Abstract

The use of fluorescence is ubiquitously found in the detection of immunoreaction; though with good sensitivity, this technique requires labeling as well as other time-consuming steps to perform the measurement. An alternative approach involving liquid crystals (LCs) was proposed, based on the fact that an immunocomplex can disturb the orientation of LCs, leading to an optical texture different from the case when only antigen or antibody exists. This method is label-free, easy to manipulate and low-cost. However, its sensitivity was low for practical usage. In this study, we adopted a high-birefringence liquid crystal (LC) to enhance the sensitivity for the immunodetection. Experiments were performed, targeting at the cancer biomarker CA125. We showed that the larger birefringence (Δn = 0.33 at 20 °C) amplifies the detected signal and, in turn, dramatically improves the detection limit. To avoid signal loss from conventional rinsing steps in immunodetection, CA125 antigen and antibody were reacted before immobilized on substrates. We studied the specific binding events and obtained a detection limit as low as 1 ng/ml. The valid temperature ranges were compared by using the typical single-compound LC 5CB and the high-birefringence LC mixture. We further investigated time dependency of the optical textures and affirmed the capability of LC-based immunodetection in distinguishing between specific and nonspecific antibodies.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
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References

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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2014 (1)

H.-W. Su, Y.-H. Lee, M.-J. Lee, Y.-C. Hsu, and W. Lee, “Label-free immunodetection of the cancer biomarker CA125 using high-Δn liquid crystals,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(7), 077006 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (3)

H. A. Huckabay, S. M. Wildgen, and R. C. Dunn, “Label-free detection of ovarian cancer biomarkers using whispering gallery mode imaging,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 45, 223–229 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Singh, S. Park, and H. Yang, “Glucose-oxidase label-based redox cycling for an incubation period-free electrochemical immunosensor,” Anal. Chem. 85(10), 4863–4868 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. W. Kim, J. Song, J. S. Kee, Q. Liu, G. Q. Lo, and M. K. Park, “Label-free biosensor based on an electrical tracing-assisted silicon microring resonator with a low-cost broadband source,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 46, 15–21 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (4)

G. J. Zhang and Y. Ning, “Silicon nanowire biosensor and its applications in disease diagnostics: a review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 749, 1–15 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Zhang, Y. He, J. Wei, and L. Que, “Nanostructured optical microchips for cancer biomarker detection,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 38(1), 382–388 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C.-H. Chen and K.-L. Yang, “Functional protease assay using liquid crystals as a signal reporter,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 35(1), 174–179 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. H. Chen and K. L. Yang, “Liquid crystal-based immunoassays for detecting hepatitis B antibody,” Anal. Biochem. 421(1), 321–323 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

H.-K. Chang, F. N. Ishikawa, R. Zhang, R. Datar, R. J. Cote, M. E. Thompson, and C. Zhou, “Rapid, label-free, electrical whole blood bioassay based on nanobiosensor systems,” ACS Nano 5(12), 9883–9891 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. A. Huckabay and R. C. Dunn, “Whispering gallery mode imaging for the multiplexed detection of biomarkers,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 160(1), 1262–1267 (2011).
[Crossref]

B. Zhang, F. F. Cai, and X. Y. Zhong, “An overview of biomarkers for the ovarian cancer diagnosis,” Eur. J. Obstet. Gynecol. Reprod. Biol. 158(2), 119–123 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

A. Kim, C. S. Ah, C. W. Park, J. H. Yang, T. Kim, C. G. Ahn, S. H. Park, and G. Y. Sung, “Direct label-free electrical immunodetection in human serum using a flow-through-apparatus approach with integrated field-effect transistors,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 25(7), 1767–1773 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Stern, A. Vacic, N. K. Rajan, J. M. Criscione, J. Park, B. R. Ilic, D. J. Mooney, M. A. Reed, and T. M. Fahmy, “Label-free biomarker detection from whole blood,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(2), 138–142 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (5)

A. Hussain, A. S. Pina, and A. C. Roque, “Bio-recognition and detection using liquid crystals,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 25(1), 1–8 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Bi, S. L. Lai, and K.-L. Yang, “Liquid crystal multiplexed protease assays reporting enzymatic activities as optical bar charts,” Anal. Chem. 81(13), 5503–5509 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Suwansa-ard, P. Kanatharana, P. Asawatreratanakul, B. Wongkittisuksa, C. Limsakul, and P. Thavarungkul, “Comparison of surface plasmon resonance and capacitive immunosensors for cancer antigen 125 detection in human serum samples,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24(12), 3436–3441 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Bangar, D. J. Shirale, W. Chen, N. V. Myung, and A. Mulchandani, “Single conducting polymer nanowire chemiresistive label-free immunosensor for cancer biomarker,” Anal. Chem. 81(6), 2168–2175 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C.-Y. Xue, S. A. Khan, and K.-L. Yang, “Exploring optical properties of liquid crystals for developing label-free and high-throughput microfluidic immunoassays,” Adv. Mater. 21(2), 198–202 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

C.-Y. Xue and K.-L. Yang, “Dark-to-bright optical responses of liquid crystals supported on solid surfaces decorated with proteins,” Langmuir 24(2), 563–567 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (5)

M. K. McCamley, A. W. Artenstein, S. M. Opal, and G. P. Crawford, “Optical detection of sepsis markers using liquid crystal based biosensors,” Proc. SPIE 6441, 64411Y (2007).
[Crossref]

D. Tang, R. Yuan, and Y. Chai, “Magnetic control of an electrochemical microfluidic device with an arrayed immunosensor for simultaneous multiple immunoassays,” Clin. Chem. 53(7), 1323–1329 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Yamamoto, H. Baba, Y. Toh, T. Okamura, and Y. Maehara, “Peritoneal lavage CEA/CA125 is a prognostic factor for gastric cancer patients,” J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol. 133(7), 471–476 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Scholler and N. Urban, “CA125 in ovarian cancer,” Biomarkers Med. 1(4), 513–523 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. J. Woltman, G. D. Jay, and G. P. Crawford, “Liquid-crystal materials find a new order in biomedical applications,” Nat. Mater. 6(12), 929–938 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

J. Hoogboom, K. Velonia, T. Rasing, A. E. Rowan, and R. J. M. Nolte, “LCD-based detection of enzymatic action,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 2006(4), 434–435 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. A. Lockwood, J. C. Mohr, L. Ji, C. J. Murphy, S. P. Palecek, J. J. de Pablo, and N. L. Abbott, “Thermotropic liquid crystals as substrates for imaging the reorganization of matrigel by human embryonic stem cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 16(5), 618–624 (2006).
[Crossref]

C.-H. Jang, L.-L. Cheng, C. W. Olsen, and N. L. Abbott, “Anchoring of nematic liquid crystals on viruses with different envelope structures,” Nano Lett. 6(5), 1053–1058 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (4)

B. H. Clare and N. L. Abbott, “Orientations of nematic liquid crystals on surfaces presenting controlled densities of peptides: amplification of protein-peptide binding events,” Langmuir 21(14), 6451–6461 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. S. Patankar, Y. Jing, J. C. Morrison, J. A. Belisle, F. A. Lattanzio, Y. Deng, N. K. Wong, H. R. Morris, A. Dell, and G. F. Clark, “Potent suppression of natural killer cell response mediated by the ovarian tumor marker CA125,” Gynecol. Oncol. 99(3), 704–713 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang and J. Ren, “A sensitive and rapid immunoassay for quantification of CA125 in human sera by capillary electrophoresis with enhanced chemiluminescence detection,” Electrophoresis 26(12), 2402–2408 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y.-Y. Luk, C.-H. Jang, L.-L. Cheng, B. A. Israel, and N. L. Abbott, “Influence of lyotropic liquid crystals on the ability of antibodies to bind to surface-immobilized antigens,” Chem. Mater. 17(19), 4774–4782 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (3)

Y.-Y. Luk, M. L. Tingey, K. A. Dickson, R. T. Raines, and N. L. Abbott, “Imaging the binding ability of proteins immobilized on surfaces with different orientations by using liquid crystals,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126(29), 9024–9032 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. L. Tingey, S. Wilyana, E. J. Snodgrass, and N. L. Abbott, “Imaging of affinity microcontact printed proteins by using liquid crystals,” Langmuir 20(16), 6818–6826 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. S. Cremer, “Label-free detection becomes crystal clear,” Nat. Biotechnol. 22(2), 172–173 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

