Abstract

Second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy is employed to study changes in crystalline organization due to altered gene expression and hydration in barley starch granules. SHG intensity and susceptibility ratio values (R’SHG) are obtained using reduced Stokes-Mueller polarimetric microscopy. The maximum R’SHG values occur at moderate moisture indicating the narrowest orientation distribution of nonlinear dipoles from the cylindrical axis of glucan helices. The maximum SHG intensity occurs at the highest moisture and amylopectin content. These results support the hypothesis that SHG is caused by ordered hydrogen and hydroxyl bond networks which increase with hydration of starch granules.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. E. Tuer, M. K. Akens, S. Krouglov, D. Sandkuijl, B. C. Wilson, C. M. Whyne, and V. Barzda, “Hierarchical model of fibrillar collagen organization for interpreting the second-order susceptibility tensors in biological tissue,” Biophys. J. 103(10), 2093–2105 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. S. W. Chu, S. Y. Chen, G. W. Chern, T. H. Tsai, Y. C. Chen, B. L. Lin, and C. K. Sun, “Studies of χ(2)/χ(3) tensors in submicron-scaled bio-tissues by polarization harmonics optical microscopy,” Biophys. J. 86(6), 3914–3922 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. D. Tokarz, R. Cisek, S. Krouglov, L. Kontenis, U. Fekl, and V. Barzda, “Molecular organization of crystalline β-carotene in carrots determined with polarization-dependent second and third harmonic generation microscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B 118(14), 3814–3822 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. S. Psilodimitrakopoulos, I. Amat-Roldan, P. Loza-Alvarez, and D. Artigas, “Effect of molecular organization on the image histograms of polarization SHG microscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(10), 2681–2693 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. A. Buléon, P. Colonna, V. Planchot, and S. Ball, “Starch granules: Structure and biosynthesis,” Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 23(2), 85–112 (1998).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. J. Blazek and E. P. Gilbert, “Application of small-angle x-ray and neutron scattering techniques to the characterisation of starch structure: A review,” Carbohydr. Polym. 85(2), 281–293 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  7. Z. Y. Zhuo, C. S. Liao, C. H. Huang, J. Y. Yu, Y. Y. Tzeng, W. Lo, C. Y. Dong, H. C. Chui, Y. C. Huang, H. M. Lai, and S. W. Chu, “Second harmonic generation imaging - a new method for unraveling molecular information of starch,” J. Struct. Biol. 171(1), 88–94 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. R. Cisek, D. Tokarz, S. Krouglov, M. Steup, M. J. Emes, I. J. Tetlow, and V. Barzda, “Second harmonic generation mediated by aligned water in starch granules,” J. Phys. Chem. B 118(51), 14785–14794 (2014).
    [PubMed]
  9. M. Carciofi, A. Blennow, S. L. Jensen, S. S. Shaik, A. Henriksen, A. Buléon, P. B. Holm, and K. H. Hebelstrup, “Concerted suppression of all starch branching enzyme genes in barley produces amylose-only starch granules,” BMC Plant Biol. 12(223), 223 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. R. Carriles, D. N. Schafer, K. E. Sheetz, J. J. Field, R. Cisek, V. Barzda, A. W. Sylvester, and J. A. Squier, “Invited review article: Imaging techniques for harmonic and multiphoton absorption fluorescence microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80(8), 081101 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. A. Major, R. Cisek, D. Sandkuijl, and V. Barzda, “Femtosecond Yb:KGd(WO4)2 laser with > 100 nJ of pulse energy,” Laser Phys. Lett. 6(4), 272–274 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  12. M. Samim, S. Krouglov, and V. Barzda, “Double stokes mueller polarimetry of second-harmonic generation in ordered molecular structures,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 32(3), 451–461 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  13. A. E. Tuer, S. Krouglov, N. Prent, R. Cisek, D. Sandkuijl, K. Yasufuku, B. C. Wilson, and V. Barzda, “Nonlinear optical properties of type I collagen fibers studied by polarization dependent second harmonic generation microscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B 115(44), 12759–12769 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. T. Y. Bogracheva, Y. L. Wang, and C. L. Hedley, “The effect of water content on the ordered/disordered structures in starches,” Biopolymers 58(3), 247–259 (2001).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. A. M. Donald, K. L. Kato, P. A. Perry, and T. A. Waigh, “Scattering studies of the internal structure of starch granules,” Starke 53(10), 504–512 (2001).
    [Crossref]

2015 (1)

2014 (2)

