olive, and B. Gaugler, “Circulating blood dendritic cells from myeloid leukemia patients display quantitative and cytogenetic abnormalities as well as functional impairment,” Blood 98(13), 3750–3756 (2001).
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T. A. Zangle and M. A. Teitell, “Live-cell mass profiling: an emerging approach in quantitative biophysics,” Nat. Methods 11(12), 1221–1228 (2014).
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T. A. Zangle, D. Burnes, C. Mathis, O. N. Witte, and M. A. Teitell, “Quantifying biomass changes of single CD8+ T cells during antigen specific cytotoxicity,” PLoS One 8(7), e68916 (2013).
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Zhu, Y.

Zicca, A.

C. E. Grossi, S. R. Webb, A. Zicca, P. M. Lydyard, L. Moretta, M. C. Mingari, and M. D. Cooper, “Morphological and histochemical analyses of two human T-cell subpopulations bearing receptors for IgM or IgG,” J. Exp. Med. 147(5), 1405–1417 (1978).
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W. Zou and N. P. Restifo, “T(H)17 cells in tumour immunity and immunotherapy,” Nat. Rev. Immunol. 10(4), 248–256 (2010).
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Acta Biomater. (1)

H. Byun, T. R. Hillman, J. M. Higgins, M. Diez-Silva, Z. Peng, M. Dao, R. R. Dasari, S. Suresh, and Y. Park, “Optical measurement of biomechanical properties of individual erythrocytes from a sickle cell patient,” Acta Biomater. 8(11), 4130–4138 (2012).
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Am. J. Physiol. Cell Physiol. (1)

G. Popescu, Y. Park, N. Lue, C. Best-Popescu, L. Deflores, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and K. Badizadegan, “Optical imaging of cell mass and growth dynamics,” Am. J. Physiol. Cell Physiol. 295(2), C538–C544 (2008).
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Annu. Rev. Biophys. (1)

D. Wirtz, “Particle-tracking microrheology of living cells: principles and applications,” Annu. Rev. Biophys. 38(1), 301–326 (2009).
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Appl. Opt. (2)

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

Blood (1)

M. Mohty, D. Jarrossay, M. Lafage-Pochitaloff, C. Zandotti, F. Brière, X.-N. de Lamballeri, D. Isnardon, D. Sainty, D. Olive, and B. Gaugler, “Circulating blood dendritic cells from myeloid leukemia patients display quantitative and cytogenetic abnormalities as well as functional impairment,” Blood 98(13), 3750–3756 (2001).
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Blood Cells Mol. Dis. (1)

G. Popescu, Y. Park, W. Choi, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and K. Badizadegan, “Imaging red blood cell dynamics by quantitative phase microscopy,” Blood Cells Mol. Dis. 41(1), 10–16 (2008).
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Br. J. Exp. Pathol. (1)

A. Szenberg and N. Warner, “Quantitative Aspects of the Simonsen Phenomenon: I. The Role of the Large Lymphocyte,” Br. J. Exp. Pathol. 43, 123 (1962).

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N. S. Majhail and A. E. Lichtin, “Acute leukemia with a very high leukocyte count: confronting a medical emergency,” Cleve. Clin. J. Med. 71(8), 633–637 (2004).
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Cytometry A (1)

B. Rappaz, A. Barbul, Y. Emery, R. Korenstein, C. Depeursinge, P. J. Magistretti, and P. Marquet, “Comparative study of human erythrocytes by digital holographic microscopy, confocal microscopy, and impedance volume analyzer,” Cytometry A 73(10), 895–903 (2008).
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Integr Biol (Camb) (1)

K. J. Chalut, A. E. Ekpenyong, W. L. Clegg, I. C. Melhuish, and J. Guck, “Quantifying cellular differentiation by physical phenotype using digital holographic microscopy,” Integr Biol (Camb) 4(3), 280–284 (2012).
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J. Biol. Chem. (1)

M. Guha and N. Mackman, “The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Akt pathway limits lipopolysaccharide activation of signaling pathways and expression of inflammatory mediators in human monocytic cells,” J. Biol. Chem. 277(35), 32124–32132 (2002).
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J. Biomed. Opt. (3)

S. Lee, Y. R. Kim, J. Y. Lee, J. H. Rhee, C.-S. Park, and D. Y. Kim, “Dynamic analysis of pathogen-infected host cells using quantitative phase microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 036004 (2011).

