Abstract

We present a handheld biosensor system for the label-free and specific multiplexed detection of several biomarkers employing a spectrometer-free imaging measurement system. A photonic crystal surface functionalized with multiple specific ligands forms the optical transducer. The photonic crystal slab is fabricated on a glass substrate by replicating a periodic grating master stamp with a period of 370 nm into a photoresist via nanoimprint lithography and deposition of a 70-nm titanium dioxide layer. Capture molecules are coupled covalently and drop-wise to the photonic crystal surface. With a simple camera and imaging optics the surface-normal transmission is detected. In the transmission spectrum guided-mode resonances are observed that shift due to protein binding. This shift is observed as an intensity change in the green color channel of the camera. Non-functionalized image sections are used for continuous elimination of background drift. In a first experiment we demonstrate the specific and time-resolved detection of 90.0 nm CD40 ligand antibody, 90.0 nM EGF antibody, and 500 nM streptavidin in parallel on one sensor chip. In a second experiment, aptamers with two different spacer lengths are used as receptor. The binding kinetics with association and dissociation of 250 nM thrombin and regeneration of the sensor surface with acidic tris-HCl-buffer (pH 5.0) is presented for two measurement cycles.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
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References

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2014 (10)

O. Bleher, A. Schindler, M.-X. Yin, A. B. Holmes, P. B. Luppa, G. Gauglitz, and G. Proll, “Development of a new parallelized, optical biosensor platform for label-free detection of autoimmunity-related antibodies,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 406(14), 3305–3314 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Kozma, F. Kehl, E. Ehrentreich-Förster, C. Stamm, and F. F. Bier, “Integrated planar optical waveguide interferometer biosensors: a comparative review,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 58, 287–307 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. L. Wang and M. Olivo, “Surface Plasmon Resonance Imaging Sensors: A Review,” Plasmonics 9(4), 809–824 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. K. Hunt and A. M. Armani, “Bioconjugation Strategies for Label-Free Optical Microcavity Sensors,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(2), 6900213 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. D. Peterson, B. T. Cunningham, and J. E. Andrade, “A photonic crystal biosensor assay for ferritin utilizing iron-oxide nanoparticles,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 56, 320–327 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Zhang, A. W. Morales, R. Peterson, L. Tang, and J. Y. Ye, “Label-free detection of cardiac troponin I with a photonic crystal biosensor,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 58, 107–113 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. E. Cetin, A. F. Coskun, B. C. Galarreta, M. Huang, D. Herman, A. Ozcan, and H. Altug, “Handheld high-throughput plasmonic biosensor using computational on-chip imaging,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(1), e122 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhuo, H. Hu, W. Chen, M. Lu, L. Tian, H. Yu, K. D. Long, E. Chow, W. P. King, S. Singamaneni, and B. T. Cunningham, “Single nanoparticle detection using photonic crystal enhanced microscopy,” Analyst (Lond.) 139(5), 1007–1015 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Zeller, M. Hughes, T. Tuovinen, A. Schillert, A. Conrads-Frank, H. Ruijter, R. B. Schnabel, F. Kee, V. Salomaa, U. Siebert, B. Thorand, A. Ziegler, H. Breek, G. Pasterkamp, K. Kuulasmaa, W. Koenig, and S. Blankenberg, “BiomarCaRE: rationale and design of the European BiomarCaRE project including 300,000 participants from 13 European countries,” Eur. J. Epidemiol. 29(10), 777–790 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Peng, Y. Liu, P. Fang, X. Liu, Z. Gong, H. Wang, and F. Cheng, “Compact surface plasmon resonance imaging sensing system based on general optoelectronic components,” Opt. Express 22(5), 6174–6185 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (4)

C. Nicolaou, W. T. Lau, R. Gad, H. Akhavan, R. Schilling, and O. Levi, “Enhanced detection limit by dark mode perturbation in 2D photonic crystal slab refractive index sensors,” Opt. Express 21(25), 31698–31712 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Nazirizadeh, J. Reverey, U. Geyer, U. Lemmer, C. Selhuber-Unkel, and M. Gerken, “Material-based three-dimensional imaging with nanostructured surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(1), 011116 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Gallegos, K. D. Long, H. Yu, P. P. Clark, Y. Lin, S. George, P. Nath, and B. T. Cunningham, “Label-free biodetection using a smartphone,” Lab Chip 13(11), 2124–2132 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Römhildt, C. Pahlke, F. Zörgiebel, H.-G. Braun, J. Opitz, L. Baraban, and G. Cuniberti, “Patterned Biochemical Functionalization Improves Aptamer-Based Detection of Unlabeled Thrombin in a Sandwich Assay,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 5(22), 12029–12035 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (3)

C.-S. Huang, V. Chaudhery, A. Pokhriyal, S. George, J. Polans, M. Lu, R. Tan, R. C. Zangar, and B. T. Cunningham, “Multiplexed Cancer Biomarker Detection Using Quartz-based Photonic Crystal Surfaces,” Anal. Chem. 84(2), 1126–1133 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Y. Song, W. J. Kim, H. Ko, B. K. Kim, K. H. Kim, C. Huh, and J. Hong, “Portable Guided-Mode Resonance Biosensor Platform for Point-of-care Testing,” Proc. SPIE 84600, 84600F (2012).

D. Threm, Y. Nazirizadeh, and M. Gerken, “Photonic Crystal Biosensors Towards On-Chip Integration,” J. Biophotonics 5(8-9), 601–616 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

U. Lotze, H. Lemm, A. Heyer, and K. Müller, “Combined determination of highly sensitive troponin T and copeptin for early exclusion of acute myocardial infarction: first experience in an emergency department of a general hospital,” Vasc. Health Risk Manag. 7, 509–515 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S.-F. Lin, T.-J. Ding, J.-T. Liu, C.-C. Lee, T.-H. Yang, W.-Y. Chen, and J.-Y. Chang, “A Guided Mode Resonance Aptasensor for Thrombin Detection,” Sensors (Basel) 11(12), 8953–8965 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Bruck, E. Melnik, P. Muellner, R. Hainberger, and M. Lämmerhofer, “Integrated polymer-based Mach-Zehnder interferometer label-free streptavidin biosensor compatible with injection molding,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 26(9), 3832–3837 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

2009 (2)

J. A. Kolberg, T. Jørgensen, R. W. Gerwien, S. Hamren, M. P. McKenna, E. Moler, M. W. Rowe, M. S. Urdea, X. M. Xu, T. Hansen, O. Pedersen, and K. Borch-Johnsen, “Development of a Type 2 Diabetes Risk Model From a Panel of Serum Biomarkers From the Inter99 Cohort,” Diabetes Care 32(7), 1207–1212 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Wei, P. Patel, W. Liao, K. Chaudhry, L. Zhang, M. Arellano-Garcia, S. Hu, D. Elashoff, H. Zhou, S. Shukla, F. Shah, C.-M. Ho, and D. T. Wong, “Electrochemical Sensor for Multiplex Biomarkers Detection,” Clin. Cancer Res. 15(13), 4446–4452 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: A review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 620(1-2), 8–26 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Song, L. Wang, J. Li, J. Zhao, and C. Fan, “Aptamer-based biosensors,” TrAC 27, 107–117 (2008).

2007 (1)

M. B. Schulze, K. Hoffmann, H. Boeing, J. Linseisen, S. Rohrmann, M. Möhlig, A. F. H. Pfeiffer, J. Spranger, C. Thamer, H.-U. Häring, A. Fritsche, and H.-G. Joost, “An Accurate Risk Score based on Anthropometric, Dietary, and Lifestyle Factors to Predict the Development of Type 2 Diabetes,” Diabetes Care 30(3), 510–515 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

H. Nakamura and I. Karube, “Current research activity in biosensors,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 377(3), 446–468 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

S. Fan and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Analysis of guided resonances in photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev. B 65(23), 235112 (2002).
[Crossref]

C. A. Meier, E. Bobbioni, C. Gabay, F. Assimacopoulos-Jeannet, A. Golay, and J.-M. Dayer, “IL-1 Receptor Antagonist Serum Levels Are Increased in Human Obesity: A Possible Link to the Resistance to Leptin?” J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 87(3), 1184–1188 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

J. McCord, R. M. Nowak, P. A. McCullough, C. Foreback, S. Borzak, G. Tokarski, M. C. Tomlanovich, G. Jacobsen, and W. D. Weaver, “Ninety-Minute Exclusion of Acute Myocardial Infarction By Use of Quantitative Point-of-Care Testing of Myoglobin and Troponin I,” Circulation 104(13), 1483–1488 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

H.-M. Haake, A. Schütz, and G. Gauglitz, “Label-free detection of biomolecular interaction by optical sensors,” Fresenius J. Anal. Chem. 366(6-7), 576–585 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

D. M. Tasset, M. F. Kubik, and W. Steiner, “Oligonucleotide inhibitors of human thrombin that bind distinct epitopes,” J. Mol. Biol. 272(5), 688–698 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Akhavan, H.

Altug, H.

A. E. Cetin, A. F. Coskun, B. C. Galarreta, M. Huang, D. Herman, A. Ozcan, and H. Altug, “Handheld high-throughput plasmonic biosensor using computational on-chip imaging,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(1), e122 (2014).
[Crossref]

Andrade, J. E.

