Abstract

We present a 1300 nm OCT system for volumetric real-time live OCT acquisition and visualization at 1 billion volume elements per second. All technological challenges and problems associated with such high scanning speed are discussed in detail as well as the solutions. In one configuration, the system acquires, processes and visualizes 26 volumes per second where each volume consists of 320 x 320 depth scans and each depth scan has 400 usable pixels. This is the fastest real-time OCT to date in terms of voxel rate. A 51 Hz volume rate is realized with half the frame number. In both configurations the speed can be sustained indefinitely. The OCT system uses a 1310 nm Fourier domain mode locked (FDML) laser operated at 3.2 MHz sweep rate. Data acquisition is performed with two dedicated digitizer cards, each running at 2.5 GS/s, hosted in a single desktop computer. Live real-time data processing and visualization are realized with custom developed software on an NVidia GTX 690 dual graphics processing unit (GPU) card. To evaluate potential future applications of such a system, we present volumetric videos captured at 26 and 51 Hz of planktonic crustaceans and skin.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2013 (7)

J. P. Ehlers, Y. K. Tao, S. Farsiu, R. Maldonado, J. A. Izatt, and C. A. Toth, “Visualization of Real-Time Intraoperative Maneuvers with a Microscope-Mounted Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography System,” Retin. J. Retin. Vitr. Dis.33, 232–236 (2013).

W. Choi, B. Potsaid, V. Jayaraman, B. Baumann, I. Grulkowski, J. J. Liu, C. D. Lu, A. E. Cable, D. Huang, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Phase-sensitive swept-source optical coherence tomography imaging of the human retina with a vertical cavity surface-emitting laser light source,” Opt. Lett.38(3), 338–340 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Grulkowski, J. J. Liu, B. Potsaid, V. Jayaraman, J. Jiang, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. E. Cable, “High-precision, high-accuracy ultralong-range swept-source optical coherence tomography using vertical cavity surface emitting laser light source,” Opt. Lett.38(5), 673–675 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Klein, W. Wieser, L. Reznicek, A. Neubauer, A. Kampik, and R. Huber, “Multi-MHz retinal OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express4(10), 1890–1908 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Klein, R. André, W. Wieser, T. Pfeiffer, and R. Huber, “Joint aperture detection for speckle reduction and increased collection efficiency in ophthalmic MHz OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express4(4), 619–634 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Jian, K. Wong, and M. V. Sarunic, “Graphics processing unit accelerated optical coherence tomography processing at megahertz axial scan rate and high resolution video rate volumetric rendering,” J. Biomed. Opt.18(2), 026002 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Hahn, J. Migacz, R. O’Donnell, S. Day, A. Lee, P. Lin, R. Vann, A. Kuo, S. Fekrat, P. Mruthyunjaya, E. A. Postel, J. A. Izatt, and C. A. Toth, “Preclinical evaluation and intraoperative human retinal imaging with a high-resolution microscope-integrated spectral domain optical coherence tomography device,” Retina33(7), 1328–1337 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (12)

