Abstract

Femtosecond laser pulses can be used to perform very precise cutting of material, including biological samples from subcellular organelles to large areas of bone, through plasma-mediated ablation. The use of a kilohertz regenerative amplifier is usually needed to obtain the pulse energy required for ablation. This work investigates a 5 megahertz compact fiber laser for near-video rate imaging and ablation in bone. After optimization of ablation efficiency and reduction in autofluorescence, the system is demonstrated for the in vivo study of bone regeneration. Image-guided creation of a bone defect and longitudinal evaluation of cellular injury response in the defect provides insight into the bone regeneration process.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (1)

2013 (5)

D. C. Jeong, P. S. Tsai, and D. Kleinfeld, “All-optical osteotomy to create windows for transcranial imaging in mice,” Opt. Express 21(20), 23160–23168 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. An, G. W. Khadar, E. I. Wilk, B. Emigh, H. K. Haugen, G. R. Wohl, B. Dunlop, M. Anvari, J. E. Hayward, and Q. Fang, “Ultrafast laser ablation and machining large-size structures on porcine bone,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(7), 070504 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Bianco, X. Cao, P. S. Frenette, J. J. Mao, P. G. Robey, P. J. Simmons, and C.-Y. Wang, “The meaning, the sense and the significance: translating the science of mesenchymal stem cells into medicine,” Nat. Med. 19(1), 35–42 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. G. Horton, K. Wang, D. Kobat, C. G. Clark, F. W. Wise, C. B. Schaffer, and C. Xu, “In vivo three-photon microscopy of subcortical structures within an intact mouse brain,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 205–209 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. S. Bello-Silva, M. Wehner, C. P. Eduardo, F. Lampert, R. Poprawe, M. Hermans, and M. Esteves-Oliveira, “Precise ablation of dental hard tissues with ultra-short pulsed lasers. Preliminary exploratory investigation on adequate laser parameters,” Lasers Med. Sci. 28(1), 171–184 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (9)

D. D. Lo, M. A. Mackanos, M. T. Chung, J. S. Hyun, D. T. Montoro, M. Grova, C. Liu, J. Wang, D. Palanker, A. J. Connolly, M. T. Longaker, C. H. Contag, and D. C. Wan, “Femtosecond plasma mediated laser ablation has advantages over mechanical osteotomy of cranial bone,” Lasers Surg. Med. 44(10), 805–814 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Nicolodelli, R. F. Lizarelli, and V. S. Bagnato, “Influence of effective number of pulses on the morphological structure of teeth and bovine femur after femtosecond laser ablation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(4), 048001 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Ludin, T. Itkin, S. Gur-Cohen, A. Mildner, E. Shezen, K. Golan, O. Kollet, A. Kalinkovich, Z. Porat, G. D’Uva, A. Schajnovitz, E. Voronov, D. A. Brenner, R. N. Apte, S. Jung, and T. Lapidot, “Monocytes-macrophages that express α-smooth muscle actin preserve primitive hematopoietic cells in the bone marrow,” Nat. Immunol. 13(11), 1072–1082 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. Phillips, L. J. Mortensen, J. P. Ruiz, R. Sridharan, S. Kumar, M. Torres, P. Sharma, C. P. Lin, J. M. Karp, and P. V. Hauschka, “Advances in Single-cell Tracking of Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) During Musculoskeletal Regeneration,” Orthop. J. Harv. Med. Sch. 14, 22–28 (2012).
[PubMed]

L. T. Cangueiro, R. Vilar, A. M. Botelho do Rego, and V. S. F. Muralha, “Femtosecond laser ablation of bovine cortical bone,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(12), 125005 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Alves, V. Oliveira, and R. Vilar, “Femtosecond laser ablation of dentin,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 45(24), 245401 (2012).
[Crossref]

B. Emigh, R. An, E. M. Hsu, T. H. R. Crawford, H. K. Haugen, G. R. Wohl, J. E. Hayward, and Q. Fang, “Porcine cortical bone ablation by ultrashort pulsed laser irradiation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(2), 028001 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Wang, T. M. Liu, J. Wu, N. G. Horton, C. P. Lin, and C. Xu, “Three-color femtosecond source for simultaneous excitation of three fluorescent proteins in two-photon fluorescence microscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(9), 1972–1977 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Park, J. A. Spencer, B. I. Koh, T. Kobayashi, J. Fujisaki, T. L. Clemens, C. P. Lin, H. M. Kronenberg, and D. T. Scadden, “Endogenous bone marrow MSCs are dynamic, fate-restricted participants in bone maintenance and regeneration,” Cell Stem Cell 10(3), 259–272 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (5)

L. J. Mortensen, C. E. Glazowski, J. M. Zavislan, and L. A. Delouise, “Near-IR fluorescence and reflectance confocal microscopy for imaging of quantum dots in mammalian skin,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(6), 1610–1625 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. G. Ng, J. S. Qin, B. Roediger, Y. Wang, R. Jain, L. L. Cavanagh, A. L. Smith, C. A. Jones, M. de Veer, M. A. Grimbaldeston, E. N. Meeusen, and W. Weninger, “Visualizing the neutrophil response to sterile tissue injury in mouse dermis reveals a three-phase cascade of events,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 131(10), 2058–2068 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Cai, Y. Lin, P. V. Hauschka, and B. E. Grottkau, “Adipose stem cells originate from perivascular cells,” Biol. Cell 103(9), 435–447 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Nguyen, J. Ferdman, M. Zhao, D. Huland, S. Saqqa, J. Ma, N. Nishimura, T. H. Schwartz, and C. B. Schaffer, “Sub-surface, micrometer-scale incisions produced in rodent cortex using tightly-focused femtosecond laser pulses,” Lasers Surg. Med. 43(5), 382–391 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Wang and C. Xu, “Tunable high-energy soliton pulse generation from a large-mode-area fiber and its application to third harmonic generation microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(7), 071112 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

G. Latour, G. Georges, L. S. Lamoine, C. Deumié, J. Conrath, and L. Hoffart, “Human graft cornea and laser incisions imaging with micrometer scale resolution full-field optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(5), 056006 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

O. Stachs, S. Schumacher, M. Hovakimyan, M. Fromm, A. Heisterkamp, H. Lubatschowski, and R. Guthoff, “Visualization of femtosecond laser pulse-induced microincisions inside crystalline lens tissue,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 35(11), 1979–1983 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Yoshida, K. Uoshima, K. Oda, and T. Maeda, “Influence of heat stress to matrix on bone formation,” Clin. Oral Implants Res. 20(8), 782–790 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (4)

I. Veilleux, J. A. Spencer, D. P. Biss, D. Cote, and C. P. Lin, “In Vivo Cell Tracking With Video Rate Multimodality Laser Scanning Microscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(1), 10–18 (2008).
[Crossref]

Z. Kalajzic, H. Li, L.-P. Wang, X. Jiang, K. Lamothe, D. J. Adams, H. L. Aguila, D. W. Rowe, and I. Kalajzic, “Use of an alpha-smooth muscle actin GFP reporter to identify an osteoprogenitor population,” Bone 43(3), 501–510 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Vogel, N. Linz, S. Freidank, and G. Paltauf, “Femtosecond-Laser-Induced Nanocavitation in Water: Implications for Optical Breakdown Threshold and Cell Surgery,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(3), 038102 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Hovhannisyan, W. Lo, C. Hu, S.-J. Chen, and C. Y. Dong, “Dynamics of femtosecond laser photo-modification of collagen fibers,” Opt. Express 16(11), 7958–7968 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (5)

V. Nuzzo, K. Plamann, M. Savoldelli, M. Merano, D. Donate, O. Albert, P. F. Gardeazábal Rodríguez, G. Mourou, and J.-M. Legeais, “In situ monitoring of second-harmonic generation in human corneas to compensate for femtosecond laser pulse attenuation in keratoplasty,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(6), 064032 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Liu and M. Niemz, “Ablation of femural bone with femtosecond laser pulses--a feasibility study,” Lasers Med. Sci. 22(3), 171–174 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Girard, D. Yu, M. R. Armstrong, B. C. Wilson, C. M. L. Clokie, and R. J. D. Miller, “Effects of femtosecond laser irradiation on osseous tissues,” Lasers Surg. Med. 39(3), 273–285 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Girard, M. Cloutier, D. J. Wilson, C. M. L. Clokie, R. J. D. Miller, and B. C. Wilson, “Microtomographic analysis of healing of femtosecond laser bone calvarial wounds compared to mechanical instruments in mice with and without application of BMP-7,” Lasers Surg. Med. 39(5), 458–467 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Wieger, S. Zoppel, and E. Wintner, “Ultrashort pulse laser osteotomy,” Laser Phys. 17(4), 438–442 (2007).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

B. J. Schaller, R. Gruber, H. A. Merten, T. Kruschat, H. Schliephake, M. Buchfelder, and H. C. Ludwig, “Piezoelectric bone surgery: a revolutionary technique for minimally invasive surgery in cranial base and spinal surgery? Technical note,” Neurosurgery 57, E410 (2005).

A. Vogel, J. Noack, G. Hüttman, and G. Paltauf, “Mechanisms of femtosecond laser nanosurgery of cells and tissues,” Appl. Phys. B 81(8), 1015–1047 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (5)

A. Dela Rosa, A. V. Sarma, C. Q. Le, R. S. Jones, and D. Fried, “Peripheral thermal and mechanical damage to dentin with microsecond and sub-microsecond 9.6 microm, 2.79 microm, and 0.355 microm laser pulses,” Lasers Surg. Med. 35(3), 214–228 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. M. Cowan, Y.-Y. Shi, O. O. Aalami, Y.-F. Chou, C. Mari, R. Thomas, N. Quarto, C. H. Contag, B. Wu, and M. T. Longaker, “Adipose-derived adult stromal cells heal critical-size mouse calvarial defects,” Nat. Biotechnol. 22(5), 560–567 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Ben-Yakar and R. L. Byer, “Femtosecond laser ablation properties of borosilicate glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(9), 5316–5323 (2004).
[Crossref]

M. Han, L. Zickler, G. Giese, M. Walter, F. H. Loesel, and J. F. Bille, “Second-harmonic imaging of cornea after intrastromal femtosecond laser ablation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(4), 760–766 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. F. Yanik, H. Cinar, H. N. Cinar, A. D. Chisholm, Y. Jin, and A. Ben-Yakar, “Neurosurgery: functional regeneration after laser axotomy,” Nature 432(7019), 822 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

A. P. Joglekar, H. Liu, G. J. Spooner, E. Meyhöfer, G. Mourou, and A. J. Hunt, “A study of the deterministic character of optical damage by femtosecond laser pulses and applications to nanomachining,” Appl. Phys. B 77, 25–30 (2003).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

B. M. Kim, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, E. J. Joslin, P. M. Celliers, J. Eichler, and L. B. Da Silva, “Influence of pulse duration on ultrashort laser pulse ablation of biological tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt. 6(3), 332–338 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (2)

A. Rosenfeld, M. Lorenz, R. Stoian, and D. Ashkenasi, “Ultrashort-laser-pulse damage threshold of transparent materials and the role of incubation,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 69(7), S373–S376 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. Krüger, W. Kautek, and H. Newesely, “Femtosecond-pulse laser ablation of dental hydroxyapatite and single-crystalline fluoroapatite,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 69(7), S403–S407 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

M. Lenzner, J. Krüger, S. Sartania, Z. Cheng, C. Spielmann, G. Mourou, W. Kautek, and F. Krausz, “Femtosecond Optical Breakdown in Dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80(18), 4076–4079 (1998).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

J. Neev, L. B. Da Silva, M. D. Feit, M. D. Perry, A. M. Rubenchik, and B. C. Stuart, “Ultrashort pulse lasers for hard tissue ablation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(4), 790–800 (1996).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, “Laser-Induced Damage in Dielectrics with Nanosecond to Subpicosecond Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74(12), 2248–2251 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

D. Du, X. Liu, G. Korn, J. Squier, and G. Mourou, “Laser‐induced breakdown by impact ionization in SiO2 with pulse widths from 7 ns to 150 fs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(23), 3071–3073 (1994).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

G. M. Rayan, D. T. Stanfield, S. Cahill, S. D. Kosanke, and J. A. Kopta, “Effects of rapid pulsed CO2 laser beam on cortical bone in vivo,” Lasers Surg. Med. 12(6), 615–620 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

J. S. Nelson, A. Orenstein, L.-H. L. Liaw, and M. W. Berns, “Mid-infrared erbium:YAG laser ablation of bone: The effect of laser osteotomy on bone healing,” Lasers Surg. Med. 9(4), 362–374 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aalami, O. O.

C. M. Cowan, Y.-Y. Shi, O. O. Aalami, Y.-F. Chou, C. Mari, R. Thomas, N. Quarto, C. H. Contag, B. Wu, and M. T. Longaker, “Adipose-derived adult stromal cells heal critical-size mouse calvarial defects,” Nat. Biotechnol. 22(5), 560–567 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adams, D. J.

Z. Kalajzic, H. Li, L.-P. Wang, X. Jiang, K. Lamothe, D. J. Adams, H. L. Aguila, D. W. Rowe, and I. Kalajzic, “Use of an alpha-smooth muscle actin GFP reporter to identify an osteoprogenitor population,” Bone 43(3), 501–510 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aguila, H. L.

Z. Kalajzic, H. Li, L.-P. Wang, X. Jiang, K. Lamothe, D. J. Adams, H. L. Aguila, D. W. Rowe, and I. Kalajzic, “Use of an alpha-smooth muscle actin GFP reporter to identify an osteoprogenitor population,” Bone 43(3), 501–510 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Albert, O.

