Abstract

In fluorescence guided surgery, data visualization represents a critical step between signal capture and display needed for clinical decisions informed by that signal. The diversity of methods for displaying surgical images are reviewed, and a particular focus is placed on electronically detected and visualized signals, as required for near-infrared or low concentration tracers. Factors driving the choices such as human perception, the need for rapid decision making in a surgical environment, and biases induced by display choices are outlined. Five practical suggestions are outlined for optimal display orientation, color map, transparency/alpha function, dynamic range compression, and color perception check.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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2015 (7)

L. Boni, G. David, A. Mangano, G. Dionigi, S. Rausei, S. Spampatti, E. Cassinotti, and A. Fingerhut, “Clinical applications of indocyanine green (ICG) enhanced fluorescence in laparoscopic surgery,” Surg. Endosc. 29(7), 2046–2055 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. R. Zinn, M. Korb, S. Samuel, J. M. Warram, D. Dion, C. Killingsworth, J. Fan, T. Schoeb, T. V. Strong, and E. L. Rosenthal, “IND-directed safety and biodistribution study of intravenously injected cetuximab-IRDye800 in cynomolgus macaques,” Mol. Imaging Biol. 17(1), 49–57 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. W. Holt, J. L. Demers, K. J. Sexton, J. R. Gunn, S. C. Davis, K. S. Samkoe, and B. W. Pogue, “Tomography of epidermal growth factor receptor binding to fluorescent Affibody in vivo studied with magnetic resonance guided fluorescence recovery in varying orthotopic glioma sizes,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(2), 026001 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. L. Martirosyan, J. Skoch, J. R. Watson, G. M. Lemole, M. Romanowski, and R. Anton, “Integration of indocyanine green videoangiography with operative microscope: augmented reality for interactive assessment of vascular structures and blood flow,” Neurosurgery 11(Suppl 2), 252–258 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Fukuda, H. Kataoka, N. Nakajima, J. Masuoka, T. Satow, and K. Iihara, “Efficacy of FLOW 800 with indocyanine green videoangiography for the quantitative assessment of flow dynamics in cerebral arteriovenous malformation surgery,” World. Neurosurg. 83(2), 203–210 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Jermyn, K. Kolste, J. Pichette, G. Sheehy, L. Angulo-Rodríguez, K. D. Paulsen, D. W. Roberts, B. C. Wilson, K. Petrecca, and F. Leblond, “Macroscopic-imaging technique for subsurface quantification of near-infrared markers during surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(3), 036014 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Gao, S. B. Mondal, N. Zhu, R. Liang, S. Achilefu, and V. Gruev, “Image overlay solution based on threshold detection for a compact near infrared fluorescence goggle system,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(1), 016018 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (6)

J. Glatz, P. Symvoulidis, P. B. Garcia-Allende, and V. Ntziachristos, “Robust overlay schemes for the fusion of fluorescence and color channels in biological imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(4), 040501 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Kitajima, Y. Suenaga, Y. Ueno, T. Kanda, T. Maeda, N. Makihara, Y. Ebina, H. Yamada, S. Takahashi, and K. Sugimura, “Value of fusion of PET and MRI in the detection of intra-pelvic recurrence of gynecological tumor: comparison with 18F-FDG contrast-enhanced PET/CT and pelvic MRI,” Ann. Nucl. Med. 28(1), 25–32 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. L. Jewell, J. J. Huang, N. R. Abu-Rustum, G. J. Gardner, C. L. Brown, Y. Sonoda, R. R. Barakat, D. A. Levine, and M. M. Leitao., “Detection of sentinel lymph nodes in minimally invasive surgery using indocyanine green and near-infrared fluorescence imaging for uterine and cervical malignancies,” Gynecol. Oncol. 133(2), 274–277 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. M. Tichauer, K. S. Samkoe, J. R. Gunn, S. C. Kanick, P. J. Hoopes, R. J. Barth, P. A. Kaufman, T. Hasan, and B. W. Pogue, “Microscopic lymph node tumor burden quantified by macroscopic dual-tracer molecular imaging,” Nat. Med. 20(11), 1348–1353 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. S. Samkoe, K. M. Tichauer, J. R. Gunn, W. A. Wells, T. Hasan, and B. W. Pogue, “Quantitative In Vivo Immunohistochemistry of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Using a Receptor Concentration Imaging Approach,” Cancer Res. 74(24), 7465–7474 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Niccoli, “Geophysics tutorial: how to evaluate and compare color maps,” Leading Edge (Tulsa Okla.) 33, 910–912 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (9)

K. Sexton, K. Tichauer, K. S. Samkoe, J. Gunn, P. J. Hoopes, and B. W. Pogue, “Fluorescent affibody peptide penetration in glioma margin is superior to full antibody,” PLoS One 8(4), e60390 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Oliveira, R. Heukers, J. Sornkom, R. J. Kok, and P. M. van Bergen En Henegouwen, “Targeting tumors with nanobodies for cancer imaging and therapy,” J. Control. Release 172(3), 607–617 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Kijanka, F. J. Warnders, M. El Khattabi, M. Lub-de Hooge, G. M. van Dam, V. Ntziachristos, L. de Vries, S. Oliveira, and P. M. van Bergen En Henegouwen, “Rapid optical imaging of human breast tumour xenografts using anti-HER2 VHHs site-directly conjugated to IRDye 800CW for image-guided surgery,” Eur. J. Nucl. Med. Mol. Imaging 40(11), 1718–1729 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Shi, W. Cui, X. He, Q. Guo, K. Wang, X. Ye, and J. Tang, “Whole cell-SELEX aptamers for highly specific fluorescence molecular imaging of carcinomas in vivo,” PLoS One 8(8), e70476 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. A. Valdes, V. L. Jacobs, B. C. Wilson, F. Leblond, D. W. Roberts, and K. D. Paulsen, “System and methods for wide-field quantitative fluorescence imaging during neurosurgery,” Opt. Lett. 38(15), 2786–2788 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Chi, J. Ye, H. Ding, D. He, W. Huang, G. J. Zhang, and J. Tian, “Use of indocyanine green for detecting the sentinel lymph node in breast cancer patients: from preclinical evaluation to clinical validation,” PLoS One 8(12), e83927 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. H. Keller, S. Holm, A. E. Hansen, B. Sattler, F. Andersen, T. L. Klausen, L. Højgaard, A. Kjær, and T. Beyer, “Image artifacts from MR-based attenuation correction in clinical, whole-body PET/MRI,” MAGMA 26(1), 173–181 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. T. Nguyen and R. Y. Tsien, “Fluorescence-guided surgery with live molecular navigation--a new cutting edge,” Nat. Rev. Cancer 13(9), 653–662 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Liu, Y. M. Zhao, W. Akers, Z. Y. Tang, J. Fan, H. C. Sun, Q. H. Ye, L. Wang, and S. Achilefu, “First in-human intraoperative imaging of HCC using the fluorescence goggle system and transarterial delivery of near-infrared fluorescent imaging agent: a pilot study,” Transl. Res. 162(5), 324–331 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (5)

