Abstract

The progression of epithelial precancers into cancer is accompanied by changes of tissue and cellular structures in the epithelium. Correlations between the structural changes and scattering coefficients of esophageal epithelia were investigated using quantitative phase images and the scattering-phase theorem. An ex vivo study of 14 patients demonstrated that the average scattering coefficient of precancerous epithelia was 37.8% higher than that of normal epithelia from the same patient. The scattering coefficients were highly correlated with morphological features including the cell density and the nuclear-to-cytoplasmic ratio. A high interpatient variability in scattering coefficients was observed and suggests identifying precancerous lesions based on the relative change in scattering coefficients.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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2014 (4)

K. B. Sung, K. W. Shih, F. W. Hsu, H. P. Hsieh, M. J. Chuang, Y. H. Hsiao, Y. H. Su, and G. H. Tien, “Accurate extraction of optical properties and top layer thickness of two-layered mucosal tissue phantoms from spatially resolved reflectance spectra,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(7), 077002 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. W. Su, W. C. Hsu, J. W. Tjiu, C. P. Chiang, C. W. Huang, and K. B. Sung, “Investigation of influences of the paraformaldehyde fixation and paraffin embedding removal process on refractive indices and scattering properties of epithelial cells,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(7), 075007 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. A. Vermeer, J. Mo, J. J. A. Weda, H. G. Lemij, and J. F. de Boer, “Depth-resolved model-based reconstruction of attenuation coefficients in optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(1), 322–337 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Arifler, C. Macaulay, M. Follen, and M. Guillaud, “Numerical investigation of two-dimensional light scattering patterns of cervical cell nuclei to map dysplastic changes at different epithelial depths,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(2), 485–498 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (3)

J. W. Su, W. C. Hsu, C. Y. Chou, C. H. Chang, and K. B. Sung, “Digital holographic microtomography for high-resolution refractive index mapping of live cells,” J. Biophotonics 6(5), 416–424 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Hariri Tabrizi, S. Mahmoud Reza Aghamiri, F. Farzaneh, A. Amelink, and H. J. Sterenborg, “Single fiber reflectance spectroscopy on cervical premalignancies: the potential for reduction of the number of unnecessary biopsies,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(1), 017002 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. D. Rogers, A. J. Radosevich, J. Yi, and V. Backman, “Modeling Light Scattering in Tissue as Continuous Random Media Using a Versatile Refractive Index Correlation Function,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(2), 7000514 (2013).
[PubMed]

2012 (2)

O. K. Adegun, P. H. Tomlins, E. Hagi-Pavli, G. McKenzie, K. Piper, D. L. Bader, and F. Fortune, “Quantitative analysis of optical coherence tomography and histopathology images of normal and dysplastic oral mucosal tissues,” Lasers Med. Sci. 27(4), 795–804 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Wang, D. Le, J. Ramella-Roman, and J. Pfefer, “Broadband ultraviolet-visible optical property measurement in layered turbid media,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(6), 1226–1240 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (4)

Z. Wang, H. Ding, and G. Popescu, “Scattering-phase theorem,” Opt. Lett. 36(7), 1215–1217 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Xu, “Scattering-phase theorem: anomalous diffraction by forward-peaked scattering media,” Opt. Express 19(22), 21643–21651 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Wang, K. Tangella, A. Balla, and G. Popescu, “Tissue refractive index as marker of disease,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(11), 116017 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. C. Lee, H. P. Wang, C. P. Wang, J. Y. Ko, J. M. Lee, H. M. Chiu, J. T. Lin, S. Yamashita, D. Oka, N. Watanabe, Y. Matsuda, T. Ushijima, and M. S. Wu, “Revisit of field cancerization in squamous cell carcinoma of upper aerodigestive tract: better risk assessment with epigenetic markers,” Cancer Prev. Res. (Phila.) 4(12), 1982–1992 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

G. S. Chao and K. B. Sung, “Investigating the spectral characteristics of backscattering from heterogeneous spherical nuclei using broadband finite-difference time-domain simulations,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(1), 015007 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (4)

Y. C. Lee, C. P. Wang, C. C. Chen, H. M. Chiu, J. Y. Ko, P. J. Lou, T. L. Yang, H. Y. Huang, M. S. Wu, J. T. Lin, T. Hsiu-Hsi Chen, and H. P. Wang, “Transnasal endoscopy with narrow-band imaging and Lugol staining to screen patients with head and neck cancer whose condition limits oral intubation with standard endoscope (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc. 69(3), 408–417 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Q. Brown, K. Vishwanath, G. M. Palmer, and N. Ramanujam, “Advances in quantitative UV-visible spectroscopy for clinical and pre-clinical application in cancer,” Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 20(1), 119–131 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. D. Rogers, İ. R. Capoğlu, and V. Backman, “Nonscalar elastic light scattering from continuous random media in the Born approximation,” Opt. Lett. 34(12), 1891–1893 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. R. Capoğlu, J. D. Rogers, A. Taflove, and V. Backman, “Accuracy of the Born approximation in calculating the scattering coefficient of biological continuous random media,” Opt. Lett. 34(17), 2679–2681 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

C. C. Yu, C. Lau, G. O’Donoghue, J. Mirkovic, S. McGee, L. Galindo, A. Elackattu, E. Stier, G. Grillone, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Quantitative spectroscopic imaging for non-invasive early cancer detection,” Opt. Express 16(20), 16227–16239 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Redden Weber, R. A. Schwarz, E. N. Atkinson, D. D. Cox, C. Macaulay, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Model-based analysis of reflectance and fluorescence spectra for in vivo detection of cervical dysplasia and cancer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 064016 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

T. Collier, M. Guillaud, M. Follen, A. Malpica, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Real-time reflectance confocal microscopy: comparison of two-dimensional images and three-dimensional image stacks for detection of cervical precancer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(2), 024021 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

2005 (2)

T. Collier, M. Follen, A. Malpica, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Sources of scattering in cervical tissue: determination of the scattering coefficient by confocal microscopy,” Appl. Opt. 44(11), 2072–2081 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. V. Turchin, E. A. Sergeeva, L. S. Dolin, V. A. Kamensky, N. M. Shakhova, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Novel algorithm of processing optical coherence tomography images for differentiation of biological tissue pathologies,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(6), 064024 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (4)

2003 (2)

D. Arifler, M. Guillaud, A. Carraro, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Light scattering from normal and dysplastic cervical cells at different epithelial depths: finite-difference time-domain modeling with a perfectly matched layer boundary condition,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(3), 484–494 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Drezek, M. Guillaud, T. Collier, I. Boiko, A. Malpica, C. Macaulay, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Light scattering from cervical cells throughout neoplastic progression: influence of nuclear morphology, DNA content, and chromatin texture,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(1), 7–16 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, J. A. McGilligan, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406(6791), 35–36 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

Aalders, M.