V. Nuzzo, K. Plamann, M. Savoldelli, M. Merano, D. Donate, O. Albert, P. F. Gardeazábal Rodríguez, G. Mourou, and J.-M. Legeais, “In situ monitoring of second-harmonic generation in human corneas to compensate for femtosecond laser pulse attenuation in keratoplasty,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(6), 064032 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alves, S.

S. Alves, V. Oliveira, and R. Vilar, “Femtosecond laser ablation of dentin,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 45(24), 245401 (2012).
[Crossref]

An, R.

R. An, G. W. Khadar, E. I. Wilk, B. Emigh, H. K. Haugen, G. R. Wohl, B. Dunlop, M. Anvari, J. E. Hayward, and Q. Fang, “Ultrafast laser ablation and machining large-size structures on porcine bone,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(7), 070504 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Emigh, R. An, E. M. Hsu, T. H. R. Crawford, H. K. Haugen, G. R. Wohl, J. E. Hayward, and Q. Fang, “Porcine cortical bone ablation by ultrashort pulsed laser irradiation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(2), 028001 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anvari, M.

R. An, G. W. Khadar, E. I. Wilk, B. Emigh, H. K. Haugen, G. R. Wohl, B. Dunlop, M. Anvari, J. E. Hayward, and Q. Fang, “Ultrafast laser ablation and machining large-size structures on porcine bone,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(7), 070504 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Apte, R. N.

A. Ludin, T. Itkin, S. Gur-Cohen, A. Mildner, E. Shezen, K. Golan, O. Kollet, A. Kalinkovich, Z. Porat, G. D’Uva, A. Schajnovitz, E. Voronov, D. A. Brenner, R. N. Apte, S. Jung, and T. Lapidot, “Monocytes-macrophages that express α-smooth muscle actin preserve primitive hematopoietic cells in the bone marrow,” Nat. Immunol. 13(11), 1072–1082 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Armstrong, M. R.

B. Girard, D. Yu, M. R. Armstrong, B. C. Wilson, C. M. L. Clokie, and R. J. D. Miller, “Effects of femtosecond laser irradiation on osseous tissues,” Lasers Surg. Med. 39(3), 273–285 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ashkenasi, D.

A. Rosenfeld, M. Lorenz, R. Stoian, and D. Ashkenasi, “Ultrashort-laser-pulse damage threshold of transparent materials and the role of incubation,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 69(7), S373–S376 (1999).
[Crossref]

Bagnato, V. S.

G. Nicolodelli, R. F. Lizarelli, and V. S. Bagnato, “Influence of effective number of pulses on the morphological structure of teeth and bovine femur after femtosecond laser ablation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(4), 048001 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bello-Silva, M. S.

M. S. Bello-Silva, M. Wehner, C. P. Eduardo, F. Lampert, R. Poprawe, M. Hermans, and M. Esteves-Oliveira, “Precise ablation of dental hard tissues with ultra-short pulsed lasers. Preliminary exploratory investigation on adequate laser parameters,” Lasers Med. Sci. 28(1), 171–184 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ben-Yakar, A.

A. Ben-Yakar and R. L. Byer, “Femtosecond laser ablation properties of borosilicate glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(9), 5316–5323 (2004).
[Crossref]

M. F. Yanik, H. Cinar, H. N. Cinar, A. D. Chisholm, Y. Jin, and A. Ben-Yakar, “Neurosurgery: functional regeneration after laser axotomy,” Nature 432(7019), 822 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Berns, M. W.

J. S. Nelson, A. Orenstein, L.-H. L. Liaw, and M. W. Berns, “Mid-infrared erbium:YAG laser ablation of bone: The effect of laser osteotomy on bone healing,” Lasers Surg. Med. 9(4), 362–374 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bianco, P.

P. Bianco, X. Cao, P. S. Frenette, J. J. Mao, P. G. Robey, P. J. Simmons, and C.-Y. Wang, “The meaning, the sense and the significance: translating the science of mesenchymal stem cells into medicine,” Nat. Med. 19(1), 35–42 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bille, J. F.

M. Han, L. Zickler, G. Giese, M. Walter, F. H. Loesel, and J. F. Bille, “Second-harmonic imaging of cornea after intrastromal femtosecond laser ablation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(4), 760–766 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biss, D. P.

I. Veilleux, J. A. Spencer, D. P. Biss, D. Cote, and C. P. Lin, “In Vivo Cell Tracking With Video Rate Multimodality Laser Scanning Microscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(1), 10–18 (2008).
[Crossref]

Botelho do Rego, A. M.

L. T. Cangueiro, R. Vilar, A. M. Botelho do Rego, and V. S. F. Muralha, “Femtosecond laser ablation of bovine cortical bone,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(12), 125005 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brenner, D. A.

A. Ludin, T. Itkin, S. Gur-Cohen, A. Mildner, E. Shezen, K. Golan, O. Kollet, A. Kalinkovich, Z. Porat, G. D’Uva, A. Schajnovitz, E. Voronov, D. A. Brenner, R. N. Apte, S. Jung, and T. Lapidot, “Monocytes-macrophages that express α-smooth muscle actin preserve primitive hematopoietic cells in the bone marrow,” Nat. Immunol. 13(11), 1072–1082 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Buchfelder, M.

B. J. Schaller, R. Gruber, H. A. Merten, T. Kruschat, H. Schliephake, M. Buchfelder, and H. C. Ludwig, “Piezoelectric bone surgery: a revolutionary technique for minimally invasive surgery in cranial base and spinal surgery? Technical note,” Neurosurgery 57, E410 (2005).

Byer, R. L.

A. Ben-Yakar and R. L. Byer, “Femtosecond laser ablation properties of borosilicate glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(9), 5316–5323 (2004).
[Crossref]

Cahill, S.

G. M. Rayan, D. T. Stanfield, S. Cahill, S. D. Kosanke, and J. A. Kopta, “Effects of rapid pulsed CO2 laser beam on cortical bone in vivo,” Lasers Surg. Med. 12(6), 615–620 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cai, X.

X. Cai, Y. Lin, P. V. Hauschka, and B. E. Grottkau, “Adipose stem cells originate from perivascular cells,” Biol. Cell 103(9), 435–447 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cangueiro, L. T.

L. T. Cangueiro, R. Vilar, A. M. Botelho do Rego, and V. S. F. Muralha, “Femtosecond laser ablation of bovine cortical bone,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(12), 125005 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cao, X.

P. Bianco, X. Cao, P. S. Frenette, J. J. Mao, P. G. Robey, P. J. Simmons, and C.-Y. Wang, “The meaning, the sense and the significance: translating the science of mesenchymal stem cells into medicine,” Nat. Med. 19(1), 35–42 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cavanagh, L. L.

L. G. Ng, J. S. Qin, B. Roediger, Y. Wang, R. Jain, L. L. Cavanagh, A. L. Smith, C. A. Jones, M. de Veer, M. A. Grimbaldeston, E. N. Meeusen, and W. Weninger, “Visualizing the neutrophil response to sterile tissue injury in mouse dermis reveals a three-phase cascade of events,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 131(10), 2058–2068 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Celliers, P. M.

B. M. Kim, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, E. J. Joslin, P. M. Celliers, J. Eichler, and L. B. Da Silva, “Influence of pulse duration on ultrashort laser pulse ablation of biological tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt. 6(3), 332–338 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, S.-J.

Cheng, Z.

M. Lenzner, J. Krüger, S. Sartania, Z. Cheng, C. Spielmann, G. Mourou, W. Kautek, and F. Krausz, “Femtosecond Optical Breakdown in Dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80(18), 4076–4079 (1998).
[Crossref]

Chisholm, A. D.

M. F. Yanik, H. Cinar, H. N. Cinar, A. D. Chisholm, Y. Jin, and A. Ben-Yakar, “Neurosurgery: functional regeneration after laser axotomy,” Nature 432(7019), 822 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chou, Y.-F.

C. M. Cowan, Y.-Y. Shi, O. O. Aalami, Y.-F. Chou, C. Mari, R. Thomas, N. Quarto, C. H. Contag, B. Wu, and M. T. Longaker, “Adipose-derived adult stromal cells heal critical-size mouse calvarial defects,” Nat. Biotechnol. 22(5), 560–567 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chung, M. T.

D. D. Lo, M. A. Mackanos, M. T. Chung, J. S. Hyun, D. T. Montoro, M. Grova, C. Liu, J. Wang, D. Palanker, A. J. Connolly, M. T. Longaker, C. H. Contag, and D. C. Wan, “Femtosecond plasma mediated laser ablation has advantages over mechanical osteotomy of cranial bone,” Lasers Surg. Med. 44(10), 805–814 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cinar, H.

M. F. Yanik, H. Cinar, H. N. Cinar, A. D. Chisholm, Y. Jin, and A. Ben-Yakar, “Neurosurgery: functional regeneration after laser axotomy,” Nature 432(7019), 822 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cinar, H. N.

M. F. Yanik, H. Cinar, H. N. Cinar, A. D. Chisholm, Y. Jin, and A. Ben-Yakar, “Neurosurgery: functional regeneration after laser axotomy,” Nature 432(7019), 822 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Clark, C. G.

N. G. Horton, K. Wang, D. Kobat, C. G. Clark, F. W. Wise, C. B. Schaffer, and C. Xu, “In vivo three-photon microscopy of subcortical structures within an intact mouse brain,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 205–209 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Clemens, T. L.

D. Park, J. A. Spencer, B. I. Koh, T. Kobayashi, J. Fujisaki, T. L. Clemens, C. P. Lin, H. M. Kronenberg, and D. T. Scadden, “Endogenous bone marrow MSCs are dynamic, fate-restricted participants in bone maintenance and regeneration,” Cell Stem Cell 10(3), 259–272 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Clokie, C. M. L.

B. Girard, M. Cloutier, D. J. Wilson, C. M. L. Clokie, R. J. D. Miller, and B. C. Wilson, “Microtomographic analysis of healing of femtosecond laser bone calvarial wounds compared to mechanical instruments in mice with and without application of BMP-7,” Lasers Surg. Med. 39(5), 458–467 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Girard, D. Yu, M. R. Armstrong, B. C. Wilson, C. M. L. Clokie, and R. J. D. Miller, “Effects of femtosecond laser irradiation on osseous tissues,” Lasers Surg. Med. 39(3), 273–285 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cloutier, M.

B. Girard, M. Cloutier, D. J. Wilson, C. M. L. Clokie, R. J. D. Miller, and B. C. Wilson, “Microtomographic analysis of healing of femtosecond laser bone calvarial wounds compared to mechanical instruments in mice with and without application of BMP-7,” Lasers Surg. Med. 39(5), 458–467 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Connolly, A. J.

D. D. Lo, M. A. Mackanos, M. T. Chung, J. S. Hyun, D. T. Montoro, M. Grova, C. Liu, J. Wang, D. Palanker, A. J. Connolly, M. T. Longaker, C. H. Contag, and D. C. Wan, “Femtosecond plasma mediated laser ablation has advantages over mechanical osteotomy of cranial bone,” Lasers Surg. Med. 44(10), 805–814 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Conrath, J.

G. Latour, G. Georges, L. S. Lamoine, C. Deumié, J. Conrath, and L. Hoffart, “Human graft cornea and laser incisions imaging with micrometer scale resolution full-field optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(5), 056006 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Contag, C. H.

D. D. Lo, M. A. Mackanos, M. T. Chung, J. S. Hyun, D. T. Montoro, M. Grova, C. Liu, J. Wang, D. Palanker, A. J. Connolly, M. T. Longaker, C. H. Contag, and D. C. Wan, “Femtosecond plasma mediated laser ablation has advantages over mechanical osteotomy of cranial bone,” Lasers Surg. Med. 44(10), 805–814 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. M. Cowan, Y.-Y. Shi, O. O. Aalami, Y.-F. Chou, C. Mari, R. Thomas, N. Quarto, C. H. Contag, B. Wu, and M. T. Longaker, “Adipose-derived adult stromal cells heal critical-size mouse calvarial defects,” Nat. Biotechnol. 22(5), 560–567 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cote, D.

I. Veilleux, J. A. Spencer, D. P. Biss, D. Cote, and C. P. Lin, “In Vivo Cell Tracking With Video Rate Multimodality Laser Scanning Microscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(1), 10–18 (2008).
[Crossref]

Cowan, C. M.

C. M. Cowan, Y.-Y. Shi, O. O. Aalami, Y.-F. Chou, C. Mari, R. Thomas, N. Quarto, C. H. Contag, B. Wu, and M. T. Longaker, “Adipose-derived adult stromal cells heal critical-size mouse calvarial defects,” Nat. Biotechnol. 22(5), 560–567 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Crawford, T. H. R.

B. Emigh, R. An, E. M. Hsu, T. H. R. Crawford, H. K. Haugen, G. R. Wohl, J. E. Hayward, and Q. Fang, “Porcine cortical bone ablation by ultrashort pulsed laser irradiation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(2), 028001 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D’Uva, G.

A. Ludin, T. Itkin, S. Gur-Cohen, A. Mildner, E. Shezen, K. Golan, O. Kollet, A. Kalinkovich, Z. Porat, G. D’Uva, A. Schajnovitz, E. Voronov, D. A. Brenner, R. N. Apte, S. Jung, and T. Lapidot, “Monocytes-macrophages that express α-smooth muscle actin preserve primitive hematopoietic cells in the bone marrow,” Nat. Immunol. 13(11), 1072–1082 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Da Silva, L. B.

B. M. Kim, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, E. J. Joslin, P. M. Celliers, J. Eichler, and L. B. Da Silva, “Influence of pulse duration on ultrashort laser pulse ablation of biological tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt. 6(3), 332–338 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Neev, L. B. Da Silva, M. D. Feit, M. D. Perry, A. M. Rubenchik, and B. C. Stuart, “Ultrashort pulse lasers for hard tissue ablation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(4), 790–800 (1996).
[Crossref]

de Veer, M.