N. Thekkek, T. Muldoon, A. D. Polydorides, D. M. Maru, N. Harpaz, M. T. Harris, W. Hofstettor, S. P. Hiotis, S. A. Kim, A. J. Ky, S. Anandasabapathy, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Vital-dye enhanced fluorescence imaging of GI mucosa: metaplasia, neoplasia, inflammation,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 75(4), 877–887 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. J. Rosbach, M. D. Williams, A. M. Gillenwater, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Optical molecular imaging of multiple biomarkers of epithelial neoplasia: epidermal growth factor receptor expression and metabolic activity in oral mucosa,” Transl. Oncol. 5(3), 160–171 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. A. Valdés, F. Leblond, V. L. Jacobs, B. C. Wilson, K. D. Paulsen, and D. W. Roberts, “Quantitative, spectrally-resolved intraoperative fluorescence imaging,” Sci. Rep. 2, 798 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. S. Samkoe, K. Sexton, K. M. Tichauer, S. K. Hextrum, O. Pardesi, S. C. Davis, J. A. O’Hara, P. J. Hoopes, T. Hasan, and B. W. Pogue, “High vascular delivery of EGF, but low receptor binding rate is observed in AsPC-1 tumors as compared to normal pancreas,” Mol. Imaging Biol. 14(4), 472–479 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. H. Heath, N. L. Deep, L. Sweeny, K. R. Zinn, and E. L. Rosenthal, “Use of panitumumab-IRDye800 to image microscopic head and neck cancer in an orthotopic surgical model,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 19(12), 3879–3887 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (10)

D. W. Roberts, P. A. Valdés, B. T. Harris, K. M. Fontaine, A. Hartov, X. Fan, S. Ji, S. S. Lollis, B. W. Pogue, F. Leblond, T. D. Tosteson, B. C. Wilson, and K. D. Paulsen, “Coregistered fluorescence-enhanced tumor resection of malignant glioma: relationships between δ-aminolevulinic acid-induced protoporphyrin IX fluorescence, magnetic resonance imaging enhancement, and neuropathological parameters. Clinical article,” J. Neurosurg. 114(3), 595–603 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. A. Valdés, A. Kim, F. Leblond, O. M. Conde, B. T. Harris, K. D. Paulsen, B. C. Wilson, and D. W. Roberts, “Combined fluorescence and reflectance spectroscopy for in vivo quantification of cancer biomarkers in low- and high-grade glioma surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(11), 116007 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Tagaya, H. Aoyagi, A. Nakagawa, A. Abe, Y. Iwasaki, M. Tachibana, and K. Kubota, “A novel approach for sentinel lymph node identification using fluorescence imaging and image overlay navigation surgery in patients with breast cancer,” World J. Surg. 35(1), 154–158 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. E. Schaafsma, J. S. Mieog, M. Hutteman, J. R. van der Vorst, P. J. Kuppen, C. W. Löwik, J. V. Frangioni, C. J. van de Velde, and A. L. Vahrmeijer, “The clinical use of indocyanine green as a near-infrared fluorescent contrast agent for image-guided oncologic surgery,” J. Surg. Oncol. 104(3), 323–332 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. M. van Dam, G. Themelis, L. M. Crane, N. J. Harlaar, R. G. Pleijhuis, W. Kelder, A. Sarantopoulos, J. S. de Jong, H. J. Arts, A. G. van der Zee, J. Bart, P. S. Low, and V. Ntziachristos, “Intraoperative tumor-specific fluorescence imaging in ovarian cancer by folate receptor-α targeting: first in-human results,” Nat. Med. 17(10), 1315–1319 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. A. Boxwala, J. Kim, J. M. Grillo, and L. Ohno-Machado, “Using statistical and machine learning to help institutions detect suspicious access to electronic health records,” J. Am. Med. Inform. Assoc. 18(4), 498–505 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Hutteman, J. S. Mieog, J. R. van der Vorst, G. J. Liefers, H. Putter, C. W. Löwik, J. V. Frangioni, C. J. van de Velde, and A. L. Vahrmeijer, “Randomized, double-blind comparison of indocyanine green with or without albumin premixing for near-infrared fluorescence imaging of sentinel lymph nodes in breast cancer patients,” Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 127(1), 163–170 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. L. Gibbs-Strauss, K. A. Nasr, K. M. Fish, O. Khullar, Y. Ashitate, T. M. Siclovan, B. F. Johnson, N. E. Barnhardt, C. A. Tan Hehir, and J. V. Frangioni, “Nerve-highlighting fluorescent contrast agents for image-guided surgery,” Mol. Imaging 10(2), 91–101 (2011).
[PubMed]

S. Keereweer, J. D. Kerrebijn, P. B. van Driel, B. Xie, E. L. Kaijzel, T. J. Snoeks, I. Que, M. Hutteman, J. R. van der Vorst, J. S. Mieog, A. L. Vahrmeijer, C. J. van de Velde, R. J. Baatenburg de Jong, and C. W. Löwik, “Optical image-guided surgery--where do we stand?” Mol. Imaging Biol. 13(2), 199–207 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Nakajima, M. Mitsunaga, N. H. Bander, W. D. Heston, P. L. Choyke, and H. Kobayashi, “Targeted, activatable, in vivo fluorescence imaging of prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) positive tumors using the quenched humanized J591 antibody-indocyanine green (ICG) conjugate,” Bioconjug. Chem. 22(8), 1700–1705 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (4)

B. W. Pogue, S. Gibbs-Strauss, P. A. Valdés, K. Samkoe, D. W. Roberts, and K. D. Paulsen, “Review of Neurosurgical Fluorescence Imaging Methodologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 493–505 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. T. Nguyen, E. S. Olson, T. A. Aguilera, T. Jiang, M. Scadeng, L. G. Ellies, and R. Y. Tsien, “Surgery with molecular fluorescence imaging using activatable cell-penetrating peptides decreases residual cancer and improves survival,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(9), 4317–4322 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. S. Olson, T. Jiang, T. A. Aguilera, Q. T. Nguyen, L. G. Ellies, M. Scadeng, and R. Y. Tsien, “Activatable cell penetrating peptides linked to nanoparticles as dual probes for in vivo fluorescence and MR imaging of proteases,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(9), 4311–4316 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. S. Mieog, A. L. Vahrmeijer, M. Hutteman, J. R. van der Vorst, M. Drijfhout van Hooff, J. Dijkstra, P. J. Kuppen, R. Keijzer, E. L. Kaijzel, I. Que, C. J. van de Velde, and C. W. Löwik, “Novel intraoperative near-infrared fluorescence camera system for optical image-guided cancer surgery,” Mol. Imaging 9(4), 223–231 (2010).
[PubMed]

2009 (1)

S. L. Troyan, V. Kianzad, S. L. Gibbs-Strauss, S. Gioux, A. Matsui, R. Oketokoun, L. Ngo, A. Khamene, F. Azar, and J. V. Frangioni, “The FLARE intraoperative near-infrared fluorescence imaging system: a first-in-human clinical trial in breast cancer sentinel lymph node mapping,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 16(10), 2943–2952 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

E. M. Sevick-Muraca, R. Sharma, J. C. Rasmussen, M. V. Marshall, J. A. Wendt, H. Q. Pham, E. Bonefas, J. P. Houston, L. Sampath, K. E. Adams, D. K. Blanchard, R. E. Fisher, S. B. Chiang, R. Elledge, and M. E. Mawad, “Imaging of lymph flow in breast cancer patients after microdose administration of a near-infrared fluorophore: feasibility study,” Radiology 246(3), 734–741 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

W. Stummer, U. Pichlmeier, T. Meinel, O. D. Wiestler, F. Zanella, H. J. Reulen, and ALA-Glioma Study Group, “Fluorescence-guided surgery with 5-aminolevulinic acid for resection of malignant glioma: a randomised controlled multicentre phase III trial,” Lancet Oncol. 7(5), 392–401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

E. G. Soltesz, S. Kim, R. G. Laurence, A. M. DeGrand, C. P. Parungo, D. M. Dor, L. H. Cohn, M. G. Bawendi, J. V. Frangioni, and T. Mihaljevic, “Intraoperative sentinel lymph node mapping of the lung using near-infrared fluorescent quantum dots,” Ann. Thorac. Surg. 79(1), 269–277 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. S. Adusumilli, D. P. Eisenberg, Y. S. Chun, K. W. Ryu, L. Ben-Porat, K. J. Hendershott, M. K. Chan, R. Huq, C. C. Riedl, and Y. Fong, “Virally directed fluorescent imaging improves diagnostic sensitivity in the detection of minimal residual disease after potentially curative cytoreductive surgery,” J. Gastrointest. Surg. 9, 1138–1146 (2005).