R. D. Peterson, B. T. Cunningham, and J. E. Andrade, “A photonic crystal biosensor assay for ferritin utilizing iron-oxide nanoparticles,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 56, 320–327 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arellano-Garcia, M.

F. Wei, P. Patel, W. Liao, K. Chaudhry, L. Zhang, M. Arellano-Garcia, S. Hu, D. Elashoff, H. Zhou, S. Shukla, F. Shah, C.-M. Ho, and D. T. Wong, “Electrochemical Sensor for Multiplex Biomarkers Detection,” Clin. Cancer Res. 15(13), 4446–4452 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Armani, A. M.

H. K. Hunt and A. M. Armani, “Bioconjugation Strategies for Label-Free Optical Microcavity Sensors,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(2), 6900213 (2014).
[Crossref]

Assimacopoulos-Jeannet, F.

C. A. Meier, E. Bobbioni, C. Gabay, F. Assimacopoulos-Jeannet, A. Golay, and J.-M. Dayer, “IL-1 Receptor Antagonist Serum Levels Are Increased in Human Obesity: A Possible Link to the Resistance to Leptin?” J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 87(3), 1184–1188 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baraban, L.

L. Römhildt, C. Pahlke, F. Zörgiebel, H.-G. Braun, J. Opitz, L. Baraban, and G. Cuniberti, “Patterned Biochemical Functionalization Improves Aptamer-Based Detection of Unlabeled Thrombin in a Sandwich Assay,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 5(22), 12029–12035 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bier, F. F.

P. Kozma, F. Kehl, E. Ehrentreich-Förster, C. Stamm, and F. F. Bier, “Integrated planar optical waveguide interferometer biosensors: a comparative review,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 58, 287–307 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Blankenberg, S.

T. Zeller, M. Hughes, T. Tuovinen, A. Schillert, A. Conrads-Frank, H. Ruijter, R. B. Schnabel, F. Kee, V. Salomaa, U. Siebert, B. Thorand, A. Ziegler, H. Breek, G. Pasterkamp, K. Kuulasmaa, W. Koenig, and S. Blankenberg, “BiomarCaRE: rationale and design of the European BiomarCaRE project including 300,000 participants from 13 European countries,” Eur. J. Epidemiol. 29(10), 777–790 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bleher, O.

O. Bleher, A. Schindler, M.-X. Yin, A. B. Holmes, P. B. Luppa, G. Gauglitz, and G. Proll, “Development of a new parallelized, optical biosensor platform for label-free detection of autoimmunity-related antibodies,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 406(14), 3305–3314 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bobbioni, E.

C. A. Meier, E. Bobbioni, C. Gabay, F. Assimacopoulos-Jeannet, A. Golay, and J.-M. Dayer, “IL-1 Receptor Antagonist Serum Levels Are Increased in Human Obesity: A Possible Link to the Resistance to Leptin?” J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 87(3), 1184–1188 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boeing, H.

M. B. Schulze, K. Hoffmann, H. Boeing, J. Linseisen, S. Rohrmann, M. Möhlig, A. F. H. Pfeiffer, J. Spranger, C. Thamer, H.-U. Häring, A. Fritsche, and H.-G. Joost, “An Accurate Risk Score based on Anthropometric, Dietary, and Lifestyle Factors to Predict the Development of Type 2 Diabetes,” Diabetes Care 30(3), 510–515 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bog, U.

Borch-Johnsen, K.

J. A. Kolberg, T. Jørgensen, R. W. Gerwien, S. Hamren, M. P. McKenna, E. Moler, M. W. Rowe, M. S. Urdea, X. M. Xu, T. Hansen, O. Pedersen, and K. Borch-Johnsen, “Development of a Type 2 Diabetes Risk Model From a Panel of Serum Biomarkers From the Inter99 Cohort,” Diabetes Care 32(7), 1207–1212 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Borzak, S.

J. McCord, R. M. Nowak, P. A. McCullough, C. Foreback, S. Borzak, G. Tokarski, M. C. Tomlanovich, G. Jacobsen, and W. D. Weaver, “Ninety-Minute Exclusion of Acute Myocardial Infarction By Use of Quantitative Point-of-Care Testing of Myoglobin and Troponin I,” Circulation 104(13), 1483–1488 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Braun, H.-G.

L. Römhildt, C. Pahlke, F. Zörgiebel, H.-G. Braun, J. Opitz, L. Baraban, and G. Cuniberti, “Patterned Biochemical Functionalization Improves Aptamer-Based Detection of Unlabeled Thrombin in a Sandwich Assay,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 5(22), 12029–12035 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Breek, H.

T. Zeller, M. Hughes, T. Tuovinen, A. Schillert, A. Conrads-Frank, H. Ruijter, R. B. Schnabel, F. Kee, V. Salomaa, U. Siebert, B. Thorand, A. Ziegler, H. Breek, G. Pasterkamp, K. Kuulasmaa, W. Koenig, and S. Blankenberg, “BiomarCaRE: rationale and design of the European BiomarCaRE project including 300,000 participants from 13 European countries,” Eur. J. Epidemiol. 29(10), 777–790 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bruck, R.

R. Bruck, E. Melnik, P. Muellner, R. Hainberger, and M. Lämmerhofer, “Integrated polymer-based Mach-Zehnder interferometer label-free streptavidin biosensor compatible with injection molding,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 26(9), 3832–3837 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Campopiano, S.

Castaldi, G.

Cetin, A. E.

A. E. Cetin, A. F. Coskun, B. C. Galarreta, M. Huang, D. Herman, A. Ozcan, and H. Altug, “Handheld high-throughput plasmonic biosensor using computational on-chip imaging,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(1), e122 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chan, D.

D. Chan and L. L. Ng, “Biomarkers in acute myocardial infarction,” BMC Med. 8(1), 34 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, J.-Y.

S.-F. Lin, T.-J. Ding, J.-T. Liu, C.-C. Lee, T.-H. Yang, W.-Y. Chen, and J.-Y. Chang, “A Guided Mode Resonance Aptasensor for Thrombin Detection,” Sensors (Basel) 11(12), 8953–8965 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chaudhery, V.

C.-S. Huang, V. Chaudhery, A. Pokhriyal, S. George, J. Polans, M. Lu, R. Tan, R. C. Zangar, and B. T. Cunningham, “Multiplexed Cancer Biomarker Detection Using Quartz-based Photonic Crystal Surfaces,” Anal. Chem. 84(2), 1126–1133 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chaudhry, K.

F. Wei, P. Patel, W. Liao, K. Chaudhry, L. Zhang, M. Arellano-Garcia, S. Hu, D. Elashoff, H. Zhou, S. Shukla, F. Shah, C.-M. Ho, and D. T. Wong, “Electrochemical Sensor for Multiplex Biomarkers Detection,” Clin. Cancer Res. 15(13), 4446–4452 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, W.

Y. Zhuo, H. Hu, W. Chen, M. Lu, L. Tian, H. Yu, K. D. Long, E. Chow, W. P. King, S. Singamaneni, and B. T. Cunningham, “Single nanoparticle detection using photonic crystal enhanced microscopy,” Analyst (Lond.) 139(5), 1007–1015 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, W.-Y.

S.-F. Lin, T.-J. Ding, J.-T. Liu, C.-C. Lee, T.-H. Yang, W.-Y. Chen, and J.-Y. Chang, “A Guided Mode Resonance Aptasensor for Thrombin Detection,” Sensors (Basel) 11(12), 8953–8965 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheng, F.

Chow, E.

Y. Zhuo, H. Hu, W. Chen, M. Lu, L. Tian, H. Yu, K. D. Long, E. Chow, W. P. King, S. Singamaneni, and B. T. Cunningham, “Single nanoparticle detection using photonic crystal enhanced microscopy,” Analyst (Lond.) 139(5), 1007–1015 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Clark, P. P.

D. Gallegos, K. D. Long, H. Yu, P. P. Clark, Y. Lin, S. George, P. Nath, and B. T. Cunningham, “Label-free biodetection using a smartphone,” Lab Chip 13(11), 2124–2132 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Conrads-Frank, A.

T. Zeller, M. Hughes, T. Tuovinen, A. Schillert, A. Conrads-Frank, H. Ruijter, R. B. Schnabel, F. Kee, V. Salomaa, U. Siebert, B. Thorand, A. Ziegler, H. Breek, G. Pasterkamp, K. Kuulasmaa, W. Koenig, and S. Blankenberg, “BiomarCaRE: rationale and design of the European BiomarCaRE project including 300,000 participants from 13 European countries,” Eur. J. Epidemiol. 29(10), 777–790 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Coskun, A. F.

A. E. Cetin, A. F. Coskun, B. C. Galarreta, M. Huang, D. Herman, A. Ozcan, and H. Altug, “Handheld high-throughput plasmonic biosensor using computational on-chip imaging,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(1), e122 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cuniberti, G.

L. Römhildt, C. Pahlke, F. Zörgiebel, H.-G. Braun, J. Opitz, L. Baraban, and G. Cuniberti, “Patterned Biochemical Functionalization Improves Aptamer-Based Detection of Unlabeled Thrombin in a Sandwich Assay,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 5(22), 12029–12035 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cunningham, B. T.