L. G. Ng, J. S. Qin, B. Roediger, Y. Wang, R. Jain, L. L. Cavanagh, A. L. Smith, C. A. Jones, M. de Veer, M. A. Grimbaldeston, E. N. Meeusen, and W. Weninger, “Visualizing the neutrophil response to sterile tissue injury in mouse dermis reveals a three-phase cascade of events,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 131(10), 2058–2068 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dela Rosa, A.

A. Dela Rosa, A. V. Sarma, C. Q. Le, R. S. Jones, and D. Fried, “Peripheral thermal and mechanical damage to dentin with microsecond and sub-microsecond 9.6 microm, 2.79 microm, and 0.355 microm laser pulses,” Lasers Surg. Med. 35(3), 214–228 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Delouise, L. A.

Deumié, C.

G. Latour, G. Georges, L. S. Lamoine, C. Deumié, J. Conrath, and L. Hoffart, “Human graft cornea and laser incisions imaging with micrometer scale resolution full-field optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(5), 056006 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Donate, D.

V. Nuzzo, K. Plamann, M. Savoldelli, M. Merano, D. Donate, O. Albert, P. F. Gardeazábal Rodríguez, G. Mourou, and J.-M. Legeais, “In situ monitoring of second-harmonic generation in human corneas to compensate for femtosecond laser pulse attenuation in keratoplasty,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(6), 064032 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dong, C. Y.

Du, D.

D. Du, X. Liu, G. Korn, J. Squier, and G. Mourou, “Laser‐induced breakdown by impact ionization in SiO2 with pulse widths from 7 ns to 150 fs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(23), 3071–3073 (1994).
[Crossref]

Dunlop, B.

R. An, G. W. Khadar, E. I. Wilk, B. Emigh, H. K. Haugen, G. R. Wohl, B. Dunlop, M. Anvari, J. E. Hayward, and Q. Fang, “Ultrafast laser ablation and machining large-size structures on porcine bone,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(7), 070504 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eckert, S.

Eduardo, C. P.

M. S. Bello-Silva, M. Wehner, C. P. Eduardo, F. Lampert, R. Poprawe, M. Hermans, and M. Esteves-Oliveira, “Precise ablation of dental hard tissues with ultra-short pulsed lasers. Preliminary exploratory investigation on adequate laser parameters,” Lasers Med. Sci. 28(1), 171–184 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eichler, J.

B. M. Kim, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, E. J. Joslin, P. M. Celliers, J. Eichler, and L. B. Da Silva, “Influence of pulse duration on ultrashort laser pulse ablation of biological tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt. 6(3), 332–338 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Emigh, B.

R. An, G. W. Khadar, E. I. Wilk, B. Emigh, H. K. Haugen, G. R. Wohl, B. Dunlop, M. Anvari, J. E. Hayward, and Q. Fang, “Ultrafast laser ablation and machining large-size structures on porcine bone,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(7), 070504 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Emigh, R. An, E. M. Hsu, T. H. R. Crawford, H. K. Haugen, G. R. Wohl, J. E. Hayward, and Q. Fang, “Porcine cortical bone ablation by ultrashort pulsed laser irradiation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(2), 028001 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Esteves-Oliveira, M.

M. S. Bello-Silva, M. Wehner, C. P. Eduardo, F. Lampert, R. Poprawe, M. Hermans, and M. Esteves-Oliveira, “Precise ablation of dental hard tissues with ultra-short pulsed lasers. Preliminary exploratory investigation on adequate laser parameters,” Lasers Med. Sci. 28(1), 171–184 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fang, Q.

R. An, G. W. Khadar, E. I. Wilk, B. Emigh, H. K. Haugen, G. R. Wohl, B. Dunlop, M. Anvari, J. E. Hayward, and Q. Fang, “Ultrafast laser ablation and machining large-size structures on porcine bone,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(7), 070504 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Emigh, R. An, E. M. Hsu, T. H. R. Crawford, H. K. Haugen, G. R. Wohl, J. E. Hayward, and Q. Fang, “Porcine cortical bone ablation by ultrashort pulsed laser irradiation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(2), 028001 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feit, M. D.

B. M. Kim, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, E. J. Joslin, P. M. Celliers, J. Eichler, and L. B. Da Silva, “Influence of pulse duration on ultrashort laser pulse ablation of biological tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt. 6(3), 332–338 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Neev, L. B. Da Silva, M. D. Feit, M. D. Perry, A. M. Rubenchik, and B. C. Stuart, “Ultrashort pulse lasers for hard tissue ablation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(4), 790–800 (1996).
[Crossref]

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, “Laser-Induced Damage in Dielectrics with Nanosecond to Subpicosecond Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74(12), 2248–2251 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ferdman, J.

J. Nguyen, J. Ferdman, M. Zhao, D. Huland, S. Saqqa, J. Ma, N. Nishimura, T. H. Schwartz, and C. B. Schaffer, “Sub-surface, micrometer-scale incisions produced in rodent cortex using tightly-focused femtosecond laser pulses,” Lasers Surg. Med. 43(5), 382–391 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Freidank, S.

Frenette, P. S.

P. Bianco, X. Cao, P. S. Frenette, J. J. Mao, P. G. Robey, P. J. Simmons, and C.-Y. Wang, “The meaning, the sense and the significance: translating the science of mesenchymal stem cells into medicine,” Nat. Med. 19(1), 35–42 (2013).
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A. Dela Rosa, A. V. Sarma, C. Q. Le, R. S. Jones, and D. Fried, “Peripheral thermal and mechanical damage to dentin with microsecond and sub-microsecond 9.6 microm, 2.79 microm, and 0.355 microm laser pulses,” Lasers Surg. Med. 35(3), 214–228 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fromm, M.

O. Stachs, S. Schumacher, M. Hovakimyan, M. Fromm, A. Heisterkamp, H. Lubatschowski, and R. Guthoff, “Visualization of femtosecond laser pulse-induced microincisions inside crystalline lens tissue,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 35(11), 1979–1983 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fujisaki, J.

D. Park, J. A. Spencer, B. I. Koh, T. Kobayashi, J. Fujisaki, T. L. Clemens, C. P. Lin, H. M. Kronenberg, and D. T. Scadden, “Endogenous bone marrow MSCs are dynamic, fate-restricted participants in bone maintenance and regeneration,” Cell Stem Cell 10(3), 259–272 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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V. Nuzzo, K. Plamann, M. Savoldelli, M. Merano, D. Donate, O. Albert, P. F. Gardeazábal Rodríguez, G. Mourou, and J.-M. Legeais, “In situ monitoring of second-harmonic generation in human corneas to compensate for femtosecond laser pulse attenuation in keratoplasty,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(6), 064032 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gebert, A.

Georges, G.

G. Latour, G. Georges, L. S. Lamoine, C. Deumié, J. Conrath, and L. Hoffart, “Human graft cornea and laser incisions imaging with micrometer scale resolution full-field optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(5), 056006 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Giese, G.

M. Han, L. Zickler, G. Giese, M. Walter, F. H. Loesel, and J. F. Bille, “Second-harmonic imaging of cornea after intrastromal femtosecond laser ablation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(4), 760–766 (2004).
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Girard, B.

B. Girard, M. Cloutier, D. J. Wilson, C. M. L. Clokie, R. J. D. Miller, and B. C. Wilson, “Microtomographic analysis of healing of femtosecond laser bone calvarial wounds compared to mechanical instruments in mice with and without application of BMP-7,” Lasers Surg. Med. 39(5), 458–467 (2007).
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B. Girard, D. Yu, M. R. Armstrong, B. C. Wilson, C. M. L. Clokie, and R. J. D. Miller, “Effects of femtosecond laser irradiation on osseous tissues,” Lasers Surg. Med. 39(3), 273–285 (2007).
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Glazowski, C. E.

Golan, K.

A. Ludin, T. Itkin, S. Gur-Cohen, A. Mildner, E. Shezen, K. Golan, O. Kollet, A. Kalinkovich, Z. Porat, G. D’Uva, A. Schajnovitz, E. Voronov, D. A. Brenner, R. N. Apte, S. Jung, and T. Lapidot, “Monocytes-macrophages that express α-smooth muscle actin preserve primitive hematopoietic cells in the bone marrow,” Nat. Immunol. 13(11), 1072–1082 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grimbaldeston, M. A.

L. G. Ng, J. S. Qin, B. Roediger, Y. Wang, R. Jain, L. L. Cavanagh, A. L. Smith, C. A. Jones, M. de Veer, M. A. Grimbaldeston, E. N. Meeusen, and W. Weninger, “Visualizing the neutrophil response to sterile tissue injury in mouse dermis reveals a three-phase cascade of events,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 131(10), 2058–2068 (2011).
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X. Cai, Y. Lin, P. V. Hauschka, and B. E. Grottkau, “Adipose stem cells originate from perivascular cells,” Biol. Cell 103(9), 435–447 (2011).
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Grova, M.

D. D. Lo, M. A. Mackanos, M. T. Chung, J. S. Hyun, D. T. Montoro, M. Grova, C. Liu, J. Wang, D. Palanker, A. J. Connolly, M. T. Longaker, C. H. Contag, and D. C. Wan, “Femtosecond plasma mediated laser ablation has advantages over mechanical osteotomy of cranial bone,” Lasers Surg. Med. 44(10), 805–814 (2012).
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Gruber, R.

B. J. Schaller, R. Gruber, H. A. Merten, T. Kruschat, H. Schliephake, M. Buchfelder, and H. C. Ludwig, “Piezoelectric bone surgery: a revolutionary technique for minimally invasive surgery in cranial base and spinal surgery? Technical note,” Neurosurgery 57, E410 (2005).

Gur-Cohen, S.

A. Ludin, T. Itkin, S. Gur-Cohen, A. Mildner, E. Shezen, K. Golan, O. Kollet, A. Kalinkovich, Z. Porat, G. D’Uva, A. Schajnovitz, E. Voronov, D. A. Brenner, R. N. Apte, S. Jung, and T. Lapidot, “Monocytes-macrophages that express α-smooth muscle actin preserve primitive hematopoietic cells in the bone marrow,” Nat. Immunol. 13(11), 1072–1082 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guthoff, R.

O. Stachs, S. Schumacher, M. Hovakimyan, M. Fromm, A. Heisterkamp, H. Lubatschowski, and R. Guthoff, “Visualization of femtosecond laser pulse-induced microincisions inside crystalline lens tissue,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 35(11), 1979–1983 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Han, M.

M. Han, L. Zickler, G. Giese, M. Walter, F. H. Loesel, and J. F. Bille, “Second-harmonic imaging of cornea after intrastromal femtosecond laser ablation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(4), 760–766 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Haugen, H. K.

R. An, G. W. Khadar, E. I. Wilk, B. Emigh, H. K. Haugen, G. R. Wohl, B. Dunlop, M. Anvari, J. E. Hayward, and Q. Fang, “Ultrafast laser ablation and machining large-size structures on porcine bone,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(7), 070504 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Emigh, R. An, E. M. Hsu, T. H. R. Crawford, H. K. Haugen, G. R. Wohl, J. E. Hayward, and Q. Fang, “Porcine cortical bone ablation by ultrashort pulsed laser irradiation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(2), 028001 (2012).
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Hauschka, P. V.

J. A. Phillips, L. J. Mortensen, J. P. Ruiz, R. Sridharan, S. Kumar, M. Torres, P. Sharma, C. P. Lin, J. M. Karp, and P. V. Hauschka, “Advances in Single-cell Tracking of Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) During Musculoskeletal Regeneration,” Orthop. J. Harv. Med. Sch. 14, 22–28 (2012).
[PubMed]

X. Cai, Y. Lin, P. V. Hauschka, and B. E. Grottkau, “Adipose stem cells originate from perivascular cells,” Biol. Cell 103(9), 435–447 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hayward, J. E.

R. An, G. W. Khadar, E. I. Wilk, B. Emigh, H. K. Haugen, G. R. Wohl, B. Dunlop, M. Anvari, J. E. Hayward, and Q. Fang, “Ultrafast laser ablation and machining large-size structures on porcine bone,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(7), 070504 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Emigh, R. An, E. M. Hsu, T. H. R. Crawford, H. K. Haugen, G. R. Wohl, J. E. Hayward, and Q. Fang, “Porcine cortical bone ablation by ultrashort pulsed laser irradiation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(2), 028001 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Heisterkamp, A.

O. Stachs, S. Schumacher, M. Hovakimyan, M. Fromm, A. Heisterkamp, H. Lubatschowski, and R. Guthoff, “Visualization of femtosecond laser pulse-induced microincisions inside crystalline lens tissue,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 35(11), 1979–1983 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hermans, M.

M. S. Bello-Silva, M. Wehner, C. P. Eduardo, F. Lampert, R. Poprawe, M. Hermans, and M. Esteves-Oliveira, “Precise ablation of dental hard tissues with ultra-short pulsed lasers. Preliminary exploratory investigation on adequate laser parameters,” Lasers Med. Sci. 28(1), 171–184 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hoffart, L.

G. Latour, G. Georges, L. S. Lamoine, C. Deumié, J. Conrath, and L. Hoffart, “Human graft cornea and laser incisions imaging with micrometer scale resolution full-field optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(5), 056006 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Horton, N. G.

N. G. Horton, K. Wang, D. Kobat, C. G. Clark, F. W. Wise, C. B. Schaffer, and C. Xu, “In vivo three-photon microscopy of subcortical structures within an intact mouse brain,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 205–209 (2013).
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K. Wang, T. M. Liu, J. Wu, N. G. Horton, C. P. Lin, and C. Xu, “Three-color femtosecond source for simultaneous excitation of three fluorescent proteins in two-photon fluorescence microscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(9), 1972–1977 (2012).
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Hovakimyan, M.

