Abstract

The feasibility of shifted-excitation Raman difference spectroscopy (SERDS) as a label-free and non-invasive technique for an objective diagnosis of oral cancer (OSCC) was investigated by analyzing 12 ex vivo OSCC samples. 72 mean SERDS spectra from each three physiological tissue points and pathological lesions were correlated with the histo-pathological diagnosis. Principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) showed excellent results with an area under the curve of 94.5% and a classification error of 9.7% (sensitivity: 86.1%; specificity: 94.4%). The SERDS Raman spectra of malignant and benignant tissues were discriminable with respect to the spectral features of proteins, lipids and nucleic acids. The presented method is capable of a highly accurate identification of OSCC. These findings suggest a high validity and reproducibility of SERDS combined with PCA and LDA analysis regarding oral cancer tissue.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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Corrections

Christian Knipfer, Johanna Motz, Werner Adler, Kathrin Brunner, Medhaine Tesfay Gebrekidan, Robert Hankel, Abbas Agaimy, Stefan Will, Andreas Braeuer, Friedrich Wilhelm Neukam, and Florian Stelzle, "Raman difference spectroscopy: a non-invasive method for identification of oral squamous cell carcinoma: publisher’s note," Biomed. Opt. Express 6, 2675-2675 (2015)
https://www.osapublishing.org/boe/abstract.cfm?uri=boe-6-7-2675

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References

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2014 (2)

L. M. Almond, J. Hutchings, G. Lloyd, H. Barr, N. Shepherd, J. Day, O. Stevens, S. Sanders, M. Wadley, N. Stone, and C. Kendall, “Endoscopic Raman spectroscopy enables objective diagnosis of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 79(1), 37–45 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Yasser, R. Shaikh, M. K. Chilakapati, and T. Teni, “Raman spectroscopic study of radioresistant oral cancer sublines established by fractionated ionizing radiation,” PLoS ONE 9(5), e97777 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (6)

M. Diem, A. Mazur, K. Lenau, J. Schubert, B. Bird, M. Miljković, C. Krafft, and J. Popp, “Molecular pathology via IR and Raman spectral imaging,” J. Biophotonics 6(11-12), 855–886 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. P. Singh, A. Sahu, A. Deshmukh, P. Chaturvedi, and C. M. Krishna, “In vivo Raman spectroscopy of oral buccal mucosa: a study on malignancy associated changes (MAC)/cancer field effects (CFE),” Analyst (Lond.) 138(14), 4175–4182 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. A. Philipsen, L. Knudsen, M. Gniadecka, M. H. Ravnbak, and H. C. Wulf, “Diagnosis of malignant melanoma and basal cell carcinoma by in vivo NIR-FT Raman spectroscopy is independent of skin pigmentation,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 12(5), 770–776 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Luo, C. Chen, H. Mao, and S. Jin, “Discrimination of premalignant lesions and cancer tissues from normal gastric tissues using Raman spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(6), 067004 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Zhang, Y. Zhang, Z. C. Dong, S. Jiang, C. Zhang, L. G. Chen, L. Zhang, Y. Liao, J. Aizpurua, Y. Luo, J. L. Yang, and J. G. Hou, “Chemical mapping of a single molecule by plasmon-enhanced Raman scattering,” Nature 498(7452), 82–86 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Calin, S. V. Parasca, R. Savastru, M. R. Calin, and S. Dontu, “Optical techniques for the noninvasive diagnosis of skin cancer,” J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol. 139(7), 1083–1104 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (6)

H. Neumann, C. Langner, M. F. Neurath, and M. Vieth, “Confocal laser endomicroscopy for diagnosis of Barrett's esophagus,” Front Oncol. 2, 42 (2012).

H. Abramczyk, B. Brozek-Pluska, J. Surmacki, J. Jablonska-Gajewicz, and R. Kordek, “Raman ‘optical biopsy’ of human breast cancer,” Prog. Biophys. Mol. Biol. 108(1-2), 74–81 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Sowoidnich and H.-D. Kronfeldt, “Fluorescence Rejection by Shifted Excitation Raman Difference Spectroscopy at Multiple Wavelengths for the Investigation of Biological Samples,” ISRN Spectroscopy. 2012, 1–11 (2012).
[Crossref]

B. Brozek-Pluska, J. Musial, R. Kordek, E. Bailo, T. Dieing, and H. Abramczyk, “Raman spectroscopy and imaging: applications in human breast cancer diagnosis,” Analyst (Lond.) 137(16), 3773–3780 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. P. Singh, A. Deshmukh, P. Chaturvedi, and C. Murali Krishna, “In vivo Raman spectroscopic identification of premalignant lesions in oral buccal mucosa,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(10), 1050021 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. C. Le Ru, L. C. Schroeter, and P. G. Etchegoin, “Direct measurement of resonance Raman spectra and cross sections by a polarization difference technique,” Anal. Chem. 84(11), 5074–5079 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

B. Brozek-Pluska, J. Jablonska-Gajewicz, R. Kordek, and H. Abramczyk, “Phase transitions in oleic acid and in human breast tissue as studied by Raman spectroscopy and Raman imaging,” J. Med. Chem. 54(9), 3386–3392 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Dochow, C. Krafft, U. Neugebauer, T. Bocklitz, T. Henkel, G. Mayer, J. Albert, and J. Popp, “Tumour cell identification by means of Raman spectroscopy in combination with optical traps and microfluidic environments,” Lab Chip 11(8), 1484–1490 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (8)

U. Neugebauer, T. Bocklitz, J. H. Clement, C. Krafft, and J. Popp, “Towards detection and identification of circulating tumour cells using Raman spectroscopy,” Analyst (Lond.) 135(12), 3178–3182 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Papamarkakis, B. Bird, J. M. Schubert, M. Miljković, R. Wein, K. Bedrossian, N. Laver, and M. Diem, “Cytopathology by optical methods: spectral cytopathology of the oral mucosa,” Lab. Invest. 90(4), 589–598 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Schubert, B. Bird, K. Papamarkakis, M. Miljković, K. Bedrossian, N. Laver, and M. Diem, “Spectral cytopathology of cervical samples: detecting cellular abnormalities in cytologically normal cells,” Lab. Invest. 90(7), 1068–1077 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. T. Harris, A. Rennie, H. Waqar-Uddin, S. R. Wheatley, S. K. Ghosh, D. P. Martin-Hirsch, S. E. Fisher, A. S. High, J. Kirkham, and T. Upile, “Raman spectroscopy in head and neck cancer,” Head Neck Oncol. 2(1), 26 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. J. Mallia, N. Subhash, A. Mathews, R. Kumar, S. S. Thomas, P. Sebastian, and J. Madhavan, “Clinical grading of oral mucosa by curve-fitting of corrected autofluorescence using diffuse reflectance spectra,” Head Neck 32(6), 763–779 (2010).
[PubMed]

M. A. da Silva Martins, D. G. Ribeiro, E. A. Pereira Dos Santos, A. A. Martin, A. Fontes, and H. da Silva Martinho, “Shifted-excitation Raman difference spectroscopy for in vitro and in vivo biological samples analysis,” Biomed. Opt. Express 1(2), 617–626 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. B. Cartaxo, I. D. Santos, R. Bitar, A. F. Oliveira, L. M. Ferreira, H. S. Martinho, and A. A. Martin, “FT-Raman spectroscopy for the differentiation between cutaneous melanoma and pigmented nevus,” Acta Cir. Bras. 25(4), 351–356 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Knorr, Z. J. Smith, and S. Wachsmann-Hogiu, “Development of a time-gated system for Raman spectroscopy of biological samples,” Opt. Express 18(19), 20049–20058 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

C. Krafft, B. Dietzek, and J. Popp, “Raman and CARS microspectroscopy of cells and tissues,” Analyst (Lond.) 134(6), 1046–1057 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

M. W. Lingen, J. R. Kalmar, T. Karrison, and P. M. Speight, “Critical evaluation of diagnostic aids for the detection of oral cancer,” Oral Oncol. 44(1), 10–22 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Campo-Trapero, J. Cano-Sánchez, B. Palacios-Sánchez, J. J. Sánchez-Gutierrez, M. A. González-Moles, and A. Bascones-Martínez, “Update on molecular pathology in oral cancer and precancer,” Anticancer Res. 28(2B), 1197–1205 (2008).
[PubMed]

S. Warnakulasuriya, J. Reibel, J. Bouquot, and E. Dabelsteen, “Oral epithelial dysplasia classification systems: predictive value, utility, weaknesses and scope for improvement,” J. Oral Pathol. Med. 37(3), 127–133 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

2006 (3)

B. Swinson, W. Jerjes, M. El-Maaytah, P. Norris, and C. Hopper, “Optical techniques in diagnosis of head and neck malignancy,” Oral Oncol. 42(3), 221–228 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. P. Oliveira, R. A. Bitar, L. Silveira, R. A. Zângaro, and A. A. Martin, “Near-infrared Raman spectroscopy for oral carcinoma diagnosis,” Photomed. Laser Surg. 24(3), 348–353 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Malini, K. Venkatakrishna, J. Kurien, K. M. Pai, L. Rao, V. B. Kartha, and C. M. Krishna, “Discrimination of normal, inflammatory, premalignant, and malignant oral tissue: a Raman spectroscopy study,” Biopolymers 81(3), 179–193 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

N. S. Eikje, K. Aizawa, and Y. Ozaki, “Vibrational spectroscopy for molecular characterisation and diagnosis of benign, premalignant and malignant skin tumours,” Biotechnol. Annu. Rev. 11, 191–225 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. P. Lau, Z. Huang, H. Lui, D. W. Anderson, K. Berean, M. D. Morrison, L. Shen, and H. Zeng, “Raman spectroscopy for optical diagnosis in the larynx: preliminary findings,” Lasers Surg. Med. 37(3), 192–200 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. S. Haka, K. E. Shafer-Peltier, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Crowe, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diagnosing breast cancer by using Raman spectroscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(35), 12371–12376 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

I. J. Bigio and S. G. Bown, “Spectroscopic sensing of cancer and cancer therapy: current status of translational research,” Cancer Biol. Ther. 3(3), 259–267 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

M. P. Coleman, G. Gatta, A. Verdecchia, J. Estève, M. Sant, H. Storm, C. Allemani, L. Ciccolallo, M. Santaquilani, F. Berrino, and EUROCARE Working Group, “EUROCARE-3 summary: cancer survival in Europe at the end of the 20th century,” Ann. Oncol. 14(5Suppl 5), 128–149 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. P. Lau, Z. Huang, H. Lui, C. S. Man, K. Berean, M. D. Morrison, and H. Zeng, “Raman spectroscopy for optical diagnosis in normal and cancerous tissue of the nasopharynx-preliminary findings,” Lasers Surg. Med. 32(3), 210–214 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (4)

A. Nijssen, T. C. Bakker Schut, F. Heule, P. J. Caspers, D. P. Hayes, M. H. Neumann, and G. J. Puppels, “Discriminating basal cell carcinoma from its surrounding tissue by Raman spectroscopy,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 119(1), 64–69 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. W. Neville and T. A. Day, “Oral cancer and precancerous lesions,” CA Cancer J. Clin. 52(4), 195–215 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Zhao, M. M. Carrabba, and F. S. Allen, “Automated Fluorescence Rejection Using Shifted Excitation Raman Difference Spectroscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc. 56(7), 834–845 (2002).
[Crossref]

I. Notingher, S. Verrier, H. Romanska, A. E. Bishop, J. M. Polak, and L. L. Hench, “In situ characterisation of living cells by Raman spectroscopy,” Spectroscopy 16(2), 43–51 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (3)

T. J. Vickers, R. E. Wambles, and C. K. Mann, “Curve Fitting and Linearity: Data Processing in Raman Spectroscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc. 55(4), 389–393 (2001).
[Crossref]

K. Venkatakrishna, J. Kurien, K. M. Pai, M. Valiathan, N. N. Kumar, C. Murali Krishna, G. Ullas, and V. Kartha, “Optical pathology of oral tissue: a Raman spectroscopy diagnostic method,” Curr. Sci. 80(5), 665–669 (2001).