D. Tokarz, R. Cisek, S. Krouglov, L. Kontenis, U. Fekl, and V. Barzda, “Molecular organization of crystalline β-carotene in carrots determined with polarization-dependent second and third harmonic generation microscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B 118(14), 3814–3822 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Cisek, D. Tokarz, S. Krouglov, M. Steup, M. J. Emes, I. J. Tetlow, and V. Barzda, “Second harmonic generation mediated by aligned water in starch granules,” J. Phys. Chem. B 118(51), 14785–14794 (2014).
[PubMed]

2012 (3)

M. Carciofi, A. Blennow, S. L. Jensen, S. S. Shaik, A. Henriksen, A. Buléon, P. B. Holm, and K. H. Hebelstrup, “Concerted suppression of all starch branching enzyme genes in barley produces amylose-only starch granules,” BMC Plant Biol. 12(223), 223 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. E. Tuer, M. K. Akens, S. Krouglov, D. Sandkuijl, B. C. Wilson, C. M. Whyne, and V. Barzda, “Hierarchical model of fibrillar collagen organization for interpreting the second-order susceptibility tensors in biological tissue,” Biophys. J. 103(10), 2093–2105 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Psilodimitrakopoulos, I. Amat-Roldan, P. Loza-Alvarez, and D. Artigas, “Effect of molecular organization on the image histograms of polarization SHG microscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(10), 2681–2693 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

A. E. Tuer, S. Krouglov, N. Prent, R. Cisek, D. Sandkuijl, K. Yasufuku, B. C. Wilson, and V. Barzda, “Nonlinear optical properties of type I collagen fibers studied by polarization dependent second harmonic generation microscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B 115(44), 12759–12769 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Blazek and E. P. Gilbert, “Application of small-angle x-ray and neutron scattering techniques to the characterisation of starch structure: A review,” Carbohydr. Polym. 85(2), 281–293 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

Z. Y. Zhuo, C. S. Liao, C. H. Huang, J. Y. Yu, Y. Y. Tzeng, W. Lo, C. Y. Dong, H. C. Chui, Y. C. Huang, H. M. Lai, and S. W. Chu, “Second harmonic generation imaging - a new method for unraveling molecular information of starch,” J. Struct. Biol. 171(1), 88–94 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

R. Carriles, D. N. Schafer, K. E. Sheetz, J. J. Field, R. Cisek, V. Barzda, A. W. Sylvester, and J. A. Squier, “Invited review article: Imaging techniques for harmonic and multiphoton absorption fluorescence microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80(8), 081101 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Major, R. Cisek, D. Sandkuijl, and V. Barzda, “Femtosecond Yb:KGd(WO4)2 laser with > 100 nJ of pulse energy,” Laser Phys. Lett. 6(4), 272–274 (2009).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

S. W. Chu, S. Y. Chen, G. W. Chern, T. H. Tsai, Y. C. Chen, B. L. Lin, and C. K. Sun, “Studies of χ(2)/χ(3) tensors in submicron-scaled bio-tissues by polarization harmonics optical microscopy,” Biophys. J. 86(6), 3914–3922 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (2)

T. Y. Bogracheva, Y. L. Wang, and C. L. Hedley, “The effect of water content on the ordered/disordered structures in starches,” Biopolymers 58(3), 247–259 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. M. Donald, K. L. Kato, P. A. Perry, and T. A. Waigh, “Scattering studies of the internal structure of starch granules,” Starke 53(10), 504–512 (2001).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

A. Buléon, P. Colonna, V. Planchot, and S. Ball, “Starch granules: Structure and biosynthesis,” Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 23(2), 85–112 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Akens, M. K.

A. E. Tuer, M. K. Akens, S. Krouglov, D. Sandkuijl, B. C. Wilson, C. M. Whyne, and V. Barzda, “Hierarchical model of fibrillar collagen organization for interpreting the second-order susceptibility tensors in biological tissue,” Biophys. J. 103(10), 2093–2105 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Amat-Roldan, I.

Artigas, D.

Ball, S.

A. Buléon, P. Colonna, V. Planchot, and S. Ball, “Starch granules: Structure and biosynthesis,” Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 23(2), 85–112 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barzda, V.