Y. Zhuo, H. Hu, W. Chen, M. Lu, L. Tian, H. Yu, K. D. Long, E. Chow, W. P. King, S. Singamaneni, and B. T. Cunningham, “Single nanoparticle detection using photonic crystal enhanced microscopy,” Analyst (Lond.) 139(5), 1007–1015 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. D. Peterson, B. T. Cunningham, and J. E. Andrade, “A photonic crystal biosensor assay for ferritin utilizing iron-oxide nanoparticles,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 56, 320–327 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Gallegos, K. D. Long, H. Yu, P. P. Clark, Y. Lin, S. George, P. Nath, and B. T. Cunningham, “Label-free biodetection using a smartphone,” Lab Chip 13(11), 2124–2132 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C.-S. Huang, V. Chaudhery, A. Pokhriyal, S. George, J. Polans, M. Lu, R. Tan, R. C. Zangar, and B. T. Cunningham, “Multiplexed Cancer Biomarker Detection Using Quartz-based Photonic Crystal Surfaces,” Anal. Chem. 84(2), 1126–1133 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cusano, A.

Cutolo, A.

Dayer, J.-M.

C. A. Meier, E. Bobbioni, C. Gabay, F. Assimacopoulos-Jeannet, A. Golay, and J.-M. Dayer, “IL-1 Receptor Antagonist Serum Levels Are Increased in Human Obesity: A Possible Link to the Resistance to Leptin?” J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 87(3), 1184–1188 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ding, T.-J.

S.-F. Lin, T.-J. Ding, J.-T. Liu, C.-C. Lee, T.-H. Yang, W.-Y. Chen, and J.-Y. Chang, “A Guided Mode Resonance Aptasensor for Thrombin Detection,” Sensors (Basel) 11(12), 8953–8965 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ehrentreich-Förster, E.

P. Kozma, F. Kehl, E. Ehrentreich-Förster, C. Stamm, and F. F. Bier, “Integrated planar optical waveguide interferometer biosensors: a comparative review,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 58, 287–307 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Elashoff, D.

F. Wei, P. Patel, W. Liao, K. Chaudhry, L. Zhang, M. Arellano-Garcia, S. Hu, D. Elashoff, H. Zhou, S. Shukla, F. Shah, C.-M. Ho, and D. T. Wong, “Electrochemical Sensor for Multiplex Biomarkers Detection,” Clin. Cancer Res. 15(13), 4446–4452 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fan, C.

S. Song, L. Wang, J. Li, J. Zhao, and C. Fan, “Aptamer-based biosensors,” TrAC 27, 107–117 (2008).

Fan, S.

S. Fan and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Analysis of guided resonances in photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev. B 65(23), 235112 (2002).
[Crossref]

Fan, X.

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: A review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 620(1-2), 8–26 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fang, P.

Foreback, C.

J. McCord, R. M. Nowak, P. A. McCullough, C. Foreback, S. Borzak, G. Tokarski, M. C. Tomlanovich, G. Jacobsen, and W. D. Weaver, “Ninety-Minute Exclusion of Acute Myocardial Infarction By Use of Quantitative Point-of-Care Testing of Myoglobin and Troponin I,” Circulation 104(13), 1483–1488 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fritsche, A.

M. B. Schulze, K. Hoffmann, H. Boeing, J. Linseisen, S. Rohrmann, M. Möhlig, A. F. H. Pfeiffer, J. Spranger, C. Thamer, H.-U. Häring, A. Fritsche, and H.-G. Joost, “An Accurate Risk Score based on Anthropometric, Dietary, and Lifestyle Factors to Predict the Development of Type 2 Diabetes,” Diabetes Care 30(3), 510–515 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gabay, C.

C. A. Meier, E. Bobbioni, C. Gabay, F. Assimacopoulos-Jeannet, A. Golay, and J.-M. Dayer, “IL-1 Receptor Antagonist Serum Levels Are Increased in Human Obesity: A Possible Link to the Resistance to Leptin?” J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 87(3), 1184–1188 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gad, R.

Galarreta, B. C.

A. E. Cetin, A. F. Coskun, B. C. Galarreta, M. Huang, D. Herman, A. Ozcan, and H. Altug, “Handheld high-throughput plasmonic biosensor using computational on-chip imaging,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(1), e122 (2014).
[Crossref]

Galdi, V.

Gallegos, D.

D. Gallegos, K. D. Long, H. Yu, P. P. Clark, Y. Lin, S. George, P. Nath, and B. T. Cunningham, “Label-free biodetection using a smartphone,” Lab Chip 13(11), 2124–2132 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gallina, I.

Gauglitz, G.

O. Bleher, A. Schindler, M.-X. Yin, A. B. Holmes, P. B. Luppa, G. Gauglitz, and G. Proll, “Development of a new parallelized, optical biosensor platform for label-free detection of autoimmunity-related antibodies,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 406(14), 3305–3314 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-M. Haake, A. Schütz, and G. Gauglitz, “Label-free detection of biomolecular interaction by optical sensors,” Fresenius J. Anal. Chem. 366(6-7), 576–585 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

George, S.

D. Gallegos, K. D. Long, H. Yu, P. P. Clark, Y. Lin, S. George, P. Nath, and B. T. Cunningham, “Label-free biodetection using a smartphone,” Lab Chip 13(11), 2124–2132 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C.-S. Huang, V. Chaudhery, A. Pokhriyal, S. George, J. Polans, M. Lu, R. Tan, R. C. Zangar, and B. T. Cunningham, “Multiplexed Cancer Biomarker Detection Using Quartz-based Photonic Crystal Surfaces,” Anal. Chem. 84(2), 1126–1133 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gerken, M.

Y. Nazirizadeh, J. Reverey, U. Geyer, U. Lemmer, C. Selhuber-Unkel, and M. Gerken, “Material-based three-dimensional imaging with nanostructured surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(1), 011116 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Threm, Y. Nazirizadeh, and M. Gerken, “Photonic Crystal Biosensors Towards On-Chip Integration,” J. Biophotonics 5(8-9), 601–616 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Nazirizadeh, U. Bog, S. Sekula, T. Mappes, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Low-cost label-free biosensors using photonic crystals embedded between crossed polarizers,” Opt. Express 18(18), 19120–19128 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gerwien, R. W.

J. A. Kolberg, T. Jørgensen, R. W. Gerwien, S. Hamren, M. P. McKenna, E. Moler, M. W. Rowe, M. S. Urdea, X. M. Xu, T. Hansen, O. Pedersen, and K. Borch-Johnsen, “Development of a Type 2 Diabetes Risk Model From a Panel of Serum Biomarkers From the Inter99 Cohort,” Diabetes Care 32(7), 1207–1212 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Geyer, U.

Y. Nazirizadeh, J. Reverey, U. Geyer, U. Lemmer, C. Selhuber-Unkel, and M. Gerken, “Material-based three-dimensional imaging with nanostructured surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(1), 011116 (2013).
[Crossref]

Golay, A.

C. A. Meier, E. Bobbioni, C. Gabay, F. Assimacopoulos-Jeannet, A. Golay, and J.-M. Dayer, “IL-1 Receptor Antagonist Serum Levels Are Increased in Human Obesity: A Possible Link to the Resistance to Leptin?” J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 87(3), 1184–1188 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gong, Z.

Haake, H.-M.

H.-M. Haake, A. Schütz, and G. Gauglitz, “Label-free detection of biomolecular interaction by optical sensors,” Fresenius J. Anal. Chem. 366(6-7), 576–585 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hainberger, R.

R. Bruck, E. Melnik, P. Muellner, R. Hainberger, and M. Lämmerhofer, “Integrated polymer-based Mach-Zehnder interferometer label-free streptavidin biosensor compatible with injection molding,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 26(9), 3832–3837 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hamren, S.

J. A. Kolberg, T. Jørgensen, R. W. Gerwien, S. Hamren, M. P. McKenna, E. Moler, M. W. Rowe, M. S. Urdea, X. M. Xu, T. Hansen, O. Pedersen, and K. Borch-Johnsen, “Development of a Type 2 Diabetes Risk Model From a Panel of Serum Biomarkers From the Inter99 Cohort,” Diabetes Care 32(7), 1207–1212 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hansen, T.

J. A. Kolberg, T. Jørgensen, R. W. Gerwien, S. Hamren, M. P. McKenna, E. Moler, M. W. Rowe, M. S. Urdea, X. M. Xu, T. Hansen, O. Pedersen, and K. Borch-Johnsen, “Development of a Type 2 Diabetes Risk Model From a Panel of Serum Biomarkers From the Inter99 Cohort,” Diabetes Care 32(7), 1207–1212 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Häring, H.-U.

M. B. Schulze, K. Hoffmann, H. Boeing, J. Linseisen, S. Rohrmann, M. Möhlig, A. F. H. Pfeiffer, J. Spranger, C. Thamer, H.-U. Häring, A. Fritsche, and H.-G. Joost, “An Accurate Risk Score based on Anthropometric, Dietary, and Lifestyle Factors to Predict the Development of Type 2 Diabetes,” Diabetes Care 30(3), 510–515 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Herman, D.

A. E. Cetin, A. F. Coskun, B. C. Galarreta, M. Huang, D. Herman, A. Ozcan, and H. Altug, “Handheld high-throughput plasmonic biosensor using computational on-chip imaging,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(1), e122 (2014).
[Crossref]

Heyer, A.