A. Forastiere, W. Koch, A. Trotti, and D. Sidransky, “Head and neck cancer,” N. Engl. J. Med. 345(26), 1890–1900 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

N. Stone, P. Stavroulaki, C. Kendall, M. Birchall, and H. Barr, “Raman spectroscopy for early detection of laryngeal malignancy: preliminary results,” Laryngoscope 110(10), 1756–1763 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1998 (2)

F. Berrino, G. Gatta, and EUROCARE Working Group, “Variation in survival of patients with head and neck cancer in Europe by the site of origin of the tumours,” Eur. J. Cancer 34(1414 Spec No), 2154–2161 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Gillenwater, R. Jacob, R. Ganeshappa, B. Kemp, A. K. El-Naggar, J. L. Palmer, G. Clayman, M. F. Mitchell, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Noninvasive diagnosis of oral neoplasia based on fluorescence spectroscopy and native tissue autofluorescence,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 124(11), 1251–1258 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

J. K. Dhingra, D. F. Perrault, K. McMillan, E. E. Rebeiz, S. Kabani, R. Manoharan, I. Itzkan, M. S. Feld, and S. M. Shapshay, “Early diagnosis of upper aerodigestive tract cancer by autofluorescence,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 122(11), 1181–1186 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1995 (2)

A. Karabulut, J. Reibel, M. H. Therkildsen, F. Praetorius, H. W. Nielsen, and E. Dabelsteen, “Observer variability in the histologic assessment of oral premalignant lesions,” J. Oral Pathol. Med. 24(5), 198–200 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. M. Abbey, G. E. Kaugars, J. C. Gunsolley, J. C. Burns, D. G. Page, J. A. Svirsky, E. Eisenberg, D. J. Krutchkoff, and M. Cushing, “Intraexaminer and interexaminer reliability in the diagnosis of oral epithelial dysplasia,” Oral Surg. Oral Med. Oral Pathol. Oral Radiol. Endod. 80(2), 188–191 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

E. E. Vokes, R. R. Weichselbaum, S. M. Lippman, and W. K. Hong, “Head and neck cancer,” N. Engl. J. Med. 328(3), 184–194 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

1991 (1)

G. J. Puppels, J. H. F. Olminkhof, G. M. J. Segers-Nolten, C. Otto, F. F. de Mul, and J. Greve, “Laser irradiation and Raman spectroscopy of single living cells and chromosomes: Sample degradation occurs with 514.5 nm but not with 660 nm laser light,” Exp. Cell Res. 195(2), 361–367 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Abbey, L. M.

L. M. Abbey, G. E. Kaugars, J. C. Gunsolley, J. C. Burns, D. G. Page, J. A. Svirsky, E. Eisenberg, D. J. Krutchkoff, and M. Cushing, “Intraexaminer and interexaminer reliability in the diagnosis of oral epithelial dysplasia,” Oral Surg. Oral Med. Oral Pathol. Oral Radiol. Endod. 80(2), 188–191 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Abramczyk, H.

H. Abramczyk, B. Brozek-Pluska, J. Surmacki, J. Jablonska-Gajewicz, and R. Kordek, “Raman ‘optical biopsy’ of human breast cancer,” Prog. Biophys. Mol. Biol. 108(1-2), 74–81 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Brozek-Pluska, J. Musial, R. Kordek, E. Bailo, T. Dieing, and H. Abramczyk, “Raman spectroscopy and imaging: applications in human breast cancer diagnosis,” Analyst (Lond.) 137(16), 3773–3780 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Brozek-Pluska, J. Jablonska-Gajewicz, R. Kordek, and H. Abramczyk, “Phase transitions in oleic acid and in human breast tissue as studied by Raman spectroscopy and Raman imaging,” J. Med. Chem. 54(9), 3386–3392 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aizawa, K.

N. S. Eikje, K. Aizawa, and Y. Ozaki, “Vibrational spectroscopy for molecular characterisation and diagnosis of benign, premalignant and malignant skin tumours,” Biotechnol. Annu. Rev. 11, 191–225 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aizpurua, J.

R. Zhang, Y. Zhang, Z. C. Dong, S. Jiang, C. Zhang, L. G. Chen, L. Zhang, Y. Liao, J. Aizpurua, Y. Luo, J. L. Yang, and J. G. Hou, “Chemical mapping of a single molecule by plasmon-enhanced Raman scattering,” Nature 498(7452), 82–86 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Albert, J.

S. Dochow, C. Krafft, U. Neugebauer, T. Bocklitz, T. Henkel, G. Mayer, J. Albert, and J. Popp, “Tumour cell identification by means of Raman spectroscopy in combination with optical traps and microfluidic environments,” Lab Chip 11(8), 1484–1490 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Allemani, C.

M. P. Coleman, G. Gatta, A. Verdecchia, J. Estève, M. Sant, H. Storm, C. Allemani, L. Ciccolallo, M. Santaquilani, F. Berrino, and EUROCARE Working Group, “EUROCARE-3 summary: cancer survival in Europe at the end of the 20th century,” Ann. Oncol. 14(5Suppl 5), 128–149 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Allen, F. S.

Almond, L. M.

L. M. Almond, J. Hutchings, G. Lloyd, H. Barr, N. Shepherd, J. Day, O. Stevens, S. Sanders, M. Wadley, N. Stone, and C. Kendall, “Endoscopic Raman spectroscopy enables objective diagnosis of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 79(1), 37–45 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ana, A. A. M.

A. A. M. Ana, P. de Oliveira, L. Silveira, R. A. Zangaro, and M. Zampieri, Proc. SPIE5321, 111 (2004), doi: Application of principal components analysis to diagnosis hamster oral carcinogenesis: Raman study.
[Crossref]

Anderson, D. W.

D. P. Lau, Z. Huang, H. Lui, D. W. Anderson, K. Berean, M. D. Morrison, L. Shen, and H. Zeng, “Raman spectroscopy for optical diagnosis in the larynx: preliminary findings,” Lasers Surg. Med. 37(3), 192–200 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bailo, E.

B. Brozek-Pluska, J. Musial, R. Kordek, E. Bailo, T. Dieing, and H. Abramczyk, “Raman spectroscopy and imaging: applications in human breast cancer diagnosis,” Analyst (Lond.) 137(16), 3773–3780 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bakker Schut, T. C.

A. Nijssen, T. C. Bakker Schut, F. Heule, P. J. Caspers, D. P. Hayes, M. H. Neumann, and G. J. Puppels, “Discriminating basal cell carcinoma from its surrounding tissue by Raman spectroscopy,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 119(1), 64–69 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barr, H.

L. M. Almond, J. Hutchings, G. Lloyd, H. Barr, N. Shepherd, J. Day, O. Stevens, S. Sanders, M. Wadley, N. Stone, and C. Kendall, “Endoscopic Raman spectroscopy enables objective diagnosis of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 79(1), 37–45 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Stone, P. Stavroulaki, C. Kendall, M. Birchall, and H. Barr, “Raman spectroscopy for early detection of laryngeal malignancy: preliminary results,” Laryngoscope 110(10), 1756–1763 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bascones-Martínez, A.

J. Campo-Trapero, J. Cano-Sánchez, B. Palacios-Sánchez, J. J. Sánchez-Gutierrez, M. A. González-Moles, and A. Bascones-Martínez, “Update on molecular pathology in oral cancer and precancer,” Anticancer Res. 28(2B), 1197–1205 (2008).
[PubMed]

Bedrossian, K.

K. Papamarkakis, B. Bird, J. M. Schubert, M. Miljković, R. Wein, K. Bedrossian, N. Laver, and M. Diem, “Cytopathology by optical methods: spectral cytopathology of the oral mucosa,” Lab. Invest. 90(4), 589–598 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Schubert, B. Bird, K. Papamarkakis, M. Miljković, K. Bedrossian, N. Laver, and M. Diem, “Spectral cytopathology of cervical samples: detecting cellular abnormalities in cytologically normal cells,” Lab. Invest. 90(7), 1068–1077 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Berean, K.

D. P. Lau, Z. Huang, H. Lui, D. W. Anderson, K. Berean, M. D. Morrison, L. Shen, and H. Zeng, “Raman spectroscopy for optical diagnosis in the larynx: preliminary findings,” Lasers Surg. Med. 37(3), 192–200 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. P. Lau, Z. Huang, H. Lui, C. S. Man, K. Berean, M. D. Morrison, and H. Zeng, “Raman spectroscopy for optical diagnosis in normal and cancerous tissue of the nasopharynx-preliminary findings,” Lasers Surg. Med. 32(3), 210–214 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Berrino, F.

M. P. Coleman, G. Gatta, A. Verdecchia, J. Estève, M. Sant, H. Storm, C. Allemani, L. Ciccolallo, M. Santaquilani, F. Berrino, and EUROCARE Working Group, “EUROCARE-3 summary: cancer survival in Europe at the end of the 20th century,” Ann. Oncol. 14(5Suppl 5), 128–149 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Berrino, G. Gatta, and EUROCARE Working Group, “Variation in survival of patients with head and neck cancer in Europe by the site of origin of the tumours,” Eur. J. Cancer 34(1414 Spec No), 2154–2161 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bigio, I. J.

I. J. Bigio and S. G. Bown, “Spectroscopic sensing of cancer and cancer therapy: current status of translational research,” Cancer Biol. Ther. 3(3), 259–267 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Billheimer, D.

Birchall, M.

N. Stone, P. Stavroulaki, C. Kendall, M. Birchall, and H. Barr, “Raman spectroscopy for early detection of laryngeal malignancy: preliminary results,” Laryngoscope 110(10), 1756–1763 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bird, B.

M. Diem, A. Mazur, K. Lenau, J. Schubert, B. Bird, M. Miljković, C. Krafft, and J. Popp, “Molecular pathology via IR and Raman spectral imaging,” J. Biophotonics 6(11-12), 855–886 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Schubert, B. Bird, K. Papamarkakis, M. Miljković, K. Bedrossian, N. Laver, and M. Diem, “Spectral cytopathology of cervical samples: detecting cellular abnormalities in cytologically normal cells,” Lab. Invest. 90(7), 1068–1077 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Papamarkakis, B. Bird, J. M. Schubert, M. Miljković, R. Wein, K. Bedrossian, N. Laver, and M. Diem, “Cytopathology by optical methods: spectral cytopathology of the oral mucosa,” Lab. Invest. 90(4), 589–598 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bishop, A. E.

