Abstract

The ability to monitor the inflammatory state of the middle ear mucosa would provide clinical utility. To enable spectral measurements on the mucosa whilst rejecting background signal from the eardrum an anti-confocal system is investigated. In contrast to the central pinhole in a confocal system the anti-confocal system uses a central stop to reject light from the in-focus plane, the eardrum, with all other light detected. Monte Carlo simulations of this system show an increase in detected signal and improved signal-to-background ratio compared to a conventional confocal set-up used to image the middle ear mucosa. System parameters are varied in the simulation and their influence on the level of background rejection are presented.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M. Daniel, S. Imtiaz-Umer, N. Fergie, J. P. Birchall, and R. Bayston, “Bacterial involvement in otitis media with effusion,” Int. J. Pediatr. Otorhi. 76(10), 1416–1422 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  2. M. Daniel, R. Chessman, S. Al-Zahid, B. Richards, C. Rahman, W. Ashraf, J. McLaren, H. Cox, O. Qutachi, H. Fortnum, N. Fergie, K. Shakesheff, J. P. Birchall, and R. Bayston, “Biofilm eradication with biodegradable modified-release antibiotic pellets: A potential treatment for glue ear,” Arch. Otolaryngol. 138(10), 942–949 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  3. K. Z. Liu, X. M. Xiang, A. Man, M. G. Sowa, N. Cholakis, E. Ghiabi, D. L. Singer, and D. A. Scott, “In vivo determination of multiple indices of periodontal inflammation by optical spectroscopy,” J. Periodontal Res. 44(1), 117–124 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  4. M. Sundberg, M. Peebo, Å. Öberg, P.-G. Lundquist, and T. Strömberg, “Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of the human tympanic membrane in otitis media,” Physiol. Meas. 25(6), 1473–1483 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  5. D. S. Jung, J. P. Birchall, J. A. Crowe, C. W. See, and M. G. Somekh, “Monte Carlo Photon Simulation of an Anti-Confocal System to Monitor Middle Ear Inflammation,” in Optics in the Life SciencesOSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper JT3A.41.
  6. S. A. Prahl, M. Keijzer, S. L. Jacques, and A. J. Welch, “A Monte Carlo model of light propagation in tissue,” in SPIE Proceedings of Dosimetry of Laser Radiation in Medicine and Biology (Press, 1989), pp. 102–111.
  7. A. Nussbaum, “Modernizing the teaching of advanced geometric optics,” Proc. SPIE 1603, 389–400 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  8. K. R. Spring, T. J. Fellers, and M. W. Davidson, “Theory of Confocal Microscopy, Signal-to-Noise Considerations,” http://www.olympusconfocal.com/theory/signaltonoise.html .
  9. D. MacDougall, J. Rainsbury, J. Brown, M. Bance, and R. Adamson, “Optical coherence tomography system requirements for clinical diagnostic middle ear imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(5), 56008 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (1)

D. MacDougall, J. Rainsbury, J. Brown, M. Bance, and R. Adamson, “Optical coherence tomography system requirements for clinical diagnostic middle ear imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(5), 56008 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

M. Daniel, S. Imtiaz-Umer, N. Fergie, J. P. Birchall, and R. Bayston, “Bacterial involvement in otitis media with effusion,” Int. J. Pediatr. Otorhi. 76(10), 1416–1422 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Daniel, R. Chessman, S. Al-Zahid, B. Richards, C. Rahman, W. Ashraf, J. McLaren, H. Cox, O. Qutachi, H. Fortnum, N. Fergie, K. Shakesheff, J. P. Birchall, and R. Bayston, “Biofilm eradication with biodegradable modified-release antibiotic pellets: A potential treatment for glue ear,” Arch. Otolaryngol. 138(10), 942–949 (2012).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

K. Z. Liu, X. M. Xiang, A. Man, M. G. Sowa, N. Cholakis, E. Ghiabi, D. L. Singer, and D. A. Scott, “In vivo determination of multiple indices of periodontal inflammation by optical spectroscopy,” J. Periodontal Res. 44(1), 117–124 (2009).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

M. Sundberg, M. Peebo, Å. Öberg, P.-G. Lundquist, and T. Strömberg, “Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of the human tympanic membrane in otitis media,” Physiol. Meas. 25(6), 1473–1483 (2004).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

A. Nussbaum, “Modernizing the teaching of advanced geometric optics,” Proc. SPIE 1603, 389–400 (1992).
[Crossref]

Adamson, R.

D. MacDougall, J. Rainsbury, J. Brown, M. Bance, and R. Adamson, “Optical coherence tomography system requirements for clinical diagnostic middle ear imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(5), 56008 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Al-Zahid, S.