A. Raabe, P. Nakaji, J. Beck, L. J. Kim, F. P. Hsu, J. D. Kamerman, V. Seifert, and R. F. Spetzler, “Prospective evaluation of surgical microscope-integrated intraoperative near-infrared indocyanine green videoangiography during aneurysm surgery,” J. Neurosurg. 103(6), 982–989 (2005).
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2004 (4)

S. Helge, H. Wolfgang, S. Wolfgang, W. Greg, W. Lorne, T. Matthew, G. Abhijeet, and V. Andrejs, “High dynamic range display systems,” ACM Trans. Graph. 23(3), 760–768 (2004).
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S. Kim, Y. T. Lim, E. G. Soltesz, A. M. De Grand, J. Lee, A. Nakayama, J. A. Parker, T. Mihaljevic, R. G. Laurence, D. M. Dor, L. H. Cohn, M. G. Bawendi, and J. V. Frangioni, “Near-infrared fluorescent type II quantum dots for sentinel lymph node mapping,” Nat. Biotechnol. 22(1), 93–97 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Carpelan-Holmström, J. Louhimo, U. H. Stenman, H. Alfthan, H. Järvinen, and C. Haglund, “Estimating the probability of cancer with several tumor markers in patients with colorectal disease,” Oncology 66(4), 296–302 (2004).
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B. T. Bethea, A. M. Okamura, M. Kitagawa, T. P. Fitton, S. M. Cattaneo, V. L. Gott, W. A. Baumgartner, and D. D. Yuh, “Application of haptic feedback to robotic surgery,” J. Laparoendosc. Adv. Surg. Tech. A 14(3), 191–195 (2004).
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2003 (3)

W. Stummer, H. J. Reulen, A. Novotny, H. Stepp, and J. C. Tonn, “Fluorescence-guided resections of malignant gliomas--an overview,” Acta Neurochir. Suppl. (Wien) 88, 9–12 (2003).
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J. V. Frangioni, “In vivo near-infrared fluorescence imaging,” Curr. Opin. Chem. Biol. 7(5), 626–634 (2003).
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F. Drago, K. Myszkowski, T. Annen, and N. Chiba, “Adaptive Logarithmic Mapping For Displaying High Contrast Scenes,” Comput. Graph. Forum 22(3), 419–426 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

S. B. Sobottka, J. Bredow, B. Beuthien-Baumann, G. Reiss, G. Schackert, and R. Steinmeier, “Comparison of functional brain PET images and intraoperative brain-mapping data using image-guided surgery,” Comput. Aided Surg. 7(6), 317–325 (2002).
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2000 (2)

R. M. Comeau, A. F. Sadikot, A. Fenster, and T. M. Peters, “Intraoperative ultrasound for guidance and tissue shift correction in image-guided neurosurgery,” Med. Phys. 27(4), 787–800 (2000).
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M. M. Chou, E. S. Ho, and Y. H. Lee, “Prenatal diagnosis of placenta previa accreta by transabdominal color Doppler ultrasound,” Ultrasound Obstet. Gynecol. 15(1), 28–35 (2000).
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1999 (1)

M. I. Miga, K. D. Paulsen, J. M. Lemery, S. D. Eisner, A. Hartov, F. E. Kennedy, and D. W. Roberts, “Model-updated image guidance: initial clinical experiences with gravity-induced brain deformation,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 18(10), 866–874 (1999).
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1998 (2)

G. B. Hanna, S. M. Shimi, and A. Cuschieri, “Task performance in endoscopic surgery is influenced by location of the image display,” Ann. Surg. 227(4), 481–484 (1998).
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G. B. Hanna, S. M. Shimi, and A. Cuschieri, “Randomised study of influence of two-dimensional versus three-dimensional imaging on performance of laparoscopic cholecystectomy,” Lancet 351(9098), 248–251 (1998).
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1997 (1)

H. E. Egeth and S. Yantis, “Visual attention: control, representation, and time course,” Annu. Rev. Psychol. 48(1), 269–297 (1997).
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1996 (1)

V. Dutt and J. F. Greenleaf, “Adaptive speckle reduction filter for log-compressed B-scan images,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 15(6), 802–813 (1996).
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1994 (1)

J. M. Wolfe, “Guided Search 2.0 A revised model of visual search,” Psychon. Bull. Rev. 1(2), 202–238 (1994).
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1986 (1)

D. W. Roberts, J. W. Strohbehn, J. F. Hatch, W. Murray, and H. Kettenberger, “A frameless stereotaxic integration of computerized tomographic imaging and the operating microscope,” J. Neurosurg. 65(4), 545–549 (1986).
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1981 (1)

I. Rock and D. Gutman, “The effect of inattention on form perception,” J. Exp. Psychol. Hum. Percept. Perform. 7(2), 275–285 (1981).
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1971 (1)

1968 (1)

G. Wald, “The molecular basis of visual excitation,” Nature 219(5156), 800–807 (1968).
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Abe, A.

N. Tagaya, H. Aoyagi, A. Nakagawa, A. Abe, Y. Iwasaki, M. Tachibana, and K. Kubota, “A novel approach for sentinel lymph node identification using fluorescence imaging and image overlay navigation surgery in patients with breast cancer,” World J. Surg. 35(1), 154–158 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Abhijeet, G.

S. Helge, H. Wolfgang, S. Wolfgang, W. Greg, W. Lorne, T. Matthew, G. Abhijeet, and V. Andrejs, “High dynamic range display systems,” ACM Trans. Graph. 23(3), 760–768 (2004).
[Crossref]

Abu-Rustum, N. R.

E. L. Jewell, J. J. Huang, N. R. Abu-Rustum, G. J. Gardner, C. L. Brown, Y. Sonoda, R. R. Barakat, D. A. Levine, and M. M. Leitao., “Detection of sentinel lymph nodes in minimally invasive surgery using indocyanine green and near-infrared fluorescence imaging for uterine and cervical malignancies,” Gynecol. Oncol. 133(2), 274–277 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Achilefu, S.

S. Gao, S. B. Mondal, N. Zhu, R. Liang, S. Achilefu, and V. Gruev, “Image overlay solution based on threshold detection for a compact near infrared fluorescence goggle system,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(1), 016018 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Liu, Y. M. Zhao, W. Akers, Z. Y. Tang, J. Fan, H. C. Sun, Q. H. Ye, L. Wang, and S. Achilefu, “First in-human intraoperative imaging of HCC using the fluorescence goggle system and transarterial delivery of near-infrared fluorescent imaging agent: a pilot study,” Transl. Res. 162(5), 324–331 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adams, K. E.

E. M. Sevick-Muraca, R. Sharma, J. C. Rasmussen, M. V. Marshall, J. A. Wendt, H. Q. Pham, E. Bonefas, J. P. Houston, L. Sampath, K. E. Adams, D. K. Blanchard, R. E. Fisher, S. B. Chiang, R. Elledge, and M. E. Mawad, “Imaging of lymph flow in breast cancer patients after microdose administration of a near-infrared fluorophore: feasibility study,” Radiology 246(3), 734–741 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adusumilli, P. S.