I. Notingher, S. Verrier, H. Romanska, A. E. Bishop, J. M. Polak, and L. L. Hench, “In situ characterisation of living cells by Raman spectroscopy,” Spectroscopy 16(2), 43–51 (2002).
[Crossref]

Bitar, R.

S. B. Cartaxo, I. D. Santos, R. Bitar, A. F. Oliveira, L. M. Ferreira, H. S. Martinho, and A. A. Martin, “FT-Raman spectroscopy for the differentiation between cutaneous melanoma and pigmented nevus,” Acta Cir. Bras. 25(4), 351–356 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bitar, R. A.

A. P. Oliveira, R. A. Bitar, L. Silveira, R. A. Zângaro, and A. A. Martin, “Near-infrared Raman spectroscopy for oral carcinoma diagnosis,” Photomed. Laser Surg. 24(3), 348–353 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bocklitz, T.

S. Dochow, C. Krafft, U. Neugebauer, T. Bocklitz, T. Henkel, G. Mayer, J. Albert, and J. Popp, “Tumour cell identification by means of Raman spectroscopy in combination with optical traps and microfluidic environments,” Lab Chip 11(8), 1484–1490 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

U. Neugebauer, T. Bocklitz, J. H. Clement, C. Krafft, and J. Popp, “Towards detection and identification of circulating tumour cells using Raman spectroscopy,” Analyst (Lond.) 135(12), 3178–3182 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bouquot, J.

S. Warnakulasuriya, J. Reibel, J. Bouquot, and E. Dabelsteen, “Oral epithelial dysplasia classification systems: predictive value, utility, weaknesses and scope for improvement,” J. Oral Pathol. Med. 37(3), 127–133 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bown, S. G.

I. J. Bigio and S. G. Bown, “Spectroscopic sensing of cancer and cancer therapy: current status of translational research,” Cancer Biol. Ther. 3(3), 259–267 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brozek-Pluska, B.

B. Brozek-Pluska, J. Musial, R. Kordek, E. Bailo, T. Dieing, and H. Abramczyk, “Raman spectroscopy and imaging: applications in human breast cancer diagnosis,” Analyst (Lond.) 137(16), 3773–3780 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Abramczyk, B. Brozek-Pluska, J. Surmacki, J. Jablonska-Gajewicz, and R. Kordek, “Raman ‘optical biopsy’ of human breast cancer,” Prog. Biophys. Mol. Biol. 108(1-2), 74–81 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Brozek-Pluska, J. Jablonska-Gajewicz, R. Kordek, and H. Abramczyk, “Phase transitions in oleic acid and in human breast tissue as studied by Raman spectroscopy and Raman imaging,” J. Med. Chem. 54(9), 3386–3392 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Burns, J. C.

L. M. Abbey, G. E. Kaugars, J. C. Gunsolley, J. C. Burns, D. G. Page, J. A. Svirsky, E. Eisenberg, D. J. Krutchkoff, and M. Cushing, “Intraexaminer and interexaminer reliability in the diagnosis of oral epithelial dysplasia,” Oral Surg. Oral Med. Oral Pathol. Oral Radiol. Endod. 80(2), 188–191 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Calin, M. A.

M. A. Calin, S. V. Parasca, R. Savastru, M. R. Calin, and S. Dontu, “Optical techniques for the noninvasive diagnosis of skin cancer,” J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol. 139(7), 1083–1104 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Calin, M. R.

M. A. Calin, S. V. Parasca, R. Savastru, M. R. Calin, and S. Dontu, “Optical techniques for the noninvasive diagnosis of skin cancer,” J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol. 139(7), 1083–1104 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Campo-Trapero, J.

J. Campo-Trapero, J. Cano-Sánchez, B. Palacios-Sánchez, J. J. Sánchez-Gutierrez, M. A. González-Moles, and A. Bascones-Martínez, “Update on molecular pathology in oral cancer and precancer,” Anticancer Res. 28(2B), 1197–1205 (2008).
[PubMed]

Cano-Sánchez, J.

J. Campo-Trapero, J. Cano-Sánchez, B. Palacios-Sánchez, J. J. Sánchez-Gutierrez, M. A. González-Moles, and A. Bascones-Martínez, “Update on molecular pathology in oral cancer and precancer,” Anticancer Res. 28(2B), 1197–1205 (2008).
[PubMed]

Carrabba, M. M.

Cartaxo, S. B.

S. B. Cartaxo, I. D. Santos, R. Bitar, A. F. Oliveira, L. M. Ferreira, H. S. Martinho, and A. A. Martin, “FT-Raman spectroscopy for the differentiation between cutaneous melanoma and pigmented nevus,” Acta Cir. Bras. 25(4), 351–356 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Caspers, P. J.

A. Nijssen, T. C. Bakker Schut, F. Heule, P. J. Caspers, D. P. Hayes, M. H. Neumann, and G. J. Puppels, “Discriminating basal cell carcinoma from its surrounding tissue by Raman spectroscopy,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 119(1), 64–69 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chaturvedi, P.

S. P. Singh, A. Sahu, A. Deshmukh, P. Chaturvedi, and C. M. Krishna, “In vivo Raman spectroscopy of oral buccal mucosa: a study on malignancy associated changes (MAC)/cancer field effects (CFE),” Analyst (Lond.) 138(14), 4175–4182 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. P. Singh, A. Deshmukh, P. Chaturvedi, and C. Murali Krishna, “In vivo Raman spectroscopic identification of premalignant lesions in oral buccal mucosa,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(10), 1050021 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, C.

S. Luo, C. Chen, H. Mao, and S. Jin, “Discrimination of premalignant lesions and cancer tissues from normal gastric tissues using Raman spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(6), 067004 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, L. G.

R. Zhang, Y. Zhang, Z. C. Dong, S. Jiang, C. Zhang, L. G. Chen, L. Zhang, Y. Liao, J. Aizpurua, Y. Luo, J. L. Yang, and J. G. Hou, “Chemical mapping of a single molecule by plasmon-enhanced Raman scattering,” Nature 498(7452), 82–86 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cherepy, N. J.

Chilakapati, M. K.

M. Yasser, R. Shaikh, M. K. Chilakapati, and T. Teni, “Raman spectroscopic study of radioresistant oral cancer sublines established by fractionated ionizing radiation,” PLoS ONE 9(5), e97777 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ciccolallo, L.

M. P. Coleman, G. Gatta, A. Verdecchia, J. Estève, M. Sant, H. Storm, C. Allemani, L. Ciccolallo, M. Santaquilani, F. Berrino, and EUROCARE Working Group, “EUROCARE-3 summary: cancer survival in Europe at the end of the 20th century,” Ann. Oncol. 14(5Suppl 5), 128–149 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Clayman, G.

A. Gillenwater, R. Jacob, R. Ganeshappa, B. Kemp, A. K. El-Naggar, J. L. Palmer, G. Clayman, M. F. Mitchell, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Noninvasive diagnosis of oral neoplasia based on fluorescence spectroscopy and native tissue autofluorescence,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 124(11), 1251–1258 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Clement, J. H.

U. Neugebauer, T. Bocklitz, J. H. Clement, C. Krafft, and J. Popp, “Towards detection and identification of circulating tumour cells using Raman spectroscopy,” Analyst (Lond.) 135(12), 3178–3182 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Coleman, M. P.

M. P. Coleman, G. Gatta, A. Verdecchia, J. Estève, M. Sant, H. Storm, C. Allemani, L. Ciccolallo, M. Santaquilani, F. Berrino, and EUROCARE Working Group, “EUROCARE-3 summary: cancer survival in Europe at the end of the 20th century,” Ann. Oncol. 14(5Suppl 5), 128–149 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Crowe, J.

A. S. Haka, K. E. Shafer-Peltier, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Crowe, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diagnosing breast cancer by using Raman spectroscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(35), 12371–12376 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cushing, M.

L. M. Abbey, G. E. Kaugars, J. C. Gunsolley, J. C. Burns, D. G. Page, J. A. Svirsky, E. Eisenberg, D. J. Krutchkoff, and M. Cushing, “Intraexaminer and interexaminer reliability in the diagnosis of oral epithelial dysplasia,” Oral Surg. Oral Med. Oral Pathol. Oral Radiol. Endod. 80(2), 188–191 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

da Silva Martinho, H.

da Silva Martins, M. A.

Dabelsteen, E.

S. Warnakulasuriya, J. Reibel, J. Bouquot, and E. Dabelsteen, “Oral epithelial dysplasia classification systems: predictive value, utility, weaknesses and scope for improvement,” J. Oral Pathol. Med. 37(3), 127–133 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Karabulut, J. Reibel, M. H. Therkildsen, F. Praetorius, H. W. Nielsen, and E. Dabelsteen, “Observer variability in the histologic assessment of oral premalignant lesions,” J. Oral Pathol. Med. 24(5), 198–200 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dasari, R. R.

A. S. Haka, K. E. Shafer-Peltier, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Crowe, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diagnosing breast cancer by using Raman spectroscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(35), 12371–12376 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Day, J.

L. M. Almond, J. Hutchings, G. Lloyd, H. Barr, N. Shepherd, J. Day, O. Stevens, S. Sanders, M. Wadley, N. Stone, and C. Kendall, “Endoscopic Raman spectroscopy enables objective diagnosis of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 79(1), 37–45 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Day, T. A.

B. W. Neville and T. A. Day, “Oral cancer and precancerous lesions,” CA Cancer J. Clin. 52(4), 195–215 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

de Mul, F. F.

G. J. Puppels, J. H. F. Olminkhof, G. M. J. Segers-Nolten, C. Otto, F. F. de Mul, and J. Greve, “Laser irradiation and Raman spectroscopy of single living cells and chromosomes: Sample degradation occurs with 514.5 nm but not with 660 nm laser light,” Exp. Cell Res. 195(2), 361–367 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

de Oliveira, P.

A. A. M. Ana, P. de Oliveira, L. Silveira, R. A. Zangaro, and M. Zampieri, Proc. SPIE5321, 111 (2004), doi: Application of principal components analysis to diagnosis hamster oral carcinogenesis: Raman study.
[Crossref]

Deshmukh, A.