M. Samim, S. Krouglov, and V. Barzda, “Double stokes mueller polarimetry of second-harmonic generation in ordered molecular structures,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 32(3), 451–461 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Tokarz, R. Cisek, S. Krouglov, L. Kontenis, U. Fekl, and V. Barzda, “Molecular organization of crystalline β-carotene in carrots determined with polarization-dependent second and third harmonic generation microscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B 118(14), 3814–3822 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Cisek, D. Tokarz, S. Krouglov, M. Steup, M. J. Emes, I. J. Tetlow, and V. Barzda, “Second harmonic generation mediated by aligned water in starch granules,” J. Phys. Chem. B 118(51), 14785–14794 (2014).
[PubMed]

A. E. Tuer, M. K. Akens, S. Krouglov, D. Sandkuijl, B. C. Wilson, C. M. Whyne, and V. Barzda, “Hierarchical model of fibrillar collagen organization for interpreting the second-order susceptibility tensors in biological tissue,” Biophys. J. 103(10), 2093–2105 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. E. Tuer, S. Krouglov, N. Prent, R. Cisek, D. Sandkuijl, K. Yasufuku, B. C. Wilson, and V. Barzda, “Nonlinear optical properties of type I collagen fibers studied by polarization dependent second harmonic generation microscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B 115(44), 12759–12769 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Carriles, D. N. Schafer, K. E. Sheetz, J. J. Field, R. Cisek, V. Barzda, A. W. Sylvester, and J. A. Squier, “Invited review article: Imaging techniques for harmonic and multiphoton absorption fluorescence microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80(8), 081101 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Major, R. Cisek, D. Sandkuijl, and V. Barzda, “Femtosecond Yb:KGd(WO4)2 laser with > 100 nJ of pulse energy,” Laser Phys. Lett. 6(4), 272–274 (2009).
[Crossref]

Blazek, J.

J. Blazek and E. P. Gilbert, “Application of small-angle x-ray and neutron scattering techniques to the characterisation of starch structure: A review,” Carbohydr. Polym. 85(2), 281–293 (2011).
[Crossref]

Blennow, A.

M. Carciofi, A. Blennow, S. L. Jensen, S. S. Shaik, A. Henriksen, A. Buléon, P. B. Holm, and K. H. Hebelstrup, “Concerted suppression of all starch branching enzyme genes in barley produces amylose-only starch granules,” BMC Plant Biol. 12(223), 223 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bogracheva, T. Y.

T. Y. Bogracheva, Y. L. Wang, and C. L. Hedley, “The effect of water content on the ordered/disordered structures in starches,” Biopolymers 58(3), 247–259 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Buléon, A.

M. Carciofi, A. Blennow, S. L. Jensen, S. S. Shaik, A. Henriksen, A. Buléon, P. B. Holm, and K. H. Hebelstrup, “Concerted suppression of all starch branching enzyme genes in barley produces amylose-only starch granules,” BMC Plant Biol. 12(223), 223 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Buléon, P. Colonna, V. Planchot, and S. Ball, “Starch granules: Structure and biosynthesis,” Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 23(2), 85–112 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Carciofi, M.

M. Carciofi, A. Blennow, S. L. Jensen, S. S. Shaik, A. Henriksen, A. Buléon, P. B. Holm, and K. H. Hebelstrup, “Concerted suppression of all starch branching enzyme genes in barley produces amylose-only starch granules,” BMC Plant Biol. 12(223), 223 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Carriles, R.

R. Carriles, D. N. Schafer, K. E. Sheetz, J. J. Field, R. Cisek, V. Barzda, A. W. Sylvester, and J. A. Squier, “Invited review article: Imaging techniques for harmonic and multiphoton absorption fluorescence microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80(8), 081101 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, S. Y.

S. W. Chu, S. Y. Chen, G. W. Chern, T. H. Tsai, Y. C. Chen, B. L. Lin, and C. K. Sun, “Studies of χ(2)/χ(3) tensors in submicron-scaled bio-tissues by polarization harmonics optical microscopy,” Biophys. J. 86(6), 3914–3922 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Y. C.

S. W. Chu, S. Y. Chen, G. W. Chern, T. H. Tsai, Y. C. Chen, B. L. Lin, and C. K. Sun, “Studies of χ(2)/χ(3) tensors in submicron-scaled bio-tissues by polarization harmonics optical microscopy,” Biophys. J. 86(6), 3914–3922 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chern, G. W.

S. W. Chu, S. Y. Chen, G. W. Chern, T. H. Tsai, Y. C. Chen, B. L. Lin, and C. K. Sun, “Studies of χ(2)/χ(3) tensors in submicron-scaled bio-tissues by polarization harmonics optical microscopy,” Biophys. J. 86(6), 3914–3922 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chu, S. W.

Z. Y. Zhuo, C. S. Liao, C. H. Huang, J. Y. Yu, Y. Y. Tzeng, W. Lo, C. Y. Dong, H. C. Chui, Y. C. Huang, H. M. Lai, and S. W. Chu, “Second harmonic generation imaging - a new method for unraveling molecular information of starch,” J. Struct. Biol. 171(1), 88–94 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. W. Chu, S. Y. Chen, G. W. Chern, T. H. Tsai, Y. C. Chen, B. L. Lin, and C. K. Sun, “Studies of χ(2)/χ(3) tensors in submicron-scaled bio-tissues by polarization harmonics optical microscopy,” Biophys. J. 86(6), 3914–3922 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chui, H. C.

