Abstract

Photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) is capable of mapping microvasculature networks in biological tissue and has demonstrated great potential for biomedical applications. However, the clinical application of the PAM system is limited due to the use of bulky and expensive pulsed laser sources. In this paper, a low-cost optical-resolution PAM system with a pulsed laser diode excitation has been introduced. The lateral resolution of this PAM system was estimated to be 7 µm by imaging a carbon fiber. The phantoms made of polyethylene tubes filled with blood and a mouse ear were imaged to demonstrate the feasibility of this PAM system for imaging biological tissues.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  25. R. G. M. Kolkman, W. Steenbergen, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “In vivo photoacoustic imaging of blood vessels with a pulsed laser diode,” Lasers Med. Sci.21(3), 134–139 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. K. Maslov and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic imaging of biological tissue with intensity-modulated continuous-wave laser,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(2), 024006 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. L. Zeng, G. Liu, D. Yang, and X. Ji, “3D-visual laser-diode-based photoacoustic imaging,” Opt. Express20(2), 1237–1246 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. P. LeBoulluec, H. Liu, and B. Yuan, “A cost-efficient frequency-domain photoacoustic imaging system,” Am. J. Phys.81(9), 712–717 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. L. Zeng, G. Liu, D. Yang, and X. Ji, “Portable optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy with a pulsed laser diode excitation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(5), 053704 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  30. A. Aguirre, P. Guo, J. Gamelin, S. Yan, M. Sanders, M. Brewer, and Q. Zhu, “Co-registered 3-D ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging system for ovarian tissue characterization,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(5), 054014 (2009).

2014 (1)

J. Yao, L. Wang, C. Li, C. Zhang, and L. V. Wang, “Photoimprint photoacoustic microscopy for three-dimensional label-free subdiffraction imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett.112(1), 014302 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2013 (5)

T. Wang, Y. Yang, U. Alqasemi, P. D. Kumavor, X. Wang, M. Sanders, M. Brewer, and Q. Zhu, “Characterization of ovarian tissue based on quantitative analysis of photoacoustic microscopy images,” Biomed. Opt. Express4(12), 2763–2768 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. LeBoulluec, H. Liu, and B. Yuan, “A cost-efficient frequency-domain photoacoustic imaging system,” Am. J. Phys.81(9), 712–717 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Zeng, G. Liu, D. Yang, and X. Ji, “Portable optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy with a pulsed laser diode excitation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(5), 053704 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Yao and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic microscopy,” Laser Photon. Rev.7(5), 758–778 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Hu and L. V. Wang, “Optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy: auscultation of biological systems at the cellular level,” Biophys. J.105(4), 841–847 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (7)

L. V. Wang and S. Hu, “Photoacoustic tomography: in vivo imaging from organelles to organs,” Science335(6075), 1458–1462 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Wang, P. D. Kumavor, and Q. Zhu, “Application of laser pulse stretching scheme for efficiently delivering laser energy in photoacoustic imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(6), 061218 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Zhang, K. Maslov, S. Hu, R. Chen, Q. Zhou, K. K. Shung, and L. V. Wang, “Reflection-mode submicron-resolution in vivo photoacoustic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(2), 020501 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Guo, C. Favazza, A. Garcia-Uribe, and L. V. Wang, “Quantitative photoacoustic microscopy of optical absorption coefficients from acoustic spectra in the optical diffusive regime,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(6), 066011 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. L. Chen, Z. Xie, T. Ling, L. J. Guo, X. Wei, and X. Wang, “Miniaturized all-optical photoacoustic microscopy based on microelectromechanical systems mirror scanning,” Opt. Lett.37(20), 4263–4265 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Zhang, H. F. Zhang, and S. Jiao, “Optical coherence photoacoustic microscopy: accomplishing optical coherence tomography and photoacoustic microscopy with a single light source,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(3), 030502 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Zeng, G. Liu, D. Yang, and X. Ji, “3D-visual laser-diode-based photoacoustic imaging,” Opt. Express20(2), 1237–1246 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (5)

2010 (1)

2009 (2)

A. Aguirre, P. Guo, J. Gamelin, S. Yan, M. Sanders, M. Brewer, and Q. Zhu, “Co-registered 3-D ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging system for ovarian tissue characterization,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(5), 054014 (2009).