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B. Brozek-Pluska, J. Musial, R. Kordek, E. Bailo, T. Dieing, and H. Abramczyk, “Raman spectroscopy and imaging: applications in human breast cancer diagnosis,” Analyst (Lond.) 137(16), 3773–3780 (2012).
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M. Diem, A. Mazur, K. Lenau, J. Schubert, B. Bird, M. Miljković, C. Krafft, and J. Popp, “Molecular pathology via IR and Raman spectral imaging,” J. Biophotonics 6(11-12), 855–886 (2013).
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C. Krafft, B. Dietzek, and J. Popp, “Raman and CARS microspectroscopy of cells and tissues,” Analyst (Lond.) 134(6), 1046–1057 (2009).
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S. Dochow, C. Krafft, U. Neugebauer, T. Bocklitz, T. Henkel, G. Mayer, J. Albert, and J. Popp, “Tumour cell identification by means of Raman spectroscopy in combination with optical traps and microfluidic environments,” Lab Chip 11(8), 1484–1490 (2011).
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R. Zhang, Y. Zhang, Z. C. Dong, S. Jiang, C. Zhang, L. G. Chen, L. Zhang, Y. Liao, J. Aizpurua, Y. Luo, J. L. Yang, and J. G. Hou, “Chemical mapping of a single molecule by plasmon-enhanced Raman scattering,” Nature 498(7452), 82–86 (2013).
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B. Swinson, W. Jerjes, M. El-Maaytah, P. Norris, and C. Hopper, “Optical techniques in diagnosis of head and neck malignancy,” Oral Oncol. 42(3), 221–228 (2006).
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E. C. Le Ru, L. C. Schroeter, and P. G. Etchegoin, “Direct measurement of resonance Raman spectra and cross sections by a polarization difference technique,” Anal. Chem. 84(11), 5074–5079 (2012).
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A. S. Haka, K. E. Shafer-Peltier, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Crowe, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diagnosing breast cancer by using Raman spectroscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(35), 12371–12376 (2005).
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A. S. Haka, K. E. Shafer-Peltier, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Crowe, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diagnosing breast cancer by using Raman spectroscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(35), 12371–12376 (2005).
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P. A. Philipsen, L. Knudsen, M. Gniadecka, M. H. Ravnbak, and H. C. Wulf, “Diagnosis of malignant melanoma and basal cell carcinoma by in vivo NIR-FT Raman spectroscopy is independent of skin pigmentation,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 12(5), 770–776 (2013).
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A. S. Haka, K. E. Shafer-Peltier, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Crowe, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diagnosing breast cancer by using Raman spectroscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(35), 12371–12376 (2005).
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A. T. Harris, A. Rennie, H. Waqar-Uddin, S. R. Wheatley, S. K. Ghosh, D. P. Martin-Hirsch, S. E. Fisher, A. S. High, J. Kirkham, and T. Upile, “Raman spectroscopy in head and neck cancer,” Head Neck Oncol. 2(1), 26 (2010).
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B. Swinson, W. Jerjes, M. El-Maaytah, P. Norris, and C. Hopper, “Optical techniques in diagnosis of head and neck malignancy,” Oral Oncol. 42(3), 221–228 (2006).
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R. Zhang, Y. Zhang, Z. C. Dong, S. Jiang, C. Zhang, L. G. Chen, L. Zhang, Y. Liao, J. Aizpurua, Y. Luo, J. L. Yang, and J. G. Hou, “Chemical mapping of a single molecule by plasmon-enhanced Raman scattering,” Nature 498(7452), 82–86 (2013).
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D. P. Lau, Z. Huang, H. Lui, D. W. Anderson, K. Berean, M. D. Morrison, L. Shen, and H. Zeng, “Raman spectroscopy for optical diagnosis in the larynx: preliminary findings,” Lasers Surg. Med. 37(3), 192–200 (2005).
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L. M. Almond, J. Hutchings, G. Lloyd, H. Barr, N. Shepherd, J. Day, O. Stevens, S. Sanders, M. Wadley, N. Stone, and C. Kendall, “Endoscopic Raman spectroscopy enables objective diagnosis of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 79(1), 37–45 (2014).
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Itzkan, I.

J. K. Dhingra, D. F. Perrault, K. McMillan, E. E. Rebeiz, S. Kabani, R. Manoharan, I. Itzkan, M. S. Feld, and S. M. Shapshay, “Early diagnosis of upper aerodigestive tract cancer by autofluorescence,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 122(11), 1181–1186 (1996).
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Jablonska-Gajewicz, J.

H. Abramczyk, B. Brozek-Pluska, J. Surmacki, J. Jablonska-Gajewicz, and R. Kordek, “Raman ‘optical biopsy’ of human breast cancer,” Prog. Biophys. Mol. Biol. 108(1-2), 74–81 (2012).
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B. Brozek-Pluska, J. Jablonska-Gajewicz, R. Kordek, and H. Abramczyk, “Phase transitions in oleic acid and in human breast tissue as studied by Raman spectroscopy and Raman imaging,” J. Med. Chem. 54(9), 3386–3392 (2011).
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Jacob, R.

A. Gillenwater, R. Jacob, R. Ganeshappa, B. Kemp, A. K. El-Naggar, J. L. Palmer, G. Clayman, M. F. Mitchell, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Noninvasive diagnosis of oral neoplasia based on fluorescence spectroscopy and native tissue autofluorescence,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 124(11), 1251–1258 (1998).
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Jerjes, W.

B. Swinson, W. Jerjes, M. El-Maaytah, P. Norris, and C. Hopper, “Optical techniques in diagnosis of head and neck malignancy,” Oral Oncol. 42(3), 221–228 (2006).
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R. Zhang, Y. Zhang, Z. C. Dong, S. Jiang, C. Zhang, L. G. Chen, L. Zhang, Y. Liao, J. Aizpurua, Y. Luo, J. L. Yang, and J. G. Hou, “Chemical mapping of a single molecule by plasmon-enhanced Raman scattering,” Nature 498(7452), 82–86 (2013).
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S. Luo, C. Chen, H. Mao, and S. Jin, “Discrimination of premalignant lesions and cancer tissues from normal gastric tissues using Raman spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(6), 067004 (2013).
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Jones, H.

Kabani, S.

J. K. Dhingra, D. F. Perrault, K. McMillan, E. E. Rebeiz, S. Kabani, R. Manoharan, I. Itzkan, M. S. Feld, and S. M. Shapshay, “Early diagnosis of upper aerodigestive tract cancer by autofluorescence,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 122(11), 1181–1186 (1996).
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K. Venkatakrishna, J. Kurien, K. M. Pai, M. Valiathan, N. N. Kumar, C. Murali Krishna, G. Ullas, and V. Kartha, “Optical pathology of oral tissue: a Raman spectroscopy diagnostic method,” Curr. Sci. 80(5), 665–669 (2001).

Kartha, V. B.

R. Malini, K. Venkatakrishna, J. Kurien, K. M. Pai, L. Rao, V. B. Kartha, and C. M. Krishna, “Discrimination of normal, inflammatory, premalignant, and malignant oral tissue: a Raman spectroscopy study,” Biopolymers 81(3), 179–193 (2006).
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Kaugars, G. E.

L. M. Abbey, G. E. Kaugars, J. C. Gunsolley, J. C. Burns, D. G. Page, J. A. Svirsky, E. Eisenberg, D. J. Krutchkoff, and M. Cushing, “Intraexaminer and interexaminer reliability in the diagnosis of oral epithelial dysplasia,” Oral Surg. Oral Med. Oral Pathol. Oral Radiol. Endod. 80(2), 188–191 (1995).
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Kemp, B.

A. Gillenwater, R. Jacob, R. Ganeshappa, B. Kemp, A. K. El-Naggar, J. L. Palmer, G. Clayman, M. F. Mitchell, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Noninvasive diagnosis of oral neoplasia based on fluorescence spectroscopy and native tissue autofluorescence,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 124(11), 1251–1258 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kendall, C.

L. M. Almond, J. Hutchings, G. Lloyd, H. Barr, N. Shepherd, J. Day, O. Stevens, S. Sanders, M. Wadley, N. Stone, and C. Kendall, “Endoscopic Raman spectroscopy enables objective diagnosis of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 79(1), 37–45 (2014).
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N. Stone, P. Stavroulaki, C. Kendall, M. Birchall, and H. Barr, “Raman spectroscopy for early detection of laryngeal malignancy: preliminary results,” Laryngoscope 110(10), 1756–1763 (2000).
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Kirkham, J.

A. T. Harris, A. Rennie, H. Waqar-Uddin, S. R. Wheatley, S. K. Ghosh, D. P. Martin-Hirsch, S. E. Fisher, A. S. High, J. Kirkham, and T. Upile, “Raman spectroscopy in head and neck cancer,” Head Neck Oncol. 2(1), 26 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Knorr, F.

Knudsen, L.

P. A. Philipsen, L. Knudsen, M. Gniadecka, M. H. Ravnbak, and H. C. Wulf, “Diagnosis of malignant melanoma and basal cell carcinoma by in vivo NIR-FT Raman spectroscopy is independent of skin pigmentation,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 12(5), 770–776 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Koch, W.

A. Forastiere, W. Koch, A. Trotti, and D. Sidransky, “Head and neck cancer,” N. Engl. J. Med. 345(26), 1890–1900 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kordek, R.

B. Brozek-Pluska, J. Musial, R. Kordek, E. Bailo, T. Dieing, and H. Abramczyk, “Raman spectroscopy and imaging: applications in human breast cancer diagnosis,” Analyst (Lond.) 137(16), 3773–3780 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Abramczyk, B. Brozek-Pluska, J. Surmacki, J. Jablonska-Gajewicz, and R. Kordek, “Raman ‘optical biopsy’ of human breast cancer,” Prog. Biophys. Mol. Biol. 108(1-2), 74–81 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Brozek-Pluska, J. Jablonska-Gajewicz, R. Kordek, and H. Abramczyk, “Phase transitions in oleic acid and in human breast tissue as studied by Raman spectroscopy and Raman imaging,” J. Med. Chem. 54(9), 3386–3392 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Krafft, C.

M. Diem, A. Mazur, K. Lenau, J. Schubert, B. Bird, M. Miljković, C. Krafft, and J. Popp, “Molecular pathology via IR and Raman spectral imaging,” J. Biophotonics 6(11-12), 855–886 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Dochow, C. Krafft, U. Neugebauer, T. Bocklitz, T. Henkel, G. Mayer, J. Albert, and J. Popp, “Tumour cell identification by means of Raman spectroscopy in combination with optical traps and microfluidic environments,” Lab Chip 11(8), 1484–1490 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

U. Neugebauer, T. Bocklitz, J. H. Clement, C. Krafft, and J. Popp, “Towards detection and identification of circulating tumour cells using Raman spectroscopy,” Analyst (Lond.) 135(12), 3178–3182 (2010).
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C. Krafft, B. Dietzek, and J. Popp, “Raman and CARS microspectroscopy of cells and tissues,” Analyst (Lond.) 134(6), 1046–1057 (2009).
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Krishna, C. M.

S. P. Singh, A. Sahu, A. Deshmukh, P. Chaturvedi, and C. M. Krishna, “In vivo Raman spectroscopy of oral buccal mucosa: a study on malignancy associated changes (MAC)/cancer field effects (CFE),” Analyst (Lond.) 138(14), 4175–4182 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Malini, K. Venkatakrishna, J. Kurien, K. M. Pai, L. Rao, V. B. Kartha, and C. M. Krishna, “Discrimination of normal, inflammatory, premalignant, and malignant oral tissue: a Raman spectroscopy study,” Biopolymers 81(3), 179–193 (2006).
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Krutchkoff, D. J.

L. M. Abbey, G. E. Kaugars, J. C. Gunsolley, J. C. Burns, D. G. Page, J. A. Svirsky, E. Eisenberg, D. J. Krutchkoff, and M. Cushing, “Intraexaminer and interexaminer reliability in the diagnosis of oral epithelial dysplasia,” Oral Surg. Oral Med. Oral Pathol. Oral Radiol. Endod. 80(2), 188–191 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kumar, N. N.

K. Venkatakrishna, J. Kurien, K. M. Pai, M. Valiathan, N. N. Kumar, C. Murali Krishna, G. Ullas, and V. Kartha, “Optical pathology of oral tissue: a Raman spectroscopy diagnostic method,” Curr. Sci. 80(5), 665–669 (2001).