J. M. Brake, M. K. Daschner, Y. Y. Luk, and N. L. Abbott, “Biomolecular interactions at phospholipid-decorated surfaces of liquid crystals,” Science 302(5653), 2094–2097 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Kui Wong, R. L. Easton, M. Panico, M. Sutton-Smith, J. C. Morrison, F. A. Lattanzio, H. R. Morris, G. F. Clark, A. Dell, and M. S. Patankar, “Characterization of the oligosaccharides associated with the human ovarian tumor marker CA125,” J. Biol. Chem. 278(31), 28619–28634 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

L. F. Norum, B. Erikstein, and K. Nustad, “Elevated CA125 in breast cancer--A sign of advanced disease,” Tumour Biol. 22(4), 223–228 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

S.-R. Kim, R. R. Shah, and N. L. Abbott, “Orientations of liquid crystals on mechanically rubbed films of bovine serum albumin: a possible substrate for biomolecular assays based on liquid crystals,” Anal. Chem. 72(19), 4646–4653 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

R. Madiyalakan, M. Kuzma, A. A. Noujaim, and M. R. Suresh, “An antibody-lectin sandwich assay for the determination of CA125 antigen in ovarian cancer patients,” Glycoconj. J. 13(4), 513–517 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

A. Berruti, M. Tampellini, M. Torta, T. Buniva, G. Gorzegno, and L. Dogliotti, “Prognostic value in predicting overall survival of two mucinous markers: CA 15-3 and CA 125 in breast cancer patients at first relapse of disease,” Eur. J. Cancer 30(14), 2082–2084 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1981 (1)

R. C. Bast, M. Feeney, H. Lazarus, L. M. Nadler, R. B. Colvin, and R. C. Knapp, “Reactivity of a monoclonal antibody with human ovarian carcinoma,” J. Clin. Invest. 68(5), 1331–1337 (1981).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Abbott, N. L.

N. A. Lockwood, J. C. Mohr, L. Ji, C. J. Murphy, S. P. Palecek, J. J. de Pablo, and N. L. Abbott, “Thermotropic liquid crystals as substrates for imaging the reorganization of matrigel by human embryonic stem cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 16(5), 618–624 (2006).
[Crossref]

C.-H. Jang, L.-L. Cheng, C. W. Olsen, and N. L. Abbott, “Anchoring of nematic liquid crystals on viruses with different envelope structures,” Nano Lett. 6(5), 1053–1058 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y.-Y. Luk, C.-H. Jang, L.-L. Cheng, B. A. Israel, and N. L. Abbott, “Influence of lyotropic liquid crystals on the ability of antibodies to bind to surface-immobilized antigens,” Chem. Mater. 17(19), 4774–4782 (2005).
[Crossref]

B. H. Clare and N. L. Abbott, “Orientations of nematic liquid crystals on surfaces presenting controlled densities of peptides: amplification of protein-peptide binding events,” Langmuir 21(14), 6451–6461 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. L. Tingey, S. Wilyana, E. J. Snodgrass, and N. L. Abbott, “Imaging of affinity microcontact printed proteins by using liquid crystals,” Langmuir 20(16), 6818–6826 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y.-Y. Luk, M. L. Tingey, K. A. Dickson, R. T. Raines, and N. L. Abbott, “Imaging the binding ability of proteins immobilized on surfaces with different orientations by using liquid crystals,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126(29), 9024–9032 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Brake, M. K. Daschner, Y. Y. Luk, and N. L. Abbott, “Biomolecular interactions at phospholipid-decorated surfaces of liquid crystals,” Science 302(5653), 2094–2097 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S.-R. Kim, R. R. Shah, and N. L. Abbott, “Orientations of liquid crystals on mechanically rubbed films of bovine serum albumin: a possible substrate for biomolecular assays based on liquid crystals,” Anal. Chem. 72(19), 4646–4653 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ah, C. S.

A. Kim, C. S. Ah, C. W. Park, J. H. Yang, T. Kim, C. G. Ahn, S. H. Park, and G. Y. Sung, “Direct label-free electrical immunodetection in human serum using a flow-through-apparatus approach with integrated field-effect transistors,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 25(7), 1767–1773 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ahn, C. G.

A. Kim, C. S. Ah, C. W. Park, J. H. Yang, T. Kim, C. G. Ahn, S. H. Park, and G. Y. Sung, “Direct label-free electrical immunodetection in human serum using a flow-through-apparatus approach with integrated field-effect transistors,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 25(7), 1767–1773 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Artenstein, A. W.

M. K. McCamley, A. W. Artenstein, S. M. Opal, and G. P. Crawford, “Optical detection of sepsis markers using liquid crystal based biosensors,” Proc. SPIE 6441, 64411Y (2007).
[Crossref]

Asawatreratanakul, P.

S. Suwansa-ard, P. Kanatharana, P. Asawatreratanakul, B. Wongkittisuksa, C. Limsakul, and P. Thavarungkul, “Comparison of surface plasmon resonance and capacitive immunosensors for cancer antigen 125 detection in human serum samples,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24(12), 3436–3441 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baba, H.

M. Yamamoto, H. Baba, Y. Toh, T. Okamura, and Y. Maehara, “Peritoneal lavage CEA/CA125 is a prognostic factor for gastric cancer patients,” J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol. 133(7), 471–476 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bangar, M. A.

M. A. Bangar, D. J. Shirale, W. Chen, N. V. Myung, and A. Mulchandani, “Single conducting polymer nanowire chemiresistive label-free immunosensor for cancer biomarker,” Anal. Chem. 81(6), 2168–2175 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bast, R. C.

R. C. Bast, M. Feeney, H. Lazarus, L. M. Nadler, R. B. Colvin, and R. C. Knapp, “Reactivity of a monoclonal antibody with human ovarian carcinoma,” J. Clin. Invest. 68(5), 1331–1337 (1981).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Belisle, J. A.

M. S. Patankar, Y. Jing, J. C. Morrison, J. A. Belisle, F. A. Lattanzio, Y. Deng, N. K. Wong, H. R. Morris, A. Dell, and G. F. Clark, “Potent suppression of natural killer cell response mediated by the ovarian tumor marker CA125,” Gynecol. Oncol. 99(3), 704–713 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Berruti, A.

A. Berruti, M. Tampellini, M. Torta, T. Buniva, G. Gorzegno, and L. Dogliotti, “Prognostic value in predicting overall survival of two mucinous markers: CA 15-3 and CA 125 in breast cancer patients at first relapse of disease,” Eur. J. Cancer 30(14), 2082–2084 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bi, X.

X. Bi, S. L. Lai, and K.-L. Yang, “Liquid crystal multiplexed protease assays reporting enzymatic activities as optical bar charts,” Anal. Chem. 81(13), 5503–5509 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brake, J. M.

J. M. Brake, M. K. Daschner, Y. Y. Luk, and N. L. Abbott, “Biomolecular interactions at phospholipid-decorated surfaces of liquid crystals,” Science 302(5653), 2094–2097 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Buniva, T.

A. Berruti, M. Tampellini, M. Torta, T. Buniva, G. Gorzegno, and L. Dogliotti, “Prognostic value in predicting overall survival of two mucinous markers: CA 15-3 and CA 125 in breast cancer patients at first relapse of disease,” Eur. J. Cancer 30(14), 2082–2084 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cai, F. F.

B. Zhang, F. F. Cai, and X. Y. Zhong, “An overview of biomarkers for the ovarian cancer diagnosis,” Eur. J. Obstet. Gynecol. Reprod. Biol. 158(2), 119–123 (2011).
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Chai, Y.

D. Tang, R. Yuan, and Y. Chai, “Magnetic control of an electrochemical microfluidic device with an arrayed immunosensor for simultaneous multiple immunoassays,” Clin. Chem. 53(7), 1323–1329 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, H.-K.

H.-K. Chang, F. N. Ishikawa, R. Zhang, R. Datar, R. J. Cote, M. E. Thompson, and C. Zhou, “Rapid, label-free, electrical whole blood bioassay based on nanobiosensor systems,” ACS Nano 5(12), 9883–9891 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, C. H.

C. H. Chen and K. L. Yang, “Liquid crystal-based immunoassays for detecting hepatitis B antibody,” Anal. Biochem. 421(1), 321–323 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, C.-H.

C.-H. Chen and K.-L. Yang, “Functional protease assay using liquid crystals as a signal reporter,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 35(1), 174–179 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, W.

M. A. Bangar, D. J. Shirale, W. Chen, N. V. Myung, and A. Mulchandani, “Single conducting polymer nanowire chemiresistive label-free immunosensor for cancer biomarker,” Anal. Chem. 81(6), 2168–2175 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheng, L.-L.

