Abstract

We demonstrate highly parallel imaging with interleaved optical coherence tomography (iOCT) using an in-house-fabricated, air-spaced virtually-imaged phased array (VIPA). The air-spaced VIPA performs spectral encoding of the interferograms from multiple lateral points within a single sweep of the source and allows us to tune and balance several imaging parameters: number of multiplexed points, ranging depth, and sensitivity. In addition to a thorough discussion of the parameters and operating principles of the VIPA, we experimentally demonstrate the effect of different VIPA designs on the multiplexing potential of iOCT. Using a 200-kHz light source, we achieve an effective A-scan rate of 3.2-MHz by multiplexing 16 lateral points onto a single wavelength sweep. The improved sensitivity of this system is demonstrated for 3D imaging of biological samples such as a human finger and a fruit fly.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2013 (3)

2012 (4)

2011 (1)

R. Wang, J. X. Yun, X. Yuan, R. Goodwin, R. R. Markwald, and B. Z. Gao, “Megahertz streak-mode Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(6), 066016 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

2009 (2)

K. König, M. Speicher, R. Bückle, J. Reckfort, G. McKenzie, J. Welzel, M. J. Koehler, P. Elsner, and M. Kaatz, “Clinical optical coherence tomography combined with multiphoton tomography of patients with skin diseases,” J. Biophotonics 2(6-7), 389–397 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Ran, Y. Rao, J. Zhang, Z. Liu, and B. Xu, “A miniature fiber-optic refractive-index sensor based on laser-machined Fabry-Perot interferometer tip,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(23), 5426–5429 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

2007 (1)

2005 (1)

J. Lademann, A. Knuttel, H. Richter, N. Otberg, R. V. Pelchrzim, H. Audring, H. Meffert, W. Sterry, and K. Hoffmann, “Application of optical coherent tomography for skin diagnostics,” Laser Phys. 15, 288–294 (2005).

2004 (2)

S. Xiao, A. M. Weiner, and C. Lin, “A dispersion law for virtually imaged phased-array spectral dispersers based on paraxial wave theory,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(4), 420–426 (2004).
[Crossref]

V. X. D. Yang, N. Munce, J. Pekar, M. L. Gordon, S. Lo, N. E. Marcon, B. C. Wilson, and I. A. Vitkin, “Micromachined array tip for multifocus fiber-based optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 29(15), 1754–1756 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (3)

2000 (2)

1996 (1)

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alex, A.

Audring, H.

J. Lademann, A. Knuttel, H. Richter, N. Otberg, R. V. Pelchrzim, H. Audring, H. Meffert, W. Sterry, and K. Hoffmann, “Application of optical coherent tomography for skin diagnostics,” Laser Phys. 15, 288–294 (2005).

Bashkansky, M.

Belabas, N.

Biedermann, B. R.

Bonin, T.

Bouma, B. E.

Brown, W. J.

Bückle, R.

K. König, M. Speicher, R. Bückle, J. Reckfort, G. McKenzie, J. Welzel, M. J. Koehler, P. Elsner, and M. Kaatz, “Clinical optical coherence tomography combined with multiphoton tomography of patients with skin diseases,” J. Biophotonics 2(6-7), 389–397 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bustamante, T.

Cable, A. E.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choi, D. H.

Choma, M.

Dhalla, A.-H.

Dorrer, C.

Duker, J. S.

Eigenwillig, C. M.

Ellerbee, A. K.

Elsner, P.

K. König, M. Speicher, R. Bückle, J. Reckfort, G. McKenzie, J. Welzel, M. J. Koehler, P. Elsner, and M. Kaatz, “Clinical optical coherence tomography combined with multiphoton tomography of patients with skin diseases,” J. Biophotonics 2(6-7), 389–397 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fard, A.

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Franke, G.

Fu, G.

Fujimoto, J. G.

Gao, B. Z.

R. Wang, J. X. Yun, X. Yuan, R. Goodwin, R. R. Markwald, and B. Z. Gao, “Megahertz streak-mode Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(6), 066016 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Goda, K.

Goodwin, R.