P. S. Adusumilli, D. P. Eisenberg, Y. S. Chun, K. W. Ryu, L. Ben-Porat, K. J. Hendershott, M. K. Chan, R. Huq, C. C. Riedl, and Y. Fong, “Virally directed fluorescent imaging improves diagnostic sensitivity in the detection of minimal residual disease after potentially curative cytoreductive surgery,” J. Gastrointest. Surg. 9, 1138–1146 (2005).

Aguilera, T. A.

Q. T. Nguyen, E. S. Olson, T. A. Aguilera, T. Jiang, M. Scadeng, L. G. Ellies, and R. Y. Tsien, “Surgery with molecular fluorescence imaging using activatable cell-penetrating peptides decreases residual cancer and improves survival,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(9), 4317–4322 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. S. Olson, T. Jiang, T. A. Aguilera, Q. T. Nguyen, L. G. Ellies, M. Scadeng, and R. Y. Tsien, “Activatable cell penetrating peptides linked to nanoparticles as dual probes for in vivo fluorescence and MR imaging of proteases,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(9), 4311–4316 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Akers, W.

Y. Liu, Y. M. Zhao, W. Akers, Z. Y. Tang, J. Fan, H. C. Sun, Q. H. Ye, L. Wang, and S. Achilefu, “First in-human intraoperative imaging of HCC using the fluorescence goggle system and transarterial delivery of near-infrared fluorescent imaging agent: a pilot study,” Transl. Res. 162(5), 324–331 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alfthan, H.

M. Carpelan-Holmström, J. Louhimo, U. H. Stenman, H. Alfthan, H. Järvinen, and C. Haglund, “Estimating the probability of cancer with several tumor markers in patients with colorectal disease,” Oncology 66(4), 296–302 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anandasabapathy, S.

N. Thekkek, T. Muldoon, A. D. Polydorides, D. M. Maru, N. Harpaz, M. T. Harris, W. Hofstettor, S. P. Hiotis, S. A. Kim, A. J. Ky, S. Anandasabapathy, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Vital-dye enhanced fluorescence imaging of GI mucosa: metaplasia, neoplasia, inflammation,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 75(4), 877–887 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Andersen, F.

S. H. Keller, S. Holm, A. E. Hansen, B. Sattler, F. Andersen, T. L. Klausen, L. Højgaard, A. Kjær, and T. Beyer, “Image artifacts from MR-based attenuation correction in clinical, whole-body PET/MRI,” MAGMA 26(1), 173–181 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Andrejs, V.

S. Helge, H. Wolfgang, S. Wolfgang, W. Greg, W. Lorne, T. Matthew, G. Abhijeet, and V. Andrejs, “High dynamic range display systems,” ACM Trans. Graph. 23(3), 760–768 (2004).
[Crossref]

Angulo-Rodríguez, L.

M. Jermyn, K. Kolste, J. Pichette, G. Sheehy, L. Angulo-Rodríguez, K. D. Paulsen, D. W. Roberts, B. C. Wilson, K. Petrecca, and F. Leblond, “Macroscopic-imaging technique for subsurface quantification of near-infrared markers during surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(3), 036014 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Annen, T.

F. Drago, K. Myszkowski, T. Annen, and N. Chiba, “Adaptive Logarithmic Mapping For Displaying High Contrast Scenes,” Comput. Graph. Forum 22(3), 419–426 (2003).
[Crossref]

Anton, R.

N. L. Martirosyan, J. Skoch, J. R. Watson, G. M. Lemole, M. Romanowski, and R. Anton, “Integration of indocyanine green videoangiography with operative microscope: augmented reality for interactive assessment of vascular structures and blood flow,” Neurosurgery 11(Suppl 2), 252–258 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aoyagi, H.

N. Tagaya, H. Aoyagi, A. Nakagawa, A. Abe, Y. Iwasaki, M. Tachibana, and K. Kubota, “A novel approach for sentinel lymph node identification using fluorescence imaging and image overlay navigation surgery in patients with breast cancer,” World J. Surg. 35(1), 154–158 (2011).
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K. R. Zinn, M. Korb, S. Samuel, J. M. Warram, D. Dion, C. Killingsworth, J. Fan, T. Schoeb, T. V. Strong, and E. L. Rosenthal, “IND-directed safety and biodistribution study of intravenously injected cetuximab-IRDye800 in cynomolgus macaques,” Mol. Imaging Biol. 17(1), 49–57 (2015).
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N. Tagaya, H. Aoyagi, A. Nakagawa, A. Abe, Y. Iwasaki, M. Tachibana, and K. Kubota, “A novel approach for sentinel lymph node identification using fluorescence imaging and image overlay navigation surgery in patients with breast cancer,” World J. Surg. 35(1), 154–158 (2011).
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B. E. Schaafsma, J. S. Mieog, M. Hutteman, J. R. van der Vorst, P. J. Kuppen, C. W. Löwik, J. V. Frangioni, C. J. van de Velde, and A. L. Vahrmeijer, “The clinical use of indocyanine green as a near-infrared fluorescent contrast agent for image-guided oncologic surgery,” J. Surg. Oncol. 104(3), 323–332 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. S. Mieog, A. L. Vahrmeijer, M. Hutteman, J. R. van der Vorst, M. Drijfhout van Hooff, J. Dijkstra, P. J. Kuppen, R. Keijzer, E. L. Kaijzel, I. Que, C. J. van de Velde, and C. W. Löwik, “Novel intraoperative near-infrared fluorescence camera system for optical image-guided cancer surgery,” Mol. Imaging 9(4), 223–231 (2010).
[PubMed]

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N. Thekkek, T. Muldoon, A. D. Polydorides, D. M. Maru, N. Harpaz, M. T. Harris, W. Hofstettor, S. P. Hiotis, S. A. Kim, A. J. Ky, S. Anandasabapathy, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Vital-dye enhanced fluorescence imaging of GI mucosa: metaplasia, neoplasia, inflammation,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 75(4), 877–887 (2012).
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Land, E. H.

Laurence, R. G.

E. G. Soltesz, S. Kim, R. G. Laurence, A. M. DeGrand, C. P. Parungo, D. M. Dor, L. H. Cohn, M. G. Bawendi, J. V. Frangioni, and T. Mihaljevic, “Intraoperative sentinel lymph node mapping of the lung using near-infrared fluorescent quantum dots,” Ann. Thorac. Surg. 79(1), 269–277 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Kim, Y. T. Lim, E. G. Soltesz, A. M. De Grand, J. Lee, A. Nakayama, J. A. Parker, T. Mihaljevic, R. G. Laurence, D. M. Dor, L. H. Cohn, M. G. Bawendi, and J. V. Frangioni, “Near-infrared fluorescent type II quantum dots for sentinel lymph node mapping,” Nat. Biotechnol. 22(1), 93–97 (2004).
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M. Jermyn, K. Kolste, J. Pichette, G. Sheehy, L. Angulo-Rodríguez, K. D. Paulsen, D. W. Roberts, B. C. Wilson, K. Petrecca, and F. Leblond, “Macroscopic-imaging technique for subsurface quantification of near-infrared markers during surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(3), 036014 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. A. Valdés, F. Leblond, V. L. Jacobs, B. C. Wilson, K. D. Paulsen, and D. W. Roberts, “Quantitative, spectrally-resolved intraoperative fluorescence imaging,” Sci. Rep. 2, 798 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. A. Valdés, A. Kim, F. Leblond, O. M. Conde, B. T. Harris, K. D. Paulsen, B. C. Wilson, and D. W. Roberts, “Combined fluorescence and reflectance spectroscopy for in vivo quantification of cancer biomarkers in low- and high-grade glioma surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(11), 116007 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. W. Roberts, P. A. Valdés, B. T. Harris, K. M. Fontaine, A. Hartov, X. Fan, S. Ji, S. S. Lollis, B. W. Pogue, F. Leblond, T. D. Tosteson, B. C. Wilson, and K. D. Paulsen, “Coregistered fluorescence-enhanced tumor resection of malignant glioma: relationships between δ-aminolevulinic acid-induced protoporphyrin IX fluorescence, magnetic resonance imaging enhancement, and neuropathological parameters. Clinical article,” J. Neurosurg. 114(3), 595–603 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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S. Kim, Y. T. Lim, E. G. Soltesz, A. M. De Grand, J. Lee, A. Nakayama, J. A. Parker, T. Mihaljevic, R. G. Laurence, D. M. Dor, L. H. Cohn, M. G. Bawendi, and J. V. Frangioni, “Near-infrared fluorescent type II quantum dots for sentinel lymph node mapping,” Nat. Biotechnol. 22(1), 93–97 (2004).
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[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lemery, J. M.