L. V. Wang, “Multiscale photoacoustic microscopy and computed tomography,” Nat. Photonics3(9), 503–509 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

2006 (4)

T. J. Allen and P. C. Beard, “Pulsed near-infrared laser diode excitation system for biomedical photoacoustic imaging,” Opt. Lett.31(23), 3462–3464 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. G. M. Kolkman, W. Steenbergen, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “In vivo photoacoustic imaging of blood vessels with a pulsed laser diode,” Lasers Med. Sci.21(3), 134–139 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Functional photoacoustic microscopy for high-resolution and noninvasive in vivo imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol.24(7), 848–851 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Xu and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic imaging in biomedicine,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.77(4), 041101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

X. Wang, Y. Pang, G. Ku, X. Xie, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Noninvasive laser-induced photoacoustic tomography for structural and functional in vivo imaging of the brain,” Nat. Biotechnol.21(7), 803–806 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

A. Karabutov, E. V. Savateeva, N. B. Podymova, and A. A. Oraevsky, “Backward mode detection of laser-induced wide-band ultrasonic transients with optoacoustic transducer,” J. Appl. Phys.87(4), 2003–2014 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Aguirre, A.

A. Aguirre, P. Guo, J. Gamelin, S. Yan, M. Sanders, M. Brewer, and Q. Zhu, “Co-registered 3-D ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging system for ovarian tissue characterization,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(5), 054014 (2009).

Allen, T. J.

Alqasemi, U.

Beard, P.

P. Beard, “Biomedical photoacoustic imaging,” Interface Focus1(4), 602–631 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beard, P. C.

Bitton, R.

Brewer, M.

T. Wang, Y. Yang, U. Alqasemi, P. D. Kumavor, X. Wang, M. Sanders, M. Brewer, and Q. Zhu, “Characterization of ovarian tissue based on quantitative analysis of photoacoustic microscopy images,” Biomed. Opt. Express4(12), 2763–2768 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Aguirre, P. Guo, J. Gamelin, S. Yan, M. Sanders, M. Brewer, and Q. Zhu, “Co-registered 3-D ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging system for ovarian tissue characterization,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(5), 054014 (2009).

Carson, P.

Chen, R.

C. Zhang, K. Maslov, S. Hu, R. Chen, Q. Zhou, K. K. Shung, and L. V. Wang, “Reflection-mode submicron-resolution in vivo photoacoustic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(2), 020501 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, S. L.

Favazza, C.

Z. Guo, C. Favazza, A. Garcia-Uribe, and L. V. Wang, “Quantitative photoacoustic microscopy of optical absorption coefficients from acoustic spectra in the optical diffusive regime,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(6), 066011 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gamelin, J.

A. Aguirre, P. Guo, J. Gamelin, S. Yan, M. Sanders, M. Brewer, and Q. Zhu, “Co-registered 3-D ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging system for ovarian tissue characterization,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(5), 054014 (2009).

Garcia-Uribe, A.

Z. Guo, C. Favazza, A. Garcia-Uribe, and L. V. Wang, “Quantitative photoacoustic microscopy of optical absorption coefficients from acoustic spectra in the optical diffusive regime,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(6), 066011 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guo, L. J.

Guo, P.

A. Aguirre, P. Guo, J. Gamelin, S. Yan, M. Sanders, M. Brewer, and Q. Zhu, “Co-registered 3-D ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging system for ovarian tissue characterization,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(5), 054014 (2009).

Guo, Z.

Z. Guo, C. Favazza, A. Garcia-Uribe, and L. V. Wang, “Quantitative photoacoustic microscopy of optical absorption coefficients from acoustic spectra in the optical diffusive regime,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(6), 066011 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hajireza, P.

Hu, S.

S. Hu and L. V. Wang, “Optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy: auscultation of biological systems at the cellular level,” Biophys. J.105(4), 841–847 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. V. Wang and S. Hu, “Photoacoustic tomography: in vivo imaging from organelles to organs,” Science335(6075), 1458–1462 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Zhang, K. Maslov, S. Hu, R. Chen, Q. Zhou, K. K. Shung, and L. V. Wang, “Reflection-mode submicron-resolution in vivo photoacoustic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(2), 020501 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Hu, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, “Second-generation optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy with improved sensitivity and speed,” Opt. Lett.36(7), 1134–1136 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Maslov, H. F. Zhang, S. Hu, and L. V. Wang, “Optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy for in vivo imaging of single capillaries,” Opt. Lett.33(9), 929–931 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ji, X.