Adegun, O. K.

O. K. Adegun, P. H. Tomlins, E. Hagi-Pavli, G. McKenzie, K. Piper, D. L. Bader, and F. Fortune, “Quantitative analysis of optical coherence tomography and histopathology images of normal and dysplastic oral mucosal tissues,” Lasers Med. Sci. 27(4), 795–804 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alizadeh-Naderi, R.

A. L. Clark, A. Gillenwater, R. Alizadeh-Naderi, A. K. El-Naggar, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Detection and diagnosis of oral neoplasia with an optical coherence microscope,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(6), 1271–1280 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Amelink, A.

S. Hariri Tabrizi, S. Mahmoud Reza Aghamiri, F. Farzaneh, A. Amelink, and H. J. Sterenborg, “Single fiber reflectance spectroscopy on cervical premalignancies: the potential for reduction of the number of unnecessary biopsies,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(1), 017002 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Andersen, C.

Andersen, P.

Andersson-Engels, S.

Arendt, J. T.

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, J. A. McGilligan, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406(6791), 35–36 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arifler, D.

D. Arifler, C. Macaulay, M. Follen, and M. Guillaud, “Numerical investigation of two-dimensional light scattering patterns of cervical cell nuclei to map dysplastic changes at different epithelial depths,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(2), 485–498 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Arifler, M. Guillaud, A. Carraro, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Light scattering from normal and dysplastic cervical cells at different epithelial depths: finite-difference time-domain modeling with a perfectly matched layer boundary condition,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(3), 484–494 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Atkinson, E. N.

C. Redden Weber, R. A. Schwarz, E. N. Atkinson, D. D. Cox, C. Macaulay, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Model-based analysis of reflectance and fluorescence spectra for in vivo detection of cervical dysplasia and cancer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 064016 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Backman, V.

J. D. Rogers, A. J. Radosevich, J. Yi, and V. Backman, “Modeling Light Scattering in Tissue as Continuous Random Media Using a Versatile Refractive Index Correlation Function,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(2), 7000514 (2013).
[PubMed]

I. R. Capoğlu, J. D. Rogers, A. Taflove, and V. Backman, “Accuracy of the Born approximation in calculating the scattering coefficient of biological continuous random media,” Opt. Lett. 34(17), 2679–2681 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. D. Rogers, İ. R. Capoğlu, and V. Backman, “Nonscalar elastic light scattering from continuous random media in the Born approximation,” Opt. Lett. 34(12), 1891–1893 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, J. A. McGilligan, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406(6791), 35–36 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bader, D. L.

O. K. Adegun, P. H. Tomlins, E. Hagi-Pavli, G. McKenzie, K. Piper, D. L. Bader, and F. Fortune, “Quantitative analysis of optical coherence tomography and histopathology images of normal and dysplastic oral mucosal tissues,” Lasers Med. Sci. 27(4), 795–804 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Badizadegan, K.

C. C. Yu, C. Lau, G. O’Donoghue, J. Mirkovic, S. McGee, L. Galindo, A. Elackattu, E. Stier, G. Grillone, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Quantitative spectroscopic imaging for non-invasive early cancer detection,” Opt. Express 16(20), 16227–16239 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, J. A. McGilligan, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406(6791), 35–36 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Balla, A.

Z. Wang, K. Tangella, A. Balla, and G. Popescu, “Tissue refractive index as marker of disease,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(11), 116017 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bigio, I. J.

Boiko, I.

R. Drezek, M. Guillaud, T. Collier, I. Boiko, A. Malpica, C. Macaulay, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Light scattering from cervical cells throughout neoplastic progression: influence of nuclear morphology, DNA content, and chromatin texture,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(1), 7–16 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boyer, J.

Brown, J. Q.

J. Q. Brown, K. Vishwanath, G. M. Palmer, and N. Ramanujam, “Advances in quantitative UV-visible spectroscopy for clinical and pre-clinical application in cancer,” Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 20(1), 119–131 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Capoglu, I. R.

Carraro, A.

D. Arifler, M. Guillaud, A. Carraro, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Light scattering from normal and dysplastic cervical cells at different epithelial depths: finite-difference time-domain modeling with a perfectly matched layer boundary condition,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(3), 484–494 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, C. H.

J. W. Su, W. C. Hsu, C. Y. Chou, C. H. Chang, and K. B. Sung, “Digital holographic microtomography for high-resolution refractive index mapping of live cells,” J. Biophotonics 6(5), 416–424 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chao, G. S.

G. S. Chao and K. B. Sung, “Investigating the spectral characteristics of backscattering from heterogeneous spherical nuclei using broadband finite-difference time-domain simulations,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(1), 015007 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, C. C.

Y. C. Lee, C. P. Wang, C. C. Chen, H. M. Chiu, J. Y. Ko, P. J. Lou, T. L. Yang, H. Y. Huang, M. S. Wu, J. T. Lin, T. Hsiu-Hsi Chen, and H. P. Wang, “Transnasal endoscopy with narrow-band imaging and Lugol staining to screen patients with head and neck cancer whose condition limits oral intubation with standard endoscope (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc. 69(3), 408–417 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chiang, C. P.

J. W. Su, W. C. Hsu, J. W. Tjiu, C. P. Chiang, C. W. Huang, and K. B. Sung, “Investigation of influences of the paraformaldehyde fixation and paraffin embedding removal process on refractive indices and scattering properties of epithelial cells,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(7), 075007 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chiu, H. M.

Y. C. Lee, H. P. Wang, C. P. Wang, J. Y. Ko, J. M. Lee, H. M. Chiu, J. T. Lin, S. Yamashita, D. Oka, N. Watanabe, Y. Matsuda, T. Ushijima, and M. S. Wu, “Revisit of field cancerization in squamous cell carcinoma of upper aerodigestive tract: better risk assessment with epigenetic markers,” Cancer Prev. Res. (Phila.) 4(12), 1982–1992 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. C. Lee, C. P. Wang, C. C. Chen, H. M. Chiu, J. Y. Ko, P. J. Lou, T. L. Yang, H. Y. Huang, M. S. Wu, J. T. Lin, T. Hsiu-Hsi Chen, and H. P. Wang, “Transnasal endoscopy with narrow-band imaging and Lugol staining to screen patients with head and neck cancer whose condition limits oral intubation with standard endoscope (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc. 69(3), 408–417 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chou, C. Y.