Kumar, R.

R. J. Mallia, N. Subhash, A. Mathews, R. Kumar, S. S. Thomas, P. Sebastian, and J. Madhavan, “Clinical grading of oral mucosa by curve-fitting of corrected autofluorescence using diffuse reflectance spectra,” Head Neck 32(6), 763–779 (2010).
[PubMed]

Kurien, J.

R. Malini, K. Venkatakrishna, J. Kurien, K. M. Pai, L. Rao, V. B. Kartha, and C. M. Krishna, “Discrimination of normal, inflammatory, premalignant, and malignant oral tissue: a Raman spectroscopy study,” Biopolymers 81(3), 179–193 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Venkatakrishna, J. Kurien, K. M. Pai, M. Valiathan, N. N. Kumar, C. Murali Krishna, G. Ullas, and V. Kartha, “Optical pathology of oral tissue: a Raman spectroscopy diagnostic method,” Curr. Sci. 80(5), 665–669 (2001).

Langner, C.

H. Neumann, C. Langner, M. F. Neurath, and M. Vieth, “Confocal laser endomicroscopy for diagnosis of Barrett's esophagus,” Front Oncol. 2, 42 (2012).

Lau, D. P.

D. P. Lau, Z. Huang, H. Lui, D. W. Anderson, K. Berean, M. D. Morrison, L. Shen, and H. Zeng, “Raman spectroscopy for optical diagnosis in the larynx: preliminary findings,” Lasers Surg. Med. 37(3), 192–200 (2005).
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Laver, N.

K. Papamarkakis, B. Bird, J. M. Schubert, M. Miljković, R. Wein, K. Bedrossian, N. Laver, and M. Diem, “Cytopathology by optical methods: spectral cytopathology of the oral mucosa,” Lab. Invest. 90(4), 589–598 (2010).
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J. M. Schubert, B. Bird, K. Papamarkakis, M. Miljković, K. Bedrossian, N. Laver, and M. Diem, “Spectral cytopathology of cervical samples: detecting cellular abnormalities in cytologically normal cells,” Lab. Invest. 90(7), 1068–1077 (2010).
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Le Ru, E. C.

E. C. Le Ru, L. C. Schroeter, and P. G. Etchegoin, “Direct measurement of resonance Raman spectra and cross sections by a polarization difference technique,” Anal. Chem. 84(11), 5074–5079 (2012).
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M. Diem, A. Mazur, K. Lenau, J. Schubert, B. Bird, M. Miljković, C. Krafft, and J. Popp, “Molecular pathology via IR and Raman spectral imaging,” J. Biophotonics 6(11-12), 855–886 (2013).
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R. Zhang, Y. Zhang, Z. C. Dong, S. Jiang, C. Zhang, L. G. Chen, L. Zhang, Y. Liao, J. Aizpurua, Y. Luo, J. L. Yang, and J. G. Hou, “Chemical mapping of a single molecule by plasmon-enhanced Raman scattering,” Nature 498(7452), 82–86 (2013).
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M. W. Lingen, J. R. Kalmar, T. Karrison, and P. M. Speight, “Critical evaluation of diagnostic aids for the detection of oral cancer,” Oral Oncol. 44(1), 10–22 (2008).
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E. E. Vokes, R. R. Weichselbaum, S. M. Lippman, and W. K. Hong, “Head and neck cancer,” N. Engl. J. Med. 328(3), 184–194 (1993).
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L. M. Almond, J. Hutchings, G. Lloyd, H. Barr, N. Shepherd, J. Day, O. Stevens, S. Sanders, M. Wadley, N. Stone, and C. Kendall, “Endoscopic Raman spectroscopy enables objective diagnosis of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 79(1), 37–45 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lui, H.

D. P. Lau, Z. Huang, H. Lui, D. W. Anderson, K. Berean, M. D. Morrison, L. Shen, and H. Zeng, “Raman spectroscopy for optical diagnosis in the larynx: preliminary findings,” Lasers Surg. Med. 37(3), 192–200 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. P. Lau, Z. Huang, H. Lui, C. S. Man, K. Berean, M. D. Morrison, and H. Zeng, “Raman spectroscopy for optical diagnosis in normal and cancerous tissue of the nasopharynx-preliminary findings,” Lasers Surg. Med. 32(3), 210–214 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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S. Luo, C. Chen, H. Mao, and S. Jin, “Discrimination of premalignant lesions and cancer tissues from normal gastric tissues using Raman spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(6), 067004 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Luo, Y.

R. Zhang, Y. Zhang, Z. C. Dong, S. Jiang, C. Zhang, L. G. Chen, L. Zhang, Y. Liao, J. Aizpurua, Y. Luo, J. L. Yang, and J. G. Hou, “Chemical mapping of a single molecule by plasmon-enhanced Raman scattering,” Nature 498(7452), 82–86 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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R. J. Mallia, N. Subhash, A. Mathews, R. Kumar, S. S. Thomas, P. Sebastian, and J. Madhavan, “Clinical grading of oral mucosa by curve-fitting of corrected autofluorescence using diffuse reflectance spectra,” Head Neck 32(6), 763–779 (2010).
[PubMed]

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Malini, R.

R. Malini, K. Venkatakrishna, J. Kurien, K. M. Pai, L. Rao, V. B. Kartha, and C. M. Krishna, “Discrimination of normal, inflammatory, premalignant, and malignant oral tissue: a Raman spectroscopy study,” Biopolymers 81(3), 179–193 (2006).
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R. J. Mallia, N. Subhash, A. Mathews, R. Kumar, S. S. Thomas, P. Sebastian, and J. Madhavan, “Clinical grading of oral mucosa by curve-fitting of corrected autofluorescence using diffuse reflectance spectra,” Head Neck 32(6), 763–779 (2010).
[PubMed]

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D. P. Lau, Z. Huang, H. Lui, C. S. Man, K. Berean, M. D. Morrison, and H. Zeng, “Raman spectroscopy for optical diagnosis in normal and cancerous tissue of the nasopharynx-preliminary findings,” Lasers Surg. Med. 32(3), 210–214 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mann, C. K.

Manoharan, R.

J. K. Dhingra, D. F. Perrault, K. McMillan, E. E. Rebeiz, S. Kabani, R. Manoharan, I. Itzkan, M. S. Feld, and S. M. Shapshay, “Early diagnosis of upper aerodigestive tract cancer by autofluorescence,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 122(11), 1181–1186 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mao, H.

S. Luo, C. Chen, H. Mao, and S. Jin, “Discrimination of premalignant lesions and cancer tissues from normal gastric tissues using Raman spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(6), 067004 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Martin, A. A.

S. B. Cartaxo, I. D. Santos, R. Bitar, A. F. Oliveira, L. M. Ferreira, H. S. Martinho, and A. A. Martin, “FT-Raman spectroscopy for the differentiation between cutaneous melanoma and pigmented nevus,” Acta Cir. Bras. 25(4), 351–356 (2010).
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M. A. da Silva Martins, D. G. Ribeiro, E. A. Pereira Dos Santos, A. A. Martin, A. Fontes, and H. da Silva Martinho, “Shifted-excitation Raman difference spectroscopy for in vitro and in vivo biological samples analysis,” Biomed. Opt. Express 1(2), 617–626 (2010).
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A. P. Oliveira, R. A. Bitar, L. Silveira, R. A. Zângaro, and A. A. Martin, “Near-infrared Raman spectroscopy for oral carcinoma diagnosis,” Photomed. Laser Surg. 24(3), 348–353 (2006).
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Martin-Hirsch, D. P.

A. T. Harris, A. Rennie, H. Waqar-Uddin, S. R. Wheatley, S. K. Ghosh, D. P. Martin-Hirsch, S. E. Fisher, A. S. High, J. Kirkham, and T. Upile, “Raman spectroscopy in head and neck cancer,” Head Neck Oncol. 2(1), 26 (2010).
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Martinho, H. S.

S. B. Cartaxo, I. D. Santos, R. Bitar, A. F. Oliveira, L. M. Ferreira, H. S. Martinho, and A. A. Martin, “FT-Raman spectroscopy for the differentiation between cutaneous melanoma and pigmented nevus,” Acta Cir. Bras. 25(4), 351–356 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mathews, A.

R. J. Mallia, N. Subhash, A. Mathews, R. Kumar, S. S. Thomas, P. Sebastian, and J. Madhavan, “Clinical grading of oral mucosa by curve-fitting of corrected autofluorescence using diffuse reflectance spectra,” Head Neck 32(6), 763–779 (2010).
[PubMed]

Mathies, R. A.

Mayer, G.

S. Dochow, C. Krafft, U. Neugebauer, T. Bocklitz, T. Henkel, G. Mayer, J. Albert, and J. Popp, “Tumour cell identification by means of Raman spectroscopy in combination with optical traps and microfluidic environments,” Lab Chip 11(8), 1484–1490 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mazur, A.

M. Diem, A. Mazur, K. Lenau, J. Schubert, B. Bird, M. Miljković, C. Krafft, and J. Popp, “Molecular pathology via IR and Raman spectral imaging,” J. Biophotonics 6(11-12), 855–886 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McMillan, K.

J. K. Dhingra, D. F. Perrault, K. McMillan, E. E. Rebeiz, S. Kabani, R. Manoharan, I. Itzkan, M. S. Feld, and S. M. Shapshay, “Early diagnosis of upper aerodigestive tract cancer by autofluorescence,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 122(11), 1181–1186 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Miljkovic, M.

M. Diem, A. Mazur, K. Lenau, J. Schubert, B. Bird, M. Miljković, C. Krafft, and J. Popp, “Molecular pathology via IR and Raman spectral imaging,” J. Biophotonics 6(11-12), 855–886 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Schubert, B. Bird, K. Papamarkakis, M. Miljković, K. Bedrossian, N. Laver, and M. Diem, “Spectral cytopathology of cervical samples: detecting cellular abnormalities in cytologically normal cells,” Lab. Invest. 90(7), 1068–1077 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Papamarkakis, B. Bird, J. M. Schubert, M. Miljković, R. Wein, K. Bedrossian, N. Laver, and M. Diem, “Cytopathology by optical methods: spectral cytopathology of the oral mucosa,” Lab. Invest. 90(4), 589–598 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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A. Gillenwater, R. Jacob, R. Ganeshappa, B. Kemp, A. K. El-Naggar, J. L. Palmer, G. Clayman, M. F. Mitchell, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Noninvasive diagnosis of oral neoplasia based on fluorescence spectroscopy and native tissue autofluorescence,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 124(11), 1251–1258 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Morrison, M. D.

D. P. Lau, Z. Huang, H. Lui, D. W. Anderson, K. Berean, M. D. Morrison, L. Shen, and H. Zeng, “Raman spectroscopy for optical diagnosis in the larynx: preliminary findings,” Lasers Surg. Med. 37(3), 192–200 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. P. Lau, Z. Huang, H. Lui, C. S. Man, K. Berean, M. D. Morrison, and H. Zeng, “Raman spectroscopy for optical diagnosis in normal and cancerous tissue of the nasopharynx-preliminary findings,” Lasers Surg. Med. 32(3), 210–214 (2003).
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Murali Krishna, C.