C.-H. Jang, L.-L. Cheng, C. W. Olsen, and N. L. Abbott, “Anchoring of nematic liquid crystals on viruses with different envelope structures,” Nano Lett. 6(5), 1053–1058 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y.-Y. Luk, C.-H. Jang, L.-L. Cheng, B. A. Israel, and N. L. Abbott, “Influence of lyotropic liquid crystals on the ability of antibodies to bind to surface-immobilized antigens,” Chem. Mater. 17(19), 4774–4782 (2005).
[Crossref]

Clare, B. H.

B. H. Clare and N. L. Abbott, “Orientations of nematic liquid crystals on surfaces presenting controlled densities of peptides: amplification of protein-peptide binding events,” Langmuir 21(14), 6451–6461 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Clark, G. F.

M. S. Patankar, Y. Jing, J. C. Morrison, J. A. Belisle, F. A. Lattanzio, Y. Deng, N. K. Wong, H. R. Morris, A. Dell, and G. F. Clark, “Potent suppression of natural killer cell response mediated by the ovarian tumor marker CA125,” Gynecol. Oncol. 99(3), 704–713 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Kui Wong, R. L. Easton, M. Panico, M. Sutton-Smith, J. C. Morrison, F. A. Lattanzio, H. R. Morris, G. F. Clark, A. Dell, and M. S. Patankar, “Characterization of the oligosaccharides associated with the human ovarian tumor marker CA125,” J. Biol. Chem. 278(31), 28619–28634 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Colvin, R. B.

R. C. Bast, M. Feeney, H. Lazarus, L. M. Nadler, R. B. Colvin, and R. C. Knapp, “Reactivity of a monoclonal antibody with human ovarian carcinoma,” J. Clin. Invest. 68(5), 1331–1337 (1981).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cote, R. J.

H.-K. Chang, F. N. Ishikawa, R. Zhang, R. Datar, R. J. Cote, M. E. Thompson, and C. Zhou, “Rapid, label-free, electrical whole blood bioassay based on nanobiosensor systems,” ACS Nano 5(12), 9883–9891 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Crawford, G. P.

S. J. Woltman, G. D. Jay, and G. P. Crawford, “Liquid-crystal materials find a new order in biomedical applications,” Nat. Mater. 6(12), 929–938 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. K. McCamley, A. W. Artenstein, S. M. Opal, and G. P. Crawford, “Optical detection of sepsis markers using liquid crystal based biosensors,” Proc. SPIE 6441, 64411Y (2007).
[Crossref]

Cremer, P. S.

P. S. Cremer, “Label-free detection becomes crystal clear,” Nat. Biotechnol. 22(2), 172–173 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Criscione, J. M.

E. Stern, A. Vacic, N. K. Rajan, J. M. Criscione, J. Park, B. R. Ilic, D. J. Mooney, M. A. Reed, and T. M. Fahmy, “Label-free biomarker detection from whole blood,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(2), 138–142 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Daschner, M. K.

J. M. Brake, M. K. Daschner, Y. Y. Luk, and N. L. Abbott, “Biomolecular interactions at phospholipid-decorated surfaces of liquid crystals,” Science 302(5653), 2094–2097 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Datar, R.

H.-K. Chang, F. N. Ishikawa, R. Zhang, R. Datar, R. J. Cote, M. E. Thompson, and C. Zhou, “Rapid, label-free, electrical whole blood bioassay based on nanobiosensor systems,” ACS Nano 5(12), 9883–9891 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

de Pablo, J. J.

N. A. Lockwood, J. C. Mohr, L. Ji, C. J. Murphy, S. P. Palecek, J. J. de Pablo, and N. L. Abbott, “Thermotropic liquid crystals as substrates for imaging the reorganization of matrigel by human embryonic stem cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 16(5), 618–624 (2006).
[Crossref]

Dell, A.

M. S. Patankar, Y. Jing, J. C. Morrison, J. A. Belisle, F. A. Lattanzio, Y. Deng, N. K. Wong, H. R. Morris, A. Dell, and G. F. Clark, “Potent suppression of natural killer cell response mediated by the ovarian tumor marker CA125,” Gynecol. Oncol. 99(3), 704–713 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Kui Wong, R. L. Easton, M. Panico, M. Sutton-Smith, J. C. Morrison, F. A. Lattanzio, H. R. Morris, G. F. Clark, A. Dell, and M. S. Patankar, “Characterization of the oligosaccharides associated with the human ovarian tumor marker CA125,” J. Biol. Chem. 278(31), 28619–28634 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Deng, Y.

M. S. Patankar, Y. Jing, J. C. Morrison, J. A. Belisle, F. A. Lattanzio, Y. Deng, N. K. Wong, H. R. Morris, A. Dell, and G. F. Clark, “Potent suppression of natural killer cell response mediated by the ovarian tumor marker CA125,” Gynecol. Oncol. 99(3), 704–713 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dickson, K. A.

Y.-Y. Luk, M. L. Tingey, K. A. Dickson, R. T. Raines, and N. L. Abbott, “Imaging the binding ability of proteins immobilized on surfaces with different orientations by using liquid crystals,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126(29), 9024–9032 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dogliotti, L.

A. Berruti, M. Tampellini, M. Torta, T. Buniva, G. Gorzegno, and L. Dogliotti, “Prognostic value in predicting overall survival of two mucinous markers: CA 15-3 and CA 125 in breast cancer patients at first relapse of disease,” Eur. J. Cancer 30(14), 2082–2084 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dunn, R. C.

H. A. Huckabay, S. M. Wildgen, and R. C. Dunn, “Label-free detection of ovarian cancer biomarkers using whispering gallery mode imaging,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 45, 223–229 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. A. Huckabay and R. C. Dunn, “Whispering gallery mode imaging for the multiplexed detection of biomarkers,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 160(1), 1262–1267 (2011).
[Crossref]

Easton, R. L.

N. Kui Wong, R. L. Easton, M. Panico, M. Sutton-Smith, J. C. Morrison, F. A. Lattanzio, H. R. Morris, G. F. Clark, A. Dell, and M. S. Patankar, “Characterization of the oligosaccharides associated with the human ovarian tumor marker CA125,” J. Biol. Chem. 278(31), 28619–28634 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Erikstein, B.

L. F. Norum, B. Erikstein, and K. Nustad, “Elevated CA125 in breast cancer--A sign of advanced disease,” Tumour Biol. 22(4), 223–228 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fahmy, T. M.

E. Stern, A. Vacic, N. K. Rajan, J. M. Criscione, J. Park, B. R. Ilic, D. J. Mooney, M. A. Reed, and T. M. Fahmy, “Label-free biomarker detection from whole blood,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(2), 138–142 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feeney, M.

R. C. Bast, M. Feeney, H. Lazarus, L. M. Nadler, R. B. Colvin, and R. C. Knapp, “Reactivity of a monoclonal antibody with human ovarian carcinoma,” J. Clin. Invest. 68(5), 1331–1337 (1981).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gorzegno, G.

A. Berruti, M. Tampellini, M. Torta, T. Buniva, G. Gorzegno, and L. Dogliotti, “Prognostic value in predicting overall survival of two mucinous markers: CA 15-3 and CA 125 in breast cancer patients at first relapse of disease,” Eur. J. Cancer 30(14), 2082–2084 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

He, Y.

T. Zhang, Y. He, J. Wei, and L. Que, “Nanostructured optical microchips for cancer biomarker detection,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 38(1), 382–388 (2012).
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Hoogboom, J.

J. Hoogboom, K. Velonia, T. Rasing, A. E. Rowan, and R. J. M. Nolte, “LCD-based detection of enzymatic action,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 2006(4), 434–435 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hsu, Y.-C.

H.-W. Su, Y.-H. Lee, M.-J. Lee, Y.-C. Hsu, and W. Lee, “Label-free immunodetection of the cancer biomarker CA125 using high-Δn liquid crystals,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(7), 077006 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huckabay, H. A.

H. A. Huckabay, S. M. Wildgen, and R. C. Dunn, “Label-free detection of ovarian cancer biomarkers using whispering gallery mode imaging,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 45, 223–229 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. A. Huckabay and R. C. Dunn, “Whispering gallery mode imaging for the multiplexed detection of biomarkers,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 160(1), 1262–1267 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hussain, A.

A. Hussain, A. S. Pina, and A. C. Roque, “Bio-recognition and detection using liquid crystals,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 25(1), 1–8 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ilic, B. R.

E. Stern, A. Vacic, N. K. Rajan, J. M. Criscione, J. Park, B. R. Ilic, D. J. Mooney, M. A. Reed, and T. M. Fahmy, “Label-free biomarker detection from whole blood,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(2), 138–142 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ishikawa, F. N.