U. Lotze, H. Lemm, A. Heyer, and K. Müller, “Combined determination of highly sensitive troponin T and copeptin for early exclusion of acute myocardial infarction: first experience in an emergency department of a general hospital,” Vasc. Health Risk Manag. 7, 509–515 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ho, C.-M.

F. Wei, P. Patel, W. Liao, K. Chaudhry, L. Zhang, M. Arellano-Garcia, S. Hu, D. Elashoff, H. Zhou, S. Shukla, F. Shah, C.-M. Ho, and D. T. Wong, “Electrochemical Sensor for Multiplex Biomarkers Detection,” Clin. Cancer Res. 15(13), 4446–4452 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hoffmann, K.

M. B. Schulze, K. Hoffmann, H. Boeing, J. Linseisen, S. Rohrmann, M. Möhlig, A. F. H. Pfeiffer, J. Spranger, C. Thamer, H.-U. Häring, A. Fritsche, and H.-G. Joost, “An Accurate Risk Score based on Anthropometric, Dietary, and Lifestyle Factors to Predict the Development of Type 2 Diabetes,” Diabetes Care 30(3), 510–515 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Holmes, A. B.

O. Bleher, A. Schindler, M.-X. Yin, A. B. Holmes, P. B. Luppa, G. Gauglitz, and G. Proll, “Development of a new parallelized, optical biosensor platform for label-free detection of autoimmunity-related antibodies,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 406(14), 3305–3314 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hong, J.

G. Y. Song, W. J. Kim, H. Ko, B. K. Kim, K. H. Kim, C. Huh, and J. Hong, “Portable Guided-Mode Resonance Biosensor Platform for Point-of-care Testing,” Proc. SPIE 84600, 84600F (2012).

Hu, H.

Y. Zhuo, H. Hu, W. Chen, M. Lu, L. Tian, H. Yu, K. D. Long, E. Chow, W. P. King, S. Singamaneni, and B. T. Cunningham, “Single nanoparticle detection using photonic crystal enhanced microscopy,” Analyst (Lond.) 139(5), 1007–1015 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hu, S.

F. Wei, P. Patel, W. Liao, K. Chaudhry, L. Zhang, M. Arellano-Garcia, S. Hu, D. Elashoff, H. Zhou, S. Shukla, F. Shah, C.-M. Ho, and D. T. Wong, “Electrochemical Sensor for Multiplex Biomarkers Detection,” Clin. Cancer Res. 15(13), 4446–4452 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, C.-S.

C.-S. Huang, V. Chaudhery, A. Pokhriyal, S. George, J. Polans, M. Lu, R. Tan, R. C. Zangar, and B. T. Cunningham, “Multiplexed Cancer Biomarker Detection Using Quartz-based Photonic Crystal Surfaces,” Anal. Chem. 84(2), 1126–1133 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, M.

A. E. Cetin, A. F. Coskun, B. C. Galarreta, M. Huang, D. Herman, A. Ozcan, and H. Altug, “Handheld high-throughput plasmonic biosensor using computational on-chip imaging,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(1), e122 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hughes, M.

T. Zeller, M. Hughes, T. Tuovinen, A. Schillert, A. Conrads-Frank, H. Ruijter, R. B. Schnabel, F. Kee, V. Salomaa, U. Siebert, B. Thorand, A. Ziegler, H. Breek, G. Pasterkamp, K. Kuulasmaa, W. Koenig, and S. Blankenberg, “BiomarCaRE: rationale and design of the European BiomarCaRE project including 300,000 participants from 13 European countries,” Eur. J. Epidemiol. 29(10), 777–790 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huh, C.

G. Y. Song, W. J. Kim, H. Ko, B. K. Kim, K. H. Kim, C. Huh, and J. Hong, “Portable Guided-Mode Resonance Biosensor Platform for Point-of-care Testing,” Proc. SPIE 84600, 84600F (2012).

Hunt, H. K.

H. K. Hunt and A. M. Armani, “Bioconjugation Strategies for Label-Free Optical Microcavity Sensors,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(2), 6900213 (2014).
[Crossref]

Jacobsen, G.

J. McCord, R. M. Nowak, P. A. McCullough, C. Foreback, S. Borzak, G. Tokarski, M. C. Tomlanovich, G. Jacobsen, and W. D. Weaver, “Ninety-Minute Exclusion of Acute Myocardial Infarction By Use of Quantitative Point-of-Care Testing of Myoglobin and Troponin I,” Circulation 104(13), 1483–1488 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Joannopoulos, J. D.

S. Fan and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Analysis of guided resonances in photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev. B 65(23), 235112 (2002).
[Crossref]

Joost, H.-G.

M. B. Schulze, K. Hoffmann, H. Boeing, J. Linseisen, S. Rohrmann, M. Möhlig, A. F. H. Pfeiffer, J. Spranger, C. Thamer, H.-U. Häring, A. Fritsche, and H.-G. Joost, “An Accurate Risk Score based on Anthropometric, Dietary, and Lifestyle Factors to Predict the Development of Type 2 Diabetes,” Diabetes Care 30(3), 510–515 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jørgensen, T.

J. A. Kolberg, T. Jørgensen, R. W. Gerwien, S. Hamren, M. P. McKenna, E. Moler, M. W. Rowe, M. S. Urdea, X. M. Xu, T. Hansen, O. Pedersen, and K. Borch-Johnsen, “Development of a Type 2 Diabetes Risk Model From a Panel of Serum Biomarkers From the Inter99 Cohort,” Diabetes Care 32(7), 1207–1212 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Karube, I.

H. Nakamura and I. Karube, “Current research activity in biosensors,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 377(3), 446–468 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kee, F.

T. Zeller, M. Hughes, T. Tuovinen, A. Schillert, A. Conrads-Frank, H. Ruijter, R. B. Schnabel, F. Kee, V. Salomaa, U. Siebert, B. Thorand, A. Ziegler, H. Breek, G. Pasterkamp, K. Kuulasmaa, W. Koenig, and S. Blankenberg, “BiomarCaRE: rationale and design of the European BiomarCaRE project including 300,000 participants from 13 European countries,” Eur. J. Epidemiol. 29(10), 777–790 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kehl, F.

P. Kozma, F. Kehl, E. Ehrentreich-Förster, C. Stamm, and F. F. Bier, “Integrated planar optical waveguide interferometer biosensors: a comparative review,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 58, 287–307 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, B. K.

G. Y. Song, W. J. Kim, H. Ko, B. K. Kim, K. H. Kim, C. Huh, and J. Hong, “Portable Guided-Mode Resonance Biosensor Platform for Point-of-care Testing,” Proc. SPIE 84600, 84600F (2012).

Kim, K. H.

G. Y. Song, W. J. Kim, H. Ko, B. K. Kim, K. H. Kim, C. Huh, and J. Hong, “Portable Guided-Mode Resonance Biosensor Platform for Point-of-care Testing,” Proc. SPIE 84600, 84600F (2012).

Kim, W. J.

G. Y. Song, W. J. Kim, H. Ko, B. K. Kim, K. H. Kim, C. Huh, and J. Hong, “Portable Guided-Mode Resonance Biosensor Platform for Point-of-care Testing,” Proc. SPIE 84600, 84600F (2012).

King, W. P.

Y. Zhuo, H. Hu, W. Chen, M. Lu, L. Tian, H. Yu, K. D. Long, E. Chow, W. P. King, S. Singamaneni, and B. T. Cunningham, “Single nanoparticle detection using photonic crystal enhanced microscopy,” Analyst (Lond.) 139(5), 1007–1015 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ko, H.

G. Y. Song, W. J. Kim, H. Ko, B. K. Kim, K. H. Kim, C. Huh, and J. Hong, “Portable Guided-Mode Resonance Biosensor Platform for Point-of-care Testing,” Proc. SPIE 84600, 84600F (2012).

Koenig, W.

T. Zeller, M. Hughes, T. Tuovinen, A. Schillert, A. Conrads-Frank, H. Ruijter, R. B. Schnabel, F. Kee, V. Salomaa, U. Siebert, B. Thorand, A. Ziegler, H. Breek, G. Pasterkamp, K. Kuulasmaa, W. Koenig, and S. Blankenberg, “BiomarCaRE: rationale and design of the European BiomarCaRE project including 300,000 participants from 13 European countries,” Eur. J. Epidemiol. 29(10), 777–790 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kolberg, J. A.

J. A. Kolberg, T. Jørgensen, R. W. Gerwien, S. Hamren, M. P. McKenna, E. Moler, M. W. Rowe, M. S. Urdea, X. M. Xu, T. Hansen, O. Pedersen, and K. Borch-Johnsen, “Development of a Type 2 Diabetes Risk Model From a Panel of Serum Biomarkers From the Inter99 Cohort,” Diabetes Care 32(7), 1207–1212 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kozma, P.

P. Kozma, F. Kehl, E. Ehrentreich-Förster, C. Stamm, and F. F. Bier, “Integrated planar optical waveguide interferometer biosensors: a comparative review,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 58, 287–307 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kubik, M. F.

D. M. Tasset, M. F. Kubik, and W. Steiner, “Oligonucleotide inhibitors of human thrombin that bind distinct epitopes,” J. Mol. Biol. 272(5), 688–698 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kuulasmaa, K.