R. Wang, J. X. Yun, X. Yuan, R. Goodwin, R. R. Markwald, and B. Z. Gao, “Megahertz streak-mode Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(6), 066016 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gordon, M. L.

Graf, R. N.

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grulkowski, I.

Hagen-Eggert, M.

Han, Y.

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hiro-Oka, H.

Hoffmann, K.

J. Lademann, A. Knuttel, H. Richter, N. Otberg, R. V. Pelchrzim, H. Audring, H. Meffert, W. Sterry, and K. Hoffmann, “Application of optical coherent tomography for skin diagnostics,” Laser Phys. 15, 288–294 (2005).

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huber, R.

Hüttmann, G.

Iftimia, N.

Izatt, J.

Izatt, J. A.

Jalali, B.

Jayaraman, V.

Jiang, J.

Joffre, M.

Kaatz, M.

K. König, M. Speicher, R. Bückle, J. Reckfort, G. McKenzie, J. Welzel, M. J. Koehler, P. Elsner, and M. Kaatz, “Clinical optical coherence tomography combined with multiphoton tomography of patients with skin diseases,” J. Biophotonics 2(6-7), 389–397 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Klein, T.

Knuttel, A.

J. Lademann, A. Knuttel, H. Richter, N. Otberg, R. V. Pelchrzim, H. Audring, H. Meffert, W. Sterry, and K. Hoffmann, “Application of optical coherent tomography for skin diagnostics,” Laser Phys. 15, 288–294 (2005).

Koch, P.

Koehler, M. J.

K. König, M. Speicher, R. Bückle, J. Reckfort, G. McKenzie, J. Welzel, M. J. Koehler, P. Elsner, and M. Kaatz, “Clinical optical coherence tomography combined with multiphoton tomography of patients with skin diseases,” J. Biophotonics 2(6-7), 389–397 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

König, K.

K. König, M. Speicher, R. Bückle, J. Reckfort, G. McKenzie, J. Welzel, M. J. Koehler, P. Elsner, and M. Kaatz, “Clinical optical coherence tomography combined with multiphoton tomography of patients with skin diseases,” J. Biophotonics 2(6-7), 389–397 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kuo, A.

Lademann, J.

J. Lademann, A. Knuttel, H. Richter, N. Otberg, R. V. Pelchrzim, H. Audring, H. Meffert, W. Sterry, and K. Hoffmann, “Application of optical coherent tomography for skin diagnostics,” Laser Phys. 15, 288–294 (2005).

Lee, H. Y.

Li, Y.

Likforman, J.-P.

Lin, C.

S. Xiao, A. M. Weiner, and C. Lin, “A dispersion law for virtually imaged phased-array spectral dispersers based on paraxial wave theory,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(4), 420–426 (2004).
[Crossref]

A. Vega, A. M. Weiner, and C. Lin, “Generalized Grating Equation for Virtually-Imaged Phased-Array Spectral Dispersers,” Appl. Opt. 42(20), 4152–4155 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, J. J.

Liu, Z.

Lo, S.

Lu, C. D.

Ma, Y.

Malik, O.

Marcon, N. E.

Markwald, R. R.

R. Wang, J. X. Yun, X. Yuan, R. Goodwin, R. R. Markwald, and B. Z. Gao, “Megahertz streak-mode Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(6), 066016 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Marvdashti, T.

McKenzie, G.

K. König, M. Speicher, R. Bückle, J. Reckfort, G. McKenzie, J. Welzel, M. J. Koehler, P. Elsner, and M. Kaatz, “Clinical optical coherence tomography combined with multiphoton tomography of patients with skin diseases,” J. Biophotonics 2(6-7), 389–397 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Meffert, H.

J. Lademann, A. Knuttel, H. Richter, N. Otberg, R. V. Pelchrzim, H. Audring, H. Meffert, W. Sterry, and K. Hoffmann, “Application of optical coherent tomography for skin diagnostics,” Laser Phys. 15, 288–294 (2005).

Motz, J. T.

Munce, N.

Nankivil, D.

Oh, W.-Y.