H.-K. Chang, F. N. Ishikawa, R. Zhang, R. Datar, R. J. Cote, M. E. Thompson, and C. Zhou, “Rapid, label-free, electrical whole blood bioassay based on nanobiosensor systems,” ACS Nano 5(12), 9883–9891 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Israel, B. A.

Y.-Y. Luk, C.-H. Jang, L.-L. Cheng, B. A. Israel, and N. L. Abbott, “Influence of lyotropic liquid crystals on the ability of antibodies to bind to surface-immobilized antigens,” Chem. Mater. 17(19), 4774–4782 (2005).
[Crossref]

Jang, C.-H.

C.-H. Jang, L.-L. Cheng, C. W. Olsen, and N. L. Abbott, “Anchoring of nematic liquid crystals on viruses with different envelope structures,” Nano Lett. 6(5), 1053–1058 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y.-Y. Luk, C.-H. Jang, L.-L. Cheng, B. A. Israel, and N. L. Abbott, “Influence of lyotropic liquid crystals on the ability of antibodies to bind to surface-immobilized antigens,” Chem. Mater. 17(19), 4774–4782 (2005).
[Crossref]

Jay, G. D.

S. J. Woltman, G. D. Jay, and G. P. Crawford, “Liquid-crystal materials find a new order in biomedical applications,” Nat. Mater. 6(12), 929–938 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ji, L.

N. A. Lockwood, J. C. Mohr, L. Ji, C. J. Murphy, S. P. Palecek, J. J. de Pablo, and N. L. Abbott, “Thermotropic liquid crystals as substrates for imaging the reorganization of matrigel by human embryonic stem cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 16(5), 618–624 (2006).
[Crossref]

Jing, Y.

M. S. Patankar, Y. Jing, J. C. Morrison, J. A. Belisle, F. A. Lattanzio, Y. Deng, N. K. Wong, H. R. Morris, A. Dell, and G. F. Clark, “Potent suppression of natural killer cell response mediated by the ovarian tumor marker CA125,” Gynecol. Oncol. 99(3), 704–713 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kanatharana, P.

S. Suwansa-ard, P. Kanatharana, P. Asawatreratanakul, B. Wongkittisuksa, C. Limsakul, and P. Thavarungkul, “Comparison of surface plasmon resonance and capacitive immunosensors for cancer antigen 125 detection in human serum samples,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24(12), 3436–3441 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kee, J. S.

K. W. Kim, J. Song, J. S. Kee, Q. Liu, G. Q. Lo, and M. K. Park, “Label-free biosensor based on an electrical tracing-assisted silicon microring resonator with a low-cost broadband source,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 46, 15–21 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Khan, S. A.

C.-Y. Xue, S. A. Khan, and K.-L. Yang, “Exploring optical properties of liquid crystals for developing label-free and high-throughput microfluidic immunoassays,” Adv. Mater. 21(2), 198–202 (2009).
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Kim, A.

A. Kim, C. S. Ah, C. W. Park, J. H. Yang, T. Kim, C. G. Ahn, S. H. Park, and G. Y. Sung, “Direct label-free electrical immunodetection in human serum using a flow-through-apparatus approach with integrated field-effect transistors,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 25(7), 1767–1773 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, K. W.

K. W. Kim, J. Song, J. S. Kee, Q. Liu, G. Q. Lo, and M. K. Park, “Label-free biosensor based on an electrical tracing-assisted silicon microring resonator with a low-cost broadband source,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 46, 15–21 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, S.-R.

S.-R. Kim, R. R. Shah, and N. L. Abbott, “Orientations of liquid crystals on mechanically rubbed films of bovine serum albumin: a possible substrate for biomolecular assays based on liquid crystals,” Anal. Chem. 72(19), 4646–4653 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, T.

A. Kim, C. S. Ah, C. W. Park, J. H. Yang, T. Kim, C. G. Ahn, S. H. Park, and G. Y. Sung, “Direct label-free electrical immunodetection in human serum using a flow-through-apparatus approach with integrated field-effect transistors,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 25(7), 1767–1773 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Knapp, R. C.

R. C. Bast, M. Feeney, H. Lazarus, L. M. Nadler, R. B. Colvin, and R. C. Knapp, “Reactivity of a monoclonal antibody with human ovarian carcinoma,” J. Clin. Invest. 68(5), 1331–1337 (1981).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kui Wong, N.

N. Kui Wong, R. L. Easton, M. Panico, M. Sutton-Smith, J. C. Morrison, F. A. Lattanzio, H. R. Morris, G. F. Clark, A. Dell, and M. S. Patankar, “Characterization of the oligosaccharides associated with the human ovarian tumor marker CA125,” J. Biol. Chem. 278(31), 28619–28634 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kuzma, M.

R. Madiyalakan, M. Kuzma, A. A. Noujaim, and M. R. Suresh, “An antibody-lectin sandwich assay for the determination of CA125 antigen in ovarian cancer patients,” Glycoconj. J. 13(4), 513–517 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lai, S. L.

X. Bi, S. L. Lai, and K.-L. Yang, “Liquid crystal multiplexed protease assays reporting enzymatic activities as optical bar charts,” Anal. Chem. 81(13), 5503–5509 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lattanzio, F. A.

M. S. Patankar, Y. Jing, J. C. Morrison, J. A. Belisle, F. A. Lattanzio, Y. Deng, N. K. Wong, H. R. Morris, A. Dell, and G. F. Clark, “Potent suppression of natural killer cell response mediated by the ovarian tumor marker CA125,” Gynecol. Oncol. 99(3), 704–713 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Kui Wong, R. L. Easton, M. Panico, M. Sutton-Smith, J. C. Morrison, F. A. Lattanzio, H. R. Morris, G. F. Clark, A. Dell, and M. S. Patankar, “Characterization of the oligosaccharides associated with the human ovarian tumor marker CA125,” J. Biol. Chem. 278(31), 28619–28634 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lazarus, H.

R. C. Bast, M. Feeney, H. Lazarus, L. M. Nadler, R. B. Colvin, and R. C. Knapp, “Reactivity of a monoclonal antibody with human ovarian carcinoma,” J. Clin. Invest. 68(5), 1331–1337 (1981).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, M.-J.

H.-W. Su, Y.-H. Lee, M.-J. Lee, Y.-C. Hsu, and W. Lee, “Label-free immunodetection of the cancer biomarker CA125 using high-Δn liquid crystals,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(7), 077006 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, W.

H.-W. Su, Y.-H. Lee, M.-J. Lee, Y.-C. Hsu, and W. Lee, “Label-free immunodetection of the cancer biomarker CA125 using high-Δn liquid crystals,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(7), 077006 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, Y.-H.

H.-W. Su, Y.-H. Lee, M.-J. Lee, Y.-C. Hsu, and W. Lee, “Label-free immunodetection of the cancer biomarker CA125 using high-Δn liquid crystals,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(7), 077006 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Limsakul, C.

S. Suwansa-ard, P. Kanatharana, P. Asawatreratanakul, B. Wongkittisuksa, C. Limsakul, and P. Thavarungkul, “Comparison of surface plasmon resonance and capacitive immunosensors for cancer antigen 125 detection in human serum samples,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24(12), 3436–3441 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, Q.

K. W. Kim, J. Song, J. S. Kee, Q. Liu, G. Q. Lo, and M. K. Park, “Label-free biosensor based on an electrical tracing-assisted silicon microring resonator with a low-cost broadband source,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 46, 15–21 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lo, G. Q.

K. W. Kim, J. Song, J. S. Kee, Q. Liu, G. Q. Lo, and M. K. Park, “Label-free biosensor based on an electrical tracing-assisted silicon microring resonator with a low-cost broadband source,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 46, 15–21 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lockwood, N. A.

N. A. Lockwood, J. C. Mohr, L. Ji, C. J. Murphy, S. P. Palecek, J. J. de Pablo, and N. L. Abbott, “Thermotropic liquid crystals as substrates for imaging the reorganization of matrigel by human embryonic stem cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 16(5), 618–624 (2006).
[Crossref]

Luk, Y. Y.

J. M. Brake, M. K. Daschner, Y. Y. Luk, and N. L. Abbott, “Biomolecular interactions at phospholipid-decorated surfaces of liquid crystals,” Science 302(5653), 2094–2097 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Luk, Y.-Y.

Y.-Y. Luk, C.-H. Jang, L.-L. Cheng, B. A. Israel, and N. L. Abbott, “Influence of lyotropic liquid crystals on the ability of antibodies to bind to surface-immobilized antigens,” Chem. Mater. 17(19), 4774–4782 (2005).
[Crossref]

Y.-Y. Luk, M. L. Tingey, K. A. Dickson, R. T. Raines, and N. L. Abbott, “Imaging the binding ability of proteins immobilized on surfaces with different orientations by using liquid crystals,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126(29), 9024–9032 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Madiyalakan, R.