O. Stachs, S. Schumacher, M. Hovakimyan, M. Fromm, A. Heisterkamp, H. Lubatschowski, and R. Guthoff, “Visualization of femtosecond laser pulse-induced microincisions inside crystalline lens tissue,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 35(11), 1979–1983 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hovhannisyan, V.

Hsu, E. M.

B. Emigh, R. An, E. M. Hsu, T. H. R. Crawford, H. K. Haugen, G. R. Wohl, J. E. Hayward, and Q. Fang, “Porcine cortical bone ablation by ultrashort pulsed laser irradiation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(2), 028001 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hu, C.

Huland, D.

J. Nguyen, J. Ferdman, M. Zhao, D. Huland, S. Saqqa, J. Ma, N. Nishimura, T. H. Schwartz, and C. B. Schaffer, “Sub-surface, micrometer-scale incisions produced in rodent cortex using tightly-focused femtosecond laser pulses,” Lasers Surg. Med. 43(5), 382–391 (2011).
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Hunt, A. J.

A. P. Joglekar, H. Liu, G. J. Spooner, E. Meyhöfer, G. Mourou, and A. J. Hunt, “A study of the deterministic character of optical damage by femtosecond laser pulses and applications to nanomachining,” Appl. Phys. B 77, 25–30 (2003).
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Hüttman, G.

A. Vogel, J. Noack, G. Hüttman, and G. Paltauf, “Mechanisms of femtosecond laser nanosurgery of cells and tissues,” Appl. Phys. B 81(8), 1015–1047 (2005).
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Huttmann, G.

Hyun, J. S.

D. D. Lo, M. A. Mackanos, M. T. Chung, J. S. Hyun, D. T. Montoro, M. Grova, C. Liu, J. Wang, D. Palanker, A. J. Connolly, M. T. Longaker, C. H. Contag, and D. C. Wan, “Femtosecond plasma mediated laser ablation has advantages over mechanical osteotomy of cranial bone,” Lasers Surg. Med. 44(10), 805–814 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Itkin, T.

A. Ludin, T. Itkin, S. Gur-Cohen, A. Mildner, E. Shezen, K. Golan, O. Kollet, A. Kalinkovich, Z. Porat, G. D’Uva, A. Schajnovitz, E. Voronov, D. A. Brenner, R. N. Apte, S. Jung, and T. Lapidot, “Monocytes-macrophages that express α-smooth muscle actin preserve primitive hematopoietic cells in the bone marrow,” Nat. Immunol. 13(11), 1072–1082 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jain, R.

L. G. Ng, J. S. Qin, B. Roediger, Y. Wang, R. Jain, L. L. Cavanagh, A. L. Smith, C. A. Jones, M. de Veer, M. A. Grimbaldeston, E. N. Meeusen, and W. Weninger, “Visualizing the neutrophil response to sterile tissue injury in mouse dermis reveals a three-phase cascade of events,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 131(10), 2058–2068 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jeong, D. C.

Jiang, X.

Z. Kalajzic, H. Li, L.-P. Wang, X. Jiang, K. Lamothe, D. J. Adams, H. L. Aguila, D. W. Rowe, and I. Kalajzic, “Use of an alpha-smooth muscle actin GFP reporter to identify an osteoprogenitor population,” Bone 43(3), 501–510 (2008).
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Jin, Y.

M. F. Yanik, H. Cinar, H. N. Cinar, A. D. Chisholm, Y. Jin, and A. Ben-Yakar, “Neurosurgery: functional regeneration after laser axotomy,” Nature 432(7019), 822 (2004).
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Joglekar, A. P.

A. P. Joglekar, H. Liu, G. J. Spooner, E. Meyhöfer, G. Mourou, and A. J. Hunt, “A study of the deterministic character of optical damage by femtosecond laser pulses and applications to nanomachining,” Appl. Phys. B 77, 25–30 (2003).
[Crossref]

Jones, C. A.

L. G. Ng, J. S. Qin, B. Roediger, Y. Wang, R. Jain, L. L. Cavanagh, A. L. Smith, C. A. Jones, M. de Veer, M. A. Grimbaldeston, E. N. Meeusen, and W. Weninger, “Visualizing the neutrophil response to sterile tissue injury in mouse dermis reveals a three-phase cascade of events,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 131(10), 2058–2068 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jones, R. S.

A. Dela Rosa, A. V. Sarma, C. Q. Le, R. S. Jones, and D. Fried, “Peripheral thermal and mechanical damage to dentin with microsecond and sub-microsecond 9.6 microm, 2.79 microm, and 0.355 microm laser pulses,” Lasers Surg. Med. 35(3), 214–228 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Joslin, E. J.

B. M. Kim, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, E. J. Joslin, P. M. Celliers, J. Eichler, and L. B. Da Silva, “Influence of pulse duration on ultrashort laser pulse ablation of biological tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt. 6(3), 332–338 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jung, S.

A. Ludin, T. Itkin, S. Gur-Cohen, A. Mildner, E. Shezen, K. Golan, O. Kollet, A. Kalinkovich, Z. Porat, G. D’Uva, A. Schajnovitz, E. Voronov, D. A. Brenner, R. N. Apte, S. Jung, and T. Lapidot, “Monocytes-macrophages that express α-smooth muscle actin preserve primitive hematopoietic cells in the bone marrow,” Nat. Immunol. 13(11), 1072–1082 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kalajzic, I.

Z. Kalajzic, H. Li, L.-P. Wang, X. Jiang, K. Lamothe, D. J. Adams, H. L. Aguila, D. W. Rowe, and I. Kalajzic, “Use of an alpha-smooth muscle actin GFP reporter to identify an osteoprogenitor population,” Bone 43(3), 501–510 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kalajzic, Z.

Z. Kalajzic, H. Li, L.-P. Wang, X. Jiang, K. Lamothe, D. J. Adams, H. L. Aguila, D. W. Rowe, and I. Kalajzic, “Use of an alpha-smooth muscle actin GFP reporter to identify an osteoprogenitor population,” Bone 43(3), 501–510 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kalinkovich, A.

A. Ludin, T. Itkin, S. Gur-Cohen, A. Mildner, E. Shezen, K. Golan, O. Kollet, A. Kalinkovich, Z. Porat, G. D’Uva, A. Schajnovitz, E. Voronov, D. A. Brenner, R. N. Apte, S. Jung, and T. Lapidot, “Monocytes-macrophages that express α-smooth muscle actin preserve primitive hematopoietic cells in the bone marrow,” Nat. Immunol. 13(11), 1072–1082 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Karp, J. M.

J. A. Phillips, L. J. Mortensen, J. P. Ruiz, R. Sridharan, S. Kumar, M. Torres, P. Sharma, C. P. Lin, J. M. Karp, and P. V. Hauschka, “Advances in Single-cell Tracking of Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) During Musculoskeletal Regeneration,” Orthop. J. Harv. Med. Sch. 14, 22–28 (2012).
[PubMed]

Kautek, W.

J. Krüger, W. Kautek, and H. Newesely, “Femtosecond-pulse laser ablation of dental hydroxyapatite and single-crystalline fluoroapatite,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 69(7), S403–S407 (1999).
[Crossref]

M. Lenzner, J. Krüger, S. Sartania, Z. Cheng, C. Spielmann, G. Mourou, W. Kautek, and F. Krausz, “Femtosecond Optical Breakdown in Dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80(18), 4076–4079 (1998).
[Crossref]

Khadar, G. W.

R. An, G. W. Khadar, E. I. Wilk, B. Emigh, H. K. Haugen, G. R. Wohl, B. Dunlop, M. Anvari, J. E. Hayward, and Q. Fang, “Ultrafast laser ablation and machining large-size structures on porcine bone,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(7), 070504 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, B. M.

B. M. Kim, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, E. J. Joslin, P. M. Celliers, J. Eichler, and L. B. Da Silva, “Influence of pulse duration on ultrashort laser pulse ablation of biological tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt. 6(3), 332–338 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kleinfeld, D.

Klinger, A.

Kobat, D.

N. G. Horton, K. Wang, D. Kobat, C. G. Clark, F. W. Wise, C. B. Schaffer, and C. Xu, “In vivo three-photon microscopy of subcortical structures within an intact mouse brain,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 205–209 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kobayashi, T.

D. Park, J. A. Spencer, B. I. Koh, T. Kobayashi, J. Fujisaki, T. L. Clemens, C. P. Lin, H. M. Kronenberg, and D. T. Scadden, “Endogenous bone marrow MSCs are dynamic, fate-restricted participants in bone maintenance and regeneration,” Cell Stem Cell 10(3), 259–272 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Koh, B. I.

D. Park, J. A. Spencer, B. I. Koh, T. Kobayashi, J. Fujisaki, T. L. Clemens, C. P. Lin, H. M. Kronenberg, and D. T. Scadden, “Endogenous bone marrow MSCs are dynamic, fate-restricted participants in bone maintenance and regeneration,” Cell Stem Cell 10(3), 259–272 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kollet, O.

A. Ludin, T. Itkin, S. Gur-Cohen, A. Mildner, E. Shezen, K. Golan, O. Kollet, A. Kalinkovich, Z. Porat, G. D’Uva, A. Schajnovitz, E. Voronov, D. A. Brenner, R. N. Apte, S. Jung, and T. Lapidot, “Monocytes-macrophages that express α-smooth muscle actin preserve primitive hematopoietic cells in the bone marrow,” Nat. Immunol. 13(11), 1072–1082 (2012).
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Kopta, J. A.

G. M. Rayan, D. T. Stanfield, S. Cahill, S. D. Kosanke, and J. A. Kopta, “Effects of rapid pulsed CO2 laser beam on cortical bone in vivo,” Lasers Surg. Med. 12(6), 615–620 (1992).
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D. Du, X. Liu, G. Korn, J. Squier, and G. Mourou, “Laser‐induced breakdown by impact ionization in SiO2 with pulse widths from 7 ns to 150 fs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(23), 3071–3073 (1994).
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Kosanke, S. D.

G. M. Rayan, D. T. Stanfield, S. Cahill, S. D. Kosanke, and J. A. Kopta, “Effects of rapid pulsed CO2 laser beam on cortical bone in vivo,” Lasers Surg. Med. 12(6), 615–620 (1992).
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Krausz, F.

M. Lenzner, J. Krüger, S. Sartania, Z. Cheng, C. Spielmann, G. Mourou, W. Kautek, and F. Krausz, “Femtosecond Optical Breakdown in Dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80(18), 4076–4079 (1998).
[Crossref]

Kronenberg, H. M.

D. Park, J. A. Spencer, B. I. Koh, T. Kobayashi, J. Fujisaki, T. L. Clemens, C. P. Lin, H. M. Kronenberg, and D. T. Scadden, “Endogenous bone marrow MSCs are dynamic, fate-restricted participants in bone maintenance and regeneration,” Cell Stem Cell 10(3), 259–272 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Krüger, J.

J. Krüger, W. Kautek, and H. Newesely, “Femtosecond-pulse laser ablation of dental hydroxyapatite and single-crystalline fluoroapatite,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 69(7), S403–S407 (1999).
[Crossref]

M. Lenzner, J. Krüger, S. Sartania, Z. Cheng, C. Spielmann, G. Mourou, W. Kautek, and F. Krausz, “Femtosecond Optical Breakdown in Dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80(18), 4076–4079 (1998).
[Crossref]

Kruschat, T.

B. J. Schaller, R. Gruber, H. A. Merten, T. Kruschat, H. Schliephake, M. Buchfelder, and H. C. Ludwig, “Piezoelectric bone surgery: a revolutionary technique for minimally invasive surgery in cranial base and spinal surgery? Technical note,” Neurosurgery 57, E410 (2005).

Kumar, S.

J. A. Phillips, L. J. Mortensen, J. P. Ruiz, R. Sridharan, S. Kumar, M. Torres, P. Sharma, C. P. Lin, J. M. Karp, and P. V. Hauschka, “Advances in Single-cell Tracking of Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) During Musculoskeletal Regeneration,” Orthop. J. Harv. Med. Sch. 14, 22–28 (2012).
[PubMed]

Lamoine, L. S.

G. Latour, G. Georges, L. S. Lamoine, C. Deumié, J. Conrath, and L. Hoffart, “Human graft cornea and laser incisions imaging with micrometer scale resolution full-field optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(5), 056006 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lamothe, K.

Z. Kalajzic, H. Li, L.-P. Wang, X. Jiang, K. Lamothe, D. J. Adams, H. L. Aguila, D. W. Rowe, and I. Kalajzic, “Use of an alpha-smooth muscle actin GFP reporter to identify an osteoprogenitor population,” Bone 43(3), 501–510 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lampert, F.

M. S. Bello-Silva, M. Wehner, C. P. Eduardo, F. Lampert, R. Poprawe, M. Hermans, and M. Esteves-Oliveira, “Precise ablation of dental hard tissues with ultra-short pulsed lasers. Preliminary exploratory investigation on adequate laser parameters,” Lasers Med. Sci. 28(1), 171–184 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lapidot, T.

A. Ludin, T. Itkin, S. Gur-Cohen, A. Mildner, E. Shezen, K. Golan, O. Kollet, A. Kalinkovich, Z. Porat, G. D’Uva, A. Schajnovitz, E. Voronov, D. A. Brenner, R. N. Apte, S. Jung, and T. Lapidot, “Monocytes-macrophages that express α-smooth muscle actin preserve primitive hematopoietic cells in the bone marrow,” Nat. Immunol. 13(11), 1072–1082 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Latour, G.

G. Latour, G. Georges, L. S. Lamoine, C. Deumié, J. Conrath, and L. Hoffart, “Human graft cornea and laser incisions imaging with micrometer scale resolution full-field optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(5), 056006 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Le, C. Q.