M. I. Miga, K. D. Paulsen, J. M. Lemery, S. D. Eisner, A. Hartov, F. E. Kennedy, and D. W. Roberts, “Model-updated image guidance: initial clinical experiences with gravity-induced brain deformation,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 18(10), 866–874 (1999).
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P. A. Valdés, A. Kim, F. Leblond, O. M. Conde, B. T. Harris, K. D. Paulsen, B. C. Wilson, and D. W. Roberts, “Combined fluorescence and reflectance spectroscopy for in vivo quantification of cancer biomarkers in low- and high-grade glioma surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(11), 116007 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. W. Pogue, S. Gibbs-Strauss, P. A. Valdés, K. Samkoe, D. W. Roberts, and K. D. Paulsen, “Review of Neurosurgical Fluorescence Imaging Methodologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 493–505 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. I. Miga, K. D. Paulsen, J. M. Lemery, S. D. Eisner, A. Hartov, F. E. Kennedy, and D. W. Roberts, “Model-updated image guidance: initial clinical experiences with gravity-induced brain deformation,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 18(10), 866–874 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Peters, T. M.

R. M. Comeau, A. F. Sadikot, A. Fenster, and T. M. Peters, “Intraoperative ultrasound for guidance and tissue shift correction in image-guided neurosurgery,” Med. Phys. 27(4), 787–800 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Petrecca, K.

M. Jermyn, K. Kolste, J. Pichette, G. Sheehy, L. Angulo-Rodríguez, K. D. Paulsen, D. W. Roberts, B. C. Wilson, K. Petrecca, and F. Leblond, “Macroscopic-imaging technique for subsurface quantification of near-infrared markers during surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(3), 036014 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pham, H. Q.

E. M. Sevick-Muraca, R. Sharma, J. C. Rasmussen, M. V. Marshall, J. A. Wendt, H. Q. Pham, E. Bonefas, J. P. Houston, L. Sampath, K. E. Adams, D. K. Blanchard, R. E. Fisher, S. B. Chiang, R. Elledge, and M. E. Mawad, “Imaging of lymph flow in breast cancer patients after microdose administration of a near-infrared fluorophore: feasibility study,” Radiology 246(3), 734–741 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pichette, J.

M. Jermyn, K. Kolste, J. Pichette, G. Sheehy, L. Angulo-Rodríguez, K. D. Paulsen, D. W. Roberts, B. C. Wilson, K. Petrecca, and F. Leblond, “Macroscopic-imaging technique for subsurface quantification of near-infrared markers during surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(3), 036014 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pichlmeier, U.

W. Stummer, U. Pichlmeier, T. Meinel, O. D. Wiestler, F. Zanella, H. J. Reulen, and ALA-Glioma Study Group, “Fluorescence-guided surgery with 5-aminolevulinic acid for resection of malignant glioma: a randomised controlled multicentre phase III trial,” Lancet Oncol. 7(5), 392–401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pleijhuis, R. G.

G. M. van Dam, G. Themelis, L. M. Crane, N. J. Harlaar, R. G. Pleijhuis, W. Kelder, A. Sarantopoulos, J. S. de Jong, H. J. Arts, A. G. van der Zee, J. Bart, P. S. Low, and V. Ntziachristos, “Intraoperative tumor-specific fluorescence imaging in ovarian cancer by folate receptor-α targeting: first in-human results,” Nat. Med. 17(10), 1315–1319 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pogue, B. W.

R. W. Holt, J. L. Demers, K. J. Sexton, J. R. Gunn, S. C. Davis, K. S. Samkoe, and B. W. Pogue, “Tomography of epidermal growth factor receptor binding to fluorescent Affibody in vivo studied with magnetic resonance guided fluorescence recovery in varying orthotopic glioma sizes,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(2), 026001 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. S. Samkoe, K. M. Tichauer, J. R. Gunn, W. A. Wells, T. Hasan, and B. W. Pogue, “Quantitative In Vivo Immunohistochemistry of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Using a Receptor Concentration Imaging Approach,” Cancer Res. 74(24), 7465–7474 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. M. Tichauer, K. S. Samkoe, J. R. Gunn, S. C. Kanick, P. J. Hoopes, R. J. Barth, P. A. Kaufman, T. Hasan, and B. W. Pogue, “Microscopic lymph node tumor burden quantified by macroscopic dual-tracer molecular imaging,” Nat. Med. 20(11), 1348–1353 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Sexton, K. Tichauer, K. S. Samkoe, J. Gunn, P. J. Hoopes, and B. W. Pogue, “Fluorescent affibody peptide penetration in glioma margin is superior to full antibody,” PLoS One 8(4), e60390 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. S. Samkoe, K. Sexton, K. M. Tichauer, S. K. Hextrum, O. Pardesi, S. C. Davis, J. A. O’Hara, P. J. Hoopes, T. Hasan, and B. W. Pogue, “High vascular delivery of EGF, but low receptor binding rate is observed in AsPC-1 tumors as compared to normal pancreas,” Mol. Imaging Biol. 14(4), 472–479 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. W. Roberts, P. A. Valdés, B. T. Harris, K. M. Fontaine, A. Hartov, X. Fan, S. Ji, S. S. Lollis, B. W. Pogue, F. Leblond, T. D. Tosteson, B. C. Wilson, and K. D. Paulsen, “Coregistered fluorescence-enhanced tumor resection of malignant glioma: relationships between δ-aminolevulinic acid-induced protoporphyrin IX fluorescence, magnetic resonance imaging enhancement, and neuropathological parameters. Clinical article,” J. Neurosurg. 114(3), 595–603 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. W. Pogue, S. Gibbs-Strauss, P. A. Valdés, K. Samkoe, D. W. Roberts, and K. D. Paulsen, “Review of Neurosurgical Fluorescence Imaging Methodologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 493–505 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Polydorides, A. D.

N. Thekkek, T. Muldoon, A. D. Polydorides, D. M. Maru, N. Harpaz, M. T. Harris, W. Hofstettor, S. P. Hiotis, S. A. Kim, A. J. Ky, S. Anandasabapathy, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Vital-dye enhanced fluorescence imaging of GI mucosa: metaplasia, neoplasia, inflammation,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 75(4), 877–887 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Putter, H.