T. Zeller, M. Hughes, T. Tuovinen, A. Schillert, A. Conrads-Frank, H. Ruijter, R. B. Schnabel, F. Kee, V. Salomaa, U. Siebert, B. Thorand, A. Ziegler, H. Breek, G. Pasterkamp, K. Kuulasmaa, W. Koenig, and S. Blankenberg, “BiomarCaRE: rationale and design of the European BiomarCaRE project including 300,000 participants from 13 European countries,” Eur. J. Epidemiol. 29(10), 777–790 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lämmerhofer, M.

R. Bruck, E. Melnik, P. Muellner, R. Hainberger, and M. Lämmerhofer, “Integrated polymer-based Mach-Zehnder interferometer label-free streptavidin biosensor compatible with injection molding,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 26(9), 3832–3837 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lau, W. T.

Lee, C.-C.

S.-F. Lin, T.-J. Ding, J.-T. Liu, C.-C. Lee, T.-H. Yang, W.-Y. Chen, and J.-Y. Chang, “A Guided Mode Resonance Aptasensor for Thrombin Detection,” Sensors (Basel) 11(12), 8953–8965 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lemm, H.

U. Lotze, H. Lemm, A. Heyer, and K. Müller, “Combined determination of highly sensitive troponin T and copeptin for early exclusion of acute myocardial infarction: first experience in an emergency department of a general hospital,” Vasc. Health Risk Manag. 7, 509–515 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lemmer, U.

Y. Nazirizadeh, J. Reverey, U. Geyer, U. Lemmer, C. Selhuber-Unkel, and M. Gerken, “Material-based three-dimensional imaging with nanostructured surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(1), 011116 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Nazirizadeh, U. Bog, S. Sekula, T. Mappes, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Low-cost label-free biosensors using photonic crystals embedded between crossed polarizers,” Opt. Express 18(18), 19120–19128 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Levi, O.

Li, J.

S. Song, L. Wang, J. Li, J. Zhao, and C. Fan, “Aptamer-based biosensors,” TrAC 27, 107–117 (2008).

Liao, W.

F. Wei, P. Patel, W. Liao, K. Chaudhry, L. Zhang, M. Arellano-Garcia, S. Hu, D. Elashoff, H. Zhou, S. Shukla, F. Shah, C.-M. Ho, and D. T. Wong, “Electrochemical Sensor for Multiplex Biomarkers Detection,” Clin. Cancer Res. 15(13), 4446–4452 (2009).
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Liu, Y.

Long, K. D.

Y. Zhuo, H. Hu, W. Chen, M. Lu, L. Tian, H. Yu, K. D. Long, E. Chow, W. P. King, S. Singamaneni, and B. T. Cunningham, “Single nanoparticle detection using photonic crystal enhanced microscopy,” Analyst (Lond.) 139(5), 1007–1015 (2014).
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D. Gallegos, K. D. Long, H. Yu, P. P. Clark, Y. Lin, S. George, P. Nath, and B. T. Cunningham, “Label-free biodetection using a smartphone,” Lab Chip 13(11), 2124–2132 (2013).
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O. Bleher, A. Schindler, M.-X. Yin, A. B. Holmes, P. B. Luppa, G. Gauglitz, and G. Proll, “Development of a new parallelized, optical biosensor platform for label-free detection of autoimmunity-related antibodies,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 406(14), 3305–3314 (2014).
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B. Zhang, A. W. Morales, R. Peterson, L. Tang, and J. Y. Ye, “Label-free detection of cardiac troponin I with a photonic crystal biosensor,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 58, 107–113 (2014).
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U. Lotze, H. Lemm, A. Heyer, and K. Müller, “Combined determination of highly sensitive troponin T and copeptin for early exclusion of acute myocardial infarction: first experience in an emergency department of a general hospital,” Vasc. Health Risk Manag. 7, 509–515 (2011).
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D. Threm, Y. Nazirizadeh, and M. Gerken, “Photonic Crystal Biosensors Towards On-Chip Integration,” J. Biophotonics 5(8-9), 601–616 (2012).
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T. Zeller, M. Hughes, T. Tuovinen, A. Schillert, A. Conrads-Frank, H. Ruijter, R. B. Schnabel, F. Kee, V. Salomaa, U. Siebert, B. Thorand, A. Ziegler, H. Breek, G. Pasterkamp, K. Kuulasmaa, W. Koenig, and S. Blankenberg, “BiomarCaRE: rationale and design of the European BiomarCaRE project including 300,000 participants from 13 European countries,” Eur. J. Epidemiol. 29(10), 777–790 (2014).
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F. Wei, P. Patel, W. Liao, K. Chaudhry, L. Zhang, M. Arellano-Garcia, S. Hu, D. Elashoff, H. Zhou, S. Shukla, F. Shah, C.-M. Ho, and D. T. Wong, “Electrochemical Sensor for Multiplex Biomarkers Detection,” Clin. Cancer Res. 15(13), 4446–4452 (2009).
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J. A. Kolberg, T. Jørgensen, R. W. Gerwien, S. Hamren, M. P. McKenna, E. Moler, M. W. Rowe, M. S. Urdea, X. M. Xu, T. Hansen, O. Pedersen, and K. Borch-Johnsen, “Development of a Type 2 Diabetes Risk Model From a Panel of Serum Biomarkers From the Inter99 Cohort,” Diabetes Care 32(7), 1207–1212 (2009).
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Peng, W.

Peterson, R.

B. Zhang, A. W. Morales, R. Peterson, L. Tang, and J. Y. Ye, “Label-free detection of cardiac troponin I with a photonic crystal biosensor,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 58, 107–113 (2014).
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Peterson, R. D.

R. D. Peterson, B. T. Cunningham, and J. E. Andrade, “A photonic crystal biosensor assay for ferritin utilizing iron-oxide nanoparticles,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 56, 320–327 (2014).
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Pisco, M.

Pokhriyal, A.

C.-S. Huang, V. Chaudhery, A. Pokhriyal, S. George, J. Polans, M. Lu, R. Tan, R. C. Zangar, and B. T. Cunningham, “Multiplexed Cancer Biomarker Detection Using Quartz-based Photonic Crystal Surfaces,” Anal. Chem. 84(2), 1126–1133 (2012).
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Polans, J.

C.-S. Huang, V. Chaudhery, A. Pokhriyal, S. George, J. Polans, M. Lu, R. Tan, R. C. Zangar, and B. T. Cunningham, “Multiplexed Cancer Biomarker Detection Using Quartz-based Photonic Crystal Surfaces,” Anal. Chem. 84(2), 1126–1133 (2012).
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Proll, G.

O. Bleher, A. Schindler, M.-X. Yin, A. B. Holmes, P. B. Luppa, G. Gauglitz, and G. Proll, “Development of a new parallelized, optical biosensor platform for label-free detection of autoimmunity-related antibodies,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 406(14), 3305–3314 (2014).
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Reverey, J.

Y. Nazirizadeh, J. Reverey, U. Geyer, U. Lemmer, C. Selhuber-Unkel, and M. Gerken, “Material-based three-dimensional imaging with nanostructured surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(1), 011116 (2013).
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Rohrmann, S.

M. B. Schulze, K. Hoffmann, H. Boeing, J. Linseisen, S. Rohrmann, M. Möhlig, A. F. H. Pfeiffer, J. Spranger, C. Thamer, H.-U. Häring, A. Fritsche, and H.-G. Joost, “An Accurate Risk Score based on Anthropometric, Dietary, and Lifestyle Factors to Predict the Development of Type 2 Diabetes,” Diabetes Care 30(3), 510–515 (2007).
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Römhildt, L.

L. Römhildt, C. Pahlke, F. Zörgiebel, H.-G. Braun, J. Opitz, L. Baraban, and G. Cuniberti, “Patterned Biochemical Functionalization Improves Aptamer-Based Detection of Unlabeled Thrombin in a Sandwich Assay,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 5(22), 12029–12035 (2013).
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Rowe, M. W.

J. A. Kolberg, T. Jørgensen, R. W. Gerwien, S. Hamren, M. P. McKenna, E. Moler, M. W. Rowe, M. S. Urdea, X. M. Xu, T. Hansen, O. Pedersen, and K. Borch-Johnsen, “Development of a Type 2 Diabetes Risk Model From a Panel of Serum Biomarkers From the Inter99 Cohort,” Diabetes Care 32(7), 1207–1212 (2009).
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T. Zeller, M. Hughes, T. Tuovinen, A. Schillert, A. Conrads-Frank, H. Ruijter, R. B. Schnabel, F. Kee, V. Salomaa, U. Siebert, B. Thorand, A. Ziegler, H. Breek, G. Pasterkamp, K. Kuulasmaa, W. Koenig, and S. Blankenberg, “BiomarCaRE: rationale and design of the European BiomarCaRE project including 300,000 participants from 13 European countries,” Eur. J. Epidemiol. 29(10), 777–790 (2014).
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T. Zeller, M. Hughes, T. Tuovinen, A. Schillert, A. Conrads-Frank, H. Ruijter, R. B. Schnabel, F. Kee, V. Salomaa, U. Siebert, B. Thorand, A. Ziegler, H. Breek, G. Pasterkamp, K. Kuulasmaa, W. Koenig, and S. Blankenberg, “BiomarCaRE: rationale and design of the European BiomarCaRE project including 300,000 participants from 13 European countries,” Eur. J. Epidemiol. 29(10), 777–790 (2014).
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T. Zeller, M. Hughes, T. Tuovinen, A. Schillert, A. Conrads-Frank, H. Ruijter, R. B. Schnabel, F. Kee, V. Salomaa, U. Siebert, B. Thorand, A. Ziegler, H. Breek, G. Pasterkamp, K. Kuulasmaa, W. Koenig, and S. Blankenberg, “BiomarCaRE: rationale and design of the European BiomarCaRE project including 300,000 participants from 13 European countries,” Eur. J. Epidemiol. 29(10), 777–790 (2014).
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Schindler, A.