J. W. Su, W. C. Hsu, C. Y. Chou, C. H. Chang, and K. B. Sung, “Digital holographic microtomography for high-resolution refractive index mapping of live cells,” J. Biophotonics 6(5), 416–424 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chuang, M. J.

K. B. Sung, K. W. Shih, F. W. Hsu, H. P. Hsieh, M. J. Chuang, Y. H. Hsiao, Y. H. Su, and G. H. Tien, “Accurate extraction of optical properties and top layer thickness of two-layered mucosal tissue phantoms from spatially resolved reflectance spectra,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(7), 077002 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Clark, A. L.

A. L. Clark, A. Gillenwater, R. Alizadeh-Naderi, A. K. El-Naggar, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Detection and diagnosis of oral neoplasia with an optical coherence microscope,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(6), 1271–1280 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Collier, T.

T. Collier, M. Guillaud, M. Follen, A. Malpica, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Real-time reflectance confocal microscopy: comparison of two-dimensional images and three-dimensional image stacks for detection of cervical precancer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(2), 024021 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Collier, M. Follen, A. Malpica, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Sources of scattering in cervical tissue: determination of the scattering coefficient by confocal microscopy,” Appl. Opt. 44(11), 2072–2081 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Drezek, M. Guillaud, T. Collier, I. Boiko, A. Malpica, C. Macaulay, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Light scattering from cervical cells throughout neoplastic progression: influence of nuclear morphology, DNA content, and chromatin texture,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(1), 7–16 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cox, D. D.

C. Redden Weber, R. A. Schwarz, E. N. Atkinson, D. D. Cox, C. Macaulay, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Model-based analysis of reflectance and fluorescence spectra for in vivo detection of cervical dysplasia and cancer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 064016 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Crawford, J. M.

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, J. A. McGilligan, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406(6791), 35–36 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dasari, R. R.

C. C. Yu, C. Lau, G. O’Donoghue, J. Mirkovic, S. McGee, L. Galindo, A. Elackattu, E. Stier, G. Grillone, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Quantitative spectroscopic imaging for non-invasive early cancer detection,” Opt. Express 16(20), 16227–16239 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, J. A. McGilligan, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406(6791), 35–36 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

de Boer, J. F.

Ding, H.

Dolin, L. S.

I. V. Turchin, E. A. Sergeeva, L. S. Dolin, V. A. Kamensky, N. M. Shakhova, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Novel algorithm of processing optical coherence tomography images for differentiation of biological tissue pathologies,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(6), 064024 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Drezek, R.

R. Drezek, M. Guillaud, T. Collier, I. Boiko, A. Malpica, C. Macaulay, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Light scattering from cervical cells throughout neoplastic progression: influence of nuclear morphology, DNA content, and chromatin texture,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(1), 7–16 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Elackattu, A.

El-Naggar, A. K.

A. L. Clark, A. Gillenwater, R. Alizadeh-Naderi, A. K. El-Naggar, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Detection and diagnosis of oral neoplasia with an optical coherence microscope,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(6), 1271–1280 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Faber, D.

Farzaneh, F.

S. Hariri Tabrizi, S. Mahmoud Reza Aghamiri, F. Farzaneh, A. Amelink, and H. J. Sterenborg, “Single fiber reflectance spectroscopy on cervical premalignancies: the potential for reduction of the number of unnecessary biopsies,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(1), 017002 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feld, M. S.

C. C. Yu, C. Lau, G. O’Donoghue, J. Mirkovic, S. McGee, L. Galindo, A. Elackattu, E. Stier, G. Grillone, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Quantitative spectroscopic imaging for non-invasive early cancer detection,” Opt. Express 16(20), 16227–16239 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, J. A. McGilligan, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406(6791), 35–36 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fitzmaurice, M.

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, J. A. McGilligan, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406(6791), 35–36 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Follen, M.

D. Arifler, C. Macaulay, M. Follen, and M. Guillaud, “Numerical investigation of two-dimensional light scattering patterns of cervical cell nuclei to map dysplastic changes at different epithelial depths,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(2), 485–498 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Redden Weber, R. A. Schwarz, E. N. Atkinson, D. D. Cox, C. Macaulay, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Model-based analysis of reflectance and fluorescence spectra for in vivo detection of cervical dysplasia and cancer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 064016 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Collier, M. Guillaud, M. Follen, A. Malpica, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Real-time reflectance confocal microscopy: comparison of two-dimensional images and three-dimensional image stacks for detection of cervical precancer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(2), 024021 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Collier, M. Follen, A. Malpica, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Sources of scattering in cervical tissue: determination of the scattering coefficient by confocal microscopy,” Appl. Opt. 44(11), 2072–2081 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Drezek, M. Guillaud, T. Collier, I. Boiko, A. Malpica, C. Macaulay, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Light scattering from cervical cells throughout neoplastic progression: influence of nuclear morphology, DNA content, and chromatin texture,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(1), 7–16 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Arifler, M. Guillaud, A. Carraro, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Light scattering from normal and dysplastic cervical cells at different epithelial depths: finite-difference time-domain modeling with a perfectly matched layer boundary condition,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(3), 484–494 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fortune, F.

O. K. Adegun, P. H. Tomlins, E. Hagi-Pavli, G. McKenzie, K. Piper, D. L. Bader, and F. Fortune, “Quantitative analysis of optical coherence tomography and histopathology images of normal and dysplastic oral mucosal tissues,” Lasers Med. Sci. 27(4), 795–804 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Frosz, M.

Fuselier, T.

Galindo, L.

Gillenwater, A.

A. L. Clark, A. Gillenwater, R. Alizadeh-Naderi, A. K. El-Naggar, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Detection and diagnosis of oral neoplasia with an optical coherence microscope,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(6), 1271–1280 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grillone, G.

Guillaud, M.