L. Zeng, G. Liu, D. Yang, and X. Ji, “Portable optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy with a pulsed laser diode excitation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(5), 053704 (2013).
[CrossRef]

L. Zeng, G. Liu, D. Yang, and X. Ji, “3D-visual laser-diode-based photoacoustic imaging,” Opt. Express20(2), 1237–1246 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiao, S.

X. Zhang, H. F. Zhang, and S. Jiao, “Optical coherence photoacoustic microscopy: accomplishing optical coherence tomography and photoacoustic microscopy with a single light source,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(3), 030502 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Karabutov, A.

A. Karabutov, E. V. Savateeva, N. B. Podymova, and A. A. Oraevsky, “Backward mode detection of laser-induced wide-band ultrasonic transients with optoacoustic transducer,” J. Appl. Phys.87(4), 2003–2014 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kolkman, R. G. M.

R. G. M. Kolkman, W. Steenbergen, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “In vivo photoacoustic imaging of blood vessels with a pulsed laser diode,” Lasers Med. Sci.21(3), 134–139 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ku, G.

X. Wang, Y. Pang, G. Ku, X. Xie, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Noninvasive laser-induced photoacoustic tomography for structural and functional in vivo imaging of the brain,” Nat. Biotechnol.21(7), 803–806 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kumavor, P. D.

T. Wang, Y. Yang, U. Alqasemi, P. D. Kumavor, X. Wang, M. Sanders, M. Brewer, and Q. Zhu, “Characterization of ovarian tissue based on quantitative analysis of photoacoustic microscopy images,” Biomed. Opt. Express4(12), 2763–2768 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Wang, P. D. Kumavor, and Q. Zhu, “Application of laser pulse stretching scheme for efficiently delivering laser energy in photoacoustic imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(6), 061218 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

LeBoulluec, P.

P. LeBoulluec, H. Liu, and B. Yuan, “A cost-efficient frequency-domain photoacoustic imaging system,” Am. J. Phys.81(9), 712–717 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, C.

J. Yao, L. Wang, C. Li, C. Zhang, and L. V. Wang, “Photoimprint photoacoustic microscopy for three-dimensional label-free subdiffraction imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett.112(1), 014302 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, L.

Ling, T.

Liu, G.

L. Zeng, G. Liu, D. Yang, and X. Ji, “Portable optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy with a pulsed laser diode excitation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(5), 053704 (2013).
[CrossRef]

L. Zeng, G. Liu, D. Yang, and X. Ji, “3D-visual laser-diode-based photoacoustic imaging,” Opt. Express20(2), 1237–1246 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, H.

P. LeBoulluec, H. Liu, and B. Yuan, “A cost-efficient frequency-domain photoacoustic imaging system,” Am. J. Phys.81(9), 712–717 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, X.

Maslov, K.

Oraevsky, A. A.

A. Karabutov, E. V. Savateeva, N. B. Podymova, and A. A. Oraevsky, “Backward mode detection of laser-induced wide-band ultrasonic transients with optoacoustic transducer,” J. Appl. Phys.87(4), 2003–2014 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pang, Y.

X. Wang, Y. Pang, G. Ku, X. Xie, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Noninvasive laser-induced photoacoustic tomography for structural and functional in vivo imaging of the brain,” Nat. Biotechnol.21(7), 803–806 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Podymova, N. B.

A. Karabutov, E. V. Savateeva, N. B. Podymova, and A. A. Oraevsky, “Backward mode detection of laser-induced wide-band ultrasonic transients with optoacoustic transducer,” J. Appl. Phys.87(4), 2003–2014 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rao, B.

Roberts, W.

Sanders, M.

T. Wang, Y. Yang, U. Alqasemi, P. D. Kumavor, X. Wang, M. Sanders, M. Brewer, and Q. Zhu, “Characterization of ovarian tissue based on quantitative analysis of photoacoustic microscopy images,” Biomed. Opt. Express4(12), 2763–2768 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Aguirre, P. Guo, J. Gamelin, S. Yan, M. Sanders, M. Brewer, and Q. Zhu, “Co-registered 3-D ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging system for ovarian tissue characterization,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(5), 054014 (2009).