Z. Y. Zhuo, C. S. Liao, C. H. Huang, J. Y. Yu, Y. Y. Tzeng, W. Lo, C. Y. Dong, H. C. Chui, Y. C. Huang, H. M. Lai, and S. W. Chu, “Second harmonic generation imaging - a new method for unraveling molecular information of starch,” J. Struct. Biol. 171(1), 88–94 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cisek, R.

R. Cisek, D. Tokarz, S. Krouglov, M. Steup, M. J. Emes, I. J. Tetlow, and V. Barzda, “Second harmonic generation mediated by aligned water in starch granules,” J. Phys. Chem. B 118(51), 14785–14794 (2014).
[PubMed]

D. Tokarz, R. Cisek, S. Krouglov, L. Kontenis, U. Fekl, and V. Barzda, “Molecular organization of crystalline β-carotene in carrots determined with polarization-dependent second and third harmonic generation microscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B 118(14), 3814–3822 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. E. Tuer, S. Krouglov, N. Prent, R. Cisek, D. Sandkuijl, K. Yasufuku, B. C. Wilson, and V. Barzda, “Nonlinear optical properties of type I collagen fibers studied by polarization dependent second harmonic generation microscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B 115(44), 12759–12769 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Carriles, D. N. Schafer, K. E. Sheetz, J. J. Field, R. Cisek, V. Barzda, A. W. Sylvester, and J. A. Squier, “Invited review article: Imaging techniques for harmonic and multiphoton absorption fluorescence microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80(8), 081101 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Major, R. Cisek, D. Sandkuijl, and V. Barzda, “Femtosecond Yb:KGd(WO4)2 laser with > 100 nJ of pulse energy,” Laser Phys. Lett. 6(4), 272–274 (2009).
[Crossref]

Colonna, P.

A. Buléon, P. Colonna, V. Planchot, and S. Ball, “Starch granules: Structure and biosynthesis,” Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 23(2), 85–112 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Donald, A. M.

A. M. Donald, K. L. Kato, P. A. Perry, and T. A. Waigh, “Scattering studies of the internal structure of starch granules,” Starke 53(10), 504–512 (2001).
[Crossref]

Dong, C. Y.

Z. Y. Zhuo, C. S. Liao, C. H. Huang, J. Y. Yu, Y. Y. Tzeng, W. Lo, C. Y. Dong, H. C. Chui, Y. C. Huang, H. M. Lai, and S. W. Chu, “Second harmonic generation imaging - a new method for unraveling molecular information of starch,” J. Struct. Biol. 171(1), 88–94 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Emes, M. J.

R. Cisek, D. Tokarz, S. Krouglov, M. Steup, M. J. Emes, I. J. Tetlow, and V. Barzda, “Second harmonic generation mediated by aligned water in starch granules,” J. Phys. Chem. B 118(51), 14785–14794 (2014).
[PubMed]

Fekl, U.

D. Tokarz, R. Cisek, S. Krouglov, L. Kontenis, U. Fekl, and V. Barzda, “Molecular organization of crystalline β-carotene in carrots determined with polarization-dependent second and third harmonic generation microscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B 118(14), 3814–3822 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Field, J. J.

R. Carriles, D. N. Schafer, K. E. Sheetz, J. J. Field, R. Cisek, V. Barzda, A. W. Sylvester, and J. A. Squier, “Invited review article: Imaging techniques for harmonic and multiphoton absorption fluorescence microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80(8), 081101 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gilbert, E. P.

J. Blazek and E. P. Gilbert, “Application of small-angle x-ray and neutron scattering techniques to the characterisation of starch structure: A review,” Carbohydr. Polym. 85(2), 281–293 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hebelstrup, K. H.

M. Carciofi, A. Blennow, S. L. Jensen, S. S. Shaik, A. Henriksen, A. Buléon, P. B. Holm, and K. H. Hebelstrup, “Concerted suppression of all starch branching enzyme genes in barley produces amylose-only starch granules,” BMC Plant Biol. 12(223), 223 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hedley, C. L.

T. Y. Bogracheva, Y. L. Wang, and C. L. Hedley, “The effect of water content on the ordered/disordered structures in starches,” Biopolymers 58(3), 247–259 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Henriksen, A.

M. Carciofi, A. Blennow, S. L. Jensen, S. S. Shaik, A. Henriksen, A. Buléon, P. B. Holm, and K. H. Hebelstrup, “Concerted suppression of all starch branching enzyme genes in barley produces amylose-only starch granules,” BMC Plant Biol. 12(223), 223 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Holm, P. B.