D. Arifler, C. Macaulay, M. Follen, and M. Guillaud, “Numerical investigation of two-dimensional light scattering patterns of cervical cell nuclei to map dysplastic changes at different epithelial depths,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(2), 485–498 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Collier, M. Guillaud, M. Follen, A. Malpica, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Real-time reflectance confocal microscopy: comparison of two-dimensional images and three-dimensional image stacks for detection of cervical precancer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(2), 024021 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Arifler, M. Guillaud, A. Carraro, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Light scattering from normal and dysplastic cervical cells at different epithelial depths: finite-difference time-domain modeling with a perfectly matched layer boundary condition,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(3), 484–494 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Drezek, M. Guillaud, T. Collier, I. Boiko, A. Malpica, C. Macaulay, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Light scattering from cervical cells throughout neoplastic progression: influence of nuclear morphology, DNA content, and chromatin texture,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(1), 7–16 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gurjar, R.

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, J. A. McGilligan, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406(6791), 35–36 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hagi-Pavli, E.

O. K. Adegun, P. H. Tomlins, E. Hagi-Pavli, G. McKenzie, K. Piper, D. L. Bader, and F. Fortune, “Quantitative analysis of optical coherence tomography and histopathology images of normal and dysplastic oral mucosal tissues,” Lasers Med. Sci. 27(4), 795–804 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Han, B.

Hansen, P.

Hariri Tabrizi, S.

S. Hariri Tabrizi, S. Mahmoud Reza Aghamiri, F. Farzaneh, A. Amelink, and H. J. Sterenborg, “Single fiber reflectance spectroscopy on cervical premalignancies: the potential for reduction of the number of unnecessary biopsies,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(1), 017002 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hsiao, Y. H.

K. B. Sung, K. W. Shih, F. W. Hsu, H. P. Hsieh, M. J. Chuang, Y. H. Hsiao, Y. H. Su, and G. H. Tien, “Accurate extraction of optical properties and top layer thickness of two-layered mucosal tissue phantoms from spatially resolved reflectance spectra,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(7), 077002 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hsieh, H. P.

K. B. Sung, K. W. Shih, F. W. Hsu, H. P. Hsieh, M. J. Chuang, Y. H. Hsiao, Y. H. Su, and G. H. Tien, “Accurate extraction of optical properties and top layer thickness of two-layered mucosal tissue phantoms from spatially resolved reflectance spectra,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(7), 077002 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hsiu-Hsi Chen, T.

Y. C. Lee, C. P. Wang, C. C. Chen, H. M. Chiu, J. Y. Ko, P. J. Lou, T. L. Yang, H. Y. Huang, M. S. Wu, J. T. Lin, T. Hsiu-Hsi Chen, and H. P. Wang, “Transnasal endoscopy with narrow-band imaging and Lugol staining to screen patients with head and neck cancer whose condition limits oral intubation with standard endoscope (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc. 69(3), 408–417 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hsu, F. W.

K. B. Sung, K. W. Shih, F. W. Hsu, H. P. Hsieh, M. J. Chuang, Y. H. Hsiao, Y. H. Su, and G. H. Tien, “Accurate extraction of optical properties and top layer thickness of two-layered mucosal tissue phantoms from spatially resolved reflectance spectra,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(7), 077002 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hsu, W. C.

J. W. Su, W. C. Hsu, J. W. Tjiu, C. P. Chiang, C. W. Huang, and K. B. Sung, “Investigation of influences of the paraformaldehyde fixation and paraffin embedding removal process on refractive indices and scattering properties of epithelial cells,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(7), 075007 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. W. Su, W. C. Hsu, C. Y. Chou, C. H. Chang, and K. B. Sung, “Digital holographic microtomography for high-resolution refractive index mapping of live cells,” J. Biophotonics 6(5), 416–424 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, C. W.

J. W. Su, W. C. Hsu, J. W. Tjiu, C. P. Chiang, C. W. Huang, and K. B. Sung, “Investigation of influences of the paraformaldehyde fixation and paraffin embedding removal process on refractive indices and scattering properties of epithelial cells,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(7), 075007 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, H. Y.

Y. C. Lee, C. P. Wang, C. C. Chen, H. M. Chiu, J. Y. Ko, P. J. Lou, T. L. Yang, H. Y. Huang, M. S. Wu, J. T. Lin, T. Hsiu-Hsi Chen, and H. P. Wang, “Transnasal endoscopy with narrow-band imaging and Lugol staining to screen patients with head and neck cancer whose condition limits oral intubation with standard endoscope (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc. 69(3), 408–417 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Itzkan, I.

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, J. A. McGilligan, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406(6791), 35–36 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Johnson, T. M.

Kabani, S.

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, J. A. McGilligan, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406(6791), 35–36 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kamensky, V. A.

I. V. Turchin, E. A. Sergeeva, L. S. Dolin, V. A. Kamensky, N. M. Shakhova, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Novel algorithm of processing optical coherence tomography images for differentiation of biological tissue pathologies,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(6), 064024 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kline, E.

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, J. A. McGilligan, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406(6791), 35–36 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ko, J. Y.

Y. C. Lee, H. P. Wang, C. P. Wang, J. Y. Ko, J. M. Lee, H. M. Chiu, J. T. Lin, S. Yamashita, D. Oka, N. Watanabe, Y. Matsuda, T. Ushijima, and M. S. Wu, “Revisit of field cancerization in squamous cell carcinoma of upper aerodigestive tract: better risk assessment with epigenetic markers,” Cancer Prev. Res. (Phila.) 4(12), 1982–1992 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. C. Lee, C. P. Wang, C. C. Chen, H. M. Chiu, J. Y. Ko, P. J. Lou, T. L. Yang, H. Y. Huang, M. S. Wu, J. T. Lin, T. Hsiu-Hsi Chen, and H. P. Wang, “Transnasal endoscopy with narrow-band imaging and Lugol staining to screen patients with head and neck cancer whose condition limits oral intubation with standard endoscope (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc. 69(3), 408–417 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lau, C.

Le, D.

Lee, J. M.

Y. C. Lee, H. P. Wang, C. P. Wang, J. Y. Ko, J. M. Lee, H. M. Chiu, J. T. Lin, S. Yamashita, D. Oka, N. Watanabe, Y. Matsuda, T. Ushijima, and M. S. Wu, “Revisit of field cancerization in squamous cell carcinoma of upper aerodigestive tract: better risk assessment with epigenetic markers,” Cancer Prev. Res. (Phila.) 4(12), 1982–1992 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, Y. C.