M. Hutteman, J. S. Mieog, J. R. van der Vorst, G. J. Liefers, H. Putter, C. W. Löwik, J. V. Frangioni, C. J. van de Velde, and A. L. Vahrmeijer, “Randomized, double-blind comparison of indocyanine green with or without albumin premixing for near-infrared fluorescence imaging of sentinel lymph nodes in breast cancer patients,” Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 127(1), 163–170 (2011).
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S. Keereweer, J. D. Kerrebijn, P. B. van Driel, B. Xie, E. L. Kaijzel, T. J. Snoeks, I. Que, M. Hutteman, J. R. van der Vorst, J. S. Mieog, A. L. Vahrmeijer, C. J. van de Velde, R. J. Baatenburg de Jong, and C. W. Löwik, “Optical image-guided surgery--where do we stand?” Mol. Imaging Biol. 13(2), 199–207 (2011).
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J. S. Mieog, A. L. Vahrmeijer, M. Hutteman, J. R. van der Vorst, M. Drijfhout van Hooff, J. Dijkstra, P. J. Kuppen, R. Keijzer, E. L. Kaijzel, I. Que, C. J. van de Velde, and C. W. Löwik, “Novel intraoperative near-infrared fluorescence camera system for optical image-guided cancer surgery,” Mol. Imaging 9(4), 223–231 (2010).
[PubMed]

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A. Raabe, P. Nakaji, J. Beck, L. J. Kim, F. P. Hsu, J. D. Kamerman, V. Seifert, and R. F. Spetzler, “Prospective evaluation of surgical microscope-integrated intraoperative near-infrared indocyanine green videoangiography during aneurysm surgery,” J. Neurosurg. 103(6), 982–989 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rasmussen, J. C.

E. M. Sevick-Muraca, R. Sharma, J. C. Rasmussen, M. V. Marshall, J. A. Wendt, H. Q. Pham, E. Bonefas, J. P. Houston, L. Sampath, K. E. Adams, D. K. Blanchard, R. E. Fisher, S. B. Chiang, R. Elledge, and M. E. Mawad, “Imaging of lymph flow in breast cancer patients after microdose administration of a near-infrared fluorophore: feasibility study,” Radiology 246(3), 734–741 (2008).
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Rausei, S.

L. Boni, G. David, A. Mangano, G. Dionigi, S. Rausei, S. Spampatti, E. Cassinotti, and A. Fingerhut, “Clinical applications of indocyanine green (ICG) enhanced fluorescence in laparoscopic surgery,” Surg. Endosc. 29(7), 2046–2055 (2015).
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Reiss, G.

S. B. Sobottka, J. Bredow, B. Beuthien-Baumann, G. Reiss, G. Schackert, and R. Steinmeier, “Comparison of functional brain PET images and intraoperative brain-mapping data using image-guided surgery,” Comput. Aided Surg. 7(6), 317–325 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reulen, H. J.

W. Stummer, U. Pichlmeier, T. Meinel, O. D. Wiestler, F. Zanella, H. J. Reulen, and ALA-Glioma Study Group, “Fluorescence-guided surgery with 5-aminolevulinic acid for resection of malignant glioma: a randomised controlled multicentre phase III trial,” Lancet Oncol. 7(5), 392–401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Stummer, H. J. Reulen, A. Novotny, H. Stepp, and J. C. Tonn, “Fluorescence-guided resections of malignant gliomas--an overview,” Acta Neurochir. Suppl. (Wien) 88, 9–12 (2003).
[PubMed]

Richards-Kortum, R.

N. Thekkek, T. Muldoon, A. D. Polydorides, D. M. Maru, N. Harpaz, M. T. Harris, W. Hofstettor, S. P. Hiotis, S. A. Kim, A. J. Ky, S. Anandasabapathy, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Vital-dye enhanced fluorescence imaging of GI mucosa: metaplasia, neoplasia, inflammation,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 75(4), 877–887 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Richards-Kortum, R. R.

K. J. Rosbach, M. D. Williams, A. M. Gillenwater, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Optical molecular imaging of multiple biomarkers of epithelial neoplasia: epidermal growth factor receptor expression and metabolic activity in oral mucosa,” Transl. Oncol. 5(3), 160–171 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Riedl, C. C.

P. S. Adusumilli, D. P. Eisenberg, Y. S. Chun, K. W. Ryu, L. Ben-Porat, K. J. Hendershott, M. K. Chan, R. Huq, C. C. Riedl, and Y. Fong, “Virally directed fluorescent imaging improves diagnostic sensitivity in the detection of minimal residual disease after potentially curative cytoreductive surgery,” J. Gastrointest. Surg. 9, 1138–1146 (2005).

Roberts, D. W.

M. Jermyn, K. Kolste, J. Pichette, G. Sheehy, L. Angulo-Rodríguez, K. D. Paulsen, D. W. Roberts, B. C. Wilson, K. Petrecca, and F. Leblond, “Macroscopic-imaging technique for subsurface quantification of near-infrared markers during surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(3), 036014 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. A. Valdes, V. L. Jacobs, B. C. Wilson, F. Leblond, D. W. Roberts, and K. D. Paulsen, “System and methods for wide-field quantitative fluorescence imaging during neurosurgery,” Opt. Lett. 38(15), 2786–2788 (2013).
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P. A. Valdés, F. Leblond, V. L. Jacobs, B. C. Wilson, K. D. Paulsen, and D. W. Roberts, “Quantitative, spectrally-resolved intraoperative fluorescence imaging,” Sci. Rep. 2, 798 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. W. Roberts, P. A. Valdés, B. T. Harris, K. M. Fontaine, A. Hartov, X. Fan, S. Ji, S. S. Lollis, B. W. Pogue, F. Leblond, T. D. Tosteson, B. C. Wilson, and K. D. Paulsen, “Coregistered fluorescence-enhanced tumor resection of malignant glioma: relationships between δ-aminolevulinic acid-induced protoporphyrin IX fluorescence, magnetic resonance imaging enhancement, and neuropathological parameters. Clinical article,” J. Neurosurg. 114(3), 595–603 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. A. Valdés, A. Kim, F. Leblond, O. M. Conde, B. T. Harris, K. D. Paulsen, B. C. Wilson, and D. W. Roberts, “Combined fluorescence and reflectance spectroscopy for in vivo quantification of cancer biomarkers in low- and high-grade glioma surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(11), 116007 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. W. Pogue, S. Gibbs-Strauss, P. A. Valdés, K. Samkoe, D. W. Roberts, and K. D. Paulsen, “Review of Neurosurgical Fluorescence Imaging Methodologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 493–505 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. I. Miga, K. D. Paulsen, J. M. Lemery, S. D. Eisner, A. Hartov, F. E. Kennedy, and D. W. Roberts, “Model-updated image guidance: initial clinical experiences with gravity-induced brain deformation,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 18(10), 866–874 (1999).
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D. W. Roberts, J. W. Strohbehn, J. F. Hatch, W. Murray, and H. Kettenberger, “A frameless stereotaxic integration of computerized tomographic imaging and the operating microscope,” J. Neurosurg. 65(4), 545–549 (1986).
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I. Rock and D. Gutman, “The effect of inattention on form perception,” J. Exp. Psychol. Hum. Percept. Perform. 7(2), 275–285 (1981).
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N. L. Martirosyan, J. Skoch, J. R. Watson, G. M. Lemole, M. Romanowski, and R. Anton, “Integration of indocyanine green videoangiography with operative microscope: augmented reality for interactive assessment of vascular structures and blood flow,” Neurosurgery 11(Suppl 2), 252–258 (2015).
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Rosbach, K. J.