O. Bleher, A. Schindler, M.-X. Yin, A. B. Holmes, P. B. Luppa, G. Gauglitz, and G. Proll, “Development of a new parallelized, optical biosensor platform for label-free detection of autoimmunity-related antibodies,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 406(14), 3305–3314 (2014).
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T. Zeller, M. Hughes, T. Tuovinen, A. Schillert, A. Conrads-Frank, H. Ruijter, R. B. Schnabel, F. Kee, V. Salomaa, U. Siebert, B. Thorand, A. Ziegler, H. Breek, G. Pasterkamp, K. Kuulasmaa, W. Koenig, and S. Blankenberg, “BiomarCaRE: rationale and design of the European BiomarCaRE project including 300,000 participants from 13 European countries,” Eur. J. Epidemiol. 29(10), 777–790 (2014).
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M. B. Schulze, K. Hoffmann, H. Boeing, J. Linseisen, S. Rohrmann, M. Möhlig, A. F. H. Pfeiffer, J. Spranger, C. Thamer, H.-U. Häring, A. Fritsche, and H.-G. Joost, “An Accurate Risk Score based on Anthropometric, Dietary, and Lifestyle Factors to Predict the Development of Type 2 Diabetes,” Diabetes Care 30(3), 510–515 (2007).
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H.-M. Haake, A. Schütz, and G. Gauglitz, “Label-free detection of biomolecular interaction by optical sensors,” Fresenius J. Anal. Chem. 366(6-7), 576–585 (2000).
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Selhuber-Unkel, C.

Y. Nazirizadeh, J. Reverey, U. Geyer, U. Lemmer, C. Selhuber-Unkel, and M. Gerken, “Material-based three-dimensional imaging with nanostructured surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(1), 011116 (2013).
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Shah, F.

F. Wei, P. Patel, W. Liao, K. Chaudhry, L. Zhang, M. Arellano-Garcia, S. Hu, D. Elashoff, H. Zhou, S. Shukla, F. Shah, C.-M. Ho, and D. T. Wong, “Electrochemical Sensor for Multiplex Biomarkers Detection,” Clin. Cancer Res. 15(13), 4446–4452 (2009).
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Shopova, S. I.

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: A review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 620(1-2), 8–26 (2008).
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F. Wei, P. Patel, W. Liao, K. Chaudhry, L. Zhang, M. Arellano-Garcia, S. Hu, D. Elashoff, H. Zhou, S. Shukla, F. Shah, C.-M. Ho, and D. T. Wong, “Electrochemical Sensor for Multiplex Biomarkers Detection,” Clin. Cancer Res. 15(13), 4446–4452 (2009).
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T. Zeller, M. Hughes, T. Tuovinen, A. Schillert, A. Conrads-Frank, H. Ruijter, R. B. Schnabel, F. Kee, V. Salomaa, U. Siebert, B. Thorand, A. Ziegler, H. Breek, G. Pasterkamp, K. Kuulasmaa, W. Koenig, and S. Blankenberg, “BiomarCaRE: rationale and design of the European BiomarCaRE project including 300,000 participants from 13 European countries,” Eur. J. Epidemiol. 29(10), 777–790 (2014).
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Singamaneni, S.

Y. Zhuo, H. Hu, W. Chen, M. Lu, L. Tian, H. Yu, K. D. Long, E. Chow, W. P. King, S. Singamaneni, and B. T. Cunningham, “Single nanoparticle detection using photonic crystal enhanced microscopy,” Analyst (Lond.) 139(5), 1007–1015 (2014).
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Song, S.

S. Song, L. Wang, J. Li, J. Zhao, and C. Fan, “Aptamer-based biosensors,” TrAC 27, 107–117 (2008).

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M. B. Schulze, K. Hoffmann, H. Boeing, J. Linseisen, S. Rohrmann, M. Möhlig, A. F. H. Pfeiffer, J. Spranger, C. Thamer, H.-U. Häring, A. Fritsche, and H.-G. Joost, “An Accurate Risk Score based on Anthropometric, Dietary, and Lifestyle Factors to Predict the Development of Type 2 Diabetes,” Diabetes Care 30(3), 510–515 (2007).
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X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: A review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 620(1-2), 8–26 (2008).
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X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: A review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 620(1-2), 8–26 (2008).
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Tan, R.

C.-S. Huang, V. Chaudhery, A. Pokhriyal, S. George, J. Polans, M. Lu, R. Tan, R. C. Zangar, and B. T. Cunningham, “Multiplexed Cancer Biomarker Detection Using Quartz-based Photonic Crystal Surfaces,” Anal. Chem. 84(2), 1126–1133 (2012).
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Tang, L.

B. Zhang, A. W. Morales, R. Peterson, L. Tang, and J. Y. Ye, “Label-free detection of cardiac troponin I with a photonic crystal biosensor,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 58, 107–113 (2014).
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D. M. Tasset, M. F. Kubik, and W. Steiner, “Oligonucleotide inhibitors of human thrombin that bind distinct epitopes,” J. Mol. Biol. 272(5), 688–698 (1997).
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M. B. Schulze, K. Hoffmann, H. Boeing, J. Linseisen, S. Rohrmann, M. Möhlig, A. F. H. Pfeiffer, J. Spranger, C. Thamer, H.-U. Häring, A. Fritsche, and H.-G. Joost, “An Accurate Risk Score based on Anthropometric, Dietary, and Lifestyle Factors to Predict the Development of Type 2 Diabetes,” Diabetes Care 30(3), 510–515 (2007).
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Thorand, B.

T. Zeller, M. Hughes, T. Tuovinen, A. Schillert, A. Conrads-Frank, H. Ruijter, R. B. Schnabel, F. Kee, V. Salomaa, U. Siebert, B. Thorand, A. Ziegler, H. Breek, G. Pasterkamp, K. Kuulasmaa, W. Koenig, and S. Blankenberg, “BiomarCaRE: rationale and design of the European BiomarCaRE project including 300,000 participants from 13 European countries,” Eur. J. Epidemiol. 29(10), 777–790 (2014).
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Threm, D.

D. Threm, Y. Nazirizadeh, and M. Gerken, “Photonic Crystal Biosensors Towards On-Chip Integration,” J. Biophotonics 5(8-9), 601–616 (2012).
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Tian, L.

Y. Zhuo, H. Hu, W. Chen, M. Lu, L. Tian, H. Yu, K. D. Long, E. Chow, W. P. King, S. Singamaneni, and B. T. Cunningham, “Single nanoparticle detection using photonic crystal enhanced microscopy,” Analyst (Lond.) 139(5), 1007–1015 (2014).
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Tokarski, G.

J. McCord, R. M. Nowak, P. A. McCullough, C. Foreback, S. Borzak, G. Tokarski, M. C. Tomlanovich, G. Jacobsen, and W. D. Weaver, “Ninety-Minute Exclusion of Acute Myocardial Infarction By Use of Quantitative Point-of-Care Testing of Myoglobin and Troponin I,” Circulation 104(13), 1483–1488 (2001).
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Tomlanovich, M. C.

J. McCord, R. M. Nowak, P. A. McCullough, C. Foreback, S. Borzak, G. Tokarski, M. C. Tomlanovich, G. Jacobsen, and W. D. Weaver, “Ninety-Minute Exclusion of Acute Myocardial Infarction By Use of Quantitative Point-of-Care Testing of Myoglobin and Troponin I,” Circulation 104(13), 1483–1488 (2001).
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Tuovinen, T.

T. Zeller, M. Hughes, T. Tuovinen, A. Schillert, A. Conrads-Frank, H. Ruijter, R. B. Schnabel, F. Kee, V. Salomaa, U. Siebert, B. Thorand, A. Ziegler, H. Breek, G. Pasterkamp, K. Kuulasmaa, W. Koenig, and S. Blankenberg, “BiomarCaRE: rationale and design of the European BiomarCaRE project including 300,000 participants from 13 European countries,” Eur. J. Epidemiol. 29(10), 777–790 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Urdea, M. S.

J. A. Kolberg, T. Jørgensen, R. W. Gerwien, S. Hamren, M. P. McKenna, E. Moler, M. W. Rowe, M. S. Urdea, X. M. Xu, T. Hansen, O. Pedersen, and K. Borch-Johnsen, “Development of a Type 2 Diabetes Risk Model From a Panel of Serum Biomarkers From the Inter99 Cohort,” Diabetes Care 32(7), 1207–1212 (2009).
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Wang, C. L.