C. Blatter, T. Klein, B. Grajciar, T. Schmoll, W. Wieser, R. Andre, R. Huber, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Ultrahigh-speed non-invasive widefield angiography,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(7), 070505 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Wieser, T. Klein, D. C. Adler, F. Trépanier, C. M. Eigenwillig, S. Karpf, J. M. Schmitt, and R. Huber, “Extended coherence length megahertz FDML and its application for anterior segment imaging,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(10), 2647–2657 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D.-H. Choi, H. Hiro-Oka, K. Shimizu, and K. Ohbayashi, “Spectral domain optical coherence tomography of multi-MHz A-scan rates at 1310 nm range and real-time 4D-display up to 41 volumes/second,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(12), 3067–3086 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Zhang and J. U. Kang, “Graphics Processing Unit-Based Ultrahigh Speed Real-Time Fourier Domain Optical Coherence Tomography,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.18(4), 1270–1279 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Sylwestrzak, D. Szlag, M. Szkulmowski, I. Gorczynska, D. Bukowska, M. Wojtkowski, and P. Targowski, “Four-dimensional structural and Doppler optical coherence tomography imaging on graphics processing units,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(10), 100502 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Huang, X. Liu, and J. U. Kang, “Real-time 3D and 4D Fourier domain Doppler optical coherence tomography based on dual graphics processing units,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(9), 2162–2174 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Jeong, N. H. Cho, U. Jung, C. Lee, J.-Y. Kim, and J. Kim, “Ultra-Fast Displaying Spectral Domain Optical Doppler Tomography System Using a Graphics Processing Unit,” Sensors (Basel)12(12), 6920–6929 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. K. C. Lee, A. Mariampillai, J. X. Z. Yu, D. W. Cadotte, B. C. Wilson, B. A. Standish, and V. X. D. Yang, “Real-time speckle variance swept-source optical coherence tomography using a graphics processing unit,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(7), 1557–1564 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Köttig, P. Cimalla, M. Gärtner, and E. Koch, “An advanced algorithm for dispersion encoded full range frequency domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express20(22), 24925–24948 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Wang, B. Hofer, J. A. Guggenheim, and B. Povazay, “Graphics processing unit-based dispersion encoded full-range frequency-domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(7), 077007 (2012).
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I. Grulkowski, J. J. Liu, B. Potsaid, V. Jayaraman, C. D. Lu, J. Jiang, A. E. Cable, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Retinal, anterior segment and full eye imaging using ultrahigh speed swept source OCT with vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(11), 2733–2751 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. U. Kang, Y. Huang, K. Zhang, Z. Ibrahim, J. Cha, W. P. A. Lee, G. Brandacher, and P. L. Gehlbach, “Real-time three-dimensional Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography video image guided microsurgeries,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(8), 081403 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (6)

2010 (8)

K. Zhang and J. U. Kang, “Real-time 4D signal processing and visualization using graphics processing unit on a regular nonlinear-k Fourier-domain OCT system,” Opt. Express18(11), 11772–11784 (2010).
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Y. K. Tao, J. P. Ehlers, C. A. Toth, and J. A. Izatt, “Intraoperative spectral domain optical coherence tomography for vitreoretinal surgery,” Opt. Lett.35(20), 3315–3317 (2010).
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K. Zhang and J. U. Kang, “Graphics processing unit accelerated non-uniform fast Fourier transform for ultrahigh-speed, real-time Fourier-domain OCT,” Opt. Express18(22), 23472–23487 (2010).
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W. Wieser, B. R. Biedermann, T. Klein, C. M. Eigenwillig, and R. Huber, “Multi-Megahertz OCT: High quality 3D imaging at 20 million A-scans and 4.5 GVoxels per second,” Opt. Express18(14), 14685–14704 (2010).
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J. Probst, D. Hillmann, E. Lankenau, C. Winter, S. Oelckers, P. Koch, and G. Hüttmann, “Optical coherence tomography with online visualization of more than seven rendered volumes per second,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(2), 026014 (2010).
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T. Bonin, G. Franke, M. Hagen-Eggert, P. Koch, and G. Hüttmann, “In vivo Fourier-domain full-field OCT of the human retina with 1.5 million A-lines/s,” Opt. Lett.35(20), 3432–3434 (2010).
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B. Potsaid, B. Baumann, D. Huang, S. Barry, A. E. Cable, J. S. Schuman, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh speed 1050nm swept source/Fourier domain OCT retinal and anterior segment imaging at 100,000 to 400,000 axial scans per second,” Opt. Express18(19), 20029–20048 (2010).
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Y. K. K. Tao, J. P. Ehlers, C. A. Toth, and J. A. Izatt, “Intraoperative spectral domain optical coherence tomography for vitreoretinal surgery,” Opt. Lett.35(20), 3315–3317 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (3)