Savateeva, E. V.

A. Karabutov, E. V. Savateeva, N. B. Podymova, and A. A. Oraevsky, “Backward mode detection of laser-induced wide-band ultrasonic transients with optoacoustic transducer,” J. Appl. Phys.87(4), 2003–2014 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Shi, W.

Shung, K. K.

C. Zhang, K. Maslov, S. Hu, R. Chen, Q. Zhou, K. K. Shung, and L. V. Wang, “Reflection-mode submicron-resolution in vivo photoacoustic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(2), 020501 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Zemp, L. Song, R. Bitton, K. K. Shung, and L. V. Wang, “Realtime photoacoustic microscopy in vivo with a 30-MHz ultrasound array transducer,” Opt. Express16(11), 7915–7928 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Song, L.

Steenbergen, W.

R. G. M. Kolkman, W. Steenbergen, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “In vivo photoacoustic imaging of blood vessels with a pulsed laser diode,” Lasers Med. Sci.21(3), 134–139 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stoica, G.

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Functional photoacoustic microscopy for high-resolution and noninvasive in vivo imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol.24(7), 848–851 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Wang, Y. Pang, G. Ku, X. Xie, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Noninvasive laser-induced photoacoustic tomography for structural and functional in vivo imaging of the brain,” Nat. Biotechnol.21(7), 803–806 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tao, C.

van Leeuwen, T. G.

R. G. M. Kolkman, W. Steenbergen, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “In vivo photoacoustic imaging of blood vessels with a pulsed laser diode,” Lasers Med. Sci.21(3), 134–139 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, L.

J. Yao, L. Wang, C. Li, C. Zhang, and L. V. Wang, “Photoimprint photoacoustic microscopy for three-dimensional label-free subdiffraction imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett.112(1), 014302 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Wang, K. Maslov, J. Yao, B. Rao, and L. V. Wang, “Fast voice-coil scanning optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy,” Opt. Lett.36(2), 139–141 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, L. V.

J. Yao, L. Wang, C. Li, C. Zhang, and L. V. Wang, “Photoimprint photoacoustic microscopy for three-dimensional label-free subdiffraction imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett.112(1), 014302 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Hu and L. V. Wang, “Optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy: auscultation of biological systems at the cellular level,” Biophys. J.105(4), 841–847 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Yao and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic microscopy,” Laser Photon. Rev.7(5), 758–778 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. V. Wang and S. Hu, “Photoacoustic tomography: in vivo imaging from organelles to organs,” Science335(6075), 1458–1462 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Zhang, K. Maslov, S. Hu, R. Chen, Q. Zhou, K. K. Shung, and L. V. Wang, “Reflection-mode submicron-resolution in vivo photoacoustic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(2), 020501 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Guo, C. Favazza, A. Garcia-Uribe, and L. V. Wang, “Quantitative photoacoustic microscopy of optical absorption coefficients from acoustic spectra in the optical diffusive regime,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(6), 066011 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Hu, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, “Second-generation optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy with improved sensitivity and speed,” Opt. Lett.36(7), 1134–1136 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Wang, K. Maslov, J. Yao, B. Rao, and L. V. Wang, “Fast voice-coil scanning optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy,” Opt. Lett.36(2), 139–141 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Rao, L. Li, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, “Hybrid-scanning optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy for in vivo vasculature imaging,” Opt. Lett.35(10), 1521–1523 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. V. Wang, “Multiscale photoacoustic microscopy and computed tomography,” Nat. Photonics3(9), 503–509 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Zemp, L. Song, R. Bitton, K. K. Shung, and L. V. Wang, “Realtime photoacoustic microscopy in vivo with a 30-MHz ultrasound array transducer,” Opt. Express16(11), 7915–7928 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Maslov, H. F. Zhang, S. Hu, and L. V. Wang, “Optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy for in vivo imaging of single capillaries,” Opt. Lett.33(9), 929–931 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Maslov and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic imaging of biological tissue with intensity-modulated continuous-wave laser,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(2), 024006 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Functional photoacoustic microscopy for high-resolution and noninvasive in vivo imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol.24(7), 848–851 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Xu and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic imaging in biomedicine,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.77(4), 041101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, Y. Pang, G. Ku, X. Xie, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Noninvasive laser-induced photoacoustic tomography for structural and functional in vivo imaging of the brain,” Nat. Biotechnol.21(7), 803–806 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, T.