C. L. Wang and M. Olivo, “Surface Plasmon Resonance Imaging Sensors: A Review,” Plasmonics 9(4), 809–824 (2014).
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Wang, H.

Wang, L.

S. Song, L. Wang, J. Li, J. Zhao, and C. Fan, “Aptamer-based biosensors,” TrAC 27, 107–117 (2008).

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J. McCord, R. M. Nowak, P. A. McCullough, C. Foreback, S. Borzak, G. Tokarski, M. C. Tomlanovich, G. Jacobsen, and W. D. Weaver, “Ninety-Minute Exclusion of Acute Myocardial Infarction By Use of Quantitative Point-of-Care Testing of Myoglobin and Troponin I,” Circulation 104(13), 1483–1488 (2001).
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Wei, F.

F. Wei, P. Patel, W. Liao, K. Chaudhry, L. Zhang, M. Arellano-Garcia, S. Hu, D. Elashoff, H. Zhou, S. Shukla, F. Shah, C.-M. Ho, and D. T. Wong, “Electrochemical Sensor for Multiplex Biomarkers Detection,” Clin. Cancer Res. 15(13), 4446–4452 (2009).
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White, I. M.

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: A review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 620(1-2), 8–26 (2008).
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F. Wei, P. Patel, W. Liao, K. Chaudhry, L. Zhang, M. Arellano-Garcia, S. Hu, D. Elashoff, H. Zhou, S. Shukla, F. Shah, C.-M. Ho, and D. T. Wong, “Electrochemical Sensor for Multiplex Biomarkers Detection,” Clin. Cancer Res. 15(13), 4446–4452 (2009).
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J. A. Kolberg, T. Jørgensen, R. W. Gerwien, S. Hamren, M. P. McKenna, E. Moler, M. W. Rowe, M. S. Urdea, X. M. Xu, T. Hansen, O. Pedersen, and K. Borch-Johnsen, “Development of a Type 2 Diabetes Risk Model From a Panel of Serum Biomarkers From the Inter99 Cohort,” Diabetes Care 32(7), 1207–1212 (2009).
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Yang, T.-H.

S.-F. Lin, T.-J. Ding, J.-T. Liu, C.-C. Lee, T.-H. Yang, W.-Y. Chen, and J.-Y. Chang, “A Guided Mode Resonance Aptasensor for Thrombin Detection,” Sensors (Basel) 11(12), 8953–8965 (2011).
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Ye, J. Y.

B. Zhang, A. W. Morales, R. Peterson, L. Tang, and J. Y. Ye, “Label-free detection of cardiac troponin I with a photonic crystal biosensor,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 58, 107–113 (2014).
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Yin, M.-X.

O. Bleher, A. Schindler, M.-X. Yin, A. B. Holmes, P. B. Luppa, G. Gauglitz, and G. Proll, “Development of a new parallelized, optical biosensor platform for label-free detection of autoimmunity-related antibodies,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 406(14), 3305–3314 (2014).
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Yu, H.

Y. Zhuo, H. Hu, W. Chen, M. Lu, L. Tian, H. Yu, K. D. Long, E. Chow, W. P. King, S. Singamaneni, and B. T. Cunningham, “Single nanoparticle detection using photonic crystal enhanced microscopy,” Analyst (Lond.) 139(5), 1007–1015 (2014).
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D. Gallegos, K. D. Long, H. Yu, P. P. Clark, Y. Lin, S. George, P. Nath, and B. T. Cunningham, “Label-free biodetection using a smartphone,” Lab Chip 13(11), 2124–2132 (2013).
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Zeller, T.

T. Zeller, M. Hughes, T. Tuovinen, A. Schillert, A. Conrads-Frank, H. Ruijter, R. B. Schnabel, F. Kee, V. Salomaa, U. Siebert, B. Thorand, A. Ziegler, H. Breek, G. Pasterkamp, K. Kuulasmaa, W. Koenig, and S. Blankenberg, “BiomarCaRE: rationale and design of the European BiomarCaRE project including 300,000 participants from 13 European countries,” Eur. J. Epidemiol. 29(10), 777–790 (2014).
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B. Zhang, A. W. Morales, R. Peterson, L. Tang, and J. Y. Ye, “Label-free detection of cardiac troponin I with a photonic crystal biosensor,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 58, 107–113 (2014).
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Zhang, L.

F. Wei, P. Patel, W. Liao, K. Chaudhry, L. Zhang, M. Arellano-Garcia, S. Hu, D. Elashoff, H. Zhou, S. Shukla, F. Shah, C.-M. Ho, and D. T. Wong, “Electrochemical Sensor for Multiplex Biomarkers Detection,” Clin. Cancer Res. 15(13), 4446–4452 (2009).
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F. Wei, P. Patel, W. Liao, K. Chaudhry, L. Zhang, M. Arellano-Garcia, S. Hu, D. Elashoff, H. Zhou, S. Shukla, F. Shah, C.-M. Ho, and D. T. Wong, “Electrochemical Sensor for Multiplex Biomarkers Detection,” Clin. Cancer Res. 15(13), 4446–4452 (2009).
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Zhu, H.

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: A review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 620(1-2), 8–26 (2008).
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Zhuo, Y.

Y. Zhuo, H. Hu, W. Chen, M. Lu, L. Tian, H. Yu, K. D. Long, E. Chow, W. P. King, S. Singamaneni, and B. T. Cunningham, “Single nanoparticle detection using photonic crystal enhanced microscopy,” Analyst (Lond.) 139(5), 1007–1015 (2014).
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Ziegler, A.

T. Zeller, M. Hughes, T. Tuovinen, A. Schillert, A. Conrads-Frank, H. Ruijter, R. B. Schnabel, F. Kee, V. Salomaa, U. Siebert, B. Thorand, A. Ziegler, H. Breek, G. Pasterkamp, K. Kuulasmaa, W. Koenig, and S. Blankenberg, “BiomarCaRE: rationale and design of the European BiomarCaRE project including 300,000 participants from 13 European countries,” Eur. J. Epidemiol. 29(10), 777–790 (2014).
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L. Römhildt, C. Pahlke, F. Zörgiebel, H.-G. Braun, J. Opitz, L. Baraban, and G. Cuniberti, “Patterned Biochemical Functionalization Improves Aptamer-Based Detection of Unlabeled Thrombin in a Sandwich Assay,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 5(22), 12029–12035 (2013).
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ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces (1)

L. Römhildt, C. Pahlke, F. Zörgiebel, H.-G. Braun, J. Opitz, L. Baraban, and G. Cuniberti, “Patterned Biochemical Functionalization Improves Aptamer-Based Detection of Unlabeled Thrombin in a Sandwich Assay,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 5(22), 12029–12035 (2013).
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H. Nakamura and I. Karube, “Current research activity in biosensors,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 377(3), 446–468 (2003).
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O. Bleher, A. Schindler, M.-X. Yin, A. B. Holmes, P. B. Luppa, G. Gauglitz, and G. Proll, “Development of a new parallelized, optical biosensor platform for label-free detection of autoimmunity-related antibodies,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 406(14), 3305–3314 (2014).
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Anal. Chem. (1)

C.-S. Huang, V. Chaudhery, A. Pokhriyal, S. George, J. Polans, M. Lu, R. Tan, R. C. Zangar, and B. T. Cunningham, “Multiplexed Cancer Biomarker Detection Using Quartz-based Photonic Crystal Surfaces,” Anal. Chem. 84(2), 1126–1133 (2012).
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Anal. Chim. Acta (1)

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: A review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 620(1-2), 8–26 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Analyst (Lond.) (1)

Y. Zhuo, H. Hu, W. Chen, M. Lu, L. Tian, H. Yu, K. D. Long, E. Chow, W. P. King, S. Singamaneni, and B. T. Cunningham, “Single nanoparticle detection using photonic crystal enhanced microscopy,” Analyst (Lond.) 139(5), 1007–1015 (2014).
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Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

Y. Nazirizadeh, J. Reverey, U. Geyer, U. Lemmer, C. Selhuber-Unkel, and M. Gerken, “Material-based three-dimensional imaging with nanostructured surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(1), 011116 (2013).
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Biosens. Bioelectron. (4)

P. Kozma, F. Kehl, E. Ehrentreich-Förster, C. Stamm, and F. F. Bier, “Integrated planar optical waveguide interferometer biosensors: a comparative review,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 58, 287–307 (2014).
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B. Zhang, A. W. Morales, R. Peterson, L. Tang, and J. Y. Ye, “Label-free detection of cardiac troponin I with a photonic crystal biosensor,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 58, 107–113 (2014).
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R. Bruck, E. Melnik, P. Muellner, R. Hainberger, and M. Lämmerhofer, “Integrated polymer-based Mach-Zehnder interferometer label-free streptavidin biosensor compatible with injection molding,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 26(9), 3832–3837 (2011).
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R. D. Peterson, B. T. Cunningham, and J. E. Andrade, “A photonic crystal biosensor assay for ferritin utilizing iron-oxide nanoparticles,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 56, 320–327 (2014).
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BMC Med. (1)

D. Chan and L. L. Ng, “Biomarkers in acute myocardial infarction,” BMC Med. 8(1), 34 (2010).
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Circulation (1)