A. Dela Rosa, A. V. Sarma, C. Q. Le, R. S. Jones, and D. Fried, “Peripheral thermal and mechanical damage to dentin with microsecond and sub-microsecond 9.6 microm, 2.79 microm, and 0.355 microm laser pulses,” Lasers Surg. Med. 35(3), 214–228 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Legeais, J.-M.

V. Nuzzo, K. Plamann, M. Savoldelli, M. Merano, D. Donate, O. Albert, P. F. Gardeazábal Rodríguez, G. Mourou, and J.-M. Legeais, “In situ monitoring of second-harmonic generation in human corneas to compensate for femtosecond laser pulse attenuation in keratoplasty,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(6), 064032 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lenzner, M.

M. Lenzner, J. Krüger, S. Sartania, Z. Cheng, C. Spielmann, G. Mourou, W. Kautek, and F. Krausz, “Femtosecond Optical Breakdown in Dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80(18), 4076–4079 (1998).
[Crossref]

Li, H.

Z. Kalajzic, H. Li, L.-P. Wang, X. Jiang, K. Lamothe, D. J. Adams, H. L. Aguila, D. W. Rowe, and I. Kalajzic, “Use of an alpha-smooth muscle actin GFP reporter to identify an osteoprogenitor population,” Bone 43(3), 501–510 (2008).
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Liaw, L.-H. L.

J. S. Nelson, A. Orenstein, L.-H. L. Liaw, and M. W. Berns, “Mid-infrared erbium:YAG laser ablation of bone: The effect of laser osteotomy on bone healing,” Lasers Surg. Med. 9(4), 362–374 (1989).
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Lin, C. P.

J. A. Phillips, L. J. Mortensen, J. P. Ruiz, R. Sridharan, S. Kumar, M. Torres, P. Sharma, C. P. Lin, J. M. Karp, and P. V. Hauschka, “Advances in Single-cell Tracking of Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) During Musculoskeletal Regeneration,” Orthop. J. Harv. Med. Sch. 14, 22–28 (2012).
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K. Wang, T. M. Liu, J. Wu, N. G. Horton, C. P. Lin, and C. Xu, “Three-color femtosecond source for simultaneous excitation of three fluorescent proteins in two-photon fluorescence microscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(9), 1972–1977 (2012).
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D. Park, J. A. Spencer, B. I. Koh, T. Kobayashi, J. Fujisaki, T. L. Clemens, C. P. Lin, H. M. Kronenberg, and D. T. Scadden, “Endogenous bone marrow MSCs are dynamic, fate-restricted participants in bone maintenance and regeneration,” Cell Stem Cell 10(3), 259–272 (2012).
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I. Veilleux, J. A. Spencer, D. P. Biss, D. Cote, and C. P. Lin, “In Vivo Cell Tracking With Video Rate Multimodality Laser Scanning Microscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(1), 10–18 (2008).
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Lin, Y.

X. Cai, Y. Lin, P. V. Hauschka, and B. E. Grottkau, “Adipose stem cells originate from perivascular cells,” Biol. Cell 103(9), 435–447 (2011).
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Linz, N.

Liu, C.

D. D. Lo, M. A. Mackanos, M. T. Chung, J. S. Hyun, D. T. Montoro, M. Grova, C. Liu, J. Wang, D. Palanker, A. J. Connolly, M. T. Longaker, C. H. Contag, and D. C. Wan, “Femtosecond plasma mediated laser ablation has advantages over mechanical osteotomy of cranial bone,” Lasers Surg. Med. 44(10), 805–814 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, H.

A. P. Joglekar, H. Liu, G. J. Spooner, E. Meyhöfer, G. Mourou, and A. J. Hunt, “A study of the deterministic character of optical damage by femtosecond laser pulses and applications to nanomachining,” Appl. Phys. B 77, 25–30 (2003).
[Crossref]

Liu, T. M.

Liu, X.

D. Du, X. Liu, G. Korn, J. Squier, and G. Mourou, “Laser‐induced breakdown by impact ionization in SiO2 with pulse widths from 7 ns to 150 fs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(23), 3071–3073 (1994).
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Liu, Y.

Y. Liu and M. Niemz, “Ablation of femural bone with femtosecond laser pulses--a feasibility study,” Lasers Med. Sci. 22(3), 171–174 (2007).
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Lizarelli, R. F.

G. Nicolodelli, R. F. Lizarelli, and V. S. Bagnato, “Influence of effective number of pulses on the morphological structure of teeth and bovine femur after femtosecond laser ablation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(4), 048001 (2012).
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Lo, D. D.

D. D. Lo, M. A. Mackanos, M. T. Chung, J. S. Hyun, D. T. Montoro, M. Grova, C. Liu, J. Wang, D. Palanker, A. J. Connolly, M. T. Longaker, C. H. Contag, and D. C. Wan, “Femtosecond plasma mediated laser ablation has advantages over mechanical osteotomy of cranial bone,” Lasers Surg. Med. 44(10), 805–814 (2012).
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Lo, W.

Loesel, F. H.

M. Han, L. Zickler, G. Giese, M. Walter, F. H. Loesel, and J. F. Bille, “Second-harmonic imaging of cornea after intrastromal femtosecond laser ablation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(4), 760–766 (2004).
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Longaker, M. T.

D. D. Lo, M. A. Mackanos, M. T. Chung, J. S. Hyun, D. T. Montoro, M. Grova, C. Liu, J. Wang, D. Palanker, A. J. Connolly, M. T. Longaker, C. H. Contag, and D. C. Wan, “Femtosecond plasma mediated laser ablation has advantages over mechanical osteotomy of cranial bone,” Lasers Surg. Med. 44(10), 805–814 (2012).
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C. M. Cowan, Y.-Y. Shi, O. O. Aalami, Y.-F. Chou, C. Mari, R. Thomas, N. Quarto, C. H. Contag, B. Wu, and M. T. Longaker, “Adipose-derived adult stromal cells heal critical-size mouse calvarial defects,” Nat. Biotechnol. 22(5), 560–567 (2004).
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Lorenz, M.

A. Rosenfeld, M. Lorenz, R. Stoian, and D. Ashkenasi, “Ultrashort-laser-pulse damage threshold of transparent materials and the role of incubation,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 69(7), S373–S376 (1999).
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O. Stachs, S. Schumacher, M. Hovakimyan, M. Fromm, A. Heisterkamp, H. Lubatschowski, and R. Guthoff, “Visualization of femtosecond laser pulse-induced microincisions inside crystalline lens tissue,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 35(11), 1979–1983 (2009).
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Ludin, A.

A. Ludin, T. Itkin, S. Gur-Cohen, A. Mildner, E. Shezen, K. Golan, O. Kollet, A. Kalinkovich, Z. Porat, G. D’Uva, A. Schajnovitz, E. Voronov, D. A. Brenner, R. N. Apte, S. Jung, and T. Lapidot, “Monocytes-macrophages that express α-smooth muscle actin preserve primitive hematopoietic cells in the bone marrow,” Nat. Immunol. 13(11), 1072–1082 (2012).
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B. J. Schaller, R. Gruber, H. A. Merten, T. Kruschat, H. Schliephake, M. Buchfelder, and H. C. Ludwig, “Piezoelectric bone surgery: a revolutionary technique for minimally invasive surgery in cranial base and spinal surgery? Technical note,” Neurosurgery 57, E410 (2005).

Ma, J.

J. Nguyen, J. Ferdman, M. Zhao, D. Huland, S. Saqqa, J. Ma, N. Nishimura, T. H. Schwartz, and C. B. Schaffer, “Sub-surface, micrometer-scale incisions produced in rodent cortex using tightly-focused femtosecond laser pulses,” Lasers Surg. Med. 43(5), 382–391 (2011).
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Mackanos, M. A.

D. D. Lo, M. A. Mackanos, M. T. Chung, J. S. Hyun, D. T. Montoro, M. Grova, C. Liu, J. Wang, D. Palanker, A. J. Connolly, M. T. Longaker, C. H. Contag, and D. C. Wan, “Femtosecond plasma mediated laser ablation has advantages over mechanical osteotomy of cranial bone,” Lasers Surg. Med. 44(10), 805–814 (2012).
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K. Yoshida, K. Uoshima, K. Oda, and T. Maeda, “Influence of heat stress to matrix on bone formation,” Clin. Oral Implants Res. 20(8), 782–790 (2009).
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P. Bianco, X. Cao, P. S. Frenette, J. J. Mao, P. G. Robey, P. J. Simmons, and C.-Y. Wang, “The meaning, the sense and the significance: translating the science of mesenchymal stem cells into medicine,” Nat. Med. 19(1), 35–42 (2013).
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C. M. Cowan, Y.-Y. Shi, O. O. Aalami, Y.-F. Chou, C. Mari, R. Thomas, N. Quarto, C. H. Contag, B. Wu, and M. T. Longaker, “Adipose-derived adult stromal cells heal critical-size mouse calvarial defects,” Nat. Biotechnol. 22(5), 560–567 (2004).
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L. G. Ng, J. S. Qin, B. Roediger, Y. Wang, R. Jain, L. L. Cavanagh, A. L. Smith, C. A. Jones, M. de Veer, M. A. Grimbaldeston, E. N. Meeusen, and W. Weninger, “Visualizing the neutrophil response to sterile tissue injury in mouse dermis reveals a three-phase cascade of events,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 131(10), 2058–2068 (2011).
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V. Nuzzo, K. Plamann, M. Savoldelli, M. Merano, D. Donate, O. Albert, P. F. Gardeazábal Rodríguez, G. Mourou, and J.-M. Legeais, “In situ monitoring of second-harmonic generation in human corneas to compensate for femtosecond laser pulse attenuation in keratoplasty,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(6), 064032 (2007).
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Merten, H. A.

B. J. Schaller, R. Gruber, H. A. Merten, T. Kruschat, H. Schliephake, M. Buchfelder, and H. C. Ludwig, “Piezoelectric bone surgery: a revolutionary technique for minimally invasive surgery in cranial base and spinal surgery? Technical note,” Neurosurgery 57, E410 (2005).

Meyhöfer, E.

A. P. Joglekar, H. Liu, G. J. Spooner, E. Meyhöfer, G. Mourou, and A. J. Hunt, “A study of the deterministic character of optical damage by femtosecond laser pulses and applications to nanomachining,” Appl. Phys. B 77, 25–30 (2003).
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A. Ludin, T. Itkin, S. Gur-Cohen, A. Mildner, E. Shezen, K. Golan, O. Kollet, A. Kalinkovich, Z. Porat, G. D’Uva, A. Schajnovitz, E. Voronov, D. A. Brenner, R. N. Apte, S. Jung, and T. Lapidot, “Monocytes-macrophages that express α-smooth muscle actin preserve primitive hematopoietic cells in the bone marrow,” Nat. Immunol. 13(11), 1072–1082 (2012).
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B. Girard, D. Yu, M. R. Armstrong, B. C. Wilson, C. M. L. Clokie, and R. J. D. Miller, “Effects of femtosecond laser irradiation on osseous tissues,” Lasers Surg. Med. 39(3), 273–285 (2007).
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B. Girard, M. Cloutier, D. J. Wilson, C. M. L. Clokie, R. J. D. Miller, and B. C. Wilson, “Microtomographic analysis of healing of femtosecond laser bone calvarial wounds compared to mechanical instruments in mice with and without application of BMP-7,” Lasers Surg. Med. 39(5), 458–467 (2007).
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D. D. Lo, M. A. Mackanos, M. T. Chung, J. S. Hyun, D. T. Montoro, M. Grova, C. Liu, J. Wang, D. Palanker, A. J. Connolly, M. T. Longaker, C. H. Contag, and D. C. Wan, “Femtosecond plasma mediated laser ablation has advantages over mechanical osteotomy of cranial bone,” Lasers Surg. Med. 44(10), 805–814 (2012).
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J. A. Phillips, L. J. Mortensen, J. P. Ruiz, R. Sridharan, S. Kumar, M. Torres, P. Sharma, C. P. Lin, J. M. Karp, and P. V. Hauschka, “Advances in Single-cell Tracking of Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) During Musculoskeletal Regeneration,” Orthop. J. Harv. Med. Sch. 14, 22–28 (2012).
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V. Nuzzo, K. Plamann, M. Savoldelli, M. Merano, D. Donate, O. Albert, P. F. Gardeazábal Rodríguez, G. Mourou, and J.-M. Legeais, “In situ monitoring of second-harmonic generation in human corneas to compensate for femtosecond laser pulse attenuation in keratoplasty,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(6), 064032 (2007).
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A. P. Joglekar, H. Liu, G. J. Spooner, E. Meyhöfer, G. Mourou, and A. J. Hunt, “A study of the deterministic character of optical damage by femtosecond laser pulses and applications to nanomachining,” Appl. Phys. B 77, 25–30 (2003).
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M. Lenzner, J. Krüger, S. Sartania, Z. Cheng, C. Spielmann, G. Mourou, W. Kautek, and F. Krausz, “Femtosecond Optical Breakdown in Dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80(18), 4076–4079 (1998).
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D. Du, X. Liu, G. Korn, J. Squier, and G. Mourou, “Laser‐induced breakdown by impact ionization in SiO2 with pulse widths from 7 ns to 150 fs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(23), 3071–3073 (1994).
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L. T. Cangueiro, R. Vilar, A. M. Botelho do Rego, and V. S. F. Muralha, “Femtosecond laser ablation of bovine cortical bone,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(12), 125005 (2012).
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J. Neev, L. B. Da Silva, M. D. Feit, M. D. Perry, A. M. Rubenchik, and B. C. Stuart, “Ultrashort pulse lasers for hard tissue ablation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(4), 790–800 (1996).
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J. S. Nelson, A. Orenstein, L.-H. L. Liaw, and M. W. Berns, “Mid-infrared erbium:YAG laser ablation of bone: The effect of laser osteotomy on bone healing,” Lasers Surg. Med. 9(4), 362–374 (1989).
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J. Krüger, W. Kautek, and H. Newesely, “Femtosecond-pulse laser ablation of dental hydroxyapatite and single-crystalline fluoroapatite,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 69(7), S403–S407 (1999).
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L. G. Ng, J. S. Qin, B. Roediger, Y. Wang, R. Jain, L. L. Cavanagh, A. L. Smith, C. A. Jones, M. de Veer, M. A. Grimbaldeston, E. N. Meeusen, and W. Weninger, “Visualizing the neutrophil response to sterile tissue injury in mouse dermis reveals a three-phase cascade of events,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 131(10), 2058–2068 (2011).
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J. Nguyen, J. Ferdman, M. Zhao, D. Huland, S. Saqqa, J. Ma, N. Nishimura, T. H. Schwartz, and C. B. Schaffer, “Sub-surface, micrometer-scale incisions produced in rodent cortex using tightly-focused femtosecond laser pulses,” Lasers Surg. Med. 43(5), 382–391 (2011).
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Nicolodelli, G.