S. P. Singh, A. Deshmukh, P. Chaturvedi, and C. Murali Krishna, “In vivo Raman spectroscopic identification of premalignant lesions in oral buccal mucosa,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(10), 1050021 (2012).
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K. Venkatakrishna, J. Kurien, K. M. Pai, M. Valiathan, N. N. Kumar, C. Murali Krishna, G. Ullas, and V. Kartha, “Optical pathology of oral tissue: a Raman spectroscopy diagnostic method,” Curr. Sci. 80(5), 665–669 (2001).

Musial, J.

B. Brozek-Pluska, J. Musial, R. Kordek, E. Bailo, T. Dieing, and H. Abramczyk, “Raman spectroscopy and imaging: applications in human breast cancer diagnosis,” Analyst (Lond.) 137(16), 3773–3780 (2012).
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S. Dochow, C. Krafft, U. Neugebauer, T. Bocklitz, T. Henkel, G. Mayer, J. Albert, and J. Popp, “Tumour cell identification by means of Raman spectroscopy in combination with optical traps and microfluidic environments,” Lab Chip 11(8), 1484–1490 (2011).
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U. Neugebauer, T. Bocklitz, J. H. Clement, C. Krafft, and J. Popp, “Towards detection and identification of circulating tumour cells using Raman spectroscopy,” Analyst (Lond.) 135(12), 3178–3182 (2010).
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H. Neumann, C. Langner, M. F. Neurath, and M. Vieth, “Confocal laser endomicroscopy for diagnosis of Barrett's esophagus,” Front Oncol. 2, 42 (2012).

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A. Nijssen, T. C. Bakker Schut, F. Heule, P. J. Caspers, D. P. Hayes, M. H. Neumann, and G. J. Puppels, “Discriminating basal cell carcinoma from its surrounding tissue by Raman spectroscopy,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 119(1), 64–69 (2002).
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H. Neumann, C. Langner, M. F. Neurath, and M. Vieth, “Confocal laser endomicroscopy for diagnosis of Barrett's esophagus,” Front Oncol. 2, 42 (2012).

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A. Karabulut, J. Reibel, M. H. Therkildsen, F. Praetorius, H. W. Nielsen, and E. Dabelsteen, “Observer variability in the histologic assessment of oral premalignant lesions,” J. Oral Pathol. Med. 24(5), 198–200 (1995).
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A. Nijssen, T. C. Bakker Schut, F. Heule, P. J. Caspers, D. P. Hayes, M. H. Neumann, and G. J. Puppels, “Discriminating basal cell carcinoma from its surrounding tissue by Raman spectroscopy,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 119(1), 64–69 (2002).
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B. Swinson, W. Jerjes, M. El-Maaytah, P. Norris, and C. Hopper, “Optical techniques in diagnosis of head and neck malignancy,” Oral Oncol. 42(3), 221–228 (2006).
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I. Notingher, S. Verrier, H. Romanska, A. E. Bishop, J. M. Polak, and L. L. Hench, “In situ characterisation of living cells by Raman spectroscopy,” Spectroscopy 16(2), 43–51 (2002).
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Oliveira, A. F.

S. B. Cartaxo, I. D. Santos, R. Bitar, A. F. Oliveira, L. M. Ferreira, H. S. Martinho, and A. A. Martin, “FT-Raman spectroscopy for the differentiation between cutaneous melanoma and pigmented nevus,” Acta Cir. Bras. 25(4), 351–356 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Oliveira, A. P.

A. P. Oliveira, R. A. Bitar, L. Silveira, R. A. Zângaro, and A. A. Martin, “Near-infrared Raman spectroscopy for oral carcinoma diagnosis,” Photomed. Laser Surg. 24(3), 348–353 (2006).
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G. J. Puppels, J. H. F. Olminkhof, G. M. J. Segers-Nolten, C. Otto, F. F. de Mul, and J. Greve, “Laser irradiation and Raman spectroscopy of single living cells and chromosomes: Sample degradation occurs with 514.5 nm but not with 660 nm laser light,” Exp. Cell Res. 195(2), 361–367 (1991).
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Otto, C.

G. J. Puppels, J. H. F. Olminkhof, G. M. J. Segers-Nolten, C. Otto, F. F. de Mul, and J. Greve, “Laser irradiation and Raman spectroscopy of single living cells and chromosomes: Sample degradation occurs with 514.5 nm but not with 660 nm laser light,” Exp. Cell Res. 195(2), 361–367 (1991).
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N. S. Eikje, K. Aizawa, and Y. Ozaki, “Vibrational spectroscopy for molecular characterisation and diagnosis of benign, premalignant and malignant skin tumours,” Biotechnol. Annu. Rev. 11, 191–225 (2005).
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L. M. Abbey, G. E. Kaugars, J. C. Gunsolley, J. C. Burns, D. G. Page, J. A. Svirsky, E. Eisenberg, D. J. Krutchkoff, and M. Cushing, “Intraexaminer and interexaminer reliability in the diagnosis of oral epithelial dysplasia,” Oral Surg. Oral Med. Oral Pathol. Oral Radiol. Endod. 80(2), 188–191 (1995).
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R. Malini, K. Venkatakrishna, J. Kurien, K. M. Pai, L. Rao, V. B. Kartha, and C. M. Krishna, “Discrimination of normal, inflammatory, premalignant, and malignant oral tissue: a Raman spectroscopy study,” Biopolymers 81(3), 179–193 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Venkatakrishna, J. Kurien, K. M. Pai, M. Valiathan, N. N. Kumar, C. Murali Krishna, G. Ullas, and V. Kartha, “Optical pathology of oral tissue: a Raman spectroscopy diagnostic method,” Curr. Sci. 80(5), 665–669 (2001).

Palacios-Sánchez, B.

J. Campo-Trapero, J. Cano-Sánchez, B. Palacios-Sánchez, J. J. Sánchez-Gutierrez, M. A. González-Moles, and A. Bascones-Martínez, “Update on molecular pathology in oral cancer and precancer,” Anticancer Res. 28(2B), 1197–1205 (2008).
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Palmer, J. L.

A. Gillenwater, R. Jacob, R. Ganeshappa, B. Kemp, A. K. El-Naggar, J. L. Palmer, G. Clayman, M. F. Mitchell, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Noninvasive diagnosis of oral neoplasia based on fluorescence spectroscopy and native tissue autofluorescence,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 124(11), 1251–1258 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Papamarkakis, K.

J. M. Schubert, B. Bird, K. Papamarkakis, M. Miljković, K. Bedrossian, N. Laver, and M. Diem, “Spectral cytopathology of cervical samples: detecting cellular abnormalities in cytologically normal cells,” Lab. Invest. 90(7), 1068–1077 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Papamarkakis, B. Bird, J. M. Schubert, M. Miljković, R. Wein, K. Bedrossian, N. Laver, and M. Diem, “Cytopathology by optical methods: spectral cytopathology of the oral mucosa,” Lab. Invest. 90(4), 589–598 (2010).
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Parasca, S. V.

M. A. Calin, S. V. Parasca, R. Savastru, M. R. Calin, and S. Dontu, “Optical techniques for the noninvasive diagnosis of skin cancer,” J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol. 139(7), 1083–1104 (2013).
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Pereira Dos Santos, E. A.

Perrault, D. F.

J. K. Dhingra, D. F. Perrault, K. McMillan, E. E. Rebeiz, S. Kabani, R. Manoharan, I. Itzkan, M. S. Feld, and S. M. Shapshay, “Early diagnosis of upper aerodigestive tract cancer by autofluorescence,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 122(11), 1181–1186 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Philipsen, P. A.

P. A. Philipsen, L. Knudsen, M. Gniadecka, M. H. Ravnbak, and H. C. Wulf, “Diagnosis of malignant melanoma and basal cell carcinoma by in vivo NIR-FT Raman spectroscopy is independent of skin pigmentation,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 12(5), 770–776 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Polak, J. M.

I. Notingher, S. Verrier, H. Romanska, A. E. Bishop, J. M. Polak, and L. L. Hench, “In situ characterisation of living cells by Raman spectroscopy,” Spectroscopy 16(2), 43–51 (2002).
[Crossref]

Popp, J.

M. Diem, A. Mazur, K. Lenau, J. Schubert, B. Bird, M. Miljković, C. Krafft, and J. Popp, “Molecular pathology via IR and Raman spectral imaging,” J. Biophotonics 6(11-12), 855–886 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Dochow, C. Krafft, U. Neugebauer, T. Bocklitz, T. Henkel, G. Mayer, J. Albert, and J. Popp, “Tumour cell identification by means of Raman spectroscopy in combination with optical traps and microfluidic environments,” Lab Chip 11(8), 1484–1490 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

U. Neugebauer, T. Bocklitz, J. H. Clement, C. Krafft, and J. Popp, “Towards detection and identification of circulating tumour cells using Raman spectroscopy,” Analyst (Lond.) 135(12), 3178–3182 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Krafft, B. Dietzek, and J. Popp, “Raman and CARS microspectroscopy of cells and tissues,” Analyst (Lond.) 134(6), 1046–1057 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Praetorius, F.

A. Karabulut, J. Reibel, M. H. Therkildsen, F. Praetorius, H. W. Nielsen, and E. Dabelsteen, “Observer variability in the histologic assessment of oral premalignant lesions,” J. Oral Pathol. Med. 24(5), 198–200 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Puppels, G. J.

A. Nijssen, T. C. Bakker Schut, F. Heule, P. J. Caspers, D. P. Hayes, M. H. Neumann, and G. J. Puppels, “Discriminating basal cell carcinoma from its surrounding tissue by Raman spectroscopy,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 119(1), 64–69 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. J. Puppels, J. H. F. Olminkhof, G. M. J. Segers-Nolten, C. Otto, F. F. de Mul, and J. Greve, “Laser irradiation and Raman spectroscopy of single living cells and chromosomes: Sample degradation occurs with 514.5 nm but not with 660 nm laser light,” Exp. Cell Res. 195(2), 361–367 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rao, L.

R. Malini, K. Venkatakrishna, J. Kurien, K. M. Pai, L. Rao, V. B. Kartha, and C. M. Krishna, “Discrimination of normal, inflammatory, premalignant, and malignant oral tissue: a Raman spectroscopy study,” Biopolymers 81(3), 179–193 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ravnbak, M. H.

P. A. Philipsen, L. Knudsen, M. Gniadecka, M. H. Ravnbak, and H. C. Wulf, “Diagnosis of malignant melanoma and basal cell carcinoma by in vivo NIR-FT Raman spectroscopy is independent of skin pigmentation,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 12(5), 770–776 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rebeiz, E. E.

J. K. Dhingra, D. F. Perrault, K. McMillan, E. E. Rebeiz, S. Kabani, R. Manoharan, I. Itzkan, M. S. Feld, and S. M. Shapshay, “Early diagnosis of upper aerodigestive tract cancer by autofluorescence,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 122(11), 1181–1186 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reibel, J.

S. Warnakulasuriya, J. Reibel, J. Bouquot, and E. Dabelsteen, “Oral epithelial dysplasia classification systems: predictive value, utility, weaknesses and scope for improvement,” J. Oral Pathol. Med. 37(3), 127–133 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Karabulut, J. Reibel, M. H. Therkildsen, F. Praetorius, H. W. Nielsen, and E. Dabelsteen, “Observer variability in the histologic assessment of oral premalignant lesions,” J. Oral Pathol. Med. 24(5), 198–200 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rennie, A.