Y. C. Lee, H. P. Wang, C. P. Wang, J. Y. Ko, J. M. Lee, H. M. Chiu, J. T. Lin, S. Yamashita, D. Oka, N. Watanabe, Y. Matsuda, T. Ushijima, and M. S. Wu, “Revisit of field cancerization in squamous cell carcinoma of upper aerodigestive tract: better risk assessment with epigenetic markers,” Cancer Prev. Res. (Phila.) 4(12), 1982–1992 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. C. Lee, C. P. Wang, C. C. Chen, H. M. Chiu, J. Y. Ko, P. J. Lou, T. L. Yang, H. Y. Huang, M. S. Wu, J. T. Lin, T. Hsiu-Hsi Chen, and H. P. Wang, “Transnasal endoscopy with narrow-band imaging and Lugol staining to screen patients with head and neck cancer whose condition limits oral intubation with standard endoscope (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc. 69(3), 408–417 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lemij, H. G.

Levin, H. S.

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, J. A. McGilligan, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406(6791), 35–36 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Levitz, D.

Lin, J. T.

Y. C. Lee, H. P. Wang, C. P. Wang, J. Y. Ko, J. M. Lee, H. M. Chiu, J. T. Lin, S. Yamashita, D. Oka, N. Watanabe, Y. Matsuda, T. Ushijima, and M. S. Wu, “Revisit of field cancerization in squamous cell carcinoma of upper aerodigestive tract: better risk assessment with epigenetic markers,” Cancer Prev. Res. (Phila.) 4(12), 1982–1992 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. C. Lee, C. P. Wang, C. C. Chen, H. M. Chiu, J. Y. Ko, P. J. Lou, T. L. Yang, H. Y. Huang, M. S. Wu, J. T. Lin, T. Hsiu-Hsi Chen, and H. P. Wang, “Transnasal endoscopy with narrow-band imaging and Lugol staining to screen patients with head and neck cancer whose condition limits oral intubation with standard endoscope (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc. 69(3), 408–417 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, Q.

Lou, P. J.

Y. C. Lee, C. P. Wang, C. C. Chen, H. M. Chiu, J. Y. Ko, P. J. Lou, T. L. Yang, H. Y. Huang, M. S. Wu, J. T. Lin, T. Hsiu-Hsi Chen, and H. P. Wang, “Transnasal endoscopy with narrow-band imaging and Lugol staining to screen patients with head and neck cancer whose condition limits oral intubation with standard endoscope (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc. 69(3), 408–417 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Macaulay, C.

D. Arifler, C. Macaulay, M. Follen, and M. Guillaud, “Numerical investigation of two-dimensional light scattering patterns of cervical cell nuclei to map dysplastic changes at different epithelial depths,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(2), 485–498 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Redden Weber, R. A. Schwarz, E. N. Atkinson, D. D. Cox, C. Macaulay, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Model-based analysis of reflectance and fluorescence spectra for in vivo detection of cervical dysplasia and cancer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 064016 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Drezek, M. Guillaud, T. Collier, I. Boiko, A. Malpica, C. Macaulay, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Light scattering from cervical cells throughout neoplastic progression: influence of nuclear morphology, DNA content, and chromatin texture,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(1), 7–16 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mahmoud Reza Aghamiri, S.

S. Hariri Tabrizi, S. Mahmoud Reza Aghamiri, F. Farzaneh, A. Amelink, and H. J. Sterenborg, “Single fiber reflectance spectroscopy on cervical premalignancies: the potential for reduction of the number of unnecessary biopsies,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(1), 017002 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Malpica, A.

T. Collier, M. Guillaud, M. Follen, A. Malpica, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Real-time reflectance confocal microscopy: comparison of two-dimensional images and three-dimensional image stacks for detection of cervical precancer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(2), 024021 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Collier, M. Follen, A. Malpica, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Sources of scattering in cervical tissue: determination of the scattering coefficient by confocal microscopy,” Appl. Opt. 44(11), 2072–2081 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Drezek, M. Guillaud, T. Collier, I. Boiko, A. Malpica, C. Macaulay, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Light scattering from cervical cells throughout neoplastic progression: influence of nuclear morphology, DNA content, and chromatin texture,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(1), 7–16 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Arifler, M. Guillaud, A. Carraro, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Light scattering from normal and dysplastic cervical cells at different epithelial depths: finite-difference time-domain modeling with a perfectly matched layer boundary condition,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(3), 484–494 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Matsuda, Y.

Y. C. Lee, H. P. Wang, C. P. Wang, J. Y. Ko, J. M. Lee, H. M. Chiu, J. T. Lin, S. Yamashita, D. Oka, N. Watanabe, Y. Matsuda, T. Ushijima, and M. S. Wu, “Revisit of field cancerization in squamous cell carcinoma of upper aerodigestive tract: better risk assessment with epigenetic markers,” Cancer Prev. Res. (Phila.) 4(12), 1982–1992 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McGee, S.

McGilligan, J. A.

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, J. A. McGilligan, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406(6791), 35–36 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McKenzie, G.

O. K. Adegun, P. H. Tomlins, E. Hagi-Pavli, G. McKenzie, K. Piper, D. L. Bader, and F. Fortune, “Quantitative analysis of optical coherence tomography and histopathology images of normal and dysplastic oral mucosal tissues,” Lasers Med. Sci. 27(4), 795–804 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mirkovic, J.

Mo, J.

Mourant, J. R.

Müller, M. G.

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, J. A. McGilligan, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406(6791), 35–36 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O’Donoghue, G.

Oka, D.

Y. C. Lee, H. P. Wang, C. P. Wang, J. Y. Ko, J. M. Lee, H. M. Chiu, J. T. Lin, S. Yamashita, D. Oka, N. Watanabe, Y. Matsuda, T. Ushijima, and M. S. Wu, “Revisit of field cancerization in squamous cell carcinoma of upper aerodigestive tract: better risk assessment with epigenetic markers,” Cancer Prev. Res. (Phila.) 4(12), 1982–1992 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Palmer, G. M.

J. Q. Brown, K. Vishwanath, G. M. Palmer, and N. Ramanujam, “Advances in quantitative UV-visible spectroscopy for clinical and pre-clinical application in cancer,” Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 20(1), 119–131 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Perelman, L. T.

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, J. A. McGilligan, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406(6791), 35–36 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pfefer, J.

Piper, K.

O. K. Adegun, P. H. Tomlins, E. Hagi-Pavli, G. McKenzie, K. Piper, D. L. Bader, and F. Fortune, “Quantitative analysis of optical coherence tomography and histopathology images of normal and dysplastic oral mucosal tissues,” Lasers Med. Sci. 27(4), 795–804 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Popescu, G.