M. Carciofi, A. Blennow, S. L. Jensen, S. S. Shaik, A. Henriksen, A. Buléon, P. B. Holm, and K. H. Hebelstrup, “Concerted suppression of all starch branching enzyme genes in barley produces amylose-only starch granules,” BMC Plant Biol. 12(223), 223 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, C. H.

Z. Y. Zhuo, C. S. Liao, C. H. Huang, J. Y. Yu, Y. Y. Tzeng, W. Lo, C. Y. Dong, H. C. Chui, Y. C. Huang, H. M. Lai, and S. W. Chu, “Second harmonic generation imaging - a new method for unraveling molecular information of starch,” J. Struct. Biol. 171(1), 88–94 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, Y. C.

Z. Y. Zhuo, C. S. Liao, C. H. Huang, J. Y. Yu, Y. Y. Tzeng, W. Lo, C. Y. Dong, H. C. Chui, Y. C. Huang, H. M. Lai, and S. W. Chu, “Second harmonic generation imaging - a new method for unraveling molecular information of starch,” J. Struct. Biol. 171(1), 88–94 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jensen, S. L.

M. Carciofi, A. Blennow, S. L. Jensen, S. S. Shaik, A. Henriksen, A. Buléon, P. B. Holm, and K. H. Hebelstrup, “Concerted suppression of all starch branching enzyme genes in barley produces amylose-only starch granules,” BMC Plant Biol. 12(223), 223 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kato, K. L.

A. M. Donald, K. L. Kato, P. A. Perry, and T. A. Waigh, “Scattering studies of the internal structure of starch granules,” Starke 53(10), 504–512 (2001).
[Crossref]

Kontenis, L.

D. Tokarz, R. Cisek, S. Krouglov, L. Kontenis, U. Fekl, and V. Barzda, “Molecular organization of crystalline β-carotene in carrots determined with polarization-dependent second and third harmonic generation microscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B 118(14), 3814–3822 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Krouglov, S.

M. Samim, S. Krouglov, and V. Barzda, “Double stokes mueller polarimetry of second-harmonic generation in ordered molecular structures,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 32(3), 451–461 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Tokarz, R. Cisek, S. Krouglov, L. Kontenis, U. Fekl, and V. Barzda, “Molecular organization of crystalline β-carotene in carrots determined with polarization-dependent second and third harmonic generation microscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B 118(14), 3814–3822 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Cisek, D. Tokarz, S. Krouglov, M. Steup, M. J. Emes, I. J. Tetlow, and V. Barzda, “Second harmonic generation mediated by aligned water in starch granules,” J. Phys. Chem. B 118(51), 14785–14794 (2014).
[PubMed]

A. E. Tuer, M. K. Akens, S. Krouglov, D. Sandkuijl, B. C. Wilson, C. M. Whyne, and V. Barzda, “Hierarchical model of fibrillar collagen organization for interpreting the second-order susceptibility tensors in biological tissue,” Biophys. J. 103(10), 2093–2105 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. E. Tuer, S. Krouglov, N. Prent, R. Cisek, D. Sandkuijl, K. Yasufuku, B. C. Wilson, and V. Barzda, “Nonlinear optical properties of type I collagen fibers studied by polarization dependent second harmonic generation microscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B 115(44), 12759–12769 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lai, H. M.

Z. Y. Zhuo, C. S. Liao, C. H. Huang, J. Y. Yu, Y. Y. Tzeng, W. Lo, C. Y. Dong, H. C. Chui, Y. C. Huang, H. M. Lai, and S. W. Chu, “Second harmonic generation imaging - a new method for unraveling molecular information of starch,” J. Struct. Biol. 171(1), 88–94 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liao, C. S.

Z. Y. Zhuo, C. S. Liao, C. H. Huang, J. Y. Yu, Y. Y. Tzeng, W. Lo, C. Y. Dong, H. C. Chui, Y. C. Huang, H. M. Lai, and S. W. Chu, “Second harmonic generation imaging - a new method for unraveling molecular information of starch,” J. Struct. Biol. 171(1), 88–94 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, B. L.

S. W. Chu, S. Y. Chen, G. W. Chern, T. H. Tsai, Y. C. Chen, B. L. Lin, and C. K. Sun, “Studies of χ(2)/χ(3) tensors in submicron-scaled bio-tissues by polarization harmonics optical microscopy,” Biophys. J. 86(6), 3914–3922 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lo, W.

Z. Y. Zhuo, C. S. Liao, C. H. Huang, J. Y. Yu, Y. Y. Tzeng, W. Lo, C. Y. Dong, H. C. Chui, Y. C. Huang, H. M. Lai, and S. W. Chu, “Second harmonic generation imaging - a new method for unraveling molecular information of starch,” J. Struct. Biol. 171(1), 88–94 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Loza-Alvarez, P.