G. Nicolodelli, R. F. Lizarelli, and V. S. Bagnato, “Influence of effective number of pulses on the morphological structure of teeth and bovine femur after femtosecond laser ablation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(4), 048001 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Y. Liu and M. Niemz, “Ablation of femural bone with femtosecond laser pulses--a feasibility study,” Lasers Med. Sci. 22(3), 171–174 (2007).
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Nishimura, N.

J. Nguyen, J. Ferdman, M. Zhao, D. Huland, S. Saqqa, J. Ma, N. Nishimura, T. H. Schwartz, and C. B. Schaffer, “Sub-surface, micrometer-scale incisions produced in rodent cortex using tightly-focused femtosecond laser pulses,” Lasers Surg. Med. 43(5), 382–391 (2011).
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A. Vogel, J. Noack, G. Hüttman, and G. Paltauf, “Mechanisms of femtosecond laser nanosurgery of cells and tissues,” Appl. Phys. B 81(8), 1015–1047 (2005).
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V. Nuzzo, K. Plamann, M. Savoldelli, M. Merano, D. Donate, O. Albert, P. F. Gardeazábal Rodríguez, G. Mourou, and J.-M. Legeais, “In situ monitoring of second-harmonic generation in human corneas to compensate for femtosecond laser pulse attenuation in keratoplasty,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(6), 064032 (2007).
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Oda, K.

K. Yoshida, K. Uoshima, K. Oda, and T. Maeda, “Influence of heat stress to matrix on bone formation,” Clin. Oral Implants Res. 20(8), 782–790 (2009).
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S. Alves, V. Oliveira, and R. Vilar, “Femtosecond laser ablation of dentin,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 45(24), 245401 (2012).
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J. S. Nelson, A. Orenstein, L.-H. L. Liaw, and M. W. Berns, “Mid-infrared erbium:YAG laser ablation of bone: The effect of laser osteotomy on bone healing,” Lasers Surg. Med. 9(4), 362–374 (1989).
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Orzekowsky-Schroeder, R.

Palanker, D.

D. D. Lo, M. A. Mackanos, M. T. Chung, J. S. Hyun, D. T. Montoro, M. Grova, C. Liu, J. Wang, D. Palanker, A. J. Connolly, M. T. Longaker, C. H. Contag, and D. C. Wan, “Femtosecond plasma mediated laser ablation has advantages over mechanical osteotomy of cranial bone,” Lasers Surg. Med. 44(10), 805–814 (2012).
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Paltauf, G.

A. Vogel, N. Linz, S. Freidank, and G. Paltauf, “Femtosecond-Laser-Induced Nanocavitation in Water: Implications for Optical Breakdown Threshold and Cell Surgery,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(3), 038102 (2008).
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A. Vogel, J. Noack, G. Hüttman, and G. Paltauf, “Mechanisms of femtosecond laser nanosurgery of cells and tissues,” Appl. Phys. B 81(8), 1015–1047 (2005).
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Park, D.

D. Park, J. A. Spencer, B. I. Koh, T. Kobayashi, J. Fujisaki, T. L. Clemens, C. P. Lin, H. M. Kronenberg, and D. T. Scadden, “Endogenous bone marrow MSCs are dynamic, fate-restricted participants in bone maintenance and regeneration,” Cell Stem Cell 10(3), 259–272 (2012).
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Perry, M. D.

J. Neev, L. B. Da Silva, M. D. Feit, M. D. Perry, A. M. Rubenchik, and B. C. Stuart, “Ultrashort pulse lasers for hard tissue ablation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(4), 790–800 (1996).
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B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, “Laser-Induced Damage in Dielectrics with Nanosecond to Subpicosecond Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74(12), 2248–2251 (1995).
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Phillips, J. A.

J. A. Phillips, L. J. Mortensen, J. P. Ruiz, R. Sridharan, S. Kumar, M. Torres, P. Sharma, C. P. Lin, J. M. Karp, and P. V. Hauschka, “Advances in Single-cell Tracking of Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) During Musculoskeletal Regeneration,” Orthop. J. Harv. Med. Sch. 14, 22–28 (2012).
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Plamann, K.

V. Nuzzo, K. Plamann, M. Savoldelli, M. Merano, D. Donate, O. Albert, P. F. Gardeazábal Rodríguez, G. Mourou, and J.-M. Legeais, “In situ monitoring of second-harmonic generation in human corneas to compensate for femtosecond laser pulse attenuation in keratoplasty,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(6), 064032 (2007).
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M. S. Bello-Silva, M. Wehner, C. P. Eduardo, F. Lampert, R. Poprawe, M. Hermans, and M. Esteves-Oliveira, “Precise ablation of dental hard tissues with ultra-short pulsed lasers. Preliminary exploratory investigation on adequate laser parameters,” Lasers Med. Sci. 28(1), 171–184 (2013).
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A. Ludin, T. Itkin, S. Gur-Cohen, A. Mildner, E. Shezen, K. Golan, O. Kollet, A. Kalinkovich, Z. Porat, G. D’Uva, A. Schajnovitz, E. Voronov, D. A. Brenner, R. N. Apte, S. Jung, and T. Lapidot, “Monocytes-macrophages that express α-smooth muscle actin preserve primitive hematopoietic cells in the bone marrow,” Nat. Immunol. 13(11), 1072–1082 (2012).
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L. G. Ng, J. S. Qin, B. Roediger, Y. Wang, R. Jain, L. L. Cavanagh, A. L. Smith, C. A. Jones, M. de Veer, M. A. Grimbaldeston, E. N. Meeusen, and W. Weninger, “Visualizing the neutrophil response to sterile tissue injury in mouse dermis reveals a three-phase cascade of events,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 131(10), 2058–2068 (2011).
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Quarto, N.

C. M. Cowan, Y.-Y. Shi, O. O. Aalami, Y.-F. Chou, C. Mari, R. Thomas, N. Quarto, C. H. Contag, B. Wu, and M. T. Longaker, “Adipose-derived adult stromal cells heal critical-size mouse calvarial defects,” Nat. Biotechnol. 22(5), 560–567 (2004).
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Rayan, G. M.

G. M. Rayan, D. T. Stanfield, S. Cahill, S. D. Kosanke, and J. A. Kopta, “Effects of rapid pulsed CO2 laser beam on cortical bone in vivo,” Lasers Surg. Med. 12(6), 615–620 (1992).
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Robey, P. G.

P. Bianco, X. Cao, P. S. Frenette, J. J. Mao, P. G. Robey, P. J. Simmons, and C.-Y. Wang, “The meaning, the sense and the significance: translating the science of mesenchymal stem cells into medicine,” Nat. Med. 19(1), 35–42 (2013).
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Roediger, B.

L. G. Ng, J. S. Qin, B. Roediger, Y. Wang, R. Jain, L. L. Cavanagh, A. L. Smith, C. A. Jones, M. de Veer, M. A. Grimbaldeston, E. N. Meeusen, and W. Weninger, “Visualizing the neutrophil response to sterile tissue injury in mouse dermis reveals a three-phase cascade of events,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 131(10), 2058–2068 (2011).
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Rosenfeld, A.

A. Rosenfeld, M. Lorenz, R. Stoian, and D. Ashkenasi, “Ultrashort-laser-pulse damage threshold of transparent materials and the role of incubation,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 69(7), S373–S376 (1999).
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Z. Kalajzic, H. Li, L.-P. Wang, X. Jiang, K. Lamothe, D. J. Adams, H. L. Aguila, D. W. Rowe, and I. Kalajzic, “Use of an alpha-smooth muscle actin GFP reporter to identify an osteoprogenitor population,” Bone 43(3), 501–510 (2008).
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B. M. Kim, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, E. J. Joslin, P. M. Celliers, J. Eichler, and L. B. Da Silva, “Influence of pulse duration on ultrashort laser pulse ablation of biological tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt. 6(3), 332–338 (2001).
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J. Neev, L. B. Da Silva, M. D. Feit, M. D. Perry, A. M. Rubenchik, and B. C. Stuart, “Ultrashort pulse lasers for hard tissue ablation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(4), 790–800 (1996).
[Crossref]

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, “Laser-Induced Damage in Dielectrics with Nanosecond to Subpicosecond Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74(12), 2248–2251 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ruiz, J. P.

J. A. Phillips, L. J. Mortensen, J. P. Ruiz, R. Sridharan, S. Kumar, M. Torres, P. Sharma, C. P. Lin, J. M. Karp, and P. V. Hauschka, “Advances in Single-cell Tracking of Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) During Musculoskeletal Regeneration,” Orthop. J. Harv. Med. Sch. 14, 22–28 (2012).
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Saqqa, S.

J. Nguyen, J. Ferdman, M. Zhao, D. Huland, S. Saqqa, J. Ma, N. Nishimura, T. H. Schwartz, and C. B. Schaffer, “Sub-surface, micrometer-scale incisions produced in rodent cortex using tightly-focused femtosecond laser pulses,” Lasers Surg. Med. 43(5), 382–391 (2011).
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Sarma, A. V.

A. Dela Rosa, A. V. Sarma, C. Q. Le, R. S. Jones, and D. Fried, “Peripheral thermal and mechanical damage to dentin with microsecond and sub-microsecond 9.6 microm, 2.79 microm, and 0.355 microm laser pulses,” Lasers Surg. Med. 35(3), 214–228 (2004).
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Sartania, S.

M. Lenzner, J. Krüger, S. Sartania, Z. Cheng, C. Spielmann, G. Mourou, W. Kautek, and F. Krausz, “Femtosecond Optical Breakdown in Dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80(18), 4076–4079 (1998).
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Savoldelli, M.

V. Nuzzo, K. Plamann, M. Savoldelli, M. Merano, D. Donate, O. Albert, P. F. Gardeazábal Rodríguez, G. Mourou, and J.-M. Legeais, “In situ monitoring of second-harmonic generation in human corneas to compensate for femtosecond laser pulse attenuation in keratoplasty,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(6), 064032 (2007).
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Scadden, D. T.

D. Park, J. A. Spencer, B. I. Koh, T. Kobayashi, J. Fujisaki, T. L. Clemens, C. P. Lin, H. M. Kronenberg, and D. T. Scadden, “Endogenous bone marrow MSCs are dynamic, fate-restricted participants in bone maintenance and regeneration,” Cell Stem Cell 10(3), 259–272 (2012).
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Schaffer, C. B.

N. G. Horton, K. Wang, D. Kobat, C. G. Clark, F. W. Wise, C. B. Schaffer, and C. Xu, “In vivo three-photon microscopy of subcortical structures within an intact mouse brain,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 205–209 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Nguyen, J. Ferdman, M. Zhao, D. Huland, S. Saqqa, J. Ma, N. Nishimura, T. H. Schwartz, and C. B. Schaffer, “Sub-surface, micrometer-scale incisions produced in rodent cortex using tightly-focused femtosecond laser pulses,” Lasers Surg. Med. 43(5), 382–391 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schajnovitz, A.

A. Ludin, T. Itkin, S. Gur-Cohen, A. Mildner, E. Shezen, K. Golan, O. Kollet, A. Kalinkovich, Z. Porat, G. D’Uva, A. Schajnovitz, E. Voronov, D. A. Brenner, R. N. Apte, S. Jung, and T. Lapidot, “Monocytes-macrophages that express α-smooth muscle actin preserve primitive hematopoietic cells in the bone marrow,” Nat. Immunol. 13(11), 1072–1082 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schaller, B. J.

B. J. Schaller, R. Gruber, H. A. Merten, T. Kruschat, H. Schliephake, M. Buchfelder, and H. C. Ludwig, “Piezoelectric bone surgery: a revolutionary technique for minimally invasive surgery in cranial base and spinal surgery? Technical note,” Neurosurgery 57, E410 (2005).

Schliephake, H.

B. J. Schaller, R. Gruber, H. A. Merten, T. Kruschat, H. Schliephake, M. Buchfelder, and H. C. Ludwig, “Piezoelectric bone surgery: a revolutionary technique for minimally invasive surgery in cranial base and spinal surgery? Technical note,” Neurosurgery 57, E410 (2005).

Schumacher, S.

O. Stachs, S. Schumacher, M. Hovakimyan, M. Fromm, A. Heisterkamp, H. Lubatschowski, and R. Guthoff, “Visualization of femtosecond laser pulse-induced microincisions inside crystalline lens tissue,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 35(11), 1979–1983 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schwartz, T. H.

J. Nguyen, J. Ferdman, M. Zhao, D. Huland, S. Saqqa, J. Ma, N. Nishimura, T. H. Schwartz, and C. B. Schaffer, “Sub-surface, micrometer-scale incisions produced in rodent cortex using tightly-focused femtosecond laser pulses,” Lasers Surg. Med. 43(5), 382–391 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sharma, P.