K. Kim, H. Yoon, M. Diez-Silva, M. Dao, R. R. Dasari, and Y. Park, “High-resolution three-dimensional imaging of red blood cells parasitized by Plasmodium falciparum and in situ hemozoin crystals using optical diffraction tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(1), 011005 (2013).
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N. T. Shaked, L. L. Satterwhite, M. J. Telen, G. A. Truskey, and A. Wax, “Quantitative microscopy and nanoscopy of sickle red blood cells performed by wide field digital interferometry,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(3), 030506 (2011).
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J. Biophotonics (1)

A. E. Ekpenyong, S. M. Man, S. Achouri, C. E. Bryant, J. Guck, and K. J. Chalut, “Bacterial infection of macrophages induces decrease in refractive index,” J. Biophotonics 6(5), 393–397 (2013).
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J. Clin. Invest. (1)

J. S. Savill, A. H. Wyllie, J. E. Henson, M. J. Walport, P. M. Henson, and C. Haslett, “Macrophage phagocytosis of aging neutrophils in inflammation. Programmed cell death in the neutrophil leads to its recognition by macrophages,” J. Clin. Invest. 83(3), 865–875 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Exp. Med. (3)

T. Timonen, J. R. Ortaldo, and R. B. Herberman, “Characteristics of human large granular lymphocytes and relationship to natural killer and K cells,” J. Exp. Med. 153(3), 569–582 (1981).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. E. Grossi, S. R. Webb, A. Zicca, P. M. Lydyard, L. Moretta, M. C. Mingari, and M. D. Cooper, “Morphological and histochemical analyses of two human T-cell subpopulations bearing receptors for IgM or IgG,” J. Exp. Med. 147(5), 1405–1417 (1978).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. M. Steinman and Z. A. Cohn, “Identification of a novel cell type in peripheral lymphoid organs of mice. I. Morphology, quantitation, tissue distribution,” J. Exp. Med. 137(5), 1142–1162 (1973).
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J. Immunol. (2)

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A. Ngkelo, K. Meja, M. Yeadon, I. Adcock, and P. A. Kirkham, “LPS induced inflammatory responses in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells is mediated through NOX4 and Giα dependent PI-3kinase signalling,” J. Inflamm. (Lond.) 9(1), 1 (2012).
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J. Microsc. (1)

V. Lauer, “New approach to optical diffraction tomography yielding a vector equation of diffraction tomography and a novel tomographic microscope,” J. Microsc. 205(2), 165–176 (2002).
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J. Neurosci. (1)

P. Jourdain, N. Pavillon, C. Moratal, D. Boss, B. Rappaz, C. Depeursinge, P. Marquet, and P. J. Magistretti, “Determination of transmembrane water fluxes in neurons elicited by glutamate ionotropic receptors and by the cotransporters KCC2 and NKCC1: a digital holographic microscopy study,” J. Neurosci. 31(33), 11846–11854 (2011).
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J. Opt. Soc. Korea (1)

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. (1)

R. Scott Brock, X.-H. Hu, D. A. Weidner, J. R. Mourant, and J. Q. Lu, “Effect of detailed cell structure on light scattering distribution: FDTD study of a B-cell with 3D structure constructed from confocal images,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 102(1), 25–36 (2006).
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J. Vis. Exp. (1)

A. Ray and B. N. Dittel, “Isolation of mouse peritoneal cavity cells,” J. Vis. Exp. 35, 1488 (2010).
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Mol. Biol. Cell (1)

K. E. Handwerger, J. A. Cordero, and J. G. Gall, “Cajal bodies, nucleoli, and speckles in the Xenopus oocyte nucleus have a low-density, sponge-like structure,” Mol. Biol. Cell 16(1), 202–211 (2004).
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Nat. Cell Biol. (1)