Ohbayashi, K.

Otberg, N.

J. Lademann, A. Knuttel, H. Richter, N. Otberg, R. V. Pelchrzim, H. Audring, H. Meffert, W. Sterry, and K. Hoffmann, “Application of optical coherent tomography for skin diagnostics,” Laser Phys. 15, 288–294 (2005).

Pekar, J.

Pelchrzim, R. V.

J. Lademann, A. Knuttel, H. Richter, N. Otberg, R. V. Pelchrzim, H. Audring, H. Meffert, W. Sterry, and K. Hoffmann, “Application of optical coherent tomography for skin diagnostics,” Laser Phys. 15, 288–294 (2005).

Potsaid, B.

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Quach, A.

Ran, Z.

Rao, Y.

Rasakanthan, J.

Reckfort, J.

K. König, M. Speicher, R. Bückle, J. Reckfort, G. McKenzie, J. Welzel, M. J. Koehler, P. Elsner, and M. Kaatz, “Clinical optical coherence tomography combined with multiphoton tomography of patients with skin diseases,” J. Biophotonics 2(6-7), 389–397 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reintjes, J.

Richter, H.

J. Lademann, A. Knuttel, H. Richter, N. Otberg, R. V. Pelchrzim, H. Audring, H. Meffert, W. Sterry, and K. Hoffmann, “Application of optical coherent tomography for skin diagnostics,” Laser Phys. 15, 288–294 (2005).

Sarunic, M.

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shimizu, K.

Shirasaki, M.

Shishkov, M.

Speicher, M.

K. König, M. Speicher, R. Bückle, J. Reckfort, G. McKenzie, J. Welzel, M. J. Koehler, P. Elsner, and M. Kaatz, “Clinical optical coherence tomography combined with multiphoton tomography of patients with skin diseases,” J. Biophotonics 2(6-7), 389–397 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sterry, W.

J. Lademann, A. Knuttel, H. Richter, N. Otberg, R. V. Pelchrzim, H. Audring, H. Meffert, W. Sterry, and K. Hoffmann, “Application of optical coherent tomography for skin diagnostics,” Laser Phys. 15, 288–294 (2005).

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sudkamp, H.

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tearney, G. J.

Tsai, H.-L.

Vakoc, B. J.

Vega, A.

Vitkin, I. A.

Wang, R.

R. Wang, J. X. Yun, X. Yuan, R. Goodwin, R. R. Markwald, and B. Z. Gao, “Megahertz streak-mode Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(6), 066016 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wax, A.

Wei, T.

Weiner, A. M.

S. Xiao, A. M. Weiner, and C. Lin, “A dispersion law for virtually imaged phased-array spectral dispersers based on paraxial wave theory,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(4), 420–426 (2004).
[Crossref]

A. Vega, A. M. Weiner, and C. Lin, “Generalized Grating Equation for Virtually-Imaged Phased-Array Spectral Dispersers,” Appl. Opt. 42(20), 4152–4155 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Welzel, J.

K. König, M. Speicher, R. Bückle, J. Reckfort, G. McKenzie, J. Welzel, M. J. Koehler, P. Elsner, and M. Kaatz, “Clinical optical coherence tomography combined with multiphoton tomography of patients with skin diseases,” J. Biophotonics 2(6-7), 389–397 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

White, W. M.

Wieser, W.

Wilson, B. C.

Xiao, H.

Xiao, S.

S. Xiao, A. M. Weiner, and C. Lin, “A dispersion law for virtually imaged phased-array spectral dispersers based on paraxial wave theory,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(4), 420–426 (2004).
[Crossref]

Xu, B.

Yang, C.

Yang, V. X. D.

Yelin, D.

Yuan, X.

R. Wang, J. X. Yun, X. Yuan, R. Goodwin, R. R. Markwald, and B. Z. Gao, “Megahertz streak-mode Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(6), 066016 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yun, J. X.

R. Wang, J. X. Yun, X. Yuan, R. Goodwin, R. R. Markwald, and B. Z. Gao, “Megahertz streak-mode Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(6), 066016 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yun, S. H.

