Abstract

We present a power-efficient fiber-based imaging system capable of co-registered autofluorescence imaging and optical coherence tomography (AF/OCT). The system employs a custom fiber optic rotary joint (FORJ) with an embedded dichroic mirror to efficiently combine the OCT and AF pathways. This three-port wavelength multiplexing FORJ setup has a throughput of more than 83% for collected AF emission, significantly more efficient compared to previously reported fiber-based methods. A custom 900 µm diameter catheter ‒ consisting of a rotating lens assembly, double-clad fiber (DCF), and torque cable in a stationary plastic tube ‒ was fabricated to allow AF/OCT imaging of small airways in vivo. We demonstrate the performance of this system ex vivo in resected porcine airway specimens and in vivo in human on fingers, in the oral cavity, and in peripheral airways.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2014 (1)

H. Pahlevaninezhad, A. M. D. Lee, S. Lam, C. MacAulay, and P. M. Lane, “Coregistered autofluorescence-optical coherence tomography imaging of human lung sections,” J. Biomed. Opt.19(3), 036022 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2013 (5)

2012 (3)

C. Dai, X. Liu, and S. Jiao, “Simultaneous optical coherence tomography and autofluorescence microscopy with a single light source,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(8), 080502 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Liang, A. Saidi, J. Jing, G. Liu, J. Li, J. Zhang, C. Sun, J. Narula, and Z. Chen, “Intravascular atherosclerotic imaging with combined fluorescence and optical coherence tomography probe based on a double-clad fiber combiner,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(7), 070501 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Mavadia, J. Xi, Y. Chen, and X. Li, “An all-fiber-optic endoscopy platform for simultaneous OCT and fluorescence imaging,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(11), 2851–2859 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (5)

R. A. Wall, G. T. Bonnema, and J. K. Barton, “Novel focused OCT-LIF endoscope,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(3), 421–430 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Winkler, P. F. Rice, J. Weichsel, J. M. Watson, M. V. Backer, J. M. Backer, and J. K. Barton, “In vivo, dual-modality OCT/LIF imaging using a novel VEGF receptor-targeted NIR fluorescent probe in the AOM-treated mouse model,” Mol. Imaging Biol.13(6), 1173–1182 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Tang, Y. Zhou, K. K. H. Chan, and T. Lai, “Multiscale multimodal imaging with multiphoton microscopy and optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.36(24), 4800–4802 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Liu and Z. Chen, “Fiber-based combined optical coherence and multiphoton endomicroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(3), 036010 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Murari, Y. Zhang, S. Li, Y. Chen, M. J. Li, and X. Li, “Compensation-free, all-fiber-optic, two-photon endomicroscopy at 1.55 μm,” Opt. Lett.36(7), 1299–1301 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (5)

H. Bao, S. Y. Ryu, B. H. Lee, W. Tao, and M. Gu, “Nonlinear endomicroscopy using a double-clad fiber coupler,” Opt. Lett.35(7), 995–997 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Lemire-Renaud, M. Rivard, M. Strupler, D. Morneau, F. Verpillat, X. Daxhelet, N. Godbout, and C. Boudoux, “Double-clad fiber coupler for endoscopy,” Opt. Express18(10), 9755–9764 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Yuan, C. A. Roney, J. Wierwille, C. W. Chen, B. Xu, G. Griffiths, J. Jiang, H. Ma, A. Cable, R. M. Summers, and Y. Chen, “Co-registered optical coherence tomography and fluorescence molecular imaging for simultaneous morphological and molecular imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol.55(1), 191–206 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Park, J. A. Jo, S. Shrestha, P. Pande, Q. Wan, and B. E. Applegate, “A dual-modality optical coherence tomography and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy system for simultaneous morphological and biochemical tissue characterization,” Biomed. Opt. Express1(1), 186–200 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Chen, S. Yuan, J. Wirewille, R. Naphas, Q. Li, T. R. Blackwell, P. T. Winnard, V. Raman, and K. Glunde, “Integrated optical coherence tomography (OCT) and fluorescence laminar optical tomography (FLOT),” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(4), 755–766 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

S. Yuan, Q. Li, J. Jiang, A. Cable, and Y. Chen, “Three-dimensional coregistered optical coherence tomography and line-scanning fluorescence laminar optical tomography,” Opt. Lett.34(11), 1615–1617 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Tang, W. Jung, D. McCormick, T. Xie, J. Su, Y. C. Ahn, B. J. Tromberg, and Z. Chen, “Design and implementation of fiber-based multiphoton endoscopy with microelectromechanical systems scanning,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(3), 034005 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

S. Lam, B. Standish, C. Baldwin, A. McWilliams, J. leRiche, A. Gazdar, A. I. Vitkin, V. Yang, N. Ikeda, and C. MacAulay, “In vivo optical coherence tomography imaging of preinvasive bronchial lesions,” Clin. Cancer Res.14(7), 2006–2011 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Y. Ryu, H. Y. Choi, J. Na, E. S. Choi, and B. H. Lee, “Combined system of optical coherence tomography and fluorescence spectroscopy based on double-cladding fiber,” Opt. Lett.33(20), 2347–2349 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

2006 (4)

S. Tang, T. B. Krasieva, Z. Chen, and B. J. Tromberg, “Combined multiphoton microscopy and optical coherence tomography using a 12-fs broadband source,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(2), 020502 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. R. Tumlinson, J. K. Barton, B. Považay, H. Sattman, A. Unterhuber, R. A. Leitgeb, and W. Drexler, “Endoscope-tip interferometer for ultrahigh resolution frequency domain optical coherence tomography in mouse colon,” Opt. Express14(5), 1878–1887 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. Myaing, D. J. MacDonald, and X. Li, “Fiber-optic scanning two-photon fluorescence endoscope,” Opt. Lett.31(8), 1076–1078 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. P. Hariri, A. R. Tumlinson, D. G. Besselsen, U. Utzinger, E. W. Gerner, and J. K. Barton, “Endoscopic optical coherence tomography and laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy in a murine colon cancer model,” Lasers Surg. Med.38(4), 305–313 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

M. Tsuboi, A. Hayashi, N. Ikeda, H. Honda, Y. Kato, S. Ichinose, and H. Kato, “Optical coherence tomography in the diagnosis of bronchial lesions,” Lung Cancer49(3), 387–394 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (3)

2003 (1)

2001 (2)

R. J. McNichols, A. Gowda, B. A. Bell, R. M. Johnigan, K. H. Calhoun, and M. Motamedi, “Development of an endoscopic fluorescence image guided OCT probe for oral cancer detection,” Proc. SPIE4254, 23–30 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. C. Kennedy, S. Lam, and F. R. Hirsch, “Review of recent advances in fluorescence bronchoscopy in early localization of central airway lung cancer,” Oncologist6(3), 257–262 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

1998 (2)

B. J. Venmans, H. van der Linden, T. J. van Boxem, P. E. Postmus, E. F. Smit, and T. G. Sutedja, “Early detection of pre-invasive lesions in high risk patients. A comparison of conventional fiber optic and fluorescence bronchoscopy,” J. Bronchoscopy5(4), 280–283 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Lam, T. Kennedy, M. Unger, Y. E. Miller, D. Gelmont, V. Rusch, B. Gipe, D. Howard, J. C. LeRiche, A. Coldman, and A. F. Gazdar, “Localization of bronchial intraepithelial neoplastic lesions by fluorescence bronchoscopy,” Chest113(3), 696–702 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science276(5321), 2037–2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. Bouma, M. R. Hee, J. F. Southern, and E. A. Swanson, “Optical biopsy and imaging using optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med.1(9), 970–972 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (2)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Hung, S. Lam, J. C. LeRiche, and B. Palcic, “Autofluorescence of normal and malignant bronchial tissue,” Lasers Surg. Med.11(2), 99–105 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ahn, Y. C.