T. Just, E. Lankenau, G. Hüttmann, and H. W. Pau, “Intra-operative application of optical coherence tomography with an operating microscope,” J. Laryngol. Otol.123(9), 1027–1030 (2009).
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M. S. Jafri, R. Tang, and C. M. Tang, “Optical coherence tomography guided neurosurgical procedures in small rodents,” J. Neurosci. Methods176(2), 85–95 (2009).
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B. R. Biedermann, W. Wieser, C. M. Eigenwillig, T. Klein, and R. Huber, “Dispersion, coherence and noise of Fourier domain mode locked lasers,” Opt. Express17(12), 9947–9961 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (5)

2007 (8)

Y. Nakamura, S. Makita, M. Yamanari, M. Itoh, T. Yatagai, and Y. Yasuno, “High-speed three-dimensional human retinal imaging by line-field spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express15(12), 7103–7116 (2007).
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S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I. K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med.12(12), 1429–1433 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, R. Huber, J. Schmitt, J. Connolly, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Three-dimensional endomicroscopy using optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Photonics1(12), 709–716 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Huber, D. C. Adler, V. J. Srinivasan, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Fourier domain mode locking at 1050 nm for ultra-high-speed optical coherence tomography of the human retina at 236,000 axial scans per second,” Opt. Lett.32(14), 2049–2051 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Yelin, D. Yelin, W.-Y. Oh, S. H. Yun, C. Boudoux, B. J. Vakoc, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Multimodality optical imaging of embryonic heart microstructure,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(6), 064021 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Mariampillai, B. A. Standish, N. R. Munce, C. Randall, G. Liu, J. Y. Jiang, A. E. Cable, I. A. Vitkin, and V. X. D. Yang, “Doppler optical cardiogram gated 2D color flow imaging at 1000 fps and 4D in vivo visualization of embryonic heart at 45 fps on a swept source OCT system,” Opt. Express15(4), 1627–1638 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. W. Jenkins, O. Q. Chughtai, A. N. Basavanhally, M. Watanabe, and A. M. Rollins, “In vivo gated 4D imaging of the embryonic heart using optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(3), 030505 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. W. Jenkins, D. C. Adler, M. Gargesha, R. Huber, F. Rothenberg, J. Belding, M. Watanabe, D. L. Wilson, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. M. Rollins, “Ultrahigh-speed optical coherence tomography imaging and visualization of the embryonic avian heart using a buffered Fourier Domain Mode Locked laser,” Opt. Express15(10), 6251–6267 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

2005 (1)

2003 (4)

2002 (1)

1998 (1)

G. Häusler and M. W. Lindner, ““Coherence Radar” and “Spectral Radar”-New Tools for Dermatological Diagnosis,” J. Biomed. Opt.3(1), 21–31 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

1995 (2)

P. F. Davies, “Flow-mediated endothelial mechanotransduction,” Physiol. Rev.75(3), 519–560 (1995).
[PubMed]

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaiat, “Measurement of Intraocular Distances by Backscattering Spectral Interferometry,” Opt. Commun.117(1-2), 43–48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

P. F. Davies, A. Remuzzi, E. J. Gordon, C. F. Dewey, and M. A. Gimbrone., “Turbulent fluid shear stress induces vascular endothelial cell turnover in vitro,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.83(7), 2114–2117 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1981 (1)

J. W. G. Grant and I. A. E. Bayly, “Predator induction of crests in morphs of the daphnia-carinata king complex,” Limnol. Oceanogr.26(2), 201–218 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Adler, D. C.