Zhang, J.

Zhou, C.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Biomed. Opt. Express (2)

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

S. Xiao, A. M. Weiner, and C. Lin, “A dispersion law for virtually imaged phased-array spectral dispersers based on paraxial wave theory,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(4), 420–426 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

R. Wang, J. X. Yun, X. Yuan, R. Goodwin, R. R. Markwald, and B. Z. Gao, “Megahertz streak-mode Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(6), 066016 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Biophotonics (1)

K. König, M. Speicher, R. Bückle, J. Reckfort, G. McKenzie, J. Welzel, M. J. Koehler, P. Elsner, and M. Kaatz, “Clinical optical coherence tomography combined with multiphoton tomography of patients with skin diseases,” J. Biophotonics 2(6-7), 389–397 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Laser Phys. (1)

J. Lademann, A. Knuttel, H. Richter, N. Otberg, R. V. Pelchrzim, H. Audring, H. Meffert, W. Sterry, and K. Hoffmann, “Application of optical coherent tomography for skin diagnostics,” Laser Phys. 15, 288–294 (2005).

Opt. Express (7)

Opt. Lett. (9)

W.-Y. Oh, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “>400 kHz repetition rate wavelength-swept laser and application to high-speed optical frequency domain imaging,” Opt. Lett. 35(17), 2919–2921 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Supplementary Material (1)

» Media 1: MPG (12333 KB)     

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of an iOCT system. (a) Overall system schematic, (b) the multi-beam demultiplexer (MBDX) from two different views, and (c) an enlarged view of the VIPA system. SS, swept source laser; CIR, circulator; BPD, balanced photodetector; 90/10, 50/50, fiber coupler; G, 2-D galvanometer; MZI, Mach-Zender interferometer; SV, side view; TV, top view; CL, cylindrical lens; SL, spherical lenses; θr, incidence angle range; θi, incidence angle.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Simulation of iOCT showing expected output angle as a function of wavelength for an air-spaced VIPA with three different conditions. The baseline setting is shown in (b): t = 2.5 mm, r = 50%, and θi = 3.2 °. (a) Lowering the FSR (by increasing the thickness) increases the sampling frequency of the interferogram at a given lateral position, which increases the ranging depth. (c) Increasing the finesse by increasing the reflectivity translates into a higher multiplexing factor (and higher effective A-scan rate).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Spectral output from a single lateral position of the sample for three VIPA conditions showing experimental verification of the simulations in Fig. 2. The parameters of the VIPAs are given in Table 2. The FSR, FWHM peak width of each peak, and the finesse are calculated and shown in each graph.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Simultaneously acquired B-scan images of a human finger obtained with iOCT: 8.0-mm wide x 2.6-mm deep using an air-spaced VIPA with low finesse and low FSR. The volume consists of 5,000 A-scans (10 × 500) with 10 lateral points multiplexed in each sweep and 500 sweeps with the beam scanned in 1-D. The first (a) and the last (b) slices are separated by 65 μm. (Scale bar: 500 μm × 500 μm)

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Volumetric images of a human finger. Volume rendered view (a) and two orthogonal slices from the volume set (b). The volume consists of 612 × 300 × 500 points along the depth, fast scan axis, and slow scan axis, respectively. The scan area was 3.2 mm × 3.2 mm and the ranging depth was 2.6 mm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Volumetric images of a fruit fly with highly multiplexed points (M = 16). (a-c) Three slices in the yz, xz, and xy planes. (d-e) Volume rendered views at different camera positions (Media 1). The volume dimension was 3.0 × 1.7 × 1.3 mm in x, y, and z.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 List of important parameters in the design of an OCT system

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Table 2 Specifications of the three VIPA systems

Equations (3)

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finesse= π Rr 1Rr
FSR λ = λ C 2 2tncos( θ in )2ttan( θ in )cos( θ i ) θ λ tcos( θ in ) θ λ 2 /n .
2tncos θ in 2ttan θ in cos θ i θ λ,m +ttan θ in sin θ i θ λ,m 2 =mλ.

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