M. Nieminen, T. Henttinen, M. Merinen, F. Marttila-Ichihara, J. E. Eriksson, and S. Jalkanen, “Vimentin function in lymphocyte adhesion and transcellular migration,” Nat. Cell Biol. 8(2), 156–162 (2006).
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Nat. Methods (1)

T. A. Zangle and M. A. Teitell, “Live-cell mass profiling: an emerging approach in quantitative biophysics,” Nat. Methods 11(12), 1221–1228 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

B. Judkewitz, Y. M. Wang, R. Horstmeyer, A. Mathy, and C. Yang, “Speckle-scale focusing in the diffusive regime with time-reversal of variance-encoded light (TROVE),” Nat. Photonics 7(4), 300–305 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Rev. Immunol. (6)

D. G. Russell, B. C. Vanderven, S. Glennie, H. Mwandumba, and R. S. Heyderman, “The macrophage marches on its phagosome: dynamic assays of phagosome function,” Nat. Rev. Immunol. 9(8), 594–600 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. J. Murray and T. A. Wynn, “Protective and pathogenic functions of macrophage subsets,” Nat. Rev. Immunol. 11(11), 723–737 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Balagopalan, E. Sherman, V. A. Barr, and L. E. Samelson, “Imaging techniques for assaying lymphocyte activation in action,” Nat. Rev. Immunol. 11(1), 21–33 (2011).
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J. C. Edwards and G. Cambridge, “B-cell targeting in rheumatoid arthritis and other autoimmune diseases,” Nat. Rev. Immunol. 6(5), 394–403 (2006).
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W. Zou and N. P. Restifo, “T(H)17 cells in tumour immunity and immunotherapy,” Nat. Rev. Immunol. 10(4), 248–256 (2010).
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Nature (2)

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Opt. Express (6)

Opt. Lett. (7)

Optica (1)

Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. (1)

Y. Park, C. A. Best, T. Kuriabova, M. L. Henle, M. S. Feld, A. J. Levine, and G. Popescu, “Measurement of the nonlinear elasticity of red blood cell membranes,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 83(5), 051925 (2011).
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PLoS One (1)

T. A. Zangle, D. Burnes, C. Mathis, O. N. Witte, and M. A. Teitell, “Quantifying biomass changes of single CD8+ T cells during antigen specific cytotoxicity,” PLoS One 8(7), e68916 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (4)

Y. Park, M. Diez-Silva, G. Popescu, G. Lykotrafitis, W. Choi, M. S. Feld, and S. Suresh, “Refractive index maps and membrane dynamics of human red blood cells parasitized by Plasmodium falciparum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(37), 13730–13735 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Park, C. A. Best, T. Auth, N. S. Gov, S. A. Safran, G. Popescu, S. Suresh, and M. S. Feld, “Metabolic remodeling of the human red blood cell membrane,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(4), 1289–1294 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Park, C. A. Best, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, T. Kuriabova, M. L. Henle, A. J. Levine, and G. Popescu, “Measurement of red blood cell mechanics during morphological changes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(15), 6731–6736 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Mir, Z. Wang, Z. Shen, M. Bednarz, R. Bashir, I. Golding, S. G. Prasanth, and G. Popescu, “Optical measurement of cycle-dependent cell growth,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(32), 13124–13129 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sci. Rep. (3)

H. Park, S.-H. Hong, K. Kim, S.-H. Cho, W.-J. Lee, Y. Kim, S.-E. Lee, and Y. Park, “Characterizations of individual mouse red blood cells parasitized by Babesia microti using 3-D holographic microscopy,” Sci. Rep. 5, 10827 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Mir, T. Kim, A. Majumder, M. Xiang, R. Wang, S. C. Liu, M. U. Gillette, S. Stice, and G. Popescu, “Label-free characterization of emerging human neuronal networks,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4434 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Kim, H. Shim, K. Kim, H. Park, S. Jang, and Y. Park, “Profiling individual human red blood cells using common-path diffraction optical tomography,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6659 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sensors (Basel) (1)