Major, A.

A. Major, R. Cisek, D. Sandkuijl, and V. Barzda, “Femtosecond Yb:KGd(WO4)2 laser with > 100 nJ of pulse energy,” Laser Phys. Lett. 6(4), 272–274 (2009).
[Crossref]

Perry, P. A.

A. M. Donald, K. L. Kato, P. A. Perry, and T. A. Waigh, “Scattering studies of the internal structure of starch granules,” Starke 53(10), 504–512 (2001).
[Crossref]

Planchot, V.

A. Buléon, P. Colonna, V. Planchot, and S. Ball, “Starch granules: Structure and biosynthesis,” Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 23(2), 85–112 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Prent, N.

A. E. Tuer, S. Krouglov, N. Prent, R. Cisek, D. Sandkuijl, K. Yasufuku, B. C. Wilson, and V. Barzda, “Nonlinear optical properties of type I collagen fibers studied by polarization dependent second harmonic generation microscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B 115(44), 12759–12769 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Psilodimitrakopoulos, S.

Samim, M.

Sandkuijl, D.

A. E. Tuer, M. K. Akens, S. Krouglov, D. Sandkuijl, B. C. Wilson, C. M. Whyne, and V. Barzda, “Hierarchical model of fibrillar collagen organization for interpreting the second-order susceptibility tensors in biological tissue,” Biophys. J. 103(10), 2093–2105 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. E. Tuer, S. Krouglov, N. Prent, R. Cisek, D. Sandkuijl, K. Yasufuku, B. C. Wilson, and V. Barzda, “Nonlinear optical properties of type I collagen fibers studied by polarization dependent second harmonic generation microscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B 115(44), 12759–12769 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Major, R. Cisek, D. Sandkuijl, and V. Barzda, “Femtosecond Yb:KGd(WO4)2 laser with > 100 nJ of pulse energy,” Laser Phys. Lett. 6(4), 272–274 (2009).
[Crossref]

Schafer, D. N.

R. Carriles, D. N. Schafer, K. E. Sheetz, J. J. Field, R. Cisek, V. Barzda, A. W. Sylvester, and J. A. Squier, “Invited review article: Imaging techniques for harmonic and multiphoton absorption fluorescence microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80(8), 081101 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shaik, S. S.

M. Carciofi, A. Blennow, S. L. Jensen, S. S. Shaik, A. Henriksen, A. Buléon, P. B. Holm, and K. H. Hebelstrup, “Concerted suppression of all starch branching enzyme genes in barley produces amylose-only starch granules,” BMC Plant Biol. 12(223), 223 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sheetz, K. E.

R. Carriles, D. N. Schafer, K. E. Sheetz, J. J. Field, R. Cisek, V. Barzda, A. W. Sylvester, and J. A. Squier, “Invited review article: Imaging techniques for harmonic and multiphoton absorption fluorescence microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80(8), 081101 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Squier, J. A.

R. Carriles, D. N. Schafer, K. E. Sheetz, J. J. Field, R. Cisek, V. Barzda, A. W. Sylvester, and J. A. Squier, “Invited review article: Imaging techniques for harmonic and multiphoton absorption fluorescence microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80(8), 081101 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Steup, M.

R. Cisek, D. Tokarz, S. Krouglov, M. Steup, M. J. Emes, I. J. Tetlow, and V. Barzda, “Second harmonic generation mediated by aligned water in starch granules,” J. Phys. Chem. B 118(51), 14785–14794 (2014).
[PubMed]

Sun, C. K.

S. W. Chu, S. Y. Chen, G. W. Chern, T. H. Tsai, Y. C. Chen, B. L. Lin, and C. K. Sun, “Studies of χ(2)/χ(3) tensors in submicron-scaled bio-tissues by polarization harmonics optical microscopy,” Biophys. J. 86(6), 3914–3922 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sylvester, A. W.

R. Carriles, D. N. Schafer, K. E. Sheetz, J. J. Field, R. Cisek, V. Barzda, A. W. Sylvester, and J. A. Squier, “Invited review article: Imaging techniques for harmonic and multiphoton absorption fluorescence microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80(8), 081101 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tetlow, I. J.

R. Cisek, D. Tokarz, S. Krouglov, M. Steup, M. J. Emes, I. J. Tetlow, and V. Barzda, “Second harmonic generation mediated by aligned water in starch granules,” J. Phys. Chem. B 118(51), 14785–14794 (2014).
[PubMed]

Tokarz, D.