A. T. Harris, A. Rennie, H. Waqar-Uddin, S. R. Wheatley, S. K. Ghosh, D. P. Martin-Hirsch, S. E. Fisher, A. S. High, J. Kirkham, and T. Upile, “Raman spectroscopy in head and neck cancer,” Head Neck Oncol. 2(1), 26 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ribeiro, D. G.

Richards-Kortum, R.

A. Gillenwater, R. Jacob, R. Ganeshappa, B. Kemp, A. K. El-Naggar, J. L. Palmer, G. Clayman, M. F. Mitchell, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Noninvasive diagnosis of oral neoplasia based on fluorescence spectroscopy and native tissue autofluorescence,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 124(11), 1251–1258 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Robichaux-Viehoever, A.

Romanska, H.

I. Notingher, S. Verrier, H. Romanska, A. E. Bishop, J. M. Polak, and L. L. Hench, “In situ characterisation of living cells by Raman spectroscopy,” Spectroscopy 16(2), 43–51 (2002).
[Crossref]

Sahu, A.

S. P. Singh, A. Sahu, A. Deshmukh, P. Chaturvedi, and C. M. Krishna, “In vivo Raman spectroscopy of oral buccal mucosa: a study on malignancy associated changes (MAC)/cancer field effects (CFE),” Analyst (Lond.) 138(14), 4175–4182 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sánchez-Gutierrez, J. J.

J. Campo-Trapero, J. Cano-Sánchez, B. Palacios-Sánchez, J. J. Sánchez-Gutierrez, M. A. González-Moles, and A. Bascones-Martínez, “Update on molecular pathology in oral cancer and precancer,” Anticancer Res. 28(2B), 1197–1205 (2008).
[PubMed]

Sanders, S.

L. M. Almond, J. Hutchings, G. Lloyd, H. Barr, N. Shepherd, J. Day, O. Stevens, S. Sanders, M. Wadley, N. Stone, and C. Kendall, “Endoscopic Raman spectroscopy enables objective diagnosis of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 79(1), 37–45 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sant, M.

M. P. Coleman, G. Gatta, A. Verdecchia, J. Estève, M. Sant, H. Storm, C. Allemani, L. Ciccolallo, M. Santaquilani, F. Berrino, and EUROCARE Working Group, “EUROCARE-3 summary: cancer survival in Europe at the end of the 20th century,” Ann. Oncol. 14(5Suppl 5), 128–149 (2003).
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Santaquilani, M.

M. P. Coleman, G. Gatta, A. Verdecchia, J. Estève, M. Sant, H. Storm, C. Allemani, L. Ciccolallo, M. Santaquilani, F. Berrino, and EUROCARE Working Group, “EUROCARE-3 summary: cancer survival in Europe at the end of the 20th century,” Ann. Oncol. 14(5Suppl 5), 128–149 (2003).
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Santos, I. D.

S. B. Cartaxo, I. D. Santos, R. Bitar, A. F. Oliveira, L. M. Ferreira, H. S. Martinho, and A. A. Martin, “FT-Raman spectroscopy for the differentiation between cutaneous melanoma and pigmented nevus,” Acta Cir. Bras. 25(4), 351–356 (2010).
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Savastru, R.

M. A. Calin, S. V. Parasca, R. Savastru, M. R. Calin, and S. Dontu, “Optical techniques for the noninvasive diagnosis of skin cancer,” J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol. 139(7), 1083–1104 (2013).
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Schroeter, L. C.

E. C. Le Ru, L. C. Schroeter, and P. G. Etchegoin, “Direct measurement of resonance Raman spectra and cross sections by a polarization difference technique,” Anal. Chem. 84(11), 5074–5079 (2012).
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Schubert, J.

M. Diem, A. Mazur, K. Lenau, J. Schubert, B. Bird, M. Miljković, C. Krafft, and J. Popp, “Molecular pathology via IR and Raman spectral imaging,” J. Biophotonics 6(11-12), 855–886 (2013).
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Schubert, J. M.

J. M. Schubert, B. Bird, K. Papamarkakis, M. Miljković, K. Bedrossian, N. Laver, and M. Diem, “Spectral cytopathology of cervical samples: detecting cellular abnormalities in cytologically normal cells,” Lab. Invest. 90(7), 1068–1077 (2010).
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K. Papamarkakis, B. Bird, J. M. Schubert, M. Miljković, R. Wein, K. Bedrossian, N. Laver, and M. Diem, “Cytopathology by optical methods: spectral cytopathology of the oral mucosa,” Lab. Invest. 90(4), 589–598 (2010).
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Sebastian, P.

R. J. Mallia, N. Subhash, A. Mathews, R. Kumar, S. S. Thomas, P. Sebastian, and J. Madhavan, “Clinical grading of oral mucosa by curve-fitting of corrected autofluorescence using diffuse reflectance spectra,” Head Neck 32(6), 763–779 (2010).
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G. J. Puppels, J. H. F. Olminkhof, G. M. J. Segers-Nolten, C. Otto, F. F. de Mul, and J. Greve, “Laser irradiation and Raman spectroscopy of single living cells and chromosomes: Sample degradation occurs with 514.5 nm but not with 660 nm laser light,” Exp. Cell Res. 195(2), 361–367 (1991).
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A. S. Haka, K. E. Shafer-Peltier, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Crowe, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diagnosing breast cancer by using Raman spectroscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(35), 12371–12376 (2005).
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Shaikh, R.

M. Yasser, R. Shaikh, M. K. Chilakapati, and T. Teni, “Raman spectroscopic study of radioresistant oral cancer sublines established by fractionated ionizing radiation,” PLoS ONE 9(5), e97777 (2014).
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Shapshay, S. M.

J. K. Dhingra, D. F. Perrault, K. McMillan, E. E. Rebeiz, S. Kabani, R. Manoharan, I. Itzkan, M. S. Feld, and S. M. Shapshay, “Early diagnosis of upper aerodigestive tract cancer by autofluorescence,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 122(11), 1181–1186 (1996).
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D. P. Lau, Z. Huang, H. Lui, D. W. Anderson, K. Berean, M. D. Morrison, L. Shen, and H. Zeng, “Raman spectroscopy for optical diagnosis in the larynx: preliminary findings,” Lasers Surg. Med. 37(3), 192–200 (2005).
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L. M. Almond, J. Hutchings, G. Lloyd, H. Barr, N. Shepherd, J. Day, O. Stevens, S. Sanders, M. Wadley, N. Stone, and C. Kendall, “Endoscopic Raman spectroscopy enables objective diagnosis of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 79(1), 37–45 (2014).
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A. P. Oliveira, R. A. Bitar, L. Silveira, R. A. Zângaro, and A. A. Martin, “Near-infrared Raman spectroscopy for oral carcinoma diagnosis,” Photomed. Laser Surg. 24(3), 348–353 (2006).
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A. A. M. Ana, P. de Oliveira, L. Silveira, R. A. Zangaro, and M. Zampieri, Proc. SPIE5321, 111 (2004), doi: Application of principal components analysis to diagnosis hamster oral carcinogenesis: Raman study.
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S. P. Singh, A. Sahu, A. Deshmukh, P. Chaturvedi, and C. M. Krishna, “In vivo Raman spectroscopy of oral buccal mucosa: a study on malignancy associated changes (MAC)/cancer field effects (CFE),” Analyst (Lond.) 138(14), 4175–4182 (2013).
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S. P. Singh, A. Deshmukh, P. Chaturvedi, and C. Murali Krishna, “In vivo Raman spectroscopic identification of premalignant lesions in oral buccal mucosa,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(10), 1050021 (2012).
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Sowoidnich, K.

K. Sowoidnich and H.-D. Kronfeldt, “Fluorescence Rejection by Shifted Excitation Raman Difference Spectroscopy at Multiple Wavelengths for the Investigation of Biological Samples,” ISRN Spectroscopy. 2012, 1–11 (2012).
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R. J. Swain and M. M. Stevens, “Raman microspectroscopy for non-invasive biochemical analysis of single cells,” Biochem. Soc. Trans. 35(3), 544–549 (2007).
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M. Yasser, R. Shaikh, M. K. Chilakapati, and T. Teni, “Raman spectroscopic study of radioresistant oral cancer sublines established by fractionated ionizing radiation,” PLoS ONE 9(5), e97777 (2014).
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A. T. Harris, A. Rennie, H. Waqar-Uddin, S. R. Wheatley, S. K. Ghosh, D. P. Martin-Hirsch, S. E. Fisher, A. S. High, J. Kirkham, and T. Upile, “Raman spectroscopy in head and neck cancer,” Head Neck Oncol. 2(1), 26 (2010).
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R. Malini, K. Venkatakrishna, J. Kurien, K. M. Pai, L. Rao, V. B. Kartha, and C. M. Krishna, “Discrimination of normal, inflammatory, premalignant, and malignant oral tissue: a Raman spectroscopy study,” Biopolymers 81(3), 179–193 (2006).
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Verdecchia, A.

M. P. Coleman, G. Gatta, A. Verdecchia, J. Estève, M. Sant, H. Storm, C. Allemani, L. Ciccolallo, M. Santaquilani, F. Berrino, and EUROCARE Working Group, “EUROCARE-3 summary: cancer survival in Europe at the end of the 20th century,” Ann. Oncol. 14(5Suppl 5), 128–149 (2003).
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Vickers, T. J.

Vieth, M.

H. Neumann, C. Langner, M. F. Neurath, and M. Vieth, “Confocal laser endomicroscopy for diagnosis of Barrett's esophagus,” Front Oncol. 2, 42 (2012).

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Wadley, M.

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K. Papamarkakis, B. Bird, J. M. Schubert, M. Miljković, R. Wein, K. Bedrossian, N. Laver, and M. Diem, “Cytopathology by optical methods: spectral cytopathology of the oral mucosa,” Lab. Invest. 90(4), 589–598 (2010).
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P. A. Philipsen, L. Knudsen, M. Gniadecka, M. H. Ravnbak, and H. C. Wulf, “Diagnosis of malignant melanoma and basal cell carcinoma by in vivo NIR-FT Raman spectroscopy is independent of skin pigmentation,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 12(5), 770–776 (2013).
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Yasser, M.

M. Yasser, R. Shaikh, M. K. Chilakapati, and T. Teni, “Raman spectroscopic study of radioresistant oral cancer sublines established by fractionated ionizing radiation,” PLoS ONE 9(5), e97777 (2014).
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Zampieri, M.

A. A. M. Ana, P. de Oliveira, L. Silveira, R. A. Zangaro, and M. Zampieri, Proc. SPIE5321, 111 (2004), doi: Application of principal components analysis to diagnosis hamster oral carcinogenesis: Raman study.
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A. A. M. Ana, P. de Oliveira, L. Silveira, R. A. Zangaro, and M. Zampieri, Proc. SPIE5321, 111 (2004), doi: Application of principal components analysis to diagnosis hamster oral carcinogenesis: Raman study.
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A. P. Oliveira, R. A. Bitar, L. Silveira, R. A. Zângaro, and A. A. Martin, “Near-infrared Raman spectroscopy for oral carcinoma diagnosis,” Photomed. Laser Surg. 24(3), 348–353 (2006).
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Zeng, H.