T. Wang, Y. Yang, U. Alqasemi, P. D. Kumavor, X. Wang, M. Sanders, M. Brewer, and Q. Zhu, “Characterization of ovarian tissue based on quantitative analysis of photoacoustic microscopy images,” Biomed. Opt. Express4(12), 2763–2768 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Wang, P. D. Kumavor, and Q. Zhu, “Application of laser pulse stretching scheme for efficiently delivering laser energy in photoacoustic imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(6), 061218 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, X.

Wei, X.

Xie, X.

X. Wang, Y. Pang, G. Ku, X. Xie, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Noninvasive laser-induced photoacoustic tomography for structural and functional in vivo imaging of the brain,” Nat. Biotechnol.21(7), 803–806 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xie, Z.

Xu, M.

M. Xu and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic imaging in biomedicine,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.77(4), 041101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yan, S.

A. Aguirre, P. Guo, J. Gamelin, S. Yan, M. Sanders, M. Brewer, and Q. Zhu, “Co-registered 3-D ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging system for ovarian tissue characterization,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(5), 054014 (2009).

Yang, D.

L. Zeng, G. Liu, D. Yang, and X. Ji, “Portable optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy with a pulsed laser diode excitation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(5), 053704 (2013).
[CrossRef]

L. Zeng, G. Liu, D. Yang, and X. Ji, “3D-visual laser-diode-based photoacoustic imaging,” Opt. Express20(2), 1237–1246 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, Y.

Yao, J.

J. Yao, L. Wang, C. Li, C. Zhang, and L. V. Wang, “Photoimprint photoacoustic microscopy for three-dimensional label-free subdiffraction imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett.112(1), 014302 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Yao and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic microscopy,” Laser Photon. Rev.7(5), 758–778 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Wang, K. Maslov, J. Yao, B. Rao, and L. V. Wang, “Fast voice-coil scanning optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy,” Opt. Lett.36(2), 139–141 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yuan, B.

P. LeBoulluec, H. Liu, and B. Yuan, “A cost-efficient frequency-domain photoacoustic imaging system,” Am. J. Phys.81(9), 712–717 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zemp, R. J.

Zeng, L.

L. Zeng, G. Liu, D. Yang, and X. Ji, “Portable optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy with a pulsed laser diode excitation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(5), 053704 (2013).
[CrossRef]

L. Zeng, G. Liu, D. Yang, and X. Ji, “3D-visual laser-diode-based photoacoustic imaging,” Opt. Express20(2), 1237–1246 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, C.

J. Yao, L. Wang, C. Li, C. Zhang, and L. V. Wang, “Photoimprint photoacoustic microscopy for three-dimensional label-free subdiffraction imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett.112(1), 014302 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Zhang, K. Maslov, S. Hu, R. Chen, Q. Zhou, K. K. Shung, and L. V. Wang, “Reflection-mode submicron-resolution in vivo photoacoustic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(2), 020501 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, H. F.

X. Zhang, H. F. Zhang, and S. Jiao, “Optical coherence photoacoustic microscopy: accomplishing optical coherence tomography and photoacoustic microscopy with a single light source,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(3), 030502 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Maslov, H. F. Zhang, S. Hu, and L. V. Wang, “Optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy for in vivo imaging of single capillaries,” Opt. Lett.33(9), 929–931 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Functional photoacoustic microscopy for high-resolution and noninvasive in vivo imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol.24(7), 848–851 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

X. Zhang, H. F. Zhang, and S. Jiao, “Optical coherence photoacoustic microscopy: accomplishing optical coherence tomography and photoacoustic microscopy with a single light source,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(3), 030502 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, Q.

C. Zhang, K. Maslov, S. Hu, R. Chen, Q. Zhou, K. K. Shung, and L. V. Wang, “Reflection-mode submicron-resolution in vivo photoacoustic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(2), 020501 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, Q.