M. Daniel, R. Chessman, S. Al-Zahid, B. Richards, C. Rahman, W. Ashraf, J. McLaren, H. Cox, O. Qutachi, H. Fortnum, N. Fergie, K. Shakesheff, J. P. Birchall, and R. Bayston, “Biofilm eradication with biodegradable modified-release antibiotic pellets: A potential treatment for glue ear,” Arch. Otolaryngol. 138(10), 942–949 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ashraf, W.

M. Daniel, R. Chessman, S. Al-Zahid, B. Richards, C. Rahman, W. Ashraf, J. McLaren, H. Cox, O. Qutachi, H. Fortnum, N. Fergie, K. Shakesheff, J. P. Birchall, and R. Bayston, “Biofilm eradication with biodegradable modified-release antibiotic pellets: A potential treatment for glue ear,” Arch. Otolaryngol. 138(10), 942–949 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bance, M.

D. MacDougall, J. Rainsbury, J. Brown, M. Bance, and R. Adamson, “Optical coherence tomography system requirements for clinical diagnostic middle ear imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(5), 56008 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bayston, R.

M. Daniel, S. Imtiaz-Umer, N. Fergie, J. P. Birchall, and R. Bayston, “Bacterial involvement in otitis media with effusion,” Int. J. Pediatr. Otorhi. 76(10), 1416–1422 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Daniel, R. Chessman, S. Al-Zahid, B. Richards, C. Rahman, W. Ashraf, J. McLaren, H. Cox, O. Qutachi, H. Fortnum, N. Fergie, K. Shakesheff, J. P. Birchall, and R. Bayston, “Biofilm eradication with biodegradable modified-release antibiotic pellets: A potential treatment for glue ear,” Arch. Otolaryngol. 138(10), 942–949 (2012).
[Crossref]

Birchall, J. P.

M. Daniel, R. Chessman, S. Al-Zahid, B. Richards, C. Rahman, W. Ashraf, J. McLaren, H. Cox, O. Qutachi, H. Fortnum, N. Fergie, K. Shakesheff, J. P. Birchall, and R. Bayston, “Biofilm eradication with biodegradable modified-release antibiotic pellets: A potential treatment for glue ear,” Arch. Otolaryngol. 138(10), 942–949 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Daniel, S. Imtiaz-Umer, N. Fergie, J. P. Birchall, and R. Bayston, “Bacterial involvement in otitis media with effusion,” Int. J. Pediatr. Otorhi. 76(10), 1416–1422 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. S. Jung, J. P. Birchall, J. A. Crowe, C. W. See, and M. G. Somekh, “Monte Carlo Photon Simulation of an Anti-Confocal System to Monitor Middle Ear Inflammation,” in Optics in the Life SciencesOSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper JT3A.41.

Brown, J.

D. MacDougall, J. Rainsbury, J. Brown, M. Bance, and R. Adamson, “Optical coherence tomography system requirements for clinical diagnostic middle ear imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(5), 56008 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chessman, R.

M. Daniel, R. Chessman, S. Al-Zahid, B. Richards, C. Rahman, W. Ashraf, J. McLaren, H. Cox, O. Qutachi, H. Fortnum, N. Fergie, K. Shakesheff, J. P. Birchall, and R. Bayston, “Biofilm eradication with biodegradable modified-release antibiotic pellets: A potential treatment for glue ear,” Arch. Otolaryngol. 138(10), 942–949 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cholakis, N.

K. Z. Liu, X. M. Xiang, A. Man, M. G. Sowa, N. Cholakis, E. Ghiabi, D. L. Singer, and D. A. Scott, “In vivo determination of multiple indices of periodontal inflammation by optical spectroscopy,” J. Periodontal Res. 44(1), 117–124 (2009).
[Crossref]

Cox, H.

M. Daniel, R. Chessman, S. Al-Zahid, B. Richards, C. Rahman, W. Ashraf, J. McLaren, H. Cox, O. Qutachi, H. Fortnum, N. Fergie, K. Shakesheff, J. P. Birchall, and R. Bayston, “Biofilm eradication with biodegradable modified-release antibiotic pellets: A potential treatment for glue ear,” Arch. Otolaryngol. 138(10), 942–949 (2012).
[Crossref]

Crowe, J. A.

D. S. Jung, J. P. Birchall, J. A. Crowe, C. W. See, and M. G. Somekh, “Monte Carlo Photon Simulation of an Anti-Confocal System to Monitor Middle Ear Inflammation,” in Optics in the Life SciencesOSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper JT3A.41.