S. Tang, W. Jung, D. McCormick, T. Xie, J. Su, Y. C. Ahn, B. J. Tromberg, and Z. Chen, “Design and implementation of fiber-based multiphoton endoscopy with microelectromechanical systems scanning,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(3), 034005 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Applegate, B. E.

Auger, M.

Backer, J. M.

A. M. Winkler, P. F. Rice, J. Weichsel, J. M. Watson, M. V. Backer, J. M. Backer, and J. K. Barton, “In vivo, dual-modality OCT/LIF imaging using a novel VEGF receptor-targeted NIR fluorescent probe in the AOM-treated mouse model,” Mol. Imaging Biol.13(6), 1173–1182 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Backer, M. V.

A. M. Winkler, P. F. Rice, J. Weichsel, J. M. Watson, M. V. Backer, J. M. Backer, and J. K. Barton, “In vivo, dual-modality OCT/LIF imaging using a novel VEGF receptor-targeted NIR fluorescent probe in the AOM-treated mouse model,” Mol. Imaging Biol.13(6), 1173–1182 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baldwin, C.

S. Lam, B. Standish, C. Baldwin, A. McWilliams, J. leRiche, A. Gazdar, A. I. Vitkin, V. Yang, N. Ikeda, and C. MacAulay, “In vivo optical coherence tomography imaging of preinvasive bronchial lesions,” Clin. Cancer Res.14(7), 2006–2011 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bao, H.

Barton, J. K.

A. M. Winkler, P. F. Rice, J. Weichsel, J. M. Watson, M. V. Backer, J. M. Backer, and J. K. Barton, “In vivo, dual-modality OCT/LIF imaging using a novel VEGF receptor-targeted NIR fluorescent probe in the AOM-treated mouse model,” Mol. Imaging Biol.13(6), 1173–1182 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Wall, G. T. Bonnema, and J. K. Barton, “Novel focused OCT-LIF endoscope,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(3), 421–430 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. P. Hariri, A. R. Tumlinson, D. G. Besselsen, U. Utzinger, E. W. Gerner, and J. K. Barton, “Endoscopic optical coherence tomography and laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy in a murine colon cancer model,” Lasers Surg. Med.38(4), 305–313 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. R. Tumlinson, J. K. Barton, B. Považay, H. Sattman, A. Unterhuber, R. A. Leitgeb, and W. Drexler, “Endoscope-tip interferometer for ultrahigh resolution frequency domain optical coherence tomography in mouse colon,” Opt. Express14(5), 1878–1887 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. R. Tumlinson, L. P. Hariri, U. Utzinger, and J. K. Barton, “A miniature endoscope for simultaneous OCT-LIF measurement,” Appl. Opt.43(1), 113–121 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. K. Barton, F. Guzman, and A. Tumlinson, “Dual modality instrument for simultaneous optical coherence tomography imaging and fluorescence spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.9(3), 618–623 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bastacky, S.

Bell, B. A.

R. J. McNichols, A. Gowda, B. A. Bell, R. M. Johnigan, K. H. Calhoun, and M. Motamedi, “Development of an endoscopic fluorescence image guided OCT probe for oral cancer detection,” Proc. SPIE4254, 23–30 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Besselsen, D. G.

L. P. Hariri, A. R. Tumlinson, D. G. Besselsen, U. Utzinger, E. W. Gerner, and J. K. Barton, “Endoscopic optical coherence tomography and laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy in a murine colon cancer model,” Lasers Surg. Med.38(4), 305–313 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blackwell, T. R.

Y. Chen, S. Yuan, J. Wirewille, R. Naphas, Q. Li, T. R. Blackwell, P. T. Winnard, V. Raman, and K. Glunde, “Integrated optical coherence tomography (OCT) and fluorescence laminar optical tomography (FLOT),” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(4), 755–766 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bonnema, G. T.

Boppart, S. A.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science276(5321), 2037–2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. Bouma, M. R. Hee, J. F. Southern, and E. A. Swanson, “Optical biopsy and imaging using optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med.1(9), 970–972 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boudoux, C.

Bouma, B.

J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. Bouma, M. R. Hee, J. F. Southern, and E. A. Swanson, “Optical biopsy and imaging using optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med.1(9), 970–972 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouma, B. E.

D. Yelin, B. E. Bouma, S. H. Yun, and G. J. Tearney, “Double-clad fiber for endoscopy,” Opt. Lett.29(20), 2408–2410 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science276(5321), 2037–2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brezinski, M. E.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science276(5321), 2037–2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. Bouma, M. R. Hee, J. F. Southern, and E. A. Swanson, “Optical biopsy and imaging using optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med.1(9), 970–972 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cable, A.

S. Yuan, C. A. Roney, J. Wierwille, C. W. Chen, B. Xu, G. Griffiths, J. Jiang, H. Ma, A. Cable, R. M. Summers, and Y. Chen, “Co-registered optical coherence tomography and fluorescence molecular imaging for simultaneous morphological and molecular imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol.55(1), 191–206 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Yuan, Q. Li, J. Jiang, A. Cable, and Y. Chen, “Three-dimensional coregistered optical coherence tomography and line-scanning fluorescence laminar optical tomography,” Opt. Lett.34(11), 1615–1617 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Calhoun, K. H.

R. J. McNichols, A. Gowda, B. A. Bell, R. M. Johnigan, K. H. Calhoun, and M. Motamedi, “Development of an endoscopic fluorescence image guided OCT probe for oral cancer detection,” Proc. SPIE4254, 23–30 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Carruth, R. W.

Cecic, I.

H. Pahlevaninezhad, I. Cecic, A. M. D. Lee, A. H. Kyle, S. Lam, C. MacAulay, and P. M. Lane, “Multimodal tissue imaging: using coregistered optical tomography data to estimate tissue autofluorescence intensity change due to scattering and absorption by neoplastic epithelial cells,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(10), 106007 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chan, K. K. H.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, C. W.

S. Yuan, C. A. Roney, J. Wierwille, C. W. Chen, B. Xu, G. Griffiths, J. Jiang, H. Ma, A. Cable, R. M. Summers, and Y. Chen, “Co-registered optical coherence tomography and fluorescence molecular imaging for simultaneous morphological and molecular imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol.55(1), 191–206 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, T.

T. Chen, N. Zhang, T. Huo, C. Wang, J. G. Zheng, T. Zhou, and P. Xue, “Tiny endoscopic optical coherence tomography probe driven by a miniaturized hollow ultrasonic motor,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(8), 086011 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.