D. P. Lau, Z. Huang, H. Lui, D. W. Anderson, K. Berean, M. D. Morrison, L. Shen, and H. Zeng, “Raman spectroscopy for optical diagnosis in the larynx: preliminary findings,” Lasers Surg. Med. 37(3), 192–200 (2005).
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R. Zhang, Y. Zhang, Z. C. Dong, S. Jiang, C. Zhang, L. G. Chen, L. Zhang, Y. Liao, J. Aizpurua, Y. Luo, J. L. Yang, and J. G. Hou, “Chemical mapping of a single molecule by plasmon-enhanced Raman scattering,” Nature 498(7452), 82–86 (2013).
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R. Zhang, Y. Zhang, Z. C. Dong, S. Jiang, C. Zhang, L. G. Chen, L. Zhang, Y. Liao, J. Aizpurua, Y. Luo, J. L. Yang, and J. G. Hou, “Chemical mapping of a single molecule by plasmon-enhanced Raman scattering,” Nature 498(7452), 82–86 (2013).
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R. Zhang, Y. Zhang, Z. C. Dong, S. Jiang, C. Zhang, L. G. Chen, L. Zhang, Y. Liao, J. Aizpurua, Y. Luo, J. L. Yang, and J. G. Hou, “Chemical mapping of a single molecule by plasmon-enhanced Raman scattering,” Nature 498(7452), 82–86 (2013).
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Zhao, J.

Acta Cir. Bras. (1)

S. B. Cartaxo, I. D. Santos, R. Bitar, A. F. Oliveira, L. M. Ferreira, H. S. Martinho, and A. A. Martin, “FT-Raman spectroscopy for the differentiation between cutaneous melanoma and pigmented nevus,” Acta Cir. Bras. 25(4), 351–356 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anal. Chem. (1)

E. C. Le Ru, L. C. Schroeter, and P. G. Etchegoin, “Direct measurement of resonance Raman spectra and cross sections by a polarization difference technique,” Anal. Chem. 84(11), 5074–5079 (2012).
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Analyst (Lond.) (4)

B. Brozek-Pluska, J. Musial, R. Kordek, E. Bailo, T. Dieing, and H. Abramczyk, “Raman spectroscopy and imaging: applications in human breast cancer diagnosis,” Analyst (Lond.) 137(16), 3773–3780 (2012).
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S. P. Singh, A. Sahu, A. Deshmukh, P. Chaturvedi, and C. M. Krishna, “In vivo Raman spectroscopy of oral buccal mucosa: a study on malignancy associated changes (MAC)/cancer field effects (CFE),” Analyst (Lond.) 138(14), 4175–4182 (2013).
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C. Krafft, B. Dietzek, and J. Popp, “Raman and CARS microspectroscopy of cells and tissues,” Analyst (Lond.) 134(6), 1046–1057 (2009).
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U. Neugebauer, T. Bocklitz, J. H. Clement, C. Krafft, and J. Popp, “Towards detection and identification of circulating tumour cells using Raman spectroscopy,” Analyst (Lond.) 135(12), 3178–3182 (2010).
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Ann. Oncol. (1)

M. P. Coleman, G. Gatta, A. Verdecchia, J. Estève, M. Sant, H. Storm, C. Allemani, L. Ciccolallo, M. Santaquilani, F. Berrino, and EUROCARE Working Group, “EUROCARE-3 summary: cancer survival in Europe at the end of the 20th century,” Ann. Oncol. 14(5Suppl 5), 128–149 (2003).
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Anticancer Res. (1)

J. Campo-Trapero, J. Cano-Sánchez, B. Palacios-Sánchez, J. J. Sánchez-Gutierrez, M. A. González-Moles, and A. Bascones-Martínez, “Update on molecular pathology in oral cancer and precancer,” Anticancer Res. 28(2B), 1197–1205 (2008).
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Appl. Spectrosc. (4)

Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. (2)

J. K. Dhingra, D. F. Perrault, K. McMillan, E. E. Rebeiz, S. Kabani, R. Manoharan, I. Itzkan, M. S. Feld, and S. M. Shapshay, “Early diagnosis of upper aerodigestive tract cancer by autofluorescence,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 122(11), 1181–1186 (1996).
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A. Gillenwater, R. Jacob, R. Ganeshappa, B. Kemp, A. K. El-Naggar, J. L. Palmer, G. Clayman, M. F. Mitchell, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Noninvasive diagnosis of oral neoplasia based on fluorescence spectroscopy and native tissue autofluorescence,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 124(11), 1251–1258 (1998).
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Biochem. Soc. Trans. (1)

R. J. Swain and M. M. Stevens, “Raman microspectroscopy for non-invasive biochemical analysis of single cells,” Biochem. Soc. Trans. 35(3), 544–549 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

Biopolymers (1)

R. Malini, K. Venkatakrishna, J. Kurien, K. M. Pai, L. Rao, V. B. Kartha, and C. M. Krishna, “Discrimination of normal, inflammatory, premalignant, and malignant oral tissue: a Raman spectroscopy study,” Biopolymers 81(3), 179–193 (2006).
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Biotechnol. Annu. Rev. (1)

N. S. Eikje, K. Aizawa, and Y. Ozaki, “Vibrational spectroscopy for molecular characterisation and diagnosis of benign, premalignant and malignant skin tumours,” Biotechnol. Annu. Rev. 11, 191–225 (2005).
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CA Cancer J. Clin. (1)

B. W. Neville and T. A. Day, “Oral cancer and precancerous lesions,” CA Cancer J. Clin. 52(4), 195–215 (2002).
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Cancer Biol. Ther. (1)

I. J. Bigio and S. G. Bown, “Spectroscopic sensing of cancer and cancer therapy: current status of translational research,” Cancer Biol. Ther. 3(3), 259–267 (2004).
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Curr. Sci. (1)

K. Venkatakrishna, J. Kurien, K. M. Pai, M. Valiathan, N. N. Kumar, C. Murali Krishna, G. Ullas, and V. Kartha, “Optical pathology of oral tissue: a Raman spectroscopy diagnostic method,” Curr. Sci. 80(5), 665–669 (2001).

Eur. J. Cancer (1)

F. Berrino, G. Gatta, and EUROCARE Working Group, “Variation in survival of patients with head and neck cancer in Europe by the site of origin of the tumours,” Eur. J. Cancer 34(1414 Spec No), 2154–2161 (1998).
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Exp. Cell Res. (1)

G. J. Puppels, J. H. F. Olminkhof, G. M. J. Segers-Nolten, C. Otto, F. F. de Mul, and J. Greve, “Laser irradiation and Raman spectroscopy of single living cells and chromosomes: Sample degradation occurs with 514.5 nm but not with 660 nm laser light,” Exp. Cell Res. 195(2), 361–367 (1991).
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Front Oncol. (1)

H. Neumann, C. Langner, M. F. Neurath, and M. Vieth, “Confocal laser endomicroscopy for diagnosis of Barrett's esophagus,” Front Oncol. 2, 42 (2012).

Gastrointest. Endosc. (1)

L. M. Almond, J. Hutchings, G. Lloyd, H. Barr, N. Shepherd, J. Day, O. Stevens, S. Sanders, M. Wadley, N. Stone, and C. Kendall, “Endoscopic Raman spectroscopy enables objective diagnosis of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 79(1), 37–45 (2014).
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Head Neck (1)

R. J. Mallia, N. Subhash, A. Mathews, R. Kumar, S. S. Thomas, P. Sebastian, and J. Madhavan, “Clinical grading of oral mucosa by curve-fitting of corrected autofluorescence using diffuse reflectance spectra,” Head Neck 32(6), 763–779 (2010).
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Head Neck Oncol. (1)

A. T. Harris, A. Rennie, H. Waqar-Uddin, S. R. Wheatley, S. K. Ghosh, D. P. Martin-Hirsch, S. E. Fisher, A. S. High, J. Kirkham, and T. Upile, “Raman spectroscopy in head and neck cancer,” Head Neck Oncol. 2(1), 26 (2010).
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ISRN Spectroscopy. (1)

K. Sowoidnich and H.-D. Kronfeldt, “Fluorescence Rejection by Shifted Excitation Raman Difference Spectroscopy at Multiple Wavelengths for the Investigation of Biological Samples,” ISRN Spectroscopy. 2012, 1–11 (2012).
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J. Biomed. Opt. (2)

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M. A. Calin, S. V. Parasca, R. Savastru, M. R. Calin, and S. Dontu, “Optical techniques for the noninvasive diagnosis of skin cancer,” J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol. 139(7), 1083–1104 (2013).
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A. Nijssen, T. C. Bakker Schut, F. Heule, P. J. Caspers, D. P. Hayes, M. H. Neumann, and G. J. Puppels, “Discriminating basal cell carcinoma from its surrounding tissue by Raman spectroscopy,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 119(1), 64–69 (2002).
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Lab Chip (1)

S. Dochow, C. Krafft, U. Neugebauer, T. Bocklitz, T. Henkel, G. Mayer, J. Albert, and J. Popp, “Tumour cell identification by means of Raman spectroscopy in combination with optical traps and microfluidic environments,” Lab Chip 11(8), 1484–1490 (2011).
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J. M. Schubert, B. Bird, K. Papamarkakis, M. Miljković, K. Bedrossian, N. Laver, and M. Diem, “Spectral cytopathology of cervical samples: detecting cellular abnormalities in cytologically normal cells,” Lab. Invest. 90(7), 1068–1077 (2010).
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Opt. Express (1)

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Photomed. Laser Surg. (1)

A. P. Oliveira, R. A. Bitar, L. Silveira, R. A. Zângaro, and A. A. Martin, “Near-infrared Raman spectroscopy for oral carcinoma diagnosis,” Photomed. Laser Surg. 24(3), 348–353 (2006).
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PLoS ONE (1)

M. Yasser, R. Shaikh, M. K. Chilakapati, and T. Teni, “Raman spectroscopic study of radioresistant oral cancer sublines established by fractionated ionizing radiation,” PLoS ONE 9(5), e97777 (2014).
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Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1)

A. S. Haka, K. E. Shafer-Peltier, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Crowe, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diagnosing breast cancer by using Raman spectroscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(35), 12371–12376 (2005).
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H. Abramczyk, B. Brozek-Pluska, J. Surmacki, J. Jablonska-Gajewicz, and R. Kordek, “Raman ‘optical biopsy’ of human breast cancer,” Prog. Biophys. Mol. Biol. 108(1-2), 74–81 (2012).
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Spectroscopy (1)

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Raman spectroscopic setup a) excitation diode laser (variable wavelength), b) excitation glass fiber, c) lens, d) lens f = 100 mm, e) dichroic beam splitter 800nm, f) biological tissue, g) long pass filter 785 nm, h) detection glass fiber bundle, i) spectrometer.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Histological confirmation of each measurement point (2,5x magnification / haematoxylin eosin stained slide) a) physiological tissue b) pathological OSCC lesion.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Spectra processing procedure.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve representing the diagnostic accuracy with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.945.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Assigment of spectral features of proteins, lipids and nucleic acids to the ones of pathological and physiological oral tissue.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Descriptive characteristics: patient cohort.

Tables Icon

Table 2 Descriptive characteristics: oral tissue samples.

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