K. J. Rosbach, M. D. Williams, A. M. Gillenwater, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Optical molecular imaging of multiple biomarkers of epithelial neoplasia: epidermal growth factor receptor expression and metabolic activity in oral mucosa,” Transl. Oncol. 5(3), 160–171 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rosenthal, E. L.

K. R. Zinn, M. Korb, S. Samuel, J. M. Warram, D. Dion, C. Killingsworth, J. Fan, T. Schoeb, T. V. Strong, and E. L. Rosenthal, “IND-directed safety and biodistribution study of intravenously injected cetuximab-IRDye800 in cynomolgus macaques,” Mol. Imaging Biol. 17(1), 49–57 (2015).
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C. H. Heath, N. L. Deep, L. Sweeny, K. R. Zinn, and E. L. Rosenthal, “Use of panitumumab-IRDye800 to image microscopic head and neck cancer in an orthotopic surgical model,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 19(12), 3879–3887 (2012).
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P. S. Adusumilli, D. P. Eisenberg, Y. S. Chun, K. W. Ryu, L. Ben-Porat, K. J. Hendershott, M. K. Chan, R. Huq, C. C. Riedl, and Y. Fong, “Virally directed fluorescent imaging improves diagnostic sensitivity in the detection of minimal residual disease after potentially curative cytoreductive surgery,” J. Gastrointest. Surg. 9, 1138–1146 (2005).

Sadikot, A. F.

R. M. Comeau, A. F. Sadikot, A. Fenster, and T. M. Peters, “Intraoperative ultrasound for guidance and tissue shift correction in image-guided neurosurgery,” Med. Phys. 27(4), 787–800 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Samkoe, K.

B. W. Pogue, S. Gibbs-Strauss, P. A. Valdés, K. Samkoe, D. W. Roberts, and K. D. Paulsen, “Review of Neurosurgical Fluorescence Imaging Methodologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 493–505 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Samkoe, K. S.

R. W. Holt, J. L. Demers, K. J. Sexton, J. R. Gunn, S. C. Davis, K. S. Samkoe, and B. W. Pogue, “Tomography of epidermal growth factor receptor binding to fluorescent Affibody in vivo studied with magnetic resonance guided fluorescence recovery in varying orthotopic glioma sizes,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(2), 026001 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. S. Samkoe, K. M. Tichauer, J. R. Gunn, W. A. Wells, T. Hasan, and B. W. Pogue, “Quantitative In Vivo Immunohistochemistry of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Using a Receptor Concentration Imaging Approach,” Cancer Res. 74(24), 7465–7474 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. M. Tichauer, K. S. Samkoe, J. R. Gunn, S. C. Kanick, P. J. Hoopes, R. J. Barth, P. A. Kaufman, T. Hasan, and B. W. Pogue, “Microscopic lymph node tumor burden quantified by macroscopic dual-tracer molecular imaging,” Nat. Med. 20(11), 1348–1353 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Sexton, K. Tichauer, K. S. Samkoe, J. Gunn, P. J. Hoopes, and B. W. Pogue, “Fluorescent affibody peptide penetration in glioma margin is superior to full antibody,” PLoS One 8(4), e60390 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. S. Samkoe, K. Sexton, K. M. Tichauer, S. K. Hextrum, O. Pardesi, S. C. Davis, J. A. O’Hara, P. J. Hoopes, T. Hasan, and B. W. Pogue, “High vascular delivery of EGF, but low receptor binding rate is observed in AsPC-1 tumors as compared to normal pancreas,” Mol. Imaging Biol. 14(4), 472–479 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sampath, L.

E. M. Sevick-Muraca, R. Sharma, J. C. Rasmussen, M. V. Marshall, J. A. Wendt, H. Q. Pham, E. Bonefas, J. P. Houston, L. Sampath, K. E. Adams, D. K. Blanchard, R. E. Fisher, S. B. Chiang, R. Elledge, and M. E. Mawad, “Imaging of lymph flow in breast cancer patients after microdose administration of a near-infrared fluorophore: feasibility study,” Radiology 246(3), 734–741 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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K. R. Zinn, M. Korb, S. Samuel, J. M. Warram, D. Dion, C. Killingsworth, J. Fan, T. Schoeb, T. V. Strong, and E. L. Rosenthal, “IND-directed safety and biodistribution study of intravenously injected cetuximab-IRDye800 in cynomolgus macaques,” Mol. Imaging Biol. 17(1), 49–57 (2015).
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G. M. van Dam, G. Themelis, L. M. Crane, N. J. Harlaar, R. G. Pleijhuis, W. Kelder, A. Sarantopoulos, J. S. de Jong, H. J. Arts, A. G. van der Zee, J. Bart, P. S. Low, and V. Ntziachristos, “Intraoperative tumor-specific fluorescence imaging in ovarian cancer by folate receptor-α targeting: first in-human results,” Nat. Med. 17(10), 1315–1319 (2011).
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K. Fukuda, H. Kataoka, N. Nakajima, J. Masuoka, T. Satow, and K. Iihara, “Efficacy of FLOW 800 with indocyanine green videoangiography for the quantitative assessment of flow dynamics in cerebral arteriovenous malformation surgery,” World. Neurosurg. 83(2), 203–210 (2015).
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S. H. Keller, S. Holm, A. E. Hansen, B. Sattler, F. Andersen, T. L. Klausen, L. Højgaard, A. Kjær, and T. Beyer, “Image artifacts from MR-based attenuation correction in clinical, whole-body PET/MRI,” MAGMA 26(1), 173–181 (2013).
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Q. T. Nguyen, E. S. Olson, T. A. Aguilera, T. Jiang, M. Scadeng, L. G. Ellies, and R. Y. Tsien, “Surgery with molecular fluorescence imaging using activatable cell-penetrating peptides decreases residual cancer and improves survival,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(9), 4317–4322 (2010).
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E. S. Olson, T. Jiang, T. A. Aguilera, Q. T. Nguyen, L. G. Ellies, M. Scadeng, and R. Y. Tsien, “Activatable cell penetrating peptides linked to nanoparticles as dual probes for in vivo fluorescence and MR imaging of proteases,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(9), 4311–4316 (2010).
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B. E. Schaafsma, J. S. Mieog, M. Hutteman, J. R. van der Vorst, P. J. Kuppen, C. W. Löwik, J. V. Frangioni, C. J. van de Velde, and A. L. Vahrmeijer, “The clinical use of indocyanine green as a near-infrared fluorescent contrast agent for image-guided oncologic surgery,” J. Surg. Oncol. 104(3), 323–332 (2011).
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Schackert, G.

S. B. Sobottka, J. Bredow, B. Beuthien-Baumann, G. Reiss, G. Schackert, and R. Steinmeier, “Comparison of functional brain PET images and intraoperative brain-mapping data using image-guided surgery,” Comput. Aided Surg. 7(6), 317–325 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schoeb, T.

K. R. Zinn, M. Korb, S. Samuel, J. M. Warram, D. Dion, C. Killingsworth, J. Fan, T. Schoeb, T. V. Strong, and E. L. Rosenthal, “IND-directed safety and biodistribution study of intravenously injected cetuximab-IRDye800 in cynomolgus macaques,” Mol. Imaging Biol. 17(1), 49–57 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Seifert, V.