J. Mavadia, J. Xi, Y. Chen, and X. Li, “An all-fiber-optic endoscopy platform for simultaneous OCT and fluorescence imaging,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(11), 2851–2859 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Murari, Y. Zhang, S. Li, Y. Chen, M. J. Li, and X. Li, “Compensation-free, all-fiber-optic, two-photon endomicroscopy at 1.55 μm,” Opt. Lett.36(7), 1299–1301 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Yuan, C. A. Roney, J. Wierwille, C. W. Chen, B. Xu, G. Griffiths, J. Jiang, H. Ma, A. Cable, R. M. Summers, and Y. Chen, “Co-registered optical coherence tomography and fluorescence molecular imaging for simultaneous morphological and molecular imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol.55(1), 191–206 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Chen, S. Yuan, J. Wirewille, R. Naphas, Q. Li, T. R. Blackwell, P. T. Winnard, V. Raman, and K. Glunde, “Integrated optical coherence tomography (OCT) and fluorescence laminar optical tomography (FLOT),” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(4), 755–766 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Yuan, Q. Li, J. Jiang, A. Cable, and Y. Chen, “Three-dimensional coregistered optical coherence tomography and line-scanning fluorescence laminar optical tomography,” Opt. Lett.34(11), 1615–1617 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Z.

S. Liang, A. Saidi, J. Jing, G. Liu, J. Li, J. Zhang, C. Sun, J. Narula, and Z. Chen, “Intravascular atherosclerotic imaging with combined fluorescence and optical coherence tomography probe based on a double-clad fiber combiner,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(7), 070501 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Liu and Z. Chen, “Fiber-based combined optical coherence and multiphoton endomicroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(3), 036010 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Tang, W. Jung, D. McCormick, T. Xie, J. Su, Y. C. Ahn, B. J. Tromberg, and Z. Chen, “Design and implementation of fiber-based multiphoton endoscopy with microelectromechanical systems scanning,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(3), 034005 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Tang, T. B. Krasieva, Z. Chen, and B. J. Tromberg, “Combined multiphoton microscopy and optical coherence tomography using a 12-fs broadband source,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(2), 020502 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, E. S.

Choi, H. Y.

Coldman, A.

S. Lam, T. Kennedy, M. Unger, Y. E. Miller, D. Gelmont, V. Rusch, B. Gipe, D. Howard, J. C. LeRiche, A. Coldman, and A. F. Gazdar, “Localization of bronchial intraepithelial neoplastic lesions by fluorescence bronchoscopy,” Chest113(3), 696–702 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dai, C.

C. Dai, X. Liu, and S. Jiao, “Simultaneous optical coherence tomography and autofluorescence microscopy with a single light source,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(8), 080502 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Daxhelet, X.

De Montigny, E.

Drexler, W.

Du, C. W.

Fard, A. M.

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science276(5321), 2037–2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. Bouma, M. R. Hee, J. F. Southern, and E. A. Swanson, “Optical biopsy and imaging using optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med.1(9), 970–972 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gardecki, J. A.

Gazdar, A.

S. Lam, B. Standish, C. Baldwin, A. McWilliams, J. leRiche, A. Gazdar, A. I. Vitkin, V. Yang, N. Ikeda, and C. MacAulay, “In vivo optical coherence tomography imaging of preinvasive bronchial lesions,” Clin. Cancer Res.14(7), 2006–2011 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gazdar, A. F.

S. Lam, T. Kennedy, M. Unger, Y. E. Miller, D. Gelmont, V. Rusch, B. Gipe, D. Howard, J. C. LeRiche, A. Coldman, and A. F. Gazdar, “Localization of bronchial intraepithelial neoplastic lesions by fluorescence bronchoscopy,” Chest113(3), 696–702 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gelmont, D.

S. Lam, T. Kennedy, M. Unger, Y. E. Miller, D. Gelmont, V. Rusch, B. Gipe, D. Howard, J. C. LeRiche, A. Coldman, and A. F. Gazdar, “Localization of bronchial intraepithelial neoplastic lesions by fluorescence bronchoscopy,” Chest113(3), 696–702 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gerner, E. W.

L. P. Hariri, A. R. Tumlinson, D. G. Besselsen, U. Utzinger, E. W. Gerner, and J. K. Barton, “Endoscopic optical coherence tomography and laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy in a murine colon cancer model,” Lasers Surg. Med.38(4), 305–313 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gipe, B.

S. Lam, T. Kennedy, M. Unger, Y. E. Miller, D. Gelmont, V. Rusch, B. Gipe, D. Howard, J. C. LeRiche, A. Coldman, and A. F. Gazdar, “Localization of bronchial intraepithelial neoplastic lesions by fluorescence bronchoscopy,” Chest113(3), 696–702 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Glunde, K.

Y. Chen, S. Yuan, J. Wirewille, R. Naphas, Q. Li, T. R. Blackwell, P. T. Winnard, V. Raman, and K. Glunde, “Integrated optical coherence tomography (OCT) and fluorescence laminar optical tomography (FLOT),” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(4), 755–766 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Godbout, N.

Gowda, A.

R. J. McNichols, A. Gowda, B. A. Bell, R. M. Johnigan, K. H. Calhoun, and M. Motamedi, “Development of an endoscopic fluorescence image guided OCT probe for oral cancer detection,” Proc. SPIE4254, 23–30 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Griffiths, G.

S. Yuan, C. A. Roney, J. Wierwille, C. W. Chen, B. Xu, G. Griffiths, J. Jiang, H. Ma, A. Cable, R. M. Summers, and Y. Chen, “Co-registered optical coherence tomography and fluorescence molecular imaging for simultaneous morphological and molecular imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol.55(1), 191–206 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gu, M.

Guzman, F.

J. K. Barton, F. Guzman, and A. Tumlinson, “Dual modality instrument for simultaneous optical coherence tomography imaging and fluorescence spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.9(3), 618–623 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hamidi, E.

Hariri, L. P.

L. P. Hariri, A. R. Tumlinson, D. G. Besselsen, U. Utzinger, E. W. Gerner, and J. K. Barton, “Endoscopic optical coherence tomography and laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy in a murine colon cancer model,” Lasers Surg. Med.38(4), 305–313 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. R. Tumlinson, L. P. Hariri, U. Utzinger, and J. K. Barton, “A miniature endoscope for simultaneous OCT-LIF measurement,” Appl. Opt.43(1), 113–121 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hayashi, A.

M. Tsuboi, A. Hayashi, N. Ikeda, H. Honda, Y. Kato, S. Ichinose, and H. Kato, “Optical coherence tomography in the diagnosis of bronchial lesions,” Lung Cancer49(3), 387–394 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hee, M. R.

J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. Bouma, M. R. Hee, J. F. Southern, and E. A. Swanson, “Optical biopsy and imaging using optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med.1(9), 970–972 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hirsch, F. R.

T. C. Kennedy, S. Lam, and F. R. Hirsch, “Review of recent advances in fluorescence bronchoscopy in early localization of central airway lung cancer,” Oncologist6(3), 257–262 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Honda, H.