R. Cisek, D. Tokarz, S. Krouglov, M. Steup, M. J. Emes, I. J. Tetlow, and V. Barzda, “Second harmonic generation mediated by aligned water in starch granules,” J. Phys. Chem. B 118(51), 14785–14794 (2014).
[PubMed]

D. Tokarz, R. Cisek, S. Krouglov, L. Kontenis, U. Fekl, and V. Barzda, “Molecular organization of crystalline β-carotene in carrots determined with polarization-dependent second and third harmonic generation microscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B 118(14), 3814–3822 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tsai, T. H.

S. W. Chu, S. Y. Chen, G. W. Chern, T. H. Tsai, Y. C. Chen, B. L. Lin, and C. K. Sun, “Studies of χ(2)/χ(3) tensors in submicron-scaled bio-tissues by polarization harmonics optical microscopy,” Biophys. J. 86(6), 3914–3922 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tuer, A. E.

A. E. Tuer, M. K. Akens, S. Krouglov, D. Sandkuijl, B. C. Wilson, C. M. Whyne, and V. Barzda, “Hierarchical model of fibrillar collagen organization for interpreting the second-order susceptibility tensors in biological tissue,” Biophys. J. 103(10), 2093–2105 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. E. Tuer, S. Krouglov, N. Prent, R. Cisek, D. Sandkuijl, K. Yasufuku, B. C. Wilson, and V. Barzda, “Nonlinear optical properties of type I collagen fibers studied by polarization dependent second harmonic generation microscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B 115(44), 12759–12769 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tzeng, Y. Y.

Z. Y. Zhuo, C. S. Liao, C. H. Huang, J. Y. Yu, Y. Y. Tzeng, W. Lo, C. Y. Dong, H. C. Chui, Y. C. Huang, H. M. Lai, and S. W. Chu, “Second harmonic generation imaging - a new method for unraveling molecular information of starch,” J. Struct. Biol. 171(1), 88–94 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Waigh, T. A.

A. M. Donald, K. L. Kato, P. A. Perry, and T. A. Waigh, “Scattering studies of the internal structure of starch granules,” Starke 53(10), 504–512 (2001).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y. L.

T. Y. Bogracheva, Y. L. Wang, and C. L. Hedley, “The effect of water content on the ordered/disordered structures in starches,” Biopolymers 58(3), 247–259 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Whyne, C. M.

A. E. Tuer, M. K. Akens, S. Krouglov, D. Sandkuijl, B. C. Wilson, C. M. Whyne, and V. Barzda, “Hierarchical model of fibrillar collagen organization for interpreting the second-order susceptibility tensors in biological tissue,” Biophys. J. 103(10), 2093–2105 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wilson, B. C.

A. E. Tuer, M. K. Akens, S. Krouglov, D. Sandkuijl, B. C. Wilson, C. M. Whyne, and V. Barzda, “Hierarchical model of fibrillar collagen organization for interpreting the second-order susceptibility tensors in biological tissue,” Biophys. J. 103(10), 2093–2105 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. E. Tuer, S. Krouglov, N. Prent, R. Cisek, D. Sandkuijl, K. Yasufuku, B. C. Wilson, and V. Barzda, “Nonlinear optical properties of type I collagen fibers studied by polarization dependent second harmonic generation microscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B 115(44), 12759–12769 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yasufuku, K.

A. E. Tuer, S. Krouglov, N. Prent, R. Cisek, D. Sandkuijl, K. Yasufuku, B. C. Wilson, and V. Barzda, “Nonlinear optical properties of type I collagen fibers studied by polarization dependent second harmonic generation microscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B 115(44), 12759–12769 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, J. Y.

Z. Y. Zhuo, C. S. Liao, C. H. Huang, J. Y. Yu, Y. Y. Tzeng, W. Lo, C. Y. Dong, H. C. Chui, Y. C. Huang, H. M. Lai, and S. W. Chu, “Second harmonic generation imaging - a new method for unraveling molecular information of starch,” J. Struct. Biol. 171(1), 88–94 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhuo, Z. Y.