Daniel, M.

M. Daniel, S. Imtiaz-Umer, N. Fergie, J. P. Birchall, and R. Bayston, “Bacterial involvement in otitis media with effusion,” Int. J. Pediatr. Otorhi. 76(10), 1416–1422 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Daniel, R. Chessman, S. Al-Zahid, B. Richards, C. Rahman, W. Ashraf, J. McLaren, H. Cox, O. Qutachi, H. Fortnum, N. Fergie, K. Shakesheff, J. P. Birchall, and R. Bayston, “Biofilm eradication with biodegradable modified-release antibiotic pellets: A potential treatment for glue ear,” Arch. Otolaryngol. 138(10), 942–949 (2012).
[Crossref]

Fergie, N.

M. Daniel, S. Imtiaz-Umer, N. Fergie, J. P. Birchall, and R. Bayston, “Bacterial involvement in otitis media with effusion,” Int. J. Pediatr. Otorhi. 76(10), 1416–1422 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Daniel, R. Chessman, S. Al-Zahid, B. Richards, C. Rahman, W. Ashraf, J. McLaren, H. Cox, O. Qutachi, H. Fortnum, N. Fergie, K. Shakesheff, J. P. Birchall, and R. Bayston, “Biofilm eradication with biodegradable modified-release antibiotic pellets: A potential treatment for glue ear,” Arch. Otolaryngol. 138(10), 942–949 (2012).
[Crossref]

Fortnum, H.

M. Daniel, R. Chessman, S. Al-Zahid, B. Richards, C. Rahman, W. Ashraf, J. McLaren, H. Cox, O. Qutachi, H. Fortnum, N. Fergie, K. Shakesheff, J. P. Birchall, and R. Bayston, “Biofilm eradication with biodegradable modified-release antibiotic pellets: A potential treatment for glue ear,” Arch. Otolaryngol. 138(10), 942–949 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ghiabi, E.

K. Z. Liu, X. M. Xiang, A. Man, M. G. Sowa, N. Cholakis, E. Ghiabi, D. L. Singer, and D. A. Scott, “In vivo determination of multiple indices of periodontal inflammation by optical spectroscopy,” J. Periodontal Res. 44(1), 117–124 (2009).
[Crossref]

Imtiaz-Umer, S.

M. Daniel, S. Imtiaz-Umer, N. Fergie, J. P. Birchall, and R. Bayston, “Bacterial involvement in otitis media with effusion,” Int. J. Pediatr. Otorhi. 76(10), 1416–1422 (2012).
[Crossref]

Jacques, S. L.

S. A. Prahl, M. Keijzer, S. L. Jacques, and A. J. Welch, “A Monte Carlo model of light propagation in tissue,” in SPIE Proceedings of Dosimetry of Laser Radiation in Medicine and Biology (Press, 1989), pp. 102–111.

Jung, D. S.

D. S. Jung, J. P. Birchall, J. A. Crowe, C. W. See, and M. G. Somekh, “Monte Carlo Photon Simulation of an Anti-Confocal System to Monitor Middle Ear Inflammation,” in Optics in the Life SciencesOSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper JT3A.41.

Keijzer, M.

S. A. Prahl, M. Keijzer, S. L. Jacques, and A. J. Welch, “A Monte Carlo model of light propagation in tissue,” in SPIE Proceedings of Dosimetry of Laser Radiation in Medicine and Biology (Press, 1989), pp. 102–111.

Liu, K. Z.

K. Z. Liu, X. M. Xiang, A. Man, M. G. Sowa, N. Cholakis, E. Ghiabi, D. L. Singer, and D. A. Scott, “In vivo determination of multiple indices of periodontal inflammation by optical spectroscopy,” J. Periodontal Res. 44(1), 117–124 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lundquist, P.-G.

M. Sundberg, M. Peebo, Å. Öberg, P.-G. Lundquist, and T. Strömberg, “Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of the human tympanic membrane in otitis media,” Physiol. Meas. 25(6), 1473–1483 (2004).
[Crossref]

MacDougall, D.

D. MacDougall, J. Rainsbury, J. Brown, M. Bance, and R. Adamson, “Optical coherence tomography system requirements for clinical diagnostic middle ear imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(5), 56008 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Man, A.

K. Z. Liu, X. M. Xiang, A. Man, M. G. Sowa, N. Cholakis, E. Ghiabi, D. L. Singer, and D. A. Scott, “In vivo determination of multiple indices of periodontal inflammation by optical spectroscopy,” J. Periodontal Res. 44(1), 117–124 (2009).
[Crossref]

McLaren, J.