M. Tsuboi, A. Hayashi, N. Ikeda, H. Honda, Y. Kato, S. Ichinose, and H. Kato, “Optical coherence tomography in the diagnosis of bronchial lesions,” Lung Cancer49(3), 387–394 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Howard, D.

S. Lam, T. Kennedy, M. Unger, Y. E. Miller, D. Gelmont, V. Rusch, B. Gipe, D. Howard, J. C. LeRiche, A. Coldman, and A. F. Gazdar, “Localization of bronchial intraepithelial neoplastic lesions by fluorescence bronchoscopy,” Chest113(3), 696–702 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hua, J.

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, Z.

Hung, J.

J. Hung, S. Lam, J. C. LeRiche, and B. Palcic, “Autofluorescence of normal and malignant bronchial tissue,” Lasers Surg. Med.11(2), 99–105 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huo, T.

T. Chen, N. Zhang, T. Huo, C. Wang, J. G. Zheng, T. Zhou, and P. Xue, “Tiny endoscopic optical coherence tomography probe driven by a miniaturized hollow ultrasonic motor,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(8), 086011 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ichinose, S.

M. Tsuboi, A. Hayashi, N. Ikeda, H. Honda, Y. Kato, S. Ichinose, and H. Kato, “Optical coherence tomography in the diagnosis of bronchial lesions,” Lung Cancer49(3), 387–394 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ikeda, N.

S. Lam, B. Standish, C. Baldwin, A. McWilliams, J. leRiche, A. Gazdar, A. I. Vitkin, V. Yang, N. Ikeda, and C. MacAulay, “In vivo optical coherence tomography imaging of preinvasive bronchial lesions,” Clin. Cancer Res.14(7), 2006–2011 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Tsuboi, A. Hayashi, N. Ikeda, H. Honda, Y. Kato, S. Ichinose, and H. Kato, “Optical coherence tomography in the diagnosis of bronchial lesions,” Lung Cancer49(3), 387–394 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiang, J.

S. Yuan, C. A. Roney, J. Wierwille, C. W. Chen, B. Xu, G. Griffiths, J. Jiang, H. Ma, A. Cable, R. M. Summers, and Y. Chen, “Co-registered optical coherence tomography and fluorescence molecular imaging for simultaneous morphological and molecular imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol.55(1), 191–206 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Yuan, Q. Li, J. Jiang, A. Cable, and Y. Chen, “Three-dimensional coregistered optical coherence tomography and line-scanning fluorescence laminar optical tomography,” Opt. Lett.34(11), 1615–1617 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiao, S.

C. Dai, X. Liu, and S. Jiao, “Simultaneous optical coherence tomography and autofluorescence microscopy with a single light source,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(8), 080502 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jing, J.

S. Liang, A. Saidi, J. Jing, G. Liu, J. Li, J. Zhang, C. Sun, J. Narula, and Z. Chen, “Intravascular atherosclerotic imaging with combined fluorescence and optical coherence tomography probe based on a double-clad fiber combiner,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(7), 070501 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jo, J. A.

Johnigan, R. M.

R. J. McNichols, A. Gowda, B. A. Bell, R. M. Johnigan, K. H. Calhoun, and M. Motamedi, “Development of an endoscopic fluorescence image guided OCT probe for oral cancer detection,” Proc. SPIE4254, 23–30 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jung, W.

S. Tang, W. Jung, D. McCormick, T. Xie, J. Su, Y. C. Ahn, B. J. Tromberg, and Z. Chen, “Design and implementation of fiber-based multiphoton endoscopy with microelectromechanical systems scanning,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(3), 034005 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jung, Y.

Kato, H.

M. Tsuboi, A. Hayashi, N. Ikeda, H. Honda, Y. Kato, S. Ichinose, and H. Kato, “Optical coherence tomography in the diagnosis of bronchial lesions,” Lung Cancer49(3), 387–394 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kato, Y.

M. Tsuboi, A. Hayashi, N. Ikeda, H. Honda, Y. Kato, S. Ichinose, and H. Kato, “Optical coherence tomography in the diagnosis of bronchial lesions,” Lung Cancer49(3), 387–394 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kennedy, T.

S. Lam, T. Kennedy, M. Unger, Y. E. Miller, D. Gelmont, V. Rusch, B. Gipe, D. Howard, J. C. LeRiche, A. Coldman, and A. F. Gazdar, “Localization of bronchial intraepithelial neoplastic lesions by fluorescence bronchoscopy,” Chest113(3), 696–702 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kennedy, T. C.

T. C. Kennedy, S. Lam, and F. R. Hirsch, “Review of recent advances in fluorescence bronchoscopy in early localization of central airway lung cancer,” Oncologist6(3), 257–262 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, K. T.

Kirk, R. W.

Krasieva, T. B.

S. Tang, T. B. Krasieva, Z. Chen, and B. J. Tromberg, “Combined multiphoton microscopy and optical coherence tomography using a 12-fs broadband source,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(2), 020502 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kyle, A. H.

H. Pahlevaninezhad, I. Cecic, A. M. D. Lee, A. H. Kyle, S. Lam, C. MacAulay, and P. M. Lane, “Multimodal tissue imaging: using coregistered optical tomography data to estimate tissue autofluorescence intensity change due to scattering and absorption by neoplastic epithelial cells,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(10), 106007 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lai, T.

Lam, S.

H. Pahlevaninezhad, A. M. D. Lee, S. Lam, C. MacAulay, and P. M. Lane, “Coregistered autofluorescence-optical coherence tomography imaging of human lung sections,” J. Biomed. Opt.19(3), 036022 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Pahlevaninezhad, I. Cecic, A. M. D. Lee, A. H. Kyle, S. Lam, C. MacAulay, and P. M. Lane, “Multimodal tissue imaging: using coregistered optical tomography data to estimate tissue autofluorescence intensity change due to scattering and absorption by neoplastic epithelial cells,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(10), 106007 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Lam, B. Standish, C. Baldwin, A. McWilliams, J. leRiche, A. Gazdar, A. I. Vitkin, V. Yang, N. Ikeda, and C. MacAulay, “In vivo optical coherence tomography imaging of preinvasive bronchial lesions,” Clin. Cancer Res.14(7), 2006–2011 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. C. Kennedy, S. Lam, and F. R. Hirsch, “Review of recent advances in fluorescence bronchoscopy in early localization of central airway lung cancer,” Oncologist6(3), 257–262 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Lam, T. Kennedy, M. Unger, Y. E. Miller, D. Gelmont, V. Rusch, B. Gipe, D. Howard, J. C. LeRiche, A. Coldman, and A. F. Gazdar, “Localization of bronchial intraepithelial neoplastic lesions by fluorescence bronchoscopy,” Chest113(3), 696–702 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Hung, S. Lam, J. C. LeRiche, and B. Palcic, “Autofluorescence of normal and malignant bronchial tissue,” Lasers Surg. Med.11(2), 99–105 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lane, P. M.