K. Lee, K. Kim, J. Jung, J. Heo, S. Cho, S. Lee, G. Chang, Y. Jo, H. Park, and Y. Park, “Quantitative phase imaging techniques for the study of cell pathophysiology: from principles to applications,” Sensors (Basel) 13(4), 4170–4191 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Trends Cell Biol. (1)

C. P. Brangwynne, G. H. Koenderink, F. C. MacKintosh, and D. A. Weitz, “Intracellular transport by active diffusion,” Trends Cell Biol. 19(9), 423–427 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (2)

M. K. Kim, “Principles and techniques of digital holographic microscopy,” SPIE Rev. 1(1), 018005 (2010).

G. Popescu, Quantitative Phase Imaging of Cells and Tissues (McGraw-Hill Professional, 2011).

Supplementary Material (4)

NameDescription
» Visualization 1: AVI (7428 KB)      Visualization1
» Visualization 2: AVI (8809 KB)      Visualization2
» Visualization 3: AVI (2626 KB)      Visualization3
» 4: AVI (2626 KB)     

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic of the experimental ODT setup and the procedure of a 3D RI tomogram reconstruction. (a) A Mach-Zehnder interferometric microscope equipped with a 2D scanning galvanometer-based mirror. BS1–2, beam splitters; GM, galvano mirror; OL, objective lens; CL, condenser lens; M1–2, mirrors; P, pinhole; L1–6, lenses. (b) Holograms are recorded with various illumination angles (top) and the retrieved amplitude and the phase images corresponding to a hologram at a specific illumination angle (bottom). Inset: zoomed-in view of spatially modulated interference patterns. Scale bar, 5 μm. (c) Cross-sectional slices of a RI tomogram of a WBC. Scale bar, 5 μm.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 3D visualization of WBCs. Cross-sectional slices of the RI distribution of (a) a lymphocyte and (c) a macrophage at various axial planes. Scale bar, 4 μm. Rendered iso-surfaces of the RI map of (b) a lymphocyte and (d) a macrophage. For visualization purposes, the threshold iso-surfaces of the plasma membrane (white) and the internal structures (cyan, red) are set to 1.345, 1.375, and 1.39, respectively. Scale bar, 3 μm.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Quantified morphological and biochemical information about individual lymphocytes (n = 29) and macrophages (n = 22). (a) Cellular volume, (b) surface area, (c) sphericity index, (d) dry mass density, and (e) dry mass. Each symbol represents an individual cell measurement and the horizontal black line indicates the mean value with the vertical line of standard deviation. The symbol *** indicates a p-value of < 0.001 in the comparison of the lymphocytes and macrophages according to Student’s t test.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Quantitative analyses of representative lymphocytes in heterogeneous populations. 3D rendered RI surfaces of (a) a small lymphocyte, (b) a large lymphocyte, and (c) a LPS-treated lymphocytes. The cellular volume V, cellular dry mass m, dry mass density ρ, surface area S, sphericity SI, and 2D mean diameter D are specified. Scale bar, 2 μm.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Heterogeneous populations in isolated lymphocytes. Quantified morphological and biochemical information about small (n = 21), large (n = 9), and LPS-treated lymphocytes (n = 22). (n = 29) and macrophages (n = 22). (a) Diameter, (b) cellular volume, (c) surface area, (d) sphericity, (e) dry mass density, and (f) dry mass. Each symbol represents an individual cell measurement and the horizontal black line indicates the mean value with the vertical line of standard deviation. The symbol *** indicates a p-value of < 0.001 in the comparison of the lymphocytes and macrophages according to Student’s t test.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Time-lapse measurement of the 3D RI tomograms and 3D trajectories of polystyrene beads engulfed by a macrophage. (a) Cross-sectional slice of a 3D RI tomogram of a macrophage on the focal plane. Three engulfed beads are indicated. (b) 3D trajectories of polystyrene beads in (a). The initial and final positions of each bead are indicated by the black and red circles, respectively. (c) MSD of the beads in (b) as a function of the lag time. Dashed lines indicate the fitted slope.

Equations (1)

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S I = π 1 / 3 ( 6 V ) 2 / 3 / S .

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