Z. Wang, H. Ding, and G. Popescu, “Scattering-phase theorem,” Opt. Lett. 36(7), 1215–1217 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Wang, K. Tangella, A. Balla, and G. Popescu, “Tissue refractive index as marker of disease,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(11), 116017 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Radosevich, A. J.

J. D. Rogers, A. J. Radosevich, J. Yi, and V. Backman, “Modeling Light Scattering in Tissue as Continuous Random Media Using a Versatile Refractive Index Correlation Function,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(2), 7000514 (2013).
[PubMed]

Ramanujam, N.

J. Q. Brown, K. Vishwanath, G. M. Palmer, and N. Ramanujam, “Advances in quantitative UV-visible spectroscopy for clinical and pre-clinical application in cancer,” Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 20(1), 119–131 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Liu and N. Ramanujam, “Sequential estimation of optical properties of a two-layered epithelial tissue model from depth-resolved ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectra,” Appl. Opt. 45(19), 4776–4790 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ramella-Roman, J.

Redden Weber, C.

C. Redden Weber, R. A. Schwarz, E. N. Atkinson, D. D. Cox, C. Macaulay, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Model-based analysis of reflectance and fluorescence spectra for in vivo detection of cervical dysplasia and cancer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 064016 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Richards-Kortum, R.

C. Redden Weber, R. A. Schwarz, E. N. Atkinson, D. D. Cox, C. Macaulay, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Model-based analysis of reflectance and fluorescence spectra for in vivo detection of cervical dysplasia and cancer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 064016 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Collier, M. Guillaud, M. Follen, A. Malpica, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Real-time reflectance confocal microscopy: comparison of two-dimensional images and three-dimensional image stacks for detection of cervical precancer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(2), 024021 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. V. Turchin, E. A. Sergeeva, L. S. Dolin, V. A. Kamensky, N. M. Shakhova, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Novel algorithm of processing optical coherence tomography images for differentiation of biological tissue pathologies,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(6), 064024 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Collier, M. Follen, A. Malpica, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Sources of scattering in cervical tissue: determination of the scattering coefficient by confocal microscopy,” Appl. Opt. 44(11), 2072–2081 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. L. Clark, A. Gillenwater, R. Alizadeh-Naderi, A. K. El-Naggar, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Detection and diagnosis of oral neoplasia with an optical coherence microscope,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(6), 1271–1280 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Arifler, M. Guillaud, A. Carraro, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Light scattering from normal and dysplastic cervical cells at different epithelial depths: finite-difference time-domain modeling with a perfectly matched layer boundary condition,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(3), 484–494 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Drezek, M. Guillaud, T. Collier, I. Boiko, A. Malpica, C. Macaulay, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Light scattering from cervical cells throughout neoplastic progression: influence of nuclear morphology, DNA content, and chromatin texture,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(1), 7–16 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rogers, J. D.

Schwarz, R. A.

C. Redden Weber, R. A. Schwarz, E. N. Atkinson, D. D. Cox, C. Macaulay, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Model-based analysis of reflectance and fluorescence spectra for in vivo detection of cervical dysplasia and cancer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 064016 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Seiler, M.

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, J. A. McGilligan, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406(6791), 35–36 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sergeeva, E. A.

I. V. Turchin, E. A. Sergeeva, L. S. Dolin, V. A. Kamensky, N. M. Shakhova, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Novel algorithm of processing optical coherence tomography images for differentiation of biological tissue pathologies,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(6), 064024 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shakhova, N. M.

I. V. Turchin, E. A. Sergeeva, L. S. Dolin, V. A. Kamensky, N. M. Shakhova, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Novel algorithm of processing optical coherence tomography images for differentiation of biological tissue pathologies,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(6), 064024 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shapshay, S.

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, J. A. McGilligan, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406(6791), 35–36 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shih, K. W.

K. B. Sung, K. W. Shih, F. W. Hsu, H. P. Hsieh, M. J. Chuang, Y. H. Hsiao, Y. H. Su, and G. H. Tien, “Accurate extraction of optical properties and top layer thickness of two-layered mucosal tissue phantoms from spatially resolved reflectance spectra,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(7), 077002 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sterenborg, H. J.

S. Hariri Tabrizi, S. Mahmoud Reza Aghamiri, F. Farzaneh, A. Amelink, and H. J. Sterenborg, “Single fiber reflectance spectroscopy on cervical premalignancies: the potential for reduction of the number of unnecessary biopsies,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(1), 017002 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stier, E.

Su, J. W.

J. W. Su, W. C. Hsu, J. W. Tjiu, C. P. Chiang, C. W. Huang, and K. B. Sung, “Investigation of influences of the paraformaldehyde fixation and paraffin embedding removal process on refractive indices and scattering properties of epithelial cells,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(7), 075007 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. W. Su, W. C. Hsu, C. Y. Chou, C. H. Chang, and K. B. Sung, “Digital holographic microtomography for high-resolution refractive index mapping of live cells,” J. Biophotonics 6(5), 416–424 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Su, Y. H.

K. B. Sung, K. W. Shih, F. W. Hsu, H. P. Hsieh, M. J. Chuang, Y. H. Hsiao, Y. H. Su, and G. H. Tien, “Accurate extraction of optical properties and top layer thickness of two-layered mucosal tissue phantoms from spatially resolved reflectance spectra,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(7), 077002 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sung, K. B.

K. B. Sung, K. W. Shih, F. W. Hsu, H. P. Hsieh, M. J. Chuang, Y. H. Hsiao, Y. H. Su, and G. H. Tien, “Accurate extraction of optical properties and top layer thickness of two-layered mucosal tissue phantoms from spatially resolved reflectance spectra,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(7), 077002 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. W. Su, W. C. Hsu, J. W. Tjiu, C. P. Chiang, C. W. Huang, and K. B. Sung, “Investigation of influences of the paraformaldehyde fixation and paraffin embedding removal process on refractive indices and scattering properties of epithelial cells,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(7), 075007 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. W. Su, W. C. Hsu, C. Y. Chou, C. H. Chang, and K. B. Sung, “Digital holographic microtomography for high-resolution refractive index mapping of live cells,” J. Biophotonics 6(5), 416–424 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. S. Chao and K. B. Sung, “Investigating the spectral characteristics of backscattering from heterogeneous spherical nuclei using broadband finite-difference time-domain simulations,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(1), 015007 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Swartling, J.

Taflove, A.