J. McCord, R. M. Nowak, P. A. McCullough, C. Foreback, S. Borzak, G. Tokarski, M. C. Tomlanovich, G. Jacobsen, and W. D. Weaver, “Ninety-Minute Exclusion of Acute Myocardial Infarction By Use of Quantitative Point-of-Care Testing of Myoglobin and Troponin I,” Circulation 104(13), 1483–1488 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Clin. Cancer Res. (1)

F. Wei, P. Patel, W. Liao, K. Chaudhry, L. Zhang, M. Arellano-Garcia, S. Hu, D. Elashoff, H. Zhou, S. Shukla, F. Shah, C.-M. Ho, and D. T. Wong, “Electrochemical Sensor for Multiplex Biomarkers Detection,” Clin. Cancer Res. 15(13), 4446–4452 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Diabetes Care (2)

M. B. Schulze, K. Hoffmann, H. Boeing, J. Linseisen, S. Rohrmann, M. Möhlig, A. F. H. Pfeiffer, J. Spranger, C. Thamer, H.-U. Häring, A. Fritsche, and H.-G. Joost, “An Accurate Risk Score based on Anthropometric, Dietary, and Lifestyle Factors to Predict the Development of Type 2 Diabetes,” Diabetes Care 30(3), 510–515 (2007).
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J. A. Kolberg, T. Jørgensen, R. W. Gerwien, S. Hamren, M. P. McKenna, E. Moler, M. W. Rowe, M. S. Urdea, X. M. Xu, T. Hansen, O. Pedersen, and K. Borch-Johnsen, “Development of a Type 2 Diabetes Risk Model From a Panel of Serum Biomarkers From the Inter99 Cohort,” Diabetes Care 32(7), 1207–1212 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eur. J. Epidemiol. (1)

T. Zeller, M. Hughes, T. Tuovinen, A. Schillert, A. Conrads-Frank, H. Ruijter, R. B. Schnabel, F. Kee, V. Salomaa, U. Siebert, B. Thorand, A. Ziegler, H. Breek, G. Pasterkamp, K. Kuulasmaa, W. Koenig, and S. Blankenberg, “BiomarCaRE: rationale and design of the European BiomarCaRE project including 300,000 participants from 13 European countries,” Eur. J. Epidemiol. 29(10), 777–790 (2014).
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Fresenius J. Anal. Chem. (1)

H.-M. Haake, A. Schütz, and G. Gauglitz, “Label-free detection of biomolecular interaction by optical sensors,” Fresenius J. Anal. Chem. 366(6-7), 576–585 (2000).
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IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

H. K. Hunt and A. M. Armani, “Bioconjugation Strategies for Label-Free Optical Microcavity Sensors,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(2), 6900213 (2014).
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J. Biophotonics (1)

D. Threm, Y. Nazirizadeh, and M. Gerken, “Photonic Crystal Biosensors Towards On-Chip Integration,” J. Biophotonics 5(8-9), 601–616 (2012).
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J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1)

C. A. Meier, E. Bobbioni, C. Gabay, F. Assimacopoulos-Jeannet, A. Golay, and J.-M. Dayer, “IL-1 Receptor Antagonist Serum Levels Are Increased in Human Obesity: A Possible Link to the Resistance to Leptin?” J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 87(3), 1184–1188 (2002).
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D. M. Tasset, M. F. Kubik, and W. Steiner, “Oligonucleotide inhibitors of human thrombin that bind distinct epitopes,” J. Mol. Biol. 272(5), 688–698 (1997).
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Lab Chip (1)

D. Gallegos, K. D. Long, H. Yu, P. P. Clark, Y. Lin, S. George, P. Nath, and B. T. Cunningham, “Label-free biodetection using a smartphone,” Lab Chip 13(11), 2124–2132 (2013).
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Light Sci. Appl. (1)

A. E. Cetin, A. F. Coskun, B. C. Galarreta, M. Huang, D. Herman, A. Ozcan, and H. Altug, “Handheld high-throughput plasmonic biosensor using computational on-chip imaging,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(1), e122 (2014).
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Opt. Express (4)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

S. Fan and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Analysis of guided resonances in photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev. B 65(23), 235112 (2002).
[Crossref]

Plasmonics (1)

C. L. Wang and M. Olivo, “Surface Plasmon Resonance Imaging Sensors: A Review,” Plasmonics 9(4), 809–824 (2014).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (1)

G. Y. Song, W. J. Kim, H. Ko, B. K. Kim, K. H. Kim, C. Huh, and J. Hong, “Portable Guided-Mode Resonance Biosensor Platform for Point-of-care Testing,” Proc. SPIE 84600, 84600F (2012).

Sensors (Basel) (1)

S.-F. Lin, T.-J. Ding, J.-T. Liu, C.-C. Lee, T.-H. Yang, W.-Y. Chen, and J.-Y. Chang, “A Guided Mode Resonance Aptasensor for Thrombin Detection,” Sensors (Basel) 11(12), 8953–8965 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

TrAC (1)

S. Song, L. Wang, J. Li, J. Zhao, and C. Fan, “Aptamer-based biosensors,” TrAC 27, 107–117 (2008).

Vasc. Health Risk Manag. (1)

U. Lotze, H. Lemm, A. Heyer, and K. Müller, “Combined determination of highly sensitive troponin T and copeptin for early exclusion of acute myocardial infarction: first experience in an emergency department of a general hospital,” Vasc. Health Risk Manag. 7, 509–515 (2011).
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Other (1)

S. Jahns, P. Glorius, M. Hansen, Y. Nazirizadeh, and M. Gerken, “Imaging label-free biosensor with microfluidic system,”Bio-MEMS and Medical Devices II Proc. of SPIE 9518 (2015).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Vision of a disposable microfluidic test chip for label-free and parallel detection of multiple biomarkers with a compact optical imaging system. (a) Schematic of photonic crystal slab (PCS). Incident light is coupled into quasi-guided modes and scattered light is observed as guided mode resonances (GMRs) in transmission and reflection. (b) GMRs in the transmission spectrum experience a change in wavelength Δλ for a refractive index change Δn due to biomarker binding. They also incur a reduction of quality factor Q and maximum intensity. With a wavelength-dependent optical system response, this is translated into a peak intensity change ΔIpeak and thus an integrated intensity change ΔI on the camera. (c) Schematic of microfluidic chip with nanostructured and spot-wise functionalized sensor field. (d) Schematic of intensity signals at different positions for biomarker binding. In this publication, the fabrication and functionalization of the sensor surface, the camera measurement setup and the evaluation algorithms, as well as measurements of time-resolved multiplexed binding of different biomarkers are presented. The microfluidic chip is described in [26].

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Photonic crystal fabrication steps. For transferring the linear grating from a PDMS stamp onto a glass substrate UV soft nanoimprint lithography is used and subsequently a 70-nm titanium dioxide layer is deposited on top by reactive sputtering.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

a) Schematic of the resulting molecules after each functionalization step. b) Evaluation of local functionalization by spotting fluorescence dye ATTO594 modified with amine on sensor surface instead of ligand. Resulting fluorescence photographs are shown.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

a) Schematic of imaging read-out system. The darker (red) light cones symbolize a reduced intensity on the camera compared to the brighter (orange) background. b) Computer aided 3D design of the photometric read-out system. c) LED spectrum, camera sensitivity, product of LED spectrum and camera sensitivity, and PCS spectrum with crossed polarization filters. d) Photograph of photometric read-out system with camera, LED, and optics within the metallic torso, the fluid cell with the biosensor, the butterfly cannula for in and outlet and the USB-interface.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Refractometric measurement with analyte change from distilled water to 20% isopropanol and 80% distilled water. The median of the intensity values over the entire image and thus over the sensor is calculated and the resulting values normalized to the first value are plotted over time

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

a) False-color difference intensity map obtained by element-wise subtraction of the first intensity image matrix from the last one. The three measurement fields and one reference field are marked by red dashed rectangles. b) The median of the intensity over all positions within the equivalent fields is calculated and the resulting values normalized to the first value are plotted against the image number, which correlates to measurement time.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

a) Raw false-color image of the sensor surface with the corresponding distribution of the transmitted light and the markers for the measurement fields. b) The same intensity image with the estimated background obtained by interpolating the surrounding areas. c) After drift compensation the median intensity over all intensity matrix elements within the measurement fields is calculated and the normalized intensities are plotted against the number of images correlated to the time.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

The association of first 90.0 nM CD40 ligand antibodies (150 kDa), second 90.0 nM EGF antibodies (150 kDa) and third 500 nM streptavidin (60 kDa) all dissolved in DPBS is observed in the normalized intensities of the transmitted light, while no unspecific binding events are visible in the signal sequence.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

The association, dissociation, and regeneration of 250 nM thrombin (36.7 kDa) dissolved in tris-HCl-buffer (pH 7.4) can be observed in the normalized intensities of the transmitted light. The signal amplitude for the shorter ligand is higher than the one for a longer ligand.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Bar diagram reflecting the median and the standard deviation over all resulting signal amplitudes for each protein detection performed with the handheld, spectrometer-free biosensor. In the statistics 12 data sets are included for 250 nM streptavidin, 3 data sets for 500 nM streptavidin, data sets for CD40L, 5 data sets for Anti-EGF, 8 data sets for Thrombin (1 Spacer), and 2 data sets for Thrombin (2 Spacer).

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