R. Madiyalakan, M. Kuzma, A. A. Noujaim, and M. R. Suresh, “An antibody-lectin sandwich assay for the determination of CA125 antigen in ovarian cancer patients,” Glycoconj. J. 13(4), 513–517 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maehara, Y.

M. Yamamoto, H. Baba, Y. Toh, T. Okamura, and Y. Maehara, “Peritoneal lavage CEA/CA125 is a prognostic factor for gastric cancer patients,” J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol. 133(7), 471–476 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McCamley, M. K.

M. K. McCamley, A. W. Artenstein, S. M. Opal, and G. P. Crawford, “Optical detection of sepsis markers using liquid crystal based biosensors,” Proc. SPIE 6441, 64411Y (2007).
[Crossref]

Mohr, J. C.

N. A. Lockwood, J. C. Mohr, L. Ji, C. J. Murphy, S. P. Palecek, J. J. de Pablo, and N. L. Abbott, “Thermotropic liquid crystals as substrates for imaging the reorganization of matrigel by human embryonic stem cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 16(5), 618–624 (2006).
[Crossref]

Mooney, D. J.

E. Stern, A. Vacic, N. K. Rajan, J. M. Criscione, J. Park, B. R. Ilic, D. J. Mooney, M. A. Reed, and T. M. Fahmy, “Label-free biomarker detection from whole blood,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(2), 138–142 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Morris, H. R.

M. S. Patankar, Y. Jing, J. C. Morrison, J. A. Belisle, F. A. Lattanzio, Y. Deng, N. K. Wong, H. R. Morris, A. Dell, and G. F. Clark, “Potent suppression of natural killer cell response mediated by the ovarian tumor marker CA125,” Gynecol. Oncol. 99(3), 704–713 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Kui Wong, R. L. Easton, M. Panico, M. Sutton-Smith, J. C. Morrison, F. A. Lattanzio, H. R. Morris, G. F. Clark, A. Dell, and M. S. Patankar, “Characterization of the oligosaccharides associated with the human ovarian tumor marker CA125,” J. Biol. Chem. 278(31), 28619–28634 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Morrison, J. C.

M. S. Patankar, Y. Jing, J. C. Morrison, J. A. Belisle, F. A. Lattanzio, Y. Deng, N. K. Wong, H. R. Morris, A. Dell, and G. F. Clark, “Potent suppression of natural killer cell response mediated by the ovarian tumor marker CA125,” Gynecol. Oncol. 99(3), 704–713 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Kui Wong, R. L. Easton, M. Panico, M. Sutton-Smith, J. C. Morrison, F. A. Lattanzio, H. R. Morris, G. F. Clark, A. Dell, and M. S. Patankar, “Characterization of the oligosaccharides associated with the human ovarian tumor marker CA125,” J. Biol. Chem. 278(31), 28619–28634 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mulchandani, A.

M. A. Bangar, D. J. Shirale, W. Chen, N. V. Myung, and A. Mulchandani, “Single conducting polymer nanowire chemiresistive label-free immunosensor for cancer biomarker,” Anal. Chem. 81(6), 2168–2175 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Murphy, C. J.

N. A. Lockwood, J. C. Mohr, L. Ji, C. J. Murphy, S. P. Palecek, J. J. de Pablo, and N. L. Abbott, “Thermotropic liquid crystals as substrates for imaging the reorganization of matrigel by human embryonic stem cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 16(5), 618–624 (2006).
[Crossref]

Myung, N. V.

M. A. Bangar, D. J. Shirale, W. Chen, N. V. Myung, and A. Mulchandani, “Single conducting polymer nanowire chemiresistive label-free immunosensor for cancer biomarker,” Anal. Chem. 81(6), 2168–2175 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nadler, L. M.

R. C. Bast, M. Feeney, H. Lazarus, L. M. Nadler, R. B. Colvin, and R. C. Knapp, “Reactivity of a monoclonal antibody with human ovarian carcinoma,” J. Clin. Invest. 68(5), 1331–1337 (1981).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ning, Y.

G. J. Zhang and Y. Ning, “Silicon nanowire biosensor and its applications in disease diagnostics: a review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 749, 1–15 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nolte, R. J. M.

J. Hoogboom, K. Velonia, T. Rasing, A. E. Rowan, and R. J. M. Nolte, “LCD-based detection of enzymatic action,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 2006(4), 434–435 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Norum, L. F.

L. F. Norum, B. Erikstein, and K. Nustad, “Elevated CA125 in breast cancer--A sign of advanced disease,” Tumour Biol. 22(4), 223–228 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Noujaim, A. A.

R. Madiyalakan, M. Kuzma, A. A. Noujaim, and M. R. Suresh, “An antibody-lectin sandwich assay for the determination of CA125 antigen in ovarian cancer patients,” Glycoconj. J. 13(4), 513–517 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nustad, K.

L. F. Norum, B. Erikstein, and K. Nustad, “Elevated CA125 in breast cancer--A sign of advanced disease,” Tumour Biol. 22(4), 223–228 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Okamura, T.

M. Yamamoto, H. Baba, Y. Toh, T. Okamura, and Y. Maehara, “Peritoneal lavage CEA/CA125 is a prognostic factor for gastric cancer patients,” J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol. 133(7), 471–476 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Olsen, C. W.

C.-H. Jang, L.-L. Cheng, C. W. Olsen, and N. L. Abbott, “Anchoring of nematic liquid crystals on viruses with different envelope structures,” Nano Lett. 6(5), 1053–1058 (2006).
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Opal, S. M.

M. K. McCamley, A. W. Artenstein, S. M. Opal, and G. P. Crawford, “Optical detection of sepsis markers using liquid crystal based biosensors,” Proc. SPIE 6441, 64411Y (2007).
[Crossref]

Palecek, S. P.

N. A. Lockwood, J. C. Mohr, L. Ji, C. J. Murphy, S. P. Palecek, J. J. de Pablo, and N. L. Abbott, “Thermotropic liquid crystals as substrates for imaging the reorganization of matrigel by human embryonic stem cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 16(5), 618–624 (2006).
[Crossref]

Panico, M.

N. Kui Wong, R. L. Easton, M. Panico, M. Sutton-Smith, J. C. Morrison, F. A. Lattanzio, H. R. Morris, G. F. Clark, A. Dell, and M. S. Patankar, “Characterization of the oligosaccharides associated with the human ovarian tumor marker CA125,” J. Biol. Chem. 278(31), 28619–28634 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, C. W.

A. Kim, C. S. Ah, C. W. Park, J. H. Yang, T. Kim, C. G. Ahn, S. H. Park, and G. Y. Sung, “Direct label-free electrical immunodetection in human serum using a flow-through-apparatus approach with integrated field-effect transistors,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 25(7), 1767–1773 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, J.

E. Stern, A. Vacic, N. K. Rajan, J. M. Criscione, J. Park, B. R. Ilic, D. J. Mooney, M. A. Reed, and T. M. Fahmy, “Label-free biomarker detection from whole blood,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(2), 138–142 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, M. K.

K. W. Kim, J. Song, J. S. Kee, Q. Liu, G. Q. Lo, and M. K. Park, “Label-free biosensor based on an electrical tracing-assisted silicon microring resonator with a low-cost broadband source,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 46, 15–21 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, S.

A. Singh, S. Park, and H. Yang, “Glucose-oxidase label-based redox cycling for an incubation period-free electrochemical immunosensor,” Anal. Chem. 85(10), 4863–4868 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, S. H.

A. Kim, C. S. Ah, C. W. Park, J. H. Yang, T. Kim, C. G. Ahn, S. H. Park, and G. Y. Sung, “Direct label-free electrical immunodetection in human serum using a flow-through-apparatus approach with integrated field-effect transistors,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 25(7), 1767–1773 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Patankar, M. S.

M. S. Patankar, Y. Jing, J. C. Morrison, J. A. Belisle, F. A. Lattanzio, Y. Deng, N. K. Wong, H. R. Morris, A. Dell, and G. F. Clark, “Potent suppression of natural killer cell response mediated by the ovarian tumor marker CA125,” Gynecol. Oncol. 99(3), 704–713 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Kui Wong, R. L. Easton, M. Panico, M. Sutton-Smith, J. C. Morrison, F. A. Lattanzio, H. R. Morris, G. F. Clark, A. Dell, and M. S. Patankar, “Characterization of the oligosaccharides associated with the human ovarian tumor marker CA125,” J. Biol. Chem. 278(31), 28619–28634 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pina, A. S.