Tangella, K.

Z. Wang, K. Tangella, A. Balla, and G. Popescu, “Tissue refractive index as marker of disease,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(11), 116017 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thrane, L.

Tien, G. H.

K. B. Sung, K. W. Shih, F. W. Hsu, H. P. Hsieh, M. J. Chuang, Y. H. Hsiao, Y. H. Su, and G. H. Tien, “Accurate extraction of optical properties and top layer thickness of two-layered mucosal tissue phantoms from spatially resolved reflectance spectra,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(7), 077002 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tjiu, J. W.

J. W. Su, W. C. Hsu, J. W. Tjiu, C. P. Chiang, C. W. Huang, and K. B. Sung, “Investigation of influences of the paraformaldehyde fixation and paraffin embedding removal process on refractive indices and scattering properties of epithelial cells,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(7), 075007 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tomlins, P. H.

O. K. Adegun, P. H. Tomlins, E. Hagi-Pavli, G. McKenzie, K. Piper, D. L. Bader, and F. Fortune, “Quantitative analysis of optical coherence tomography and histopathology images of normal and dysplastic oral mucosal tissues,” Lasers Med. Sci. 27(4), 795–804 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Turchin, I. V.

I. V. Turchin, E. A. Sergeeva, L. S. Dolin, V. A. Kamensky, N. M. Shakhova, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Novel algorithm of processing optical coherence tomography images for differentiation of biological tissue pathologies,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(6), 064024 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ushijima, T.

Y. C. Lee, H. P. Wang, C. P. Wang, J. Y. Ko, J. M. Lee, H. M. Chiu, J. T. Lin, S. Yamashita, D. Oka, N. Watanabe, Y. Matsuda, T. Ushijima, and M. S. Wu, “Revisit of field cancerization in squamous cell carcinoma of upper aerodigestive tract: better risk assessment with epigenetic markers,” Cancer Prev. Res. (Phila.) 4(12), 1982–1992 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Valanciunaite, J.

Valdez, T.

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, J. A. McGilligan, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406(6791), 35–36 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Van Dam, J.

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, J. A. McGilligan, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406(6791), 35–36 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

van der Meer, F.

van Leeuwen, T.

Vermeer, K. A.

Vishwanath, K.

J. Q. Brown, K. Vishwanath, G. M. Palmer, and N. Ramanujam, “Advances in quantitative UV-visible spectroscopy for clinical and pre-clinical application in cancer,” Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 20(1), 119–131 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wallace, M. B.

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, J. A. McGilligan, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406(6791), 35–36 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, C. P.

Y. C. Lee, H. P. Wang, C. P. Wang, J. Y. Ko, J. M. Lee, H. M. Chiu, J. T. Lin, S. Yamashita, D. Oka, N. Watanabe, Y. Matsuda, T. Ushijima, and M. S. Wu, “Revisit of field cancerization in squamous cell carcinoma of upper aerodigestive tract: better risk assessment with epigenetic markers,” Cancer Prev. Res. (Phila.) 4(12), 1982–1992 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. C. Lee, C. P. Wang, C. C. Chen, H. M. Chiu, J. Y. Ko, P. J. Lou, T. L. Yang, H. Y. Huang, M. S. Wu, J. T. Lin, T. Hsiu-Hsi Chen, and H. P. Wang, “Transnasal endoscopy with narrow-band imaging and Lugol staining to screen patients with head and neck cancer whose condition limits oral intubation with standard endoscope (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc. 69(3), 408–417 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, H. P.

Y. C. Lee, H. P. Wang, C. P. Wang, J. Y. Ko, J. M. Lee, H. M. Chiu, J. T. Lin, S. Yamashita, D. Oka, N. Watanabe, Y. Matsuda, T. Ushijima, and M. S. Wu, “Revisit of field cancerization in squamous cell carcinoma of upper aerodigestive tract: better risk assessment with epigenetic markers,” Cancer Prev. Res. (Phila.) 4(12), 1982–1992 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. C. Lee, C. P. Wang, C. C. Chen, H. M. Chiu, J. Y. Ko, P. J. Lou, T. L. Yang, H. Y. Huang, M. S. Wu, J. T. Lin, T. Hsiu-Hsi Chen, and H. P. Wang, “Transnasal endoscopy with narrow-band imaging and Lugol staining to screen patients with head and neck cancer whose condition limits oral intubation with standard endoscope (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc. 69(3), 408–417 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Q.

Wang, Z.

Watanabe, N.

Y. C. Lee, H. P. Wang, C. P. Wang, J. Y. Ko, J. M. Lee, H. M. Chiu, J. T. Lin, S. Yamashita, D. Oka, N. Watanabe, Y. Matsuda, T. Ushijima, and M. S. Wu, “Revisit of field cancerization in squamous cell carcinoma of upper aerodigestive tract: better risk assessment with epigenetic markers,” Cancer Prev. Res. (Phila.) 4(12), 1982–1992 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weda, J. J. A.

Wu, M. S.

Y. C. Lee, H. P. Wang, C. P. Wang, J. Y. Ko, J. M. Lee, H. M. Chiu, J. T. Lin, S. Yamashita, D. Oka, N. Watanabe, Y. Matsuda, T. Ushijima, and M. S. Wu, “Revisit of field cancerization in squamous cell carcinoma of upper aerodigestive tract: better risk assessment with epigenetic markers,” Cancer Prev. Res. (Phila.) 4(12), 1982–1992 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. C. Lee, C. P. Wang, C. C. Chen, H. M. Chiu, J. Y. Ko, P. J. Lou, T. L. Yang, H. Y. Huang, M. S. Wu, J. T. Lin, T. Hsiu-Hsi Chen, and H. P. Wang, “Transnasal endoscopy with narrow-band imaging and Lugol staining to screen patients with head and neck cancer whose condition limits oral intubation with standard endoscope (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc. 69(3), 408–417 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, M.

Yamashita, S.

Y. C. Lee, H. P. Wang, C. P. Wang, J. Y. Ko, J. M. Lee, H. M. Chiu, J. T. Lin, S. Yamashita, D. Oka, N. Watanabe, Y. Matsuda, T. Ushijima, and M. S. Wu, “Revisit of field cancerization in squamous cell carcinoma of upper aerodigestive tract: better risk assessment with epigenetic markers,” Cancer Prev. Res. (Phila.) 4(12), 1982–1992 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, T. L.