H. Pahlevaninezhad, A. M. D. Lee, S. Lam, C. MacAulay, and P. M. Lane, “Coregistered autofluorescence-optical coherence tomography imaging of human lung sections,” J. Biomed. Opt.19(3), 036022 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Pahlevaninezhad, I. Cecic, A. M. D. Lee, A. H. Kyle, S. Lam, C. MacAulay, and P. M. Lane, “Multimodal tissue imaging: using coregistered optical tomography data to estimate tissue autofluorescence intensity change due to scattering and absorption by neoplastic epithelial cells,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(10), 106007 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leduc, M.

Lee, A. M. D.

H. Pahlevaninezhad, A. M. D. Lee, S. Lam, C. MacAulay, and P. M. Lane, “Coregistered autofluorescence-optical coherence tomography imaging of human lung sections,” J. Biomed. Opt.19(3), 036022 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Pahlevaninezhad, I. Cecic, A. M. D. Lee, A. H. Kyle, S. Lam, C. MacAulay, and P. M. Lane, “Multimodal tissue imaging: using coregistered optical tomography data to estimate tissue autofluorescence intensity change due to scattering and absorption by neoplastic epithelial cells,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(10), 106007 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, B. H.

Leitgeb, R. A.

Lemire-Renaud, S.

leRiche, J.

S. Lam, B. Standish, C. Baldwin, A. McWilliams, J. leRiche, A. Gazdar, A. I. Vitkin, V. Yang, N. Ikeda, and C. MacAulay, “In vivo optical coherence tomography imaging of preinvasive bronchial lesions,” Clin. Cancer Res.14(7), 2006–2011 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

LeRiche, J. C.

S. Lam, T. Kennedy, M. Unger, Y. E. Miller, D. Gelmont, V. Rusch, B. Gipe, D. Howard, J. C. LeRiche, A. Coldman, and A. F. Gazdar, “Localization of bronchial intraepithelial neoplastic lesions by fluorescence bronchoscopy,” Chest113(3), 696–702 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Hung, S. Lam, J. C. LeRiche, and B. Palcic, “Autofluorescence of normal and malignant bronchial tissue,” Lasers Surg. Med.11(2), 99–105 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, J.

S. Liang, A. Saidi, J. Jing, G. Liu, J. Li, J. Zhang, C. Sun, J. Narula, and Z. Chen, “Intravascular atherosclerotic imaging with combined fluorescence and optical coherence tomography probe based on a double-clad fiber combiner,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(7), 070501 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, M. J.

Li, Q.

Y. Chen, S. Yuan, J. Wirewille, R. Naphas, Q. Li, T. R. Blackwell, P. T. Winnard, V. Raman, and K. Glunde, “Integrated optical coherence tomography (OCT) and fluorescence laminar optical tomography (FLOT),” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(4), 755–766 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Yuan, Q. Li, J. Jiang, A. Cable, and Y. Chen, “Three-dimensional coregistered optical coherence tomography and line-scanning fluorescence laminar optical tomography,” Opt. Lett.34(11), 1615–1617 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, S.

Li, X.

Liang, S.

S. Liang, A. Saidi, J. Jing, G. Liu, J. Li, J. Zhang, C. Sun, J. Narula, and Z. Chen, “Intravascular atherosclerotic imaging with combined fluorescence and optical coherence tomography probe based on a double-clad fiber combiner,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(7), 070501 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, G.

S. Liang, A. Saidi, J. Jing, G. Liu, J. Li, J. Zhang, C. Sun, J. Narula, and Z. Chen, “Intravascular atherosclerotic imaging with combined fluorescence and optical coherence tomography probe based on a double-clad fiber combiner,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(7), 070501 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Liu and Z. Chen, “Fiber-based combined optical coherence and multiphoton endomicroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(3), 036010 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, X.

C. Dai, X. Liu, and S. Jiao, “Simultaneous optical coherence tomography and autofluorescence microscopy with a single light source,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(8), 080502 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lorenser, D.

Ma, H.

S. Yuan, C. A. Roney, J. Wierwille, C. W. Chen, B. Xu, G. Griffiths, J. Jiang, H. Ma, A. Cable, R. M. Summers, and Y. Chen, “Co-registered optical coherence tomography and fluorescence molecular imaging for simultaneous morphological and molecular imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol.55(1), 191–206 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

MacAulay, C.

H. Pahlevaninezhad, A. M. D. Lee, S. Lam, C. MacAulay, and P. M. Lane, “Coregistered autofluorescence-optical coherence tomography imaging of human lung sections,” J. Biomed. Opt.19(3), 036022 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Pahlevaninezhad, I. Cecic, A. M. D. Lee, A. H. Kyle, S. Lam, C. MacAulay, and P. M. Lane, “Multimodal tissue imaging: using coregistered optical tomography data to estimate tissue autofluorescence intensity change due to scattering and absorption by neoplastic epithelial cells,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(10), 106007 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Lam, B. Standish, C. Baldwin, A. McWilliams, J. leRiche, A. Gazdar, A. I. Vitkin, V. Yang, N. Ikeda, and C. MacAulay, “In vivo optical coherence tomography imaging of preinvasive bronchial lesions,” Clin. Cancer Res.14(7), 2006–2011 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

MacDonald, D. J.

Madore, W. J.

Mavadia, J.

McCormick, D.

S. Tang, W. Jung, D. McCormick, T. Xie, J. Su, Y. C. Ahn, B. J. Tromberg, and Z. Chen, “Design and implementation of fiber-based multiphoton endoscopy with microelectromechanical systems scanning,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(3), 034005 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McLaughlin, R. A.

McNichols, R. J.

R. J. McNichols, A. Gowda, B. A. Bell, R. M. Johnigan, K. H. Calhoun, and M. Motamedi, “Development of an endoscopic fluorescence image guided OCT probe for oral cancer detection,” Proc. SPIE4254, 23–30 (2001).
[CrossRef]

McWilliams, A.

S. Lam, B. Standish, C. Baldwin, A. McWilliams, J. leRiche, A. Gazdar, A. I. Vitkin, V. Yang, N. Ikeda, and C. MacAulay, “In vivo optical coherence tomography imaging of preinvasive bronchial lesions,” Clin. Cancer Res.14(7), 2006–2011 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meyers, S.

Miller, Y. E.

S. Lam, T. Kennedy, M. Unger, Y. E. Miller, D. Gelmont, V. Rusch, B. Gipe, D. Howard, J. C. LeRiche, A. Coldman, and A. F. Gazdar, “Localization of bronchial intraepithelial neoplastic lesions by fluorescence bronchoscopy,” Chest113(3), 696–702 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morneau, D.

Motamedi, M.

R. J. McNichols, A. Gowda, B. A. Bell, R. M. Johnigan, K. H. Calhoun, and M. Motamedi, “Development of an endoscopic fluorescence image guided OCT probe for oral cancer detection,” Proc. SPIE4254, 23–30 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Murari, K.

Myaing, M. T.

Na, J.

Naphas, R.

Y. Chen, S. Yuan, J. Wirewille, R. Naphas, Q. Li, T. R. Blackwell, P. T. Winnard, V. Raman, and K. Glunde, “Integrated optical coherence tomography (OCT) and fluorescence laminar optical tomography (FLOT),” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(4), 755–766 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Narula, J.

S. Liang, A. Saidi, J. Jing, G. Liu, J. Li, J. Zhang, C. Sun, J. Narula, and Z. Chen, “Intravascular atherosclerotic imaging with combined fluorescence and optical coherence tomography probe based on a double-clad fiber combiner,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(7), 070501 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ouellette, O.