Z. Y. Zhuo, C. S. Liao, C. H. Huang, J. Y. Yu, Y. Y. Tzeng, W. Lo, C. Y. Dong, H. C. Chui, Y. C. Huang, H. M. Lai, and S. W. Chu, “Second harmonic generation imaging - a new method for unraveling molecular information of starch,” J. Struct. Biol. 171(1), 88–94 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

Biophys. J. (2)

A. E. Tuer, M. K. Akens, S. Krouglov, D. Sandkuijl, B. C. Wilson, C. M. Whyne, and V. Barzda, “Hierarchical model of fibrillar collagen organization for interpreting the second-order susceptibility tensors in biological tissue,” Biophys. J. 103(10), 2093–2105 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. W. Chu, S. Y. Chen, G. W. Chern, T. H. Tsai, Y. C. Chen, B. L. Lin, and C. K. Sun, “Studies of χ(2)/χ(3) tensors in submicron-scaled bio-tissues by polarization harmonics optical microscopy,” Biophys. J. 86(6), 3914–3922 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biopolymers (1)

T. Y. Bogracheva, Y. L. Wang, and C. L. Hedley, “The effect of water content on the ordered/disordered structures in starches,” Biopolymers 58(3), 247–259 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

BMC Plant Biol. (1)

M. Carciofi, A. Blennow, S. L. Jensen, S. S. Shaik, A. Henriksen, A. Buléon, P. B. Holm, and K. H. Hebelstrup, “Concerted suppression of all starch branching enzyme genes in barley produces amylose-only starch granules,” BMC Plant Biol. 12(223), 223 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Carbohydr. Polym. (1)

J. Blazek and E. P. Gilbert, “Application of small-angle x-ray and neutron scattering techniques to the characterisation of starch structure: A review,” Carbohydr. Polym. 85(2), 281–293 (2011).
[Crossref]

Int. J. Biol. Macromol. (1)

A. Buléon, P. Colonna, V. Planchot, and S. Ball, “Starch granules: Structure and biosynthesis,” Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 23(2), 85–112 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. Chem. B (3)

A. E. Tuer, S. Krouglov, N. Prent, R. Cisek, D. Sandkuijl, K. Yasufuku, B. C. Wilson, and V. Barzda, “Nonlinear optical properties of type I collagen fibers studied by polarization dependent second harmonic generation microscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B 115(44), 12759–12769 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Cisek, D. Tokarz, S. Krouglov, M. Steup, M. J. Emes, I. J. Tetlow, and V. Barzda, “Second harmonic generation mediated by aligned water in starch granules,” J. Phys. Chem. B 118(51), 14785–14794 (2014).
[PubMed]

D. Tokarz, R. Cisek, S. Krouglov, L. Kontenis, U. Fekl, and V. Barzda, “Molecular organization of crystalline β-carotene in carrots determined with polarization-dependent second and third harmonic generation microscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B 118(14), 3814–3822 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Struct. Biol. (1)

Z. Y. Zhuo, C. S. Liao, C. H. Huang, J. Y. Yu, Y. Y. Tzeng, W. Lo, C. Y. Dong, H. C. Chui, Y. C. Huang, H. M. Lai, and S. W. Chu, “Second harmonic generation imaging - a new method for unraveling molecular information of starch,” J. Struct. Biol. 171(1), 88–94 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Laser Phys. Lett. (1)

A. Major, R. Cisek, D. Sandkuijl, and V. Barzda, “Femtosecond Yb:KGd(WO4)2 laser with > 100 nJ of pulse energy,” Laser Phys. Lett. 6(4), 272–274 (2009).
[Crossref]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

R. Carriles, D. N. Schafer, K. E. Sheetz, J. J. Field, R. Cisek, V. Barzda, A. W. Sylvester, and J. A. Squier, “Invited review article: Imaging techniques for harmonic and multiphoton absorption fluorescence microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80(8), 081101 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Starke (1)

A. M. Donald, K. L. Kato, P. A. Perry, and T. A. Waigh, “Scattering studies of the internal structure of starch granules,” Starke 53(10), 504–512 (2001).
[Crossref]

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 SHG images of (a) WX, (b) WT, and (c) AO barley reserve starch granules at three conditions: hydrated, air-dried, and ultra-dried. Vertical linear polarized light was used for images shown with identical logarithmic intensity scales.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 SHG intensity images obtained at 81 combinations of analyzer and polarizer angles added together (a1-a9) of WX (columns 1, 4, 7), WT (columns 2, 5, 8) and AO (columns 3, 6, 9) barley starch granules studied under three conditions: hydrated (columns 1-3), air-dried (columns 4-6), and ultra-dried with nitrogen gas (columns 7-9). Fitted R’SHG values for each pixel in panels a1-a9 are represented with color in panels b1-b9, where blue to red depicts R’SHG values of 2 - 6. The R’SHG value occurrence histograms of the fitted pixels in panels b1-b9 are shown in panels c1-c9.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 The SHG intensity and R’SHG of WX, WT and AO starch granules from barley studied under hydrated, air-dried and ultra-dried conditions. Values stated are granule-by-granule averages ± standard error.

Equations (1)

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I 2 ω = A ( R S H G cos ϕ cos 2 θ + sin ϕ sin 2 θ + cos ϕ sin 2 θ ) 2 ,

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