J. A. Phillips, L. J. Mortensen, J. P. Ruiz, R. Sridharan, S. Kumar, M. Torres, P. Sharma, C. P. Lin, J. M. Karp, and P. V. Hauschka, “Advances in Single-cell Tracking of Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) During Musculoskeletal Regeneration,” Orthop. J. Harv. Med. Sch. 14, 22–28 (2012).
[PubMed]

Shezen, E.

A. Ludin, T. Itkin, S. Gur-Cohen, A. Mildner, E. Shezen, K. Golan, O. Kollet, A. Kalinkovich, Z. Porat, G. D’Uva, A. Schajnovitz, E. Voronov, D. A. Brenner, R. N. Apte, S. Jung, and T. Lapidot, “Monocytes-macrophages that express α-smooth muscle actin preserve primitive hematopoietic cells in the bone marrow,” Nat. Immunol. 13(11), 1072–1082 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shi, Y.-Y.

C. M. Cowan, Y.-Y. Shi, O. O. Aalami, Y.-F. Chou, C. Mari, R. Thomas, N. Quarto, C. H. Contag, B. Wu, and M. T. Longaker, “Adipose-derived adult stromal cells heal critical-size mouse calvarial defects,” Nat. Biotechnol. 22(5), 560–567 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shore, B. W.

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, “Laser-Induced Damage in Dielectrics with Nanosecond to Subpicosecond Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74(12), 2248–2251 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Simmons, P. J.

P. Bianco, X. Cao, P. S. Frenette, J. J. Mao, P. G. Robey, P. J. Simmons, and C.-Y. Wang, “The meaning, the sense and the significance: translating the science of mesenchymal stem cells into medicine,” Nat. Med. 19(1), 35–42 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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L. G. Ng, J. S. Qin, B. Roediger, Y. Wang, R. Jain, L. L. Cavanagh, A. L. Smith, C. A. Jones, M. de Veer, M. A. Grimbaldeston, E. N. Meeusen, and W. Weninger, “Visualizing the neutrophil response to sterile tissue injury in mouse dermis reveals a three-phase cascade of events,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 131(10), 2058–2068 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Spencer, J. A.

D. Park, J. A. Spencer, B. I. Koh, T. Kobayashi, J. Fujisaki, T. L. Clemens, C. P. Lin, H. M. Kronenberg, and D. T. Scadden, “Endogenous bone marrow MSCs are dynamic, fate-restricted participants in bone maintenance and regeneration,” Cell Stem Cell 10(3), 259–272 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Veilleux, J. A. Spencer, D. P. Biss, D. Cote, and C. P. Lin, “In Vivo Cell Tracking With Video Rate Multimodality Laser Scanning Microscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(1), 10–18 (2008).
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Spielmann, C.

M. Lenzner, J. Krüger, S. Sartania, Z. Cheng, C. Spielmann, G. Mourou, W. Kautek, and F. Krausz, “Femtosecond Optical Breakdown in Dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80(18), 4076–4079 (1998).
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Spooner, G. J.

A. P. Joglekar, H. Liu, G. J. Spooner, E. Meyhöfer, G. Mourou, and A. J. Hunt, “A study of the deterministic character of optical damage by femtosecond laser pulses and applications to nanomachining,” Appl. Phys. B 77, 25–30 (2003).
[Crossref]

Squier, J.

D. Du, X. Liu, G. Korn, J. Squier, and G. Mourou, “Laser‐induced breakdown by impact ionization in SiO2 with pulse widths from 7 ns to 150 fs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(23), 3071–3073 (1994).
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Sridharan, R.

J. A. Phillips, L. J. Mortensen, J. P. Ruiz, R. Sridharan, S. Kumar, M. Torres, P. Sharma, C. P. Lin, J. M. Karp, and P. V. Hauschka, “Advances in Single-cell Tracking of Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) During Musculoskeletal Regeneration,” Orthop. J. Harv. Med. Sch. 14, 22–28 (2012).
[PubMed]

Stachs, O.

O. Stachs, S. Schumacher, M. Hovakimyan, M. Fromm, A. Heisterkamp, H. Lubatschowski, and R. Guthoff, “Visualization of femtosecond laser pulse-induced microincisions inside crystalline lens tissue,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 35(11), 1979–1983 (2009).
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Stanfield, D. T.

G. M. Rayan, D. T. Stanfield, S. Cahill, S. D. Kosanke, and J. A. Kopta, “Effects of rapid pulsed CO2 laser beam on cortical bone in vivo,” Lasers Surg. Med. 12(6), 615–620 (1992).
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Stoian, R.

A. Rosenfeld, M. Lorenz, R. Stoian, and D. Ashkenasi, “Ultrashort-laser-pulse damage threshold of transparent materials and the role of incubation,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 69(7), S373–S376 (1999).
[Crossref]

Stuart, B. C.

J. Neev, L. B. Da Silva, M. D. Feit, M. D. Perry, A. M. Rubenchik, and B. C. Stuart, “Ultrashort pulse lasers for hard tissue ablation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(4), 790–800 (1996).
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B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, “Laser-Induced Damage in Dielectrics with Nanosecond to Subpicosecond Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74(12), 2248–2251 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thomas, R.

C. M. Cowan, Y.-Y. Shi, O. O. Aalami, Y.-F. Chou, C. Mari, R. Thomas, N. Quarto, C. H. Contag, B. Wu, and M. T. Longaker, “Adipose-derived adult stromal cells heal critical-size mouse calvarial defects,” Nat. Biotechnol. 22(5), 560–567 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Torres, M.

J. A. Phillips, L. J. Mortensen, J. P. Ruiz, R. Sridharan, S. Kumar, M. Torres, P. Sharma, C. P. Lin, J. M. Karp, and P. V. Hauschka, “Advances in Single-cell Tracking of Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) During Musculoskeletal Regeneration,” Orthop. J. Harv. Med. Sch. 14, 22–28 (2012).
[PubMed]

Tsai, P. S.

Uoshima, K.

K. Yoshida, K. Uoshima, K. Oda, and T. Maeda, “Influence of heat stress to matrix on bone formation,” Clin. Oral Implants Res. 20(8), 782–790 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Veilleux, I.

I. Veilleux, J. A. Spencer, D. P. Biss, D. Cote, and C. P. Lin, “In Vivo Cell Tracking With Video Rate Multimodality Laser Scanning Microscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(1), 10–18 (2008).
[Crossref]

Vilar, R.

L. T. Cangueiro, R. Vilar, A. M. Botelho do Rego, and V. S. F. Muralha, “Femtosecond laser ablation of bovine cortical bone,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(12), 125005 (2012).
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S. Alves, V. Oliveira, and R. Vilar, “Femtosecond laser ablation of dentin,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 45(24), 245401 (2012).
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Vogel, A.

R. Orzekowsky-Schroeder, A. Klinger, S. Freidank, N. Linz, S. Eckert, G. Huttmann, A. Gebert, and A. Vogel, “Probing the immune and healing response of murine intestinal mucosa by time-lapse 2-photon microscopy of laser-induced lesions with real-time dosimetry,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(10), 3521–3540 (2014).
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A. Vogel, N. Linz, S. Freidank, and G. Paltauf, “Femtosecond-Laser-Induced Nanocavitation in Water: Implications for Optical Breakdown Threshold and Cell Surgery,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(3), 038102 (2008).
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A. Vogel, J. Noack, G. Hüttman, and G. Paltauf, “Mechanisms of femtosecond laser nanosurgery of cells and tissues,” Appl. Phys. B 81(8), 1015–1047 (2005).
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Voronov, E.

A. Ludin, T. Itkin, S. Gur-Cohen, A. Mildner, E. Shezen, K. Golan, O. Kollet, A. Kalinkovich, Z. Porat, G. D’Uva, A. Schajnovitz, E. Voronov, D. A. Brenner, R. N. Apte, S. Jung, and T. Lapidot, “Monocytes-macrophages that express α-smooth muscle actin preserve primitive hematopoietic cells in the bone marrow,” Nat. Immunol. 13(11), 1072–1082 (2012).
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Walter, M.

M. Han, L. Zickler, G. Giese, M. Walter, F. H. Loesel, and J. F. Bille, “Second-harmonic imaging of cornea after intrastromal femtosecond laser ablation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(4), 760–766 (2004).
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Wan, D. C.

D. D. Lo, M. A. Mackanos, M. T. Chung, J. S. Hyun, D. T. Montoro, M. Grova, C. Liu, J. Wang, D. Palanker, A. J. Connolly, M. T. Longaker, C. H. Contag, and D. C. Wan, “Femtosecond plasma mediated laser ablation has advantages over mechanical osteotomy of cranial bone,” Lasers Surg. Med. 44(10), 805–814 (2012).
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Wang, C.-Y.

P. Bianco, X. Cao, P. S. Frenette, J. J. Mao, P. G. Robey, P. J. Simmons, and C.-Y. Wang, “The meaning, the sense and the significance: translating the science of mesenchymal stem cells into medicine,” Nat. Med. 19(1), 35–42 (2013).
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Wang, J.

D. D. Lo, M. A. Mackanos, M. T. Chung, J. S. Hyun, D. T. Montoro, M. Grova, C. Liu, J. Wang, D. Palanker, A. J. Connolly, M. T. Longaker, C. H. Contag, and D. C. Wan, “Femtosecond plasma mediated laser ablation has advantages over mechanical osteotomy of cranial bone,” Lasers Surg. Med. 44(10), 805–814 (2012).
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Wang, K.

N. G. Horton, K. Wang, D. Kobat, C. G. Clark, F. W. Wise, C. B. Schaffer, and C. Xu, “In vivo three-photon microscopy of subcortical structures within an intact mouse brain,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 205–209 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Wang, T. M. Liu, J. Wu, N. G. Horton, C. P. Lin, and C. Xu, “Three-color femtosecond source for simultaneous excitation of three fluorescent proteins in two-photon fluorescence microscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(9), 1972–1977 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Wang and C. Xu, “Tunable high-energy soliton pulse generation from a large-mode-area fiber and its application to third harmonic generation microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(7), 071112 (2011).
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Wang, L.-P.

Z. Kalajzic, H. Li, L.-P. Wang, X. Jiang, K. Lamothe, D. J. Adams, H. L. Aguila, D. W. Rowe, and I. Kalajzic, “Use of an alpha-smooth muscle actin GFP reporter to identify an osteoprogenitor population,” Bone 43(3), 501–510 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

L. G. Ng, J. S. Qin, B. Roediger, Y. Wang, R. Jain, L. L. Cavanagh, A. L. Smith, C. A. Jones, M. de Veer, M. A. Grimbaldeston, E. N. Meeusen, and W. Weninger, “Visualizing the neutrophil response to sterile tissue injury in mouse dermis reveals a three-phase cascade of events,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 131(10), 2058–2068 (2011).
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Wehner, M.

M. S. Bello-Silva, M. Wehner, C. P. Eduardo, F. Lampert, R. Poprawe, M. Hermans, and M. Esteves-Oliveira, “Precise ablation of dental hard tissues with ultra-short pulsed lasers. Preliminary exploratory investigation on adequate laser parameters,” Lasers Med. Sci. 28(1), 171–184 (2013).
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Weninger, W.

L. G. Ng, J. S. Qin, B. Roediger, Y. Wang, R. Jain, L. L. Cavanagh, A. L. Smith, C. A. Jones, M. de Veer, M. A. Grimbaldeston, E. N. Meeusen, and W. Weninger, “Visualizing the neutrophil response to sterile tissue injury in mouse dermis reveals a three-phase cascade of events,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 131(10), 2058–2068 (2011).
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Wieger, V.

V. Wieger, S. Zoppel, and E. Wintner, “Ultrashort pulse laser osteotomy,” Laser Phys. 17(4), 438–442 (2007).
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R. An, G. W. Khadar, E. I. Wilk, B. Emigh, H. K. Haugen, G. R. Wohl, B. Dunlop, M. Anvari, J. E. Hayward, and Q. Fang, “Ultrafast laser ablation and machining large-size structures on porcine bone,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(7), 070504 (2013).
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Wilson, B. C.

B. Girard, M. Cloutier, D. J. Wilson, C. M. L. Clokie, R. J. D. Miller, and B. C. Wilson, “Microtomographic analysis of healing of femtosecond laser bone calvarial wounds compared to mechanical instruments in mice with and without application of BMP-7,” Lasers Surg. Med. 39(5), 458–467 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Girard, D. Yu, M. R. Armstrong, B. C. Wilson, C. M. L. Clokie, and R. J. D. Miller, “Effects of femtosecond laser irradiation on osseous tissues,” Lasers Surg. Med. 39(3), 273–285 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wilson, D. J.

B. Girard, M. Cloutier, D. J. Wilson, C. M. L. Clokie, R. J. D. Miller, and B. C. Wilson, “Microtomographic analysis of healing of femtosecond laser bone calvarial wounds compared to mechanical instruments in mice with and without application of BMP-7,” Lasers Surg. Med. 39(5), 458–467 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wintner, E.

V. Wieger, S. Zoppel, and E. Wintner, “Ultrashort pulse laser osteotomy,” Laser Phys. 17(4), 438–442 (2007).
[Crossref]

Wise, F. W.

N. G. Horton, K. Wang, D. Kobat, C. G. Clark, F. W. Wise, C. B. Schaffer, and C. Xu, “In vivo three-photon microscopy of subcortical structures within an intact mouse brain,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 205–209 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wohl, G. R.

R. An, G. W. Khadar, E. I. Wilk, B. Emigh, H. K. Haugen, G. R. Wohl, B. Dunlop, M. Anvari, J. E. Hayward, and Q. Fang, “Ultrafast laser ablation and machining large-size structures on porcine bone,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(7), 070504 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Emigh, R. An, E. M. Hsu, T. H. R. Crawford, H. K. Haugen, G. R. Wohl, J. E. Hayward, and Q. Fang, “Porcine cortical bone ablation by ultrashort pulsed laser irradiation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(2), 028001 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, B.