Pahlevaninezhad, H.

H. Pahlevaninezhad, A. M. D. Lee, S. Lam, C. MacAulay, and P. M. Lane, “Coregistered autofluorescence-optical coherence tomography imaging of human lung sections,” J. Biomed. Opt.19(3), 036022 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Pahlevaninezhad, I. Cecic, A. M. D. Lee, A. H. Kyle, S. Lam, C. MacAulay, and P. M. Lane, “Multimodal tissue imaging: using coregistered optical tomography data to estimate tissue autofluorescence intensity change due to scattering and absorption by neoplastic epithelial cells,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(10), 106007 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Palcic, B.

J. Hung, S. Lam, J. C. LeRiche, and B. Palcic, “Autofluorescence of normal and malignant bronchial tissue,” Lasers Surg. Med.11(2), 99–105 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pan, Y. T.

Pande, P.

Park, J.

Pitris, C.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science276(5321), 2037–2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Postmus, P. E.

B. J. Venmans, H. van der Linden, T. J. van Boxem, P. E. Postmus, E. F. Smit, and T. G. Sutedja, “Early detection of pre-invasive lesions in high risk patients. A comparison of conventional fiber optic and fluorescence bronchoscopy,” J. Bronchoscopy5(4), 280–283 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Považay, B.

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qu, J. Y.

Quirk, B. C.

Raman, V.

Y. Chen, S. Yuan, J. Wirewille, R. Naphas, Q. Li, T. R. Blackwell, P. T. Winnard, V. Raman, and K. Glunde, “Integrated optical coherence tomography (OCT) and fluorescence laminar optical tomography (FLOT),” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(4), 755–766 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rice, P. F.

A. M. Winkler, P. F. Rice, J. Weichsel, J. M. Watson, M. V. Backer, J. M. Backer, and J. K. Barton, “In vivo, dual-modality OCT/LIF imaging using a novel VEGF receptor-targeted NIR fluorescent probe in the AOM-treated mouse model,” Mol. Imaging Biol.13(6), 1173–1182 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rivard, M.

Roney, C. A.

S. Yuan, C. A. Roney, J. Wierwille, C. W. Chen, B. Xu, G. Griffiths, J. Jiang, H. Ma, A. Cable, R. M. Summers, and Y. Chen, “Co-registered optical coherence tomography and fluorescence molecular imaging for simultaneous morphological and molecular imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol.55(1), 191–206 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rusch, V.

S. Lam, T. Kennedy, M. Unger, Y. E. Miller, D. Gelmont, V. Rusch, B. Gipe, D. Howard, J. C. LeRiche, A. Coldman, and A. F. Gazdar, “Localization of bronchial intraepithelial neoplastic lesions by fluorescence bronchoscopy,” Chest113(3), 696–702 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ryu, S. Y.

Saidi, A.

S. Liang, A. Saidi, J. Jing, G. Liu, J. Li, J. Zhang, C. Sun, J. Narula, and Z. Chen, “Intravascular atherosclerotic imaging with combined fluorescence and optical coherence tomography probe based on a double-clad fiber combiner,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(7), 070501 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sampson, D. D.

Sattman, H.

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shrestha, S.

Smit, E. F.

B. J. Venmans, H. van der Linden, T. J. van Boxem, P. E. Postmus, E. F. Smit, and T. G. Sutedja, “Early detection of pre-invasive lesions in high risk patients. A comparison of conventional fiber optic and fluorescence bronchoscopy,” J. Bronchoscopy5(4), 280–283 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Southern, J. F.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science276(5321), 2037–2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. Bouma, M. R. Hee, J. F. Southern, and E. A. Swanson, “Optical biopsy and imaging using optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med.1(9), 970–972 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Standish, B.

S. Lam, B. Standish, C. Baldwin, A. McWilliams, J. leRiche, A. Gazdar, A. I. Vitkin, V. Yang, N. Ikeda, and C. MacAulay, “In vivo optical coherence tomography imaging of preinvasive bronchial lesions,” Clin. Cancer Res.14(7), 2006–2011 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Strupler, M.

Su, J.

S. Tang, W. Jung, D. McCormick, T. Xie, J. Su, Y. C. Ahn, B. J. Tromberg, and Z. Chen, “Design and implementation of fiber-based multiphoton endoscopy with microelectromechanical systems scanning,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(3), 034005 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Summers, R. M.

S. Yuan, C. A. Roney, J. Wierwille, C. W. Chen, B. Xu, G. Griffiths, J. Jiang, H. Ma, A. Cable, R. M. Summers, and Y. Chen, “Co-registered optical coherence tomography and fluorescence molecular imaging for simultaneous morphological and molecular imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol.55(1), 191–206 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, C.

S. Liang, A. Saidi, J. Jing, G. Liu, J. Li, J. Zhang, C. Sun, J. Narula, and Z. Chen, “Intravascular atherosclerotic imaging with combined fluorescence and optical coherence tomography probe based on a double-clad fiber combiner,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(7), 070501 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sutedja, T. G.

B. J. Venmans, H. van der Linden, T. J. van Boxem, P. E. Postmus, E. F. Smit, and T. G. Sutedja, “Early detection of pre-invasive lesions in high risk patients. A comparison of conventional fiber optic and fluorescence bronchoscopy,” J. Bronchoscopy5(4), 280–283 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Swanson, E. A.

J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. Bouma, M. R. Hee, J. F. Southern, and E. A. Swanson, “Optical biopsy and imaging using optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med.1(9), 970–972 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tang, S.

S. Tang, Y. Zhou, K. K. H. Chan, and T. Lai, “Multiscale multimodal imaging with multiphoton microscopy and optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.36(24), 4800–4802 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Tang, W. Jung, D. McCormick, T. Xie, J. Su, Y. C. Ahn, B. J. Tromberg, and Z. Chen, “Design and implementation of fiber-based multiphoton endoscopy with microelectromechanical systems scanning,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(3), 034005 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Tang, T. B. Krasieva, Z. Chen, and B. J. Tromberg, “Combined multiphoton microscopy and optical coherence tomography using a 12-fs broadband source,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(2), 020502 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tao, W.

Tearney, G. J.

A. M. Fard, P. Vacas-Jacques, E. Hamidi, H. Wang, R. W. Carruth, J. A. Gardecki, and G. J. Tearney, “Optical coherence tomography--near infrared spectroscopy system and catheter for intravascular imaging,” Opt. Express21(25), 30849–30858 (2013).
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D. Yelin, B. E. Bouma, S. H. Yun, and G. J. Tearney, “Double-clad fiber for endoscopy,” Opt. Lett.29(20), 2408–2410 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science276(5321), 2037–2039 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. Bouma, M. R. Hee, J. F. Southern, and E. A. Swanson, “Optical biopsy and imaging using optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med.1(9), 970–972 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tromberg, B. J.