W. Wieser, T. Klein, D. C. Adler, F. Trépanier, C. M. Eigenwillig, S. Karpf, J. M. Schmitt, and R. Huber, “Extended coherence length megahertz FDML and its application for anterior segment imaging,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(10), 2647–2657 (2012).
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D. C. Adler, W. Wieser, F. Trepanier, J. M. Schmitt, and R. A. Huber, “Extended coherence length Fourier domain mode locked lasers at 1310 nm,” Opt. Express19(21), 20930–20939 (2011).
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M. W. Jenkins, D. C. Adler, M. Gargesha, R. Huber, F. Rothenberg, J. Belding, M. Watanabe, D. L. Wilson, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. M. Rollins, “Ultrahigh-speed optical coherence tomography imaging and visualization of the embryonic avian heart using a buffered Fourier Domain Mode Locked laser,” Opt. Express15(10), 6251–6267 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, R. Huber, J. Schmitt, J. Connolly, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Three-dimensional endomicroscopy using optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Photonics1(12), 709–716 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Huber, D. C. Adler, V. J. Srinivasan, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Fourier domain mode locking at 1050 nm for ultra-high-speed optical coherence tomography of the human retina at 236,000 axial scans per second,” Opt. Lett.32(14), 2049–2051 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Huber, D. C. Adler, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Buffered Fourier domain mode locking: unidirectional swept laser sources for optical coherence tomography imaging at 370,000 lines/s,” Opt. Lett.31(20), 2975–2977 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Akiba, M.

An, L.

Andre, R.

C. Blatter, T. Klein, B. Grajciar, T. Schmoll, W. Wieser, R. Andre, R. Huber, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Ultrahigh-speed non-invasive widefield angiography,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(7), 070505 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

André, R.

Bajraszewski, T.

Barry, S.

Basavanhally, A. N.

M. W. Jenkins, O. Q. Chughtai, A. N. Basavanhally, M. Watanabe, and A. M. Rollins, “In vivo gated 4D imaging of the embryonic heart using optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(3), 030505 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baumann, B.

Bayly, I. A. E.

J. W. G. Grant and I. A. E. Bayly, “Predator induction of crests in morphs of the daphnia-carinata king complex,” Limnol. Oceanogr.26(2), 201–218 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Belding, J.

Biedermann, B. R.

Blatter, C.

C. Blatter, T. Klein, B. Grajciar, T. Schmoll, W. Wieser, R. Andre, R. Huber, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Ultrahigh-speed non-invasive widefield angiography,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(7), 070505 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bonin, T.

Boudoux, C.

R. Yelin, D. Yelin, W.-Y. Oh, S. H. Yun, C. Boudoux, B. J. Vakoc, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Multimodality optical imaging of embryonic heart microstructure,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(6), 064021 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouma, B. E.

R. Yelin, D. Yelin, W.-Y. Oh, S. H. Yun, C. Boudoux, B. J. Vakoc, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Multimodality optical imaging of embryonic heart microstructure,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(6), 064021 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I. K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med.12(12), 1429–1433 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, J. F. de Boer, N. Iftimia, and B. E. Bouma, “High-speed optical frequency-domain imaging,” Opt. Express11(22), 2953–2963 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. de Boer, B. Cense, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Improved signal-to-noise ratio in spectral-domain compared with time-domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.28(21), 2067–2069 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brandacher, G.

J. U. Kang, Y. Huang, K. Zhang, Z. Ibrahim, J. Cha, W. P. A. Lee, G. Brandacher, and P. L. Gehlbach, “Real-time three-dimensional Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography video image guided microsurgeries,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(8), 081403 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bukowska, D.

M. Sylwestrzak, D. Szlag, M. Szkulmowski, I. Gorczynska, D. Bukowska, M. Wojtkowski, and P. Targowski, “Four-dimensional structural and Doppler optical coherence tomography imaging on graphics processing units,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(10), 100502 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cable, A.

B. Potsaid, I. Gorczynska, V. J. Srinivasan, Y. L. Chen, J. Jiang, A. Cable, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh speed Spectral / Fourier domain OCT ophthalmic imaging at 70,000 to 312,500 axial scans per second,” Opt. Express16(19), 15149–15169 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Jayaraman, J. Jiang, H. Li, P. J. S. Heim, G. D. Cole, B. Potsaid, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. Cable, OCT Imaging up to 760 kHz Axial Scan Rate Using Single-Mode 1310nm MEMS-Tunable VCSELs with > 100nm Tuning Range, 2011 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (2011).