A. Raabe, P. Nakaji, J. Beck, L. J. Kim, F. P. Hsu, J. D. Kamerman, V. Seifert, and R. F. Spetzler, “Prospective evaluation of surgical microscope-integrated intraoperative near-infrared indocyanine green videoangiography during aneurysm surgery,” J. Neurosurg. 103(6), 982–989 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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E. M. Sevick-Muraca, R. Sharma, J. C. Rasmussen, M. V. Marshall, J. A. Wendt, H. Q. Pham, E. Bonefas, J. P. Houston, L. Sampath, K. E. Adams, D. K. Blanchard, R. E. Fisher, S. B. Chiang, R. Elledge, and M. E. Mawad, “Imaging of lymph flow in breast cancer patients after microdose administration of a near-infrared fluorophore: feasibility study,” Radiology 246(3), 734–741 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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K. Sexton, K. Tichauer, K. S. Samkoe, J. Gunn, P. J. Hoopes, and B. W. Pogue, “Fluorescent affibody peptide penetration in glioma margin is superior to full antibody,” PLoS One 8(4), e60390 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. S. Samkoe, K. Sexton, K. M. Tichauer, S. K. Hextrum, O. Pardesi, S. C. Davis, J. A. O’Hara, P. J. Hoopes, T. Hasan, and B. W. Pogue, “High vascular delivery of EGF, but low receptor binding rate is observed in AsPC-1 tumors as compared to normal pancreas,” Mol. Imaging Biol. 14(4), 472–479 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sexton, K. J.

R. W. Holt, J. L. Demers, K. J. Sexton, J. R. Gunn, S. C. Davis, K. S. Samkoe, and B. W. Pogue, “Tomography of epidermal growth factor receptor binding to fluorescent Affibody in vivo studied with magnetic resonance guided fluorescence recovery in varying orthotopic glioma sizes,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(2), 026001 (2015).
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E. M. Sevick-Muraca, R. Sharma, J. C. Rasmussen, M. V. Marshall, J. A. Wendt, H. Q. Pham, E. Bonefas, J. P. Houston, L. Sampath, K. E. Adams, D. K. Blanchard, R. E. Fisher, S. B. Chiang, R. Elledge, and M. E. Mawad, “Imaging of lymph flow in breast cancer patients after microdose administration of a near-infrared fluorophore: feasibility study,” Radiology 246(3), 734–741 (2008).
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Sheehy, G.

M. Jermyn, K. Kolste, J. Pichette, G. Sheehy, L. Angulo-Rodríguez, K. D. Paulsen, D. W. Roberts, B. C. Wilson, K. Petrecca, and F. Leblond, “Macroscopic-imaging technique for subsurface quantification of near-infrared markers during surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(3), 036014 (2015).
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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (A) The number of publications in “fluorescence-guided surgery” or “fluorescence-guided resection” in the past 25 years, showing the expotential growth in the field. (B) The Novadaq SPY Elite fluorescence imaging system, which has been at the forefront of the effort to expand fluorescence guided surgery capabilities, leading the commercial market. (C) Laproscopic images acquired under white-light and (D) by exciting indocyanine green which has been pseudocolored blue and overlaid onto C. (Source: Luigi Boni, MD [6]) showing a novel use of this for perfusion imaging of tissue.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (A) The sensitivity of human photoreceptors for different wavelengths of light is shown (NB: the abscissa is defined according to a logarithmic scale). (B) The emission spectra of four common FGS fluorophores: fluorescein sodium (FS), protoporphyrin IX (PpIX), IRDye® 800CW, and indocyanine green (ICG). (C) The CIE 1931 x,y chromaticity map showing the sRGB gamut used by most LED and LCD monitors, the trajectory of the exemplary color map (koufonisi), and the gamut representing brain tissue. The koufonisi colormap is perceptually balanced and has mid-high colors which circumscribe the brain tissue gamut, giving a uniform chromatic contrast. The average brain tissue gamut was characterized from intracranial images acquired from 10 patients, of which (D) is an example.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (A) A representative sample of color maps used in medical imaging overlays (available in the OiM Overlay GUI), which include sequential, diverging, and categorical palettes. Examples of their use from literature include: (B) Doppler ultrasound image of placentia previa of blood flow using an opaquely-overlaid diverging hot/cold color map centered about a luminance nadir [34], (C) Axial fused PET/MR image, with FDG SUV values encoded by a hot color map and blended by a uniform transparency function [35], (D) Zeiss OPMI infrared 800 blood flow module showing a pseudocolor representation of ICG wash-in delay during arteriovenous malformation [36], (E) the resection of a sentinel lymph node in laproscopic surgery detected using ICG [37].
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (A) The visual fluorescence emission from PpIX under blue light excitation on the Zeiss Pentero OPMI 800 surgical microscope during glioma resection, and (B) the RGB image acquired with white-light (~5500 K) illumination. (C) The PpIX concentration map recovered using hyperspectral imaging. (D) The [PpIX] is visualized using the multivariate koufonisi colormap and overlaid on the RGB image using the logistic function in (H) [max = 0.78, midpoint = 11.6 ug/ml, k = 11.8]. (E) The same information as in Panel C, but visualized using the myCarta cube1 color map (F) and as a single-value [RGB (7, 246, 64)] color map blended into the RGB image with the same transparency function (Panel H). (G) The 1931 CIE xy chromaticity plot showing the trajectories of the three color maps and the gamut from the RGB image.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (A) Color map image overlay of quantitative fluorescence (qFI) during ALA-induced PpIX human glioma resection [51]. (B) Intensity image of folate conjugated to fluoresceinisothiocyanate (FITC), pseudocolored and overlaid onto an RGB image during ovarian cancer resection [52], (C) Pseudocolored ICG overlay during breast cancer lymph node resection [53] (D) Sentinal lymph node mapping of non-small cell lung cancer metastesis which has been pseudocolored and overlaid onto an RGB image intraoperatively [46].
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 The four transparency functions or look-up tables widely used in creating overlays.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 The relationship between normal distributions of measured parameter values in normal and tumor regions, and the true positive rate (TPR) if that value was selected as the clinical threshold for diagnosis. The resulting TPR logistic function for (A) scarcely overlapping and (B) greatly overlapping distributions are shown.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 The same fluorescence map overlaid using a uniform colormap but with different transparency functions. (A) Logistic function with x = 5 μg/ml (B) logistic function with x = 10 μg/ml, (D) linear function intersecting point (x = 14 μg/ml, y = 50%), (C) logistic function with x = 15 μg/ml. How the transparency function is defined will have large effects on the perceived margin of malignant tissue, highlighting the need for standardization.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Lymphatic uptake of fluorophore in a mouse is shown as the green overlay on grayscale white-light images. The leftmost column shows the original image and each subsequent column shows a processed image. Window-level adjustment with contrast-limited adaptive histogram equalization (CLAHE) was applied to the original images for comparison with log-compressed images. Well plates with various concentrations of fluorophore ranging over 3 orders of magnitude in concentration and fluorescence intensity are shown, and histograms corresponding to lymphatic uptake images. White arrows indicate a lymph vessel that is hard to detect at early time points without log compression. 5mm scale bars are shown.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 (A) An early prototype of a HUD unit that was integrated into a clinical operating microscope allowing display of the augmented information into the surgeons microscope view. (B) An example contour representation of the data in Fig. 8 at threshold = 70%, showing the outline of the region for the surgeon. (C) A density point-cloud representation of the same data.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 (A) Screenshot of the main window of Overlay GUI. A number of different sliders, radio-buttons and drop-down menus enable the user to quickly make fully customized color overlays, selecting from 18 different color maps and the four different transparency functions discussed in Section 4. (B) The normalized scalar magnitude vs. red, green and blue values as well as the lightness (L*) are shown for the present colormap (koufonisi) along with the Pyramid Test for lightness uniformity [28]. (C) The 1931 CIE x,y chromaticity plot showing the gamut for the current bottom image (contour plot overlay) and the trajectory of the current color map through the color space.

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f ( x ) = L 1 + e k ( x x 0 )

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