A. Hussain, A. S. Pina, and A. C. Roque, “Bio-recognition and detection using liquid crystals,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 25(1), 1–8 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Que, L.

T. Zhang, Y. He, J. Wei, and L. Que, “Nanostructured optical microchips for cancer biomarker detection,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 38(1), 382–388 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Raines, R. T.

Y.-Y. Luk, M. L. Tingey, K. A. Dickson, R. T. Raines, and N. L. Abbott, “Imaging the binding ability of proteins immobilized on surfaces with different orientations by using liquid crystals,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126(29), 9024–9032 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rajan, N. K.

E. Stern, A. Vacic, N. K. Rajan, J. M. Criscione, J. Park, B. R. Ilic, D. J. Mooney, M. A. Reed, and T. M. Fahmy, “Label-free biomarker detection from whole blood,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(2), 138–142 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rasing, T.

J. Hoogboom, K. Velonia, T. Rasing, A. E. Rowan, and R. J. M. Nolte, “LCD-based detection of enzymatic action,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 2006(4), 434–435 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reed, M. A.

E. Stern, A. Vacic, N. K. Rajan, J. M. Criscione, J. Park, B. R. Ilic, D. J. Mooney, M. A. Reed, and T. M. Fahmy, “Label-free biomarker detection from whole blood,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(2), 138–142 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ren, J.

J. Wang and J. Ren, “A sensitive and rapid immunoassay for quantification of CA125 in human sera by capillary electrophoresis with enhanced chemiluminescence detection,” Electrophoresis 26(12), 2402–2408 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Roque, A. C.

A. Hussain, A. S. Pina, and A. C. Roque, “Bio-recognition and detection using liquid crystals,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 25(1), 1–8 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rowan, A. E.

J. Hoogboom, K. Velonia, T. Rasing, A. E. Rowan, and R. J. M. Nolte, “LCD-based detection of enzymatic action,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 2006(4), 434–435 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Scholler, N.

N. Scholler and N. Urban, “CA125 in ovarian cancer,” Biomarkers Med. 1(4), 513–523 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shah, R. R.

S.-R. Kim, R. R. Shah, and N. L. Abbott, “Orientations of liquid crystals on mechanically rubbed films of bovine serum albumin: a possible substrate for biomolecular assays based on liquid crystals,” Anal. Chem. 72(19), 4646–4653 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shirale, D. J.

M. A. Bangar, D. J. Shirale, W. Chen, N. V. Myung, and A. Mulchandani, “Single conducting polymer nanowire chemiresistive label-free immunosensor for cancer biomarker,” Anal. Chem. 81(6), 2168–2175 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Singh, A.

A. Singh, S. Park, and H. Yang, “Glucose-oxidase label-based redox cycling for an incubation period-free electrochemical immunosensor,” Anal. Chem. 85(10), 4863–4868 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Snodgrass, E. J.

M. L. Tingey, S. Wilyana, E. J. Snodgrass, and N. L. Abbott, “Imaging of affinity microcontact printed proteins by using liquid crystals,” Langmuir 20(16), 6818–6826 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Song, J.

K. W. Kim, J. Song, J. S. Kee, Q. Liu, G. Q. Lo, and M. K. Park, “Label-free biosensor based on an electrical tracing-assisted silicon microring resonator with a low-cost broadband source,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 46, 15–21 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stern, E.

E. Stern, A. Vacic, N. K. Rajan, J. M. Criscione, J. Park, B. R. Ilic, D. J. Mooney, M. A. Reed, and T. M. Fahmy, “Label-free biomarker detection from whole blood,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(2), 138–142 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Su, H.-W.

H.-W. Su, Y.-H. Lee, M.-J. Lee, Y.-C. Hsu, and W. Lee, “Label-free immunodetection of the cancer biomarker CA125 using high-Δn liquid crystals,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(7), 077006 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sung, G. Y.

A. Kim, C. S. Ah, C. W. Park, J. H. Yang, T. Kim, C. G. Ahn, S. H. Park, and G. Y. Sung, “Direct label-free electrical immunodetection in human serum using a flow-through-apparatus approach with integrated field-effect transistors,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 25(7), 1767–1773 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Suresh, M. R.

R. Madiyalakan, M. Kuzma, A. A. Noujaim, and M. R. Suresh, “An antibody-lectin sandwich assay for the determination of CA125 antigen in ovarian cancer patients,” Glycoconj. J. 13(4), 513–517 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sutton-Smith, M.

N. Kui Wong, R. L. Easton, M. Panico, M. Sutton-Smith, J. C. Morrison, F. A. Lattanzio, H. R. Morris, G. F. Clark, A. Dell, and M. S. Patankar, “Characterization of the oligosaccharides associated with the human ovarian tumor marker CA125,” J. Biol. Chem. 278(31), 28619–28634 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Suwansa-ard, S.

S. Suwansa-ard, P. Kanatharana, P. Asawatreratanakul, B. Wongkittisuksa, C. Limsakul, and P. Thavarungkul, “Comparison of surface plasmon resonance and capacitive immunosensors for cancer antigen 125 detection in human serum samples,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24(12), 3436–3441 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tampellini, M.

A. Berruti, M. Tampellini, M. Torta, T. Buniva, G. Gorzegno, and L. Dogliotti, “Prognostic value in predicting overall survival of two mucinous markers: CA 15-3 and CA 125 in breast cancer patients at first relapse of disease,” Eur. J. Cancer 30(14), 2082–2084 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tang, D.

D. Tang, R. Yuan, and Y. Chai, “Magnetic control of an electrochemical microfluidic device with an arrayed immunosensor for simultaneous multiple immunoassays,” Clin. Chem. 53(7), 1323–1329 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thavarungkul, P.

S. Suwansa-ard, P. Kanatharana, P. Asawatreratanakul, B. Wongkittisuksa, C. Limsakul, and P. Thavarungkul, “Comparison of surface plasmon resonance and capacitive immunosensors for cancer antigen 125 detection in human serum samples,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24(12), 3436–3441 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thompson, M. E.

H.-K. Chang, F. N. Ishikawa, R. Zhang, R. Datar, R. J. Cote, M. E. Thompson, and C. Zhou, “Rapid, label-free, electrical whole blood bioassay based on nanobiosensor systems,” ACS Nano 5(12), 9883–9891 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tingey, M. L.

M. L. Tingey, S. Wilyana, E. J. Snodgrass, and N. L. Abbott, “Imaging of affinity microcontact printed proteins by using liquid crystals,” Langmuir 20(16), 6818–6826 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y.-Y. Luk, M. L. Tingey, K. A. Dickson, R. T. Raines, and N. L. Abbott, “Imaging the binding ability of proteins immobilized on surfaces with different orientations by using liquid crystals,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126(29), 9024–9032 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Toh, Y.

M. Yamamoto, H. Baba, Y. Toh, T. Okamura, and Y. Maehara, “Peritoneal lavage CEA/CA125 is a prognostic factor for gastric cancer patients,” J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol. 133(7), 471–476 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Torta, M.

A. Berruti, M. Tampellini, M. Torta, T. Buniva, G. Gorzegno, and L. Dogliotti, “Prognostic value in predicting overall survival of two mucinous markers: CA 15-3 and CA 125 in breast cancer patients at first relapse of disease,” Eur. J. Cancer 30(14), 2082–2084 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Urban, N.

N. Scholler and N. Urban, “CA125 in ovarian cancer,” Biomarkers Med. 1(4), 513–523 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vacic, A.

E. Stern, A. Vacic, N. K. Rajan, J. M. Criscione, J. Park, B. R. Ilic, D. J. Mooney, M. A. Reed, and T. M. Fahmy, “Label-free biomarker detection from whole blood,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(2), 138–142 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Velonia, K.

J. Hoogboom, K. Velonia, T. Rasing, A. E. Rowan, and R. J. M. Nolte, “LCD-based detection of enzymatic action,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 2006(4), 434–435 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, J.

J. Wang and J. Ren, “A sensitive and rapid immunoassay for quantification of CA125 in human sera by capillary electrophoresis with enhanced chemiluminescence detection,” Electrophoresis 26(12), 2402–2408 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wei, J.

T. Zhang, Y. He, J. Wei, and L. Que, “Nanostructured optical microchips for cancer biomarker detection,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 38(1), 382–388 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wildgen, S. M.

H. A. Huckabay, S. M. Wildgen, and R. C. Dunn, “Label-free detection of ovarian cancer biomarkers using whispering gallery mode imaging,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 45, 223–229 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wilyana, S.