T. Wang, Y. Yang, U. Alqasemi, P. D. Kumavor, X. Wang, M. Sanders, M. Brewer, and Q. Zhu, “Characterization of ovarian tissue based on quantitative analysis of photoacoustic microscopy images,” Biomed. Opt. Express4(12), 2763–2768 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Wang, P. D. Kumavor, and Q. Zhu, “Application of laser pulse stretching scheme for efficiently delivering laser energy in photoacoustic imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(6), 061218 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Aguirre, P. Guo, J. Gamelin, S. Yan, M. Sanders, M. Brewer, and Q. Zhu, “Co-registered 3-D ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging system for ovarian tissue characterization,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(5), 054014 (2009).

Am. J. Phys. (1)

P. LeBoulluec, H. Liu, and B. Yuan, “A cost-efficient frequency-domain photoacoustic imaging system,” Am. J. Phys.81(9), 712–717 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

L. Zeng, G. Liu, D. Yang, and X. Ji, “Portable optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy with a pulsed laser diode excitation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(5), 053704 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

Biophys. J. (1)

S. Hu and L. V. Wang, “Optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy: auscultation of biological systems at the cellular level,” Biophys. J.105(4), 841–847 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Interface Focus (1)

P. Beard, “Biomedical photoacoustic imaging,” Interface Focus1(4), 602–631 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

A. Karabutov, E. V. Savateeva, N. B. Podymova, and A. A. Oraevsky, “Backward mode detection of laser-induced wide-band ultrasonic transients with optoacoustic transducer,” J. Appl. Phys.87(4), 2003–2014 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (6)

T. Wang, P. D. Kumavor, and Q. Zhu, “Application of laser pulse stretching scheme for efficiently delivering laser energy in photoacoustic imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(6), 061218 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Zhang, K. Maslov, S. Hu, R. Chen, Q. Zhou, K. K. Shung, and L. V. Wang, “Reflection-mode submicron-resolution in vivo photoacoustic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(2), 020501 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Guo, C. Favazza, A. Garcia-Uribe, and L. V. Wang, “Quantitative photoacoustic microscopy of optical absorption coefficients from acoustic spectra in the optical diffusive regime,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(6), 066011 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Zhang, H. F. Zhang, and S. Jiao, “Optical coherence photoacoustic microscopy: accomplishing optical coherence tomography and photoacoustic microscopy with a single light source,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(3), 030502 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Maslov and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic imaging of biological tissue with intensity-modulated continuous-wave laser,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(2), 024006 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Aguirre, P. Guo, J. Gamelin, S. Yan, M. Sanders, M. Brewer, and Q. Zhu, “Co-registered 3-D ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging system for ovarian tissue characterization,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(5), 054014 (2009).

Laser Photon. Rev. (1)

J. Yao and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic microscopy,” Laser Photon. Rev.7(5), 758–778 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lasers Med. Sci. (1)

R. G. M. Kolkman, W. Steenbergen, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “In vivo photoacoustic imaging of blood vessels with a pulsed laser diode,” Lasers Med. Sci.21(3), 134–139 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Biotechnol. (2)

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Functional photoacoustic microscopy for high-resolution and noninvasive in vivo imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol.24(7), 848–851 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Wang, Y. Pang, G. Ku, X. Xie, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Noninvasive laser-induced photoacoustic tomography for structural and functional in vivo imaging of the brain,” Nat. Biotechnol.21(7), 803–806 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

L. V. Wang, “Multiscale photoacoustic microscopy and computed tomography,” Nat. Photonics3(9), 503–509 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (7)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

J. Yao, L. Wang, C. Li, C. Zhang, and L. V. Wang, “Photoimprint photoacoustic microscopy for three-dimensional label-free subdiffraction imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett.112(1), 014302 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

M. Xu and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic imaging in biomedicine,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.77(4), 041101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

L. V. Wang and S. Hu, “Photoacoustic tomography: in vivo imaging from organelles to organs,” Science335(6075), 1458–1462 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Configuration of the laser-diode PAM system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The laser diode beam profile; the pulse width is 124 ns.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) PAM image of a 7 µm carbon fiber; (b) normalized cross-sectional profile of the carbon fiber along the dotted line shown in (a).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Photograph of two polyethylene tubes filled with rat blood; (b) corresponding PAM images of blood tubing; (c) averaged normalized cross-sectional profile of the blood tubes in (b).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

PAM image of a mouse ear.

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