C. M. Cowan, Y.-Y. Shi, O. O. Aalami, Y.-F. Chou, C. Mari, R. Thomas, N. Quarto, C. H. Contag, B. Wu, and M. T. Longaker, “Adipose-derived adult stromal cells heal critical-size mouse calvarial defects,” Nat. Biotechnol. 22(5), 560–567 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, J.

Xu, C.

N. G. Horton, K. Wang, D. Kobat, C. G. Clark, F. W. Wise, C. B. Schaffer, and C. Xu, “In vivo three-photon microscopy of subcortical structures within an intact mouse brain,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 205–209 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Wang, T. M. Liu, J. Wu, N. G. Horton, C. P. Lin, and C. Xu, “Three-color femtosecond source for simultaneous excitation of three fluorescent proteins in two-photon fluorescence microscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(9), 1972–1977 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Wang and C. Xu, “Tunable high-energy soliton pulse generation from a large-mode-area fiber and its application to third harmonic generation microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(7), 071112 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yanik, M. F.

M. F. Yanik, H. Cinar, H. N. Cinar, A. D. Chisholm, Y. Jin, and A. Ben-Yakar, “Neurosurgery: functional regeneration after laser axotomy,” Nature 432(7019), 822 (2004).
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Yoshida, K.

K. Yoshida, K. Uoshima, K. Oda, and T. Maeda, “Influence of heat stress to matrix on bone formation,” Clin. Oral Implants Res. 20(8), 782–790 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, D.

B. Girard, D. Yu, M. R. Armstrong, B. C. Wilson, C. M. L. Clokie, and R. J. D. Miller, “Effects of femtosecond laser irradiation on osseous tissues,” Lasers Surg. Med. 39(3), 273–285 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zavislan, J. M.

Zhao, M.

J. Nguyen, J. Ferdman, M. Zhao, D. Huland, S. Saqqa, J. Ma, N. Nishimura, T. H. Schwartz, and C. B. Schaffer, “Sub-surface, micrometer-scale incisions produced in rodent cortex using tightly-focused femtosecond laser pulses,” Lasers Surg. Med. 43(5), 382–391 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zickler, L.

M. Han, L. Zickler, G. Giese, M. Walter, F. H. Loesel, and J. F. Bille, “Second-harmonic imaging of cornea after intrastromal femtosecond laser ablation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(4), 760–766 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zoppel, S.

V. Wieger, S. Zoppel, and E. Wintner, “Ultrashort pulse laser osteotomy,” Laser Phys. 17(4), 438–442 (2007).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. B (2)

A. P. Joglekar, H. Liu, G. J. Spooner, E. Meyhöfer, G. Mourou, and A. J. Hunt, “A study of the deterministic character of optical damage by femtosecond laser pulses and applications to nanomachining,” Appl. Phys. B 77, 25–30 (2003).
[Crossref]

A. Vogel, J. Noack, G. Hüttman, and G. Paltauf, “Mechanisms of femtosecond laser nanosurgery of cells and tissues,” Appl. Phys. B 81(8), 1015–1047 (2005).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

K. Wang and C. Xu, “Tunable high-energy soliton pulse generation from a large-mode-area fiber and its application to third harmonic generation microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(7), 071112 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. Du, X. Liu, G. Korn, J. Squier, and G. Mourou, “Laser‐induced breakdown by impact ionization in SiO2 with pulse widths from 7 ns to 150 fs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(23), 3071–3073 (1994).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. (2)

A. Rosenfeld, M. Lorenz, R. Stoian, and D. Ashkenasi, “Ultrashort-laser-pulse damage threshold of transparent materials and the role of incubation,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 69(7), S373–S376 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. Krüger, W. Kautek, and H. Newesely, “Femtosecond-pulse laser ablation of dental hydroxyapatite and single-crystalline fluoroapatite,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 69(7), S403–S407 (1999).
[Crossref]

Biol. Cell (1)

X. Cai, Y. Lin, P. V. Hauschka, and B. E. Grottkau, “Adipose stem cells originate from perivascular cells,” Biol. Cell 103(9), 435–447 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biomed. Opt. Express (3)

Bone (1)

Z. Kalajzic, H. Li, L.-P. Wang, X. Jiang, K. Lamothe, D. J. Adams, H. L. Aguila, D. W. Rowe, and I. Kalajzic, “Use of an alpha-smooth muscle actin GFP reporter to identify an osteoprogenitor population,” Bone 43(3), 501–510 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cell Stem Cell (1)

D. Park, J. A. Spencer, B. I. Koh, T. Kobayashi, J. Fujisaki, T. L. Clemens, C. P. Lin, H. M. Kronenberg, and D. T. Scadden, “Endogenous bone marrow MSCs are dynamic, fate-restricted participants in bone maintenance and regeneration,” Cell Stem Cell 10(3), 259–272 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Clin. Oral Implants Res. (1)

K. Yoshida, K. Uoshima, K. Oda, and T. Maeda, “Influence of heat stress to matrix on bone formation,” Clin. Oral Implants Res. 20(8), 782–790 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

I. Veilleux, J. A. Spencer, D. P. Biss, D. Cote, and C. P. Lin, “In Vivo Cell Tracking With Video Rate Multimodality Laser Scanning Microscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(1), 10–18 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Neev, L. B. Da Silva, M. D. Feit, M. D. Perry, A. M. Rubenchik, and B. C. Stuart, “Ultrashort pulse lasers for hard tissue ablation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(4), 790–800 (1996).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

A. Ben-Yakar and R. L. Byer, “Femtosecond laser ablation properties of borosilicate glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(9), 5316–5323 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Biomed. Opt. (8)

L. T. Cangueiro, R. Vilar, A. M. Botelho do Rego, and V. S. F. Muralha, “Femtosecond laser ablation of bovine cortical bone,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(12), 125005 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Emigh, R. An, E. M. Hsu, T. H. R. Crawford, H. K. Haugen, G. R. Wohl, J. E. Hayward, and Q. Fang, “Porcine cortical bone ablation by ultrashort pulsed laser irradiation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(2), 028001 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Latour, G. Georges, L. S. Lamoine, C. Deumié, J. Conrath, and L. Hoffart, “Human graft cornea and laser incisions imaging with micrometer scale resolution full-field optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(5), 056006 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Han, L. Zickler, G. Giese, M. Walter, F. H. Loesel, and J. F. Bille, “Second-harmonic imaging of cornea after intrastromal femtosecond laser ablation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(4), 760–766 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Nuzzo, K. Plamann, M. Savoldelli, M. Merano, D. Donate, O. Albert, P. F. Gardeazábal Rodríguez, G. Mourou, and J.-M. Legeais, “In situ monitoring of second-harmonic generation in human corneas to compensate for femtosecond laser pulse attenuation in keratoplasty,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(6), 064032 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. An, G. W. Khadar, E. I. Wilk, B. Emigh, H. K. Haugen, G. R. Wohl, B. Dunlop, M. Anvari, J. E. Hayward, and Q. Fang, “Ultrafast laser ablation and machining large-size structures on porcine bone,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(7), 070504 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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O. Stachs, S. Schumacher, M. Hovakimyan, M. Fromm, A. Heisterkamp, H. Lubatschowski, and R. Guthoff, “Visualization of femtosecond laser pulse-induced microincisions inside crystalline lens tissue,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 35(11), 1979–1983 (2009).
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L. G. Ng, J. S. Qin, B. Roediger, Y. Wang, R. Jain, L. L. Cavanagh, A. L. Smith, C. A. Jones, M. de Veer, M. A. Grimbaldeston, E. N. Meeusen, and W. Weninger, “Visualizing the neutrophil response to sterile tissue injury in mouse dermis reveals a three-phase cascade of events,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 131(10), 2058–2068 (2011).
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S. Alves, V. Oliveira, and R. Vilar, “Femtosecond laser ablation of dentin,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 45(24), 245401 (2012).
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Laser Phys. (1)

V. Wieger, S. Zoppel, and E. Wintner, “Ultrashort pulse laser osteotomy,” Laser Phys. 17(4), 438–442 (2007).
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Lasers Med. Sci. (2)

Y. Liu and M. Niemz, “Ablation of femural bone with femtosecond laser pulses--a feasibility study,” Lasers Med. Sci. 22(3), 171–174 (2007).
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M. S. Bello-Silva, M. Wehner, C. P. Eduardo, F. Lampert, R. Poprawe, M. Hermans, and M. Esteves-Oliveira, “Precise ablation of dental hard tissues with ultra-short pulsed lasers. Preliminary exploratory investigation on adequate laser parameters,” Lasers Med. Sci. 28(1), 171–184 (2013).
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B. Girard, D. Yu, M. R. Armstrong, B. C. Wilson, C. M. L. Clokie, and R. J. D. Miller, “Effects of femtosecond laser irradiation on osseous tissues,” Lasers Surg. Med. 39(3), 273–285 (2007).
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G. M. Rayan, D. T. Stanfield, S. Cahill, S. D. Kosanke, and J. A. Kopta, “Effects of rapid pulsed CO2 laser beam on cortical bone in vivo,” Lasers Surg. Med. 12(6), 615–620 (1992).
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J. S. Nelson, A. Orenstein, L.-H. L. Liaw, and M. W. Berns, “Mid-infrared erbium:YAG laser ablation of bone: The effect of laser osteotomy on bone healing,” Lasers Surg. Med. 9(4), 362–374 (1989).
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B. Girard, M. Cloutier, D. J. Wilson, C. M. L. Clokie, R. J. D. Miller, and B. C. Wilson, “Microtomographic analysis of healing of femtosecond laser bone calvarial wounds compared to mechanical instruments in mice with and without application of BMP-7,” Lasers Surg. Med. 39(5), 458–467 (2007).
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C. M. Cowan, Y.-Y. Shi, O. O. Aalami, Y.-F. Chou, C. Mari, R. Thomas, N. Quarto, C. H. Contag, B. Wu, and M. T. Longaker, “Adipose-derived adult stromal cells heal critical-size mouse calvarial defects,” Nat. Biotechnol. 22(5), 560–567 (2004).
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A. Ludin, T. Itkin, S. Gur-Cohen, A. Mildner, E. Shezen, K. Golan, O. Kollet, A. Kalinkovich, Z. Porat, G. D’Uva, A. Schajnovitz, E. Voronov, D. A. Brenner, R. N. Apte, S. Jung, and T. Lapidot, “Monocytes-macrophages that express α-smooth muscle actin preserve primitive hematopoietic cells in the bone marrow,” Nat. Immunol. 13(11), 1072–1082 (2012).
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N. G. Horton, K. Wang, D. Kobat, C. G. Clark, F. W. Wise, C. B. Schaffer, and C. Xu, “In vivo three-photon microscopy of subcortical structures within an intact mouse brain,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 205–209 (2013).
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A. Vogel, J. Noack, G. Hüttman, and G. Paltauf, “Femtosecond plasma-mediated nanosurgery of cells and tissues,” in Laser Ablation and its Applications (Springer, 2007), pp. 231–280.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

System schematic. A 1550nm 5MHz fiber laser source simultaneously provides high power for doubling to 775nm using a bismuth borate crystal (BiBO) and feeds a large mode area (LMA) photonic crystal fiber to generate a 1920nm soliton for doubling to 960nm using a second BiBO. The power delivery to each arm is controlled by polarization using half wave plates and polarizing beam splitters (PBS). Imaging and ablation is performed using full field scanning, with an aperture in the intermediate image plane to modulate the area of ablation.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Ablation in glass and ex vivo bone. Femtosecond laser ablation can effectively remove material in a homogenous material (A) like glass (green- dilute fluorescein solution, red- reflectance) or a heterogeneous medium (B) like ex vivo bone (blue- second harmonic generation, red- reflectance, green- autofluorescence, scale bar = 50 µm).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Spot size and laser drilling efficiency dependence on pulse energy. (A) Average of Gaussian fit of 10 measured 0.1 µm radius 2-photon excited fluorescent beads. The 1/e2 radius is 0.48 ± 0.09 µm. (B) Glass and ex vivo bone exhibit similar thresholds for material removal (0.7 J/cm2). The ablation depth increases between 0.7 and 1.4 J/cm2 and plateaued thereafter, with minimal improvement using higher fluence. The ablation is performed using an aperture in the intermediate image plane that defines a 120 µm diameter ablation area at the sample. The ablated depth for each material is measured by the use of a dilute fluorescein solution in glass (3-D representation in inset) and confocal reflectance in bone.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Autofluorescence minimization. (A) When an aperture in the intermediate image plane of fixed size (open area inside the white dotted line) is used to limit the ablation area in bone, a significant amount of autofluorescence is observed around the edges of the defect when displayed in a 3 dimensional rendering or with progressive slices collected through the full thickness. With increasing depth, a reduction in size of the defect is observed. (B) With a variable aperture to match the angle of optimal ablation based on objective numerical aperture (white dotted line), less energy is deposited in the surrounding tissue so the amount of autofluorescence around the defect edges is greatly reduced. This trend is consistent when the average autofluorescence of a 5 pixel thickness ring around the defect edge is quantified at several discrete depths and normalized to the surface SHG intensity for defects drilled in n = 3 mice (* = p < 0.05, Students t-test with Bonferroni correction). Scale bar = 100 µm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Bone defect cell response. (A) α-smooth muscle actin GFP (SMA-GFP + ) cells begin to appear in the laser defect by 3 days after defect induction. Cell number and intensity appear to increases 5 days later, and the defect is mostly filled with SMA-GFP + cells 7 days after (blue- second harmonic generation, red- autofluorescence, green- SMA-GFP + cells, scale bar = 100 µm). (B) This trend is consistent when quantified over n = 3 defects.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Femtosecond laser ablation thresholds for glass and bone. N.R. = not reported.

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