Y. C. Lee, C. P. Wang, C. C. Chen, H. M. Chiu, J. Y. Ko, P. J. Lou, T. L. Yang, H. Y. Huang, M. S. Wu, J. T. Lin, T. Hsiu-Hsi Chen, and H. P. Wang, “Transnasal endoscopy with narrow-band imaging and Lugol staining to screen patients with head and neck cancer whose condition limits oral intubation with standard endoscope (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc. 69(3), 408–417 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yi, J.

J. D. Rogers, A. J. Radosevich, J. Yi, and V. Backman, “Modeling Light Scattering in Tissue as Continuous Random Media Using a Versatile Refractive Index Correlation Function,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(2), 7000514 (2013).
[PubMed]

Yu, C. C.

Zhang, Q.

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, J. A. McGilligan, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406(6791), 35–36 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zonios, G.

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, J. A. McGilligan, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406(6791), 35–36 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Biomed. Opt. Express (3)

Cancer Prev. Res. (Phila.) (1)

Y. C. Lee, H. P. Wang, C. P. Wang, J. Y. Ko, J. M. Lee, H. M. Chiu, J. T. Lin, S. Yamashita, D. Oka, N. Watanabe, Y. Matsuda, T. Ushijima, and M. S. Wu, “Revisit of field cancerization in squamous cell carcinoma of upper aerodigestive tract: better risk assessment with epigenetic markers,” Cancer Prev. Res. (Phila.) 4(12), 1982–1992 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. (1)

J. Q. Brown, K. Vishwanath, G. M. Palmer, and N. Ramanujam, “Advances in quantitative UV-visible spectroscopy for clinical and pre-clinical application in cancer,” Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 20(1), 119–131 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gastrointest. Endosc. (1)

Y. C. Lee, C. P. Wang, C. C. Chen, H. M. Chiu, J. Y. Ko, P. J. Lou, T. L. Yang, H. Y. Huang, M. S. Wu, J. T. Lin, T. Hsiu-Hsi Chen, and H. P. Wang, “Transnasal endoscopy with narrow-band imaging and Lugol staining to screen patients with head and neck cancer whose condition limits oral intubation with standard endoscope (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc. 69(3), 408–417 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. D. Rogers, A. J. Radosevich, J. Yi, and V. Backman, “Modeling Light Scattering in Tissue as Continuous Random Media Using a Versatile Refractive Index Correlation Function,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(2), 7000514 (2013).
[PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (11)

D. Arifler, M. Guillaud, A. Carraro, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Light scattering from normal and dysplastic cervical cells at different epithelial depths: finite-difference time-domain modeling with a perfectly matched layer boundary condition,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(3), 484–494 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Drezek, M. Guillaud, T. Collier, I. Boiko, A. Malpica, C. Macaulay, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Light scattering from cervical cells throughout neoplastic progression: influence of nuclear morphology, DNA content, and chromatin texture,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(1), 7–16 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Wang, K. Tangella, A. Balla, and G. Popescu, “Tissue refractive index as marker of disease,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(11), 116017 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. V. Turchin, E. A. Sergeeva, L. S. Dolin, V. A. Kamensky, N. M. Shakhova, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Novel algorithm of processing optical coherence tomography images for differentiation of biological tissue pathologies,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(6), 064024 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Collier, M. Guillaud, M. Follen, A. Malpica, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Real-time reflectance confocal microscopy: comparison of two-dimensional images and three-dimensional image stacks for detection of cervical precancer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(2), 024021 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. L. Clark, A. Gillenwater, R. Alizadeh-Naderi, A. K. El-Naggar, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Detection and diagnosis of oral neoplasia with an optical coherence microscope,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(6), 1271–1280 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. S. Chao and K. B. Sung, “Investigating the spectral characteristics of backscattering from heterogeneous spherical nuclei using broadband finite-difference time-domain simulations,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(1), 015007 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. W. Su, W. C. Hsu, J. W. Tjiu, C. P. Chiang, C. W. Huang, and K. B. Sung, “Investigation of influences of the paraformaldehyde fixation and paraffin embedding removal process on refractive indices and scattering properties of epithelial cells,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(7), 075007 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Hariri Tabrizi, S. Mahmoud Reza Aghamiri, F. Farzaneh, A. Amelink, and H. J. Sterenborg, “Single fiber reflectance spectroscopy on cervical premalignancies: the potential for reduction of the number of unnecessary biopsies,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(1), 017002 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. B. Sung, K. W. Shih, F. W. Hsu, H. P. Hsieh, M. J. Chuang, Y. H. Hsiao, Y. H. Su, and G. H. Tien, “Accurate extraction of optical properties and top layer thickness of two-layered mucosal tissue phantoms from spatially resolved reflectance spectra,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(7), 077002 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Examples of (a) a phase image of the unstained slice, and (b) a bright-field image of the H&E stained slice from the same esophageal specimen. Selected rectangular regions for the scattering-coefficient analysis are indicated with dashed lines in (a).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Results of verifying the accuracy of estimating the scattering coefficients of esophageal epithelium by the scattering-phase theorem: (a) 3-D RI distribution, and (b) the scattering coefficients calculated with the FDTD method (blue squares) and the scattering-phase theorem (red circles).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Box-and-whisker plot showing the scattering coefficients and anisotropic factors of normal and precancerous esophageal epithelia. For each patient the average scattering coefficient of the precancerous epithelia (red) was significantly higher than that of the normal epithelia (blue).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Illustration of the scattering coefficient, cell density and N/C ratio. (a) and (c) are brightfield images of the H&E stained normal and precancerous epithelia, respectively. (b) and (d) are the corresponding phase images. (e), (f) and (g) are the depth-dependent scattering coefficient, cell density and N/C respectively of the selected regions (black solid lines) in (a)-(d).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Comparison of the epithelial phase and RI distributions between two patients. (a) Phase/RI images of normal epithelia from patients A and B. (b) Distributions of the RI of the selected regions (black dashed lines) in (a). The average RI of patient A and B are 1.378 ± 0.009 and 1.369 ± 0.014, respectively.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Illustration of the correlation between per-patient average scattering coefficient and average cell density of the 14 patients. The correlation coefficients (γ) between the average scattering coefficients and the average cell densities are 0.02 and 0.13 for the normal and precancerous group, respectively.

Equations (3)

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μ s = 2 1cos[ Δϕ( x,y ) ] L ,
μ s ' = | ϕ( x,y ) | 2 2L k 2 ,
μ s = 1 V 4π σ d dΩ ,

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