M. L. Tingey, S. Wilyana, E. J. Snodgrass, and N. L. Abbott, “Imaging of affinity microcontact printed proteins by using liquid crystals,” Langmuir 20(16), 6818–6826 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Woltman, S. J.

S. J. Woltman, G. D. Jay, and G. P. Crawford, “Liquid-crystal materials find a new order in biomedical applications,” Nat. Mater. 6(12), 929–938 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wong, N. K.

M. S. Patankar, Y. Jing, J. C. Morrison, J. A. Belisle, F. A. Lattanzio, Y. Deng, N. K. Wong, H. R. Morris, A. Dell, and G. F. Clark, “Potent suppression of natural killer cell response mediated by the ovarian tumor marker CA125,” Gynecol. Oncol. 99(3), 704–713 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wongkittisuksa, B.

S. Suwansa-ard, P. Kanatharana, P. Asawatreratanakul, B. Wongkittisuksa, C. Limsakul, and P. Thavarungkul, “Comparison of surface plasmon resonance and capacitive immunosensors for cancer antigen 125 detection in human serum samples,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24(12), 3436–3441 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xue, C.-Y.

C.-Y. Xue, S. A. Khan, and K.-L. Yang, “Exploring optical properties of liquid crystals for developing label-free and high-throughput microfluidic immunoassays,” Adv. Mater. 21(2), 198–202 (2009).
[Crossref]

C.-Y. Xue and K.-L. Yang, “Dark-to-bright optical responses of liquid crystals supported on solid surfaces decorated with proteins,” Langmuir 24(2), 563–567 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yamamoto, M.

M. Yamamoto, H. Baba, Y. Toh, T. Okamura, and Y. Maehara, “Peritoneal lavage CEA/CA125 is a prognostic factor for gastric cancer patients,” J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol. 133(7), 471–476 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, H.

A. Singh, S. Park, and H. Yang, “Glucose-oxidase label-based redox cycling for an incubation period-free electrochemical immunosensor,” Anal. Chem. 85(10), 4863–4868 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, J. H.

A. Kim, C. S. Ah, C. W. Park, J. H. Yang, T. Kim, C. G. Ahn, S. H. Park, and G. Y. Sung, “Direct label-free electrical immunodetection in human serum using a flow-through-apparatus approach with integrated field-effect transistors,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 25(7), 1767–1773 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, K. L.

C. H. Chen and K. L. Yang, “Liquid crystal-based immunoassays for detecting hepatitis B antibody,” Anal. Biochem. 421(1), 321–323 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, K.-L.

C.-H. Chen and K.-L. Yang, “Functional protease assay using liquid crystals as a signal reporter,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 35(1), 174–179 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C.-Y. Xue, S. A. Khan, and K.-L. Yang, “Exploring optical properties of liquid crystals for developing label-free and high-throughput microfluidic immunoassays,” Adv. Mater. 21(2), 198–202 (2009).
[Crossref]

X. Bi, S. L. Lai, and K.-L. Yang, “Liquid crystal multiplexed protease assays reporting enzymatic activities as optical bar charts,” Anal. Chem. 81(13), 5503–5509 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C.-Y. Xue and K.-L. Yang, “Dark-to-bright optical responses of liquid crystals supported on solid surfaces decorated with proteins,” Langmuir 24(2), 563–567 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yuan, R.

D. Tang, R. Yuan, and Y. Chai, “Magnetic control of an electrochemical microfluidic device with an arrayed immunosensor for simultaneous multiple immunoassays,” Clin. Chem. 53(7), 1323–1329 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, B.

B. Zhang, F. F. Cai, and X. Y. Zhong, “An overview of biomarkers for the ovarian cancer diagnosis,” Eur. J. Obstet. Gynecol. Reprod. Biol. 158(2), 119–123 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, G. J.

G. J. Zhang and Y. Ning, “Silicon nanowire biosensor and its applications in disease diagnostics: a review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 749, 1–15 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, R.

H.-K. Chang, F. N. Ishikawa, R. Zhang, R. Datar, R. J. Cote, M. E. Thompson, and C. Zhou, “Rapid, label-free, electrical whole blood bioassay based on nanobiosensor systems,” ACS Nano 5(12), 9883–9891 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, T.

T. Zhang, Y. He, J. Wei, and L. Que, “Nanostructured optical microchips for cancer biomarker detection,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 38(1), 382–388 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhong, X. Y.

B. Zhang, F. F. Cai, and X. Y. Zhong, “An overview of biomarkers for the ovarian cancer diagnosis,” Eur. J. Obstet. Gynecol. Reprod. Biol. 158(2), 119–123 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, C.

H.-K. Chang, F. N. Ishikawa, R. Zhang, R. Datar, R. J. Cote, M. E. Thompson, and C. Zhou, “Rapid, label-free, electrical whole blood bioassay based on nanobiosensor systems,” ACS Nano 5(12), 9883–9891 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

ACS Nano (1)

H.-K. Chang, F. N. Ishikawa, R. Zhang, R. Datar, R. J. Cote, M. E. Thompson, and C. Zhou, “Rapid, label-free, electrical whole blood bioassay based on nanobiosensor systems,” ACS Nano 5(12), 9883–9891 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

N. A. Lockwood, J. C. Mohr, L. Ji, C. J. Murphy, S. P. Palecek, J. J. de Pablo, and N. L. Abbott, “Thermotropic liquid crystals as substrates for imaging the reorganization of matrigel by human embryonic stem cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 16(5), 618–624 (2006).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (1)

C.-Y. Xue, S. A. Khan, and K.-L. Yang, “Exploring optical properties of liquid crystals for developing label-free and high-throughput microfluidic immunoassays,” Adv. Mater. 21(2), 198–202 (2009).
[Crossref]

Anal. Biochem. (1)

C. H. Chen and K. L. Yang, “Liquid crystal-based immunoassays for detecting hepatitis B antibody,” Anal. Biochem. 421(1), 321–323 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anal. Chem. (4)

S.-R. Kim, R. R. Shah, and N. L. Abbott, “Orientations of liquid crystals on mechanically rubbed films of bovine serum albumin: a possible substrate for biomolecular assays based on liquid crystals,” Anal. Chem. 72(19), 4646–4653 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Bi, S. L. Lai, and K.-L. Yang, “Liquid crystal multiplexed protease assays reporting enzymatic activities as optical bar charts,” Anal. Chem. 81(13), 5503–5509 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Singh, S. Park, and H. Yang, “Glucose-oxidase label-based redox cycling for an incubation period-free electrochemical immunosensor,” Anal. Chem. 85(10), 4863–4868 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Bangar, D. J. Shirale, W. Chen, N. V. Myung, and A. Mulchandani, “Single conducting polymer nanowire chemiresistive label-free immunosensor for cancer biomarker,” Anal. Chem. 81(6), 2168–2175 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anal. Chim. Acta (1)

G. J. Zhang and Y. Ning, “Silicon nanowire biosensor and its applications in disease diagnostics: a review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 749, 1–15 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biomarkers Med. (1)

N. Scholler and N. Urban, “CA125 in ovarian cancer,” Biomarkers Med. 1(4), 513–523 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biosens. Bioelectron. (7)

H. A. Huckabay, S. M. Wildgen, and R. C. Dunn, “Label-free detection of ovarian cancer biomarkers using whispering gallery mode imaging,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 45, 223–229 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Suwansa-ard, P. Kanatharana, P. Asawatreratanakul, B. Wongkittisuksa, C. Limsakul, and P. Thavarungkul, “Comparison of surface plasmon resonance and capacitive immunosensors for cancer antigen 125 detection in human serum samples,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24(12), 3436–3441 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Zhang, Y. He, J. Wei, and L. Que, “Nanostructured optical microchips for cancer biomarker detection,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 38(1), 382–388 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Kim, C. S. Ah, C. W. Park, J. H. Yang, T. Kim, C. G. Ahn, S. H. Park, and G. Y. Sung, “Direct label-free electrical immunodetection in human serum using a flow-through-apparatus approach with integrated field-effect transistors,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 25(7), 1767–1773 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. W. Kim, J. Song, J. S. Kee, Q. Liu, G. Q. Lo, and M. K. Park, “Label-free biosensor based on an electrical tracing-assisted silicon microring resonator with a low-cost broadband source,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 46, 15–21 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Hussain, A. S. Pina, and A. C. Roque, “Bio-recognition and detection using liquid crystals,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 25(1), 1–8 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C.-H. Chen and K.-L. Yang, “Functional protease assay using liquid crystals as a signal reporter,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 35(1), 174–179 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chem. Commun. (Camb.) (1)