S. Tang, W. Jung, D. McCormick, T. Xie, J. Su, Y. C. Ahn, B. J. Tromberg, and Z. Chen, “Design and implementation of fiber-based multiphoton endoscopy with microelectromechanical systems scanning,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(3), 034005 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Tang, T. B. Krasieva, Z. Chen, and B. J. Tromberg, “Combined multiphoton microscopy and optical coherence tomography using a 12-fs broadband source,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(2), 020502 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsuboi, M.

M. Tsuboi, A. Hayashi, N. Ikeda, H. Honda, Y. Kato, S. Ichinose, and H. Kato, “Optical coherence tomography in the diagnosis of bronchial lesions,” Lung Cancer49(3), 387–394 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tumlinson, A.

J. K. Barton, F. Guzman, and A. Tumlinson, “Dual modality instrument for simultaneous optical coherence tomography imaging and fluorescence spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.9(3), 618–623 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tumlinson, A. R.

Unger, M.

S. Lam, T. Kennedy, M. Unger, Y. E. Miller, D. Gelmont, V. Rusch, B. Gipe, D. Howard, J. C. LeRiche, A. Coldman, and A. F. Gazdar, “Localization of bronchial intraepithelial neoplastic lesions by fluorescence bronchoscopy,” Chest113(3), 696–702 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Unterhuber, A.

Utzinger, U.

L. P. Hariri, A. R. Tumlinson, D. G. Besselsen, U. Utzinger, E. W. Gerner, and J. K. Barton, “Endoscopic optical coherence tomography and laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy in a murine colon cancer model,” Lasers Surg. Med.38(4), 305–313 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. R. Tumlinson, L. P. Hariri, U. Utzinger, and J. K. Barton, “A miniature endoscope for simultaneous OCT-LIF measurement,” Appl. Opt.43(1), 113–121 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vacas-Jacques, P.

van Boxem, T. J.

B. J. Venmans, H. van der Linden, T. J. van Boxem, P. E. Postmus, E. F. Smit, and T. G. Sutedja, “Early detection of pre-invasive lesions in high risk patients. A comparison of conventional fiber optic and fluorescence bronchoscopy,” J. Bronchoscopy5(4), 280–283 (1998).
[CrossRef]

van der Linden, H.

B. J. Venmans, H. van der Linden, T. J. van Boxem, P. E. Postmus, E. F. Smit, and T. G. Sutedja, “Early detection of pre-invasive lesions in high risk patients. A comparison of conventional fiber optic and fluorescence bronchoscopy,” J. Bronchoscopy5(4), 280–283 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Venmans, B. J.

B. J. Venmans, H. van der Linden, T. J. van Boxem, P. E. Postmus, E. F. Smit, and T. G. Sutedja, “Early detection of pre-invasive lesions in high risk patients. A comparison of conventional fiber optic and fluorescence bronchoscopy,” J. Bronchoscopy5(4), 280–283 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Verpillat, F.

Vitkin, A. I.

S. Lam, B. Standish, C. Baldwin, A. McWilliams, J. leRiche, A. Gazdar, A. I. Vitkin, V. Yang, N. Ikeda, and C. MacAulay, “In vivo optical coherence tomography imaging of preinvasive bronchial lesions,” Clin. Cancer Res.14(7), 2006–2011 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wall, R. A.

Wan, Q.

Wang, C.

T. Chen, N. Zhang, T. Huo, C. Wang, J. G. Zheng, T. Zhou, and P. Xue, “Tiny endoscopic optical coherence tomography probe driven by a miniaturized hollow ultrasonic motor,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(8), 086011 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, H.

Wang, L.

Watson, J. M.

A. M. Winkler, P. F. Rice, J. Weichsel, J. M. Watson, M. V. Backer, J. M. Backer, and J. K. Barton, “In vivo, dual-modality OCT/LIF imaging using a novel VEGF receptor-targeted NIR fluorescent probe in the AOM-treated mouse model,” Mol. Imaging Biol.13(6), 1173–1182 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weichsel, J.

A. M. Winkler, P. F. Rice, J. Weichsel, J. M. Watson, M. V. Backer, J. M. Backer, and J. K. Barton, “In vivo, dual-modality OCT/LIF imaging using a novel VEGF receptor-targeted NIR fluorescent probe in the AOM-treated mouse model,” Mol. Imaging Biol.13(6), 1173–1182 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wierwille, J.

S. Yuan, C. A. Roney, J. Wierwille, C. W. Chen, B. Xu, G. Griffiths, J. Jiang, H. Ma, A. Cable, R. M. Summers, and Y. Chen, “Co-registered optical coherence tomography and fluorescence molecular imaging for simultaneous morphological and molecular imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol.55(1), 191–206 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Winkler, A. M.

A. M. Winkler, P. F. Rice, J. Weichsel, J. M. Watson, M. V. Backer, J. M. Backer, and J. K. Barton, “In vivo, dual-modality OCT/LIF imaging using a novel VEGF receptor-targeted NIR fluorescent probe in the AOM-treated mouse model,” Mol. Imaging Biol.13(6), 1173–1182 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Winnard, P. T.

Y. Chen, S. Yuan, J. Wirewille, R. Naphas, Q. Li, T. R. Blackwell, P. T. Winnard, V. Raman, and K. Glunde, “Integrated optical coherence tomography (OCT) and fluorescence laminar optical tomography (FLOT),” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(4), 755–766 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wirewille, J.

Y. Chen, S. Yuan, J. Wirewille, R. Naphas, Q. Li, T. R. Blackwell, P. T. Winnard, V. Raman, and K. Glunde, “Integrated optical coherence tomography (OCT) and fluorescence laminar optical tomography (FLOT),” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(4), 755–766 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Xi, J.

Xie, T.

S. Tang, W. Jung, D. McCormick, T. Xie, J. Su, Y. C. Ahn, B. J. Tromberg, and Z. Chen, “Design and implementation of fiber-based multiphoton endoscopy with microelectromechanical systems scanning,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(3), 034005 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xie, T. Q.

Xu, B.

S. Yuan, C. A. Roney, J. Wierwille, C. W. Chen, B. Xu, G. Griffiths, J. Jiang, H. Ma, A. Cable, R. M. Summers, and Y. Chen, “Co-registered optical coherence tomography and fluorescence molecular imaging for simultaneous morphological and molecular imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol.55(1), 191–206 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xue, P.

T. Chen, N. Zhang, T. Huo, C. Wang, J. G. Zheng, T. Zhou, and P. Xue, “Tiny endoscopic optical coherence tomography probe driven by a miniaturized hollow ultrasonic motor,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(8), 086011 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, V.

S. Lam, B. Standish, C. Baldwin, A. McWilliams, J. leRiche, A. Gazdar, A. I. Vitkin, V. Yang, N. Ikeda, and C. MacAulay, “In vivo optical coherence tomography imaging of preinvasive bronchial lesions,” Clin. Cancer Res.14(7), 2006–2011 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yelin, D.

Yuan, S.