M. Daniel, R. Chessman, S. Al-Zahid, B. Richards, C. Rahman, W. Ashraf, J. McLaren, H. Cox, O. Qutachi, H. Fortnum, N. Fergie, K. Shakesheff, J. P. Birchall, and R. Bayston, “Biofilm eradication with biodegradable modified-release antibiotic pellets: A potential treatment for glue ear,” Arch. Otolaryngol. 138(10), 942–949 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nussbaum, A.

A. Nussbaum, “Modernizing the teaching of advanced geometric optics,” Proc. SPIE 1603, 389–400 (1992).
[Crossref]

Öberg, Å.

M. Sundberg, M. Peebo, Å. Öberg, P.-G. Lundquist, and T. Strömberg, “Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of the human tympanic membrane in otitis media,” Physiol. Meas. 25(6), 1473–1483 (2004).
[Crossref]

Peebo, M.

M. Sundberg, M. Peebo, Å. Öberg, P.-G. Lundquist, and T. Strömberg, “Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of the human tympanic membrane in otitis media,” Physiol. Meas. 25(6), 1473–1483 (2004).
[Crossref]

Prahl, S. A.

S. A. Prahl, M. Keijzer, S. L. Jacques, and A. J. Welch, “A Monte Carlo model of light propagation in tissue,” in SPIE Proceedings of Dosimetry of Laser Radiation in Medicine and Biology (Press, 1989), pp. 102–111.

Qutachi, O.

M. Daniel, R. Chessman, S. Al-Zahid, B. Richards, C. Rahman, W. Ashraf, J. McLaren, H. Cox, O. Qutachi, H. Fortnum, N. Fergie, K. Shakesheff, J. P. Birchall, and R. Bayston, “Biofilm eradication with biodegradable modified-release antibiotic pellets: A potential treatment for glue ear,” Arch. Otolaryngol. 138(10), 942–949 (2012).
[Crossref]

Rahman, C.

M. Daniel, R. Chessman, S. Al-Zahid, B. Richards, C. Rahman, W. Ashraf, J. McLaren, H. Cox, O. Qutachi, H. Fortnum, N. Fergie, K. Shakesheff, J. P. Birchall, and R. Bayston, “Biofilm eradication with biodegradable modified-release antibiotic pellets: A potential treatment for glue ear,” Arch. Otolaryngol. 138(10), 942–949 (2012).
[Crossref]

Rainsbury, J.

D. MacDougall, J. Rainsbury, J. Brown, M. Bance, and R. Adamson, “Optical coherence tomography system requirements for clinical diagnostic middle ear imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(5), 56008 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Richards, B.

M. Daniel, R. Chessman, S. Al-Zahid, B. Richards, C. Rahman, W. Ashraf, J. McLaren, H. Cox, O. Qutachi, H. Fortnum, N. Fergie, K. Shakesheff, J. P. Birchall, and R. Bayston, “Biofilm eradication with biodegradable modified-release antibiotic pellets: A potential treatment for glue ear,” Arch. Otolaryngol. 138(10), 942–949 (2012).
[Crossref]

Scott, D. A.

K. Z. Liu, X. M. Xiang, A. Man, M. G. Sowa, N. Cholakis, E. Ghiabi, D. L. Singer, and D. A. Scott, “In vivo determination of multiple indices of periodontal inflammation by optical spectroscopy,” J. Periodontal Res. 44(1), 117–124 (2009).
[Crossref]

See, C. W.

D. S. Jung, J. P. Birchall, J. A. Crowe, C. W. See, and M. G. Somekh, “Monte Carlo Photon Simulation of an Anti-Confocal System to Monitor Middle Ear Inflammation,” in Optics in the Life SciencesOSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper JT3A.41.

Shakesheff, K.

M. Daniel, R. Chessman, S. Al-Zahid, B. Richards, C. Rahman, W. Ashraf, J. McLaren, H. Cox, O. Qutachi, H. Fortnum, N. Fergie, K. Shakesheff, J. P. Birchall, and R. Bayston, “Biofilm eradication with biodegradable modified-release antibiotic pellets: A potential treatment for glue ear,” Arch. Otolaryngol. 138(10), 942–949 (2012).
[Crossref]

Singer, D. L.

K. Z. Liu, X. M. Xiang, A. Man, M. G. Sowa, N. Cholakis, E. Ghiabi, D. L. Singer, and D. A. Scott, “In vivo determination of multiple indices of periodontal inflammation by optical spectroscopy,” J. Periodontal Res. 44(1), 117–124 (2009).
[Crossref]

Somekh, M. G.