J. Hoogboom, K. Velonia, T. Rasing, A. E. Rowan, and R. J. M. Nolte, “LCD-based detection of enzymatic action,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 2006(4), 434–435 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chem. Mater. (1)

Y.-Y. Luk, C.-H. Jang, L.-L. Cheng, B. A. Israel, and N. L. Abbott, “Influence of lyotropic liquid crystals on the ability of antibodies to bind to surface-immobilized antigens,” Chem. Mater. 17(19), 4774–4782 (2005).
[Crossref]

Clin. Chem. (1)

D. Tang, R. Yuan, and Y. Chai, “Magnetic control of an electrochemical microfluidic device with an arrayed immunosensor for simultaneous multiple immunoassays,” Clin. Chem. 53(7), 1323–1329 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Electrophoresis (1)

J. Wang and J. Ren, “A sensitive and rapid immunoassay for quantification of CA125 in human sera by capillary electrophoresis with enhanced chemiluminescence detection,” Electrophoresis 26(12), 2402–2408 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eur. J. Cancer (1)

A. Berruti, M. Tampellini, M. Torta, T. Buniva, G. Gorzegno, and L. Dogliotti, “Prognostic value in predicting overall survival of two mucinous markers: CA 15-3 and CA 125 in breast cancer patients at first relapse of disease,” Eur. J. Cancer 30(14), 2082–2084 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eur. J. Obstet. Gynecol. Reprod. Biol. (1)

B. Zhang, F. F. Cai, and X. Y. Zhong, “An overview of biomarkers for the ovarian cancer diagnosis,” Eur. J. Obstet. Gynecol. Reprod. Biol. 158(2), 119–123 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Glycoconj. J. (1)

R. Madiyalakan, M. Kuzma, A. A. Noujaim, and M. R. Suresh, “An antibody-lectin sandwich assay for the determination of CA125 antigen in ovarian cancer patients,” Glycoconj. J. 13(4), 513–517 (1996).
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Gynecol. Oncol. (1)

M. S. Patankar, Y. Jing, J. C. Morrison, J. A. Belisle, F. A. Lattanzio, Y. Deng, N. K. Wong, H. R. Morris, A. Dell, and G. F. Clark, “Potent suppression of natural killer cell response mediated by the ovarian tumor marker CA125,” Gynecol. Oncol. 99(3), 704–713 (2005).
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J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

Y.-Y. Luk, M. L. Tingey, K. A. Dickson, R. T. Raines, and N. L. Abbott, “Imaging the binding ability of proteins immobilized on surfaces with different orientations by using liquid crystals,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126(29), 9024–9032 (2004).
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J. Biol. Chem. (1)

N. Kui Wong, R. L. Easton, M. Panico, M. Sutton-Smith, J. C. Morrison, F. A. Lattanzio, H. R. Morris, G. F. Clark, A. Dell, and M. S. Patankar, “Characterization of the oligosaccharides associated with the human ovarian tumor marker CA125,” J. Biol. Chem. 278(31), 28619–28634 (2003).
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J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

H.-W. Su, Y.-H. Lee, M.-J. Lee, Y.-C. Hsu, and W. Lee, “Label-free immunodetection of the cancer biomarker CA125 using high-Δn liquid crystals,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(7), 077006 (2014).
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M. Yamamoto, H. Baba, Y. Toh, T. Okamura, and Y. Maehara, “Peritoneal lavage CEA/CA125 is a prognostic factor for gastric cancer patients,” J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol. 133(7), 471–476 (2007).
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J. Clin. Invest. (1)

R. C. Bast, M. Feeney, H. Lazarus, L. M. Nadler, R. B. Colvin, and R. C. Knapp, “Reactivity of a monoclonal antibody with human ovarian carcinoma,” J. Clin. Invest. 68(5), 1331–1337 (1981).
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Langmuir (3)

M. L. Tingey, S. Wilyana, E. J. Snodgrass, and N. L. Abbott, “Imaging of affinity microcontact printed proteins by using liquid crystals,” Langmuir 20(16), 6818–6826 (2004).
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B. H. Clare and N. L. Abbott, “Orientations of nematic liquid crystals on surfaces presenting controlled densities of peptides: amplification of protein-peptide binding events,” Langmuir 21(14), 6451–6461 (2005).
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C.-Y. Xue and K.-L. Yang, “Dark-to-bright optical responses of liquid crystals supported on solid surfaces decorated with proteins,” Langmuir 24(2), 563–567 (2008).
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Nano Lett. (1)

C.-H. Jang, L.-L. Cheng, C. W. Olsen, and N. L. Abbott, “Anchoring of nematic liquid crystals on viruses with different envelope structures,” Nano Lett. 6(5), 1053–1058 (2006).
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Nat. Biotechnol. (1)

P. S. Cremer, “Label-free detection becomes crystal clear,” Nat. Biotechnol. 22(2), 172–173 (2004).
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Nat. Mater. (1)

S. J. Woltman, G. D. Jay, and G. P. Crawford, “Liquid-crystal materials find a new order in biomedical applications,” Nat. Mater. 6(12), 929–938 (2007).
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Nat. Nanotechnol. (1)

E. Stern, A. Vacic, N. K. Rajan, J. M. Criscione, J. Park, B. R. Ilic, D. J. Mooney, M. A. Reed, and T. M. Fahmy, “Label-free biomarker detection from whole blood,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(2), 138–142 (2010).
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Proc. SPIE (1)

M. K. McCamley, A. W. Artenstein, S. M. Opal, and G. P. Crawford, “Optical detection of sepsis markers using liquid crystal based biosensors,” Proc. SPIE 6441, 64411Y (2007).
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Science (1)

J. M. Brake, M. K. Daschner, Y. Y. Luk, and N. L. Abbott, “Biomolecular interactions at phospholipid-decorated surfaces of liquid crystals,” Science 302(5653), 2094–2097 (2003).
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H. A. Huckabay and R. C. Dunn, “Whispering gallery mode imaging for the multiplexed detection of biomarkers,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 160(1), 1262–1267 (2011).
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L. F. Norum, B. Erikstein, and K. Nustad, “Elevated CA125 in breast cancer--A sign of advanced disease,” Tumour Biol. 22(4), 223–228 (2001).
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Other (1)

M.-J. Lee, H.-W. Su, S.-H. Sun, and W. Lee, “Ultrahigh sensitivity in liquid-crystal-based immunodetection by surface modification of the alignment layer,” Proc. SPIE 9182, Liquid Crystals XVIII, pp. 91820G (2014).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic illustration of sample preparation: (a) preparation of a DMOAP-coated slide, (b) dispensing the protein solution, (c) drying in shade to immobilize the protein, (d) dispensing 5.1-µm spacers on four corners then covering the slide with another DMOAP-coated slide, (e) sealing four corners with adhesive, and (e) introducing LC into the cell.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Comparison of optical textures of HTW and 5CB in the presence of (a) CA125 antigen, (b) anti-CA125 antibody, (c) BSA, and (d) anti-SSAT antibody.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Optical textures and their relative intensities of (a) 5CB and (b) HTW in the presence of 1-µg/ml anti-CA125 antibody at different temperatures.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Optical textures and their relative intensities of mixed CA125 antibody and antigen (1:1 in volume) at various concentrations and the corresponding p-value.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Schematic of mesogenic orientation in cells with (a) anti-CA125 antibody immobilized and DMOAP coated on the substrates, (b) CA125 antigen immobilized and DMOAP coated, and (c) CA125 immunocomplex immobilized on the DMOAP coating.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 0.5-µg/ml mixture of CA125 antibody and antigen comparing with only antigen/antibody alone using 5CB and HTW.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Change in optical texture of HTW with reaction time in the presence of a mixture of 0.5-µg/ml anti-CA125 antibody and 0.5-µg/ml CA125 antigen. The mixture was allowed to react in a test tube for (a) 0 min, (b) 5 min, (c) 10 min, (d) 15 min, (e) 30 min, (f) 60 min, (g) 90 min, (h) 120 min, (i) 240 min and (j) 360 min before immobilization on DMOAP-coated glass substrates and LC cell assembly. The result indicated that the system reaches stablility in 240−360 min.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Optical textures of HTW in the presence of (a) 0.1-µg/ml CA125 antigen mixed with 0.1-µg/ml anti-SSAT antibody, (b) 0.1-µg/ml CA125 antigen mixed with 0.1-µg/ml anti-CA125 antibody, and (c) 0.1-µg/ml anti-SSAT antibody.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Materials Properties of HTW and 5CB

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