S. Yuan, C. A. Roney, J. Wierwille, C. W. Chen, B. Xu, G. Griffiths, J. Jiang, H. Ma, A. Cable, R. M. Summers, and Y. Chen, “Co-registered optical coherence tomography and fluorescence molecular imaging for simultaneous morphological and molecular imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol.55(1), 191–206 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Chen, S. Yuan, J. Wirewille, R. Naphas, Q. Li, T. R. Blackwell, P. T. Winnard, V. Raman, and K. Glunde, “Integrated optical coherence tomography (OCT) and fluorescence laminar optical tomography (FLOT),” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(4), 755–766 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Yuan, Q. Li, J. Jiang, A. Cable, and Y. Chen, “Three-dimensional coregistered optical coherence tomography and line-scanning fluorescence laminar optical tomography,” Opt. Lett.34(11), 1615–1617 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yun, S. H.

Zeidel, M. L.

Zhang, J.

S. Liang, A. Saidi, J. Jing, G. Liu, J. Li, J. Zhang, C. Sun, J. Narula, and Z. Chen, “Intravascular atherosclerotic imaging with combined fluorescence and optical coherence tomography probe based on a double-clad fiber combiner,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(7), 070501 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, N.

T. Chen, N. Zhang, T. Huo, C. Wang, J. G. Zheng, T. Zhou, and P. Xue, “Tiny endoscopic optical coherence tomography probe driven by a miniaturized hollow ultrasonic motor,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(8), 086011 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y.

Zheng, J. G.

T. Chen, N. Zhang, T. Huo, C. Wang, J. G. Zheng, T. Zhou, and P. Xue, “Tiny endoscopic optical coherence tomography probe driven by a miniaturized hollow ultrasonic motor,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(8), 086011 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, T.

T. Chen, N. Zhang, T. Huo, C. Wang, J. G. Zheng, T. Zhou, and P. Xue, “Tiny endoscopic optical coherence tomography probe driven by a miniaturized hollow ultrasonic motor,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(8), 086011 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, Y.

Appl. Opt. (2)

Biomed. Opt. Express (3)

Chest (1)

S. Lam, T. Kennedy, M. Unger, Y. E. Miller, D. Gelmont, V. Rusch, B. Gipe, D. Howard, J. C. LeRiche, A. Coldman, and A. F. Gazdar, “Localization of bronchial intraepithelial neoplastic lesions by fluorescence bronchoscopy,” Chest113(3), 696–702 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clin. Cancer Res. (1)

S. Lam, B. Standish, C. Baldwin, A. McWilliams, J. leRiche, A. Gazdar, A. I. Vitkin, V. Yang, N. Ikeda, and C. MacAulay, “In vivo optical coherence tomography imaging of preinvasive bronchial lesions,” Clin. Cancer Res.14(7), 2006–2011 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

Y. Chen, S. Yuan, J. Wirewille, R. Naphas, Q. Li, T. R. Blackwell, P. T. Winnard, V. Raman, and K. Glunde, “Integrated optical coherence tomography (OCT) and fluorescence laminar optical tomography (FLOT),” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(4), 755–766 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (9)

H. Pahlevaninezhad, I. Cecic, A. M. D. Lee, A. H. Kyle, S. Lam, C. MacAulay, and P. M. Lane, “Multimodal tissue imaging: using coregistered optical tomography data to estimate tissue autofluorescence intensity change due to scattering and absorption by neoplastic epithelial cells,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(10), 106007 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. K. Barton, F. Guzman, and A. Tumlinson, “Dual modality instrument for simultaneous optical coherence tomography imaging and fluorescence spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.9(3), 618–623 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Liu and Z. Chen, “Fiber-based combined optical coherence and multiphoton endomicroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(3), 036010 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Dai, X. Liu, and S. Jiao, “Simultaneous optical coherence tomography and autofluorescence microscopy with a single light source,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(8), 080502 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Tang, T. B. Krasieva, Z. Chen, and B. J. Tromberg, “Combined multiphoton microscopy and optical coherence tomography using a 12-fs broadband source,” J. Biomed. Opt.11(2), 020502 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Tang, W. Jung, D. McCormick, T. Xie, J. Su, Y. C. Ahn, B. J. Tromberg, and Z. Chen, “Design and implementation of fiber-based multiphoton endoscopy with microelectromechanical systems scanning,” J. Biomed. Opt.14(3), 034005 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Chen, N. Zhang, T. Huo, C. Wang, J. G. Zheng, T. Zhou, and P. Xue, “Tiny endoscopic optical coherence tomography probe driven by a miniaturized hollow ultrasonic motor,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(8), 086011 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Liang, A. Saidi, J. Jing, G. Liu, J. Li, J. Zhang, C. Sun, J. Narula, and Z. Chen, “Intravascular atherosclerotic imaging with combined fluorescence and optical coherence tomography probe based on a double-clad fiber combiner,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(7), 070501 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Pahlevaninezhad, A. M. D. Lee, S. Lam, C. MacAulay, and P. M. Lane, “Coregistered autofluorescence-optical coherence tomography imaging of human lung sections,” J. Biomed. Opt.19(3), 036022 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Bronchoscopy (1)

B. J. Venmans, H. van der Linden, T. J. van Boxem, P. E. Postmus, E. F. Smit, and T. G. Sutedja, “Early detection of pre-invasive lesions in high risk patients. A comparison of conventional fiber optic and fluorescence bronchoscopy,” J. Bronchoscopy5(4), 280–283 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lasers Surg. Med. (2)

J. Hung, S. Lam, J. C. LeRiche, and B. Palcic, “Autofluorescence of normal and malignant bronchial tissue,” Lasers Surg. Med.11(2), 99–105 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. P. Hariri, A. R. Tumlinson, D. G. Besselsen, U. Utzinger, E. W. Gerner, and J. K. Barton, “Endoscopic optical coherence tomography and laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy in a murine colon cancer model,” Lasers Surg. Med.38(4), 305–313 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lung Cancer (1)

M. Tsuboi, A. Hayashi, N. Ikeda, H. Honda, Y. Kato, S. Ichinose, and H. Kato, “Optical coherence tomography in the diagnosis of bronchial lesions,” Lung Cancer49(3), 387–394 (2005).
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Mol. Imaging Biol. (1)

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

AF/OCT imaging system; L: lens, DM: dichroic mirror; PMT: photomultiplier; FORJ: fiber optic rotary joint; RPD: rotary pull-back drive; DCF: Double-clad fiber; BPD: balanced photo-detector, Fiber Tip inset; DCF: double-clad fiber; MMF: multi-mode fiber; GRIN: graded index fiber; NCF: no-core fiber.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

AF lateral point spread function (PSF); (a) the FWHM measured along θ and z axis versus the distance from the catheter axis for the AF imaging system obtained from AF and OCT imaging of microspheres in silicone, (b) co-registered AF/OCT imaging of a microsphere.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

AF signal attenuation vs. sample-catheter distance; normalized AF signal amplitudes corresponding to different fluorescent slide-catheter distance.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

AF/OCT imaging results; Volumetric AF/OCT images in polar (top row) and Cartesian (middle row) coordinates and the AF maps of (bottom row) (a) human finger pads and (b) oral cavity in vivo, and (c) porcine airway ex vivo. White bar is 1 mm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

AF/OCT imaging of human airway in vivo; top panel: AF map of human airway obtained from AF/OCT imaging in vivo; bottom panels: the AF/OCT images from two positions along the pullback axis specified with the dashed red lines on the AF map. White bar is 1 mm.

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