D. S. Jung, J. P. Birchall, J. A. Crowe, C. W. See, and M. G. Somekh, “Monte Carlo Photon Simulation of an Anti-Confocal System to Monitor Middle Ear Inflammation,” in Optics in the Life SciencesOSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper JT3A.41.

Sowa, M. G.

K. Z. Liu, X. M. Xiang, A. Man, M. G. Sowa, N. Cholakis, E. Ghiabi, D. L. Singer, and D. A. Scott, “In vivo determination of multiple indices of periodontal inflammation by optical spectroscopy,” J. Periodontal Res. 44(1), 117–124 (2009).
[Crossref]

Strömberg, T.

M. Sundberg, M. Peebo, Å. Öberg, P.-G. Lundquist, and T. Strömberg, “Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of the human tympanic membrane in otitis media,” Physiol. Meas. 25(6), 1473–1483 (2004).
[Crossref]

Sundberg, M.

M. Sundberg, M. Peebo, Å. Öberg, P.-G. Lundquist, and T. Strömberg, “Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of the human tympanic membrane in otitis media,” Physiol. Meas. 25(6), 1473–1483 (2004).
[Crossref]

Welch, A. J.

S. A. Prahl, M. Keijzer, S. L. Jacques, and A. J. Welch, “A Monte Carlo model of light propagation in tissue,” in SPIE Proceedings of Dosimetry of Laser Radiation in Medicine and Biology (Press, 1989), pp. 102–111.

Xiang, X. M.

K. Z. Liu, X. M. Xiang, A. Man, M. G. Sowa, N. Cholakis, E. Ghiabi, D. L. Singer, and D. A. Scott, “In vivo determination of multiple indices of periodontal inflammation by optical spectroscopy,” J. Periodontal Res. 44(1), 117–124 (2009).
[Crossref]

Arch. Otolaryngol. (1)

M. Daniel, R. Chessman, S. Al-Zahid, B. Richards, C. Rahman, W. Ashraf, J. McLaren, H. Cox, O. Qutachi, H. Fortnum, N. Fergie, K. Shakesheff, J. P. Birchall, and R. Bayston, “Biofilm eradication with biodegradable modified-release antibiotic pellets: A potential treatment for glue ear,” Arch. Otolaryngol. 138(10), 942–949 (2012).
[Crossref]

Int. J. Pediatr. Otorhi. (1)

M. Daniel, S. Imtiaz-Umer, N. Fergie, J. P. Birchall, and R. Bayston, “Bacterial involvement in otitis media with effusion,” Int. J. Pediatr. Otorhi. 76(10), 1416–1422 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

D. MacDougall, J. Rainsbury, J. Brown, M. Bance, and R. Adamson, “Optical coherence tomography system requirements for clinical diagnostic middle ear imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(5), 56008 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Periodontal Res. (1)

K. Z. Liu, X. M. Xiang, A. Man, M. G. Sowa, N. Cholakis, E. Ghiabi, D. L. Singer, and D. A. Scott, “In vivo determination of multiple indices of periodontal inflammation by optical spectroscopy,” J. Periodontal Res. 44(1), 117–124 (2009).
[Crossref]

Physiol. Meas. (1)

M. Sundberg, M. Peebo, Å. Öberg, P.-G. Lundquist, and T. Strömberg, “Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of the human tympanic membrane in otitis media,” Physiol. Meas. 25(6), 1473–1483 (2004).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (1)

A. Nussbaum, “Modernizing the teaching of advanced geometric optics,” Proc. SPIE 1603, 389–400 (1992).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

K. R. Spring, T. J. Fellers, and M. W. Davidson, “Theory of Confocal Microscopy, Signal-to-Noise Considerations,” http://www.olympusconfocal.com/theory/signaltonoise.html .

D. S. Jung, J. P. Birchall, J. A. Crowe, C. W. See, and M. G. Somekh, “Monte Carlo Photon Simulation of an Anti-Confocal System to Monitor Middle Ear Inflammation,” in Optics in the Life SciencesOSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper JT3A.41.

S. A. Prahl, M. Keijzer, S. L. Jacques, and A. J. Welch, “A Monte Carlo model of light propagation in tissue,” in SPIE Proceedings of Dosimetry of Laser Radiation in Medicine and Biology (Press, 1989), pp. 102–111.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Principles of the conventional confocal and anti-confocal system.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Effects of radius of pinhole/stop on signal (left) and SBR (right).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Effects of distance between eardrum and mucosa on signal and SBR.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Effects of eardrum scattering on signal and SBR. C – confocal, AC – anti-confocal

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