Cable, A. E.

I. Grulkowski, J. J. Liu, B. Potsaid, V. Jayaraman, J. Jiang, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. E. Cable, “High-precision, high-accuracy ultralong-range swept-source optical coherence tomography using vertical cavity surface emitting laser light source,” Opt. Lett.38(5), 673–675 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Choi, B. Potsaid, V. Jayaraman, B. Baumann, I. Grulkowski, J. J. Liu, C. D. Lu, A. E. Cable, D. Huang, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Phase-sensitive swept-source optical coherence tomography imaging of the human retina with a vertical cavity surface-emitting laser light source,” Opt. Lett.38(3), 338–340 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Grulkowski, J. J. Liu, B. Potsaid, V. Jayaraman, C. D. Lu, J. Jiang, A. E. Cable, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Retinal, anterior segment and full eye imaging using ultrahigh speed swept source OCT with vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(11), 2733–2751 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Potsaid, B. Baumann, D. Huang, S. Barry, A. E. Cable, J. S. Schuman, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh speed 1050nm swept source/Fourier domain OCT retinal and anterior segment imaging at 100,000 to 400,000 axial scans per second,” Opt. Express18(19), 20029–20048 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Mariampillai, B. A. Standish, N. R. Munce, C. Randall, G. Liu, J. Y. Jiang, A. E. Cable, I. A. Vitkin, and V. X. D. Yang, “Doppler optical cardiogram gated 2D color flow imaging at 1000 fps and 4D in vivo visualization of embryonic heart at 45 fps on a swept source OCT system,” Opt. Express15(4), 1627–1638 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cadotte, D. W.

Cense, B.

Cha, J.

J. U. Kang, Y. Huang, K. Zhang, Z. Ibrahim, J. Cha, W. P. A. Lee, G. Brandacher, and P. L. Gehlbach, “Real-time three-dimensional Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography video image guided microsurgeries,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(8), 081403 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chan, K. P.

Chan, R. C.

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I. K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med.12(12), 1429–1433 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.

D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, R. Huber, J. Schmitt, J. Connolly, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Three-dimensional endomicroscopy using optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Photonics1(12), 709–716 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y. L.

Cheng, C.

C. Cheng, D. Tempel, R. van Haperen, A. van der Baan, F. Grosveld, M. J. Daemen, R. Krams, and R. de Crom, “Atherosclerotic lesion size and vulnerability are determined by patterns of fluid shear stress,” Circulation113(23), 2744–2753 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cho, N. H.

H. Jeong, N. H. Cho, U. Jung, C. Lee, J.-Y. Kim, and J. Kim, “Ultra-Fast Displaying Spectral Domain Optical Doppler Tomography System Using a Graphics Processing Unit,” Sensors (Basel)12(12), 6920–6929 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, D.

Choi, D.-H.

Choi, W.

Choma, M. A.

Chong, C.

Chughtai, O. Q.

M. W. Jenkins, O. Q. Chughtai, A. N. Basavanhally, M. Watanabe, and A. M. Rollins, “In vivo gated 4D imaging of the embryonic heart using optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.12(3), 030505 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cimalla, P.

Cole, G. D.

V. Jayaraman, J. Jiang, H. Li, P. J. S. Heim, G. D. Cole, B. Potsaid, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. Cable, OCT Imaging up to 760 kHz Axial Scan Rate Using Single-Mode 1310nm MEMS-Tunable VCSELs with > 100nm Tuning Range, 2011 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (2011).

Connolly, J.

D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, R. Huber, J. Schmitt, J. Connolly, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Three-dimensional endomicroscopy using optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Photonics1(12), 709–716 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Daemen, M. J.

C. Cheng, D. Tempel, R. van Haperen, A. van der Baan, F. Grosveld, M. J. Daemen, R. Krams, and R. de Crom, “Atherosclerotic lesion size and vulnerability are determined by patterns of fluid shear stress,” Circulation113(23), 2744–2753 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davies, P. F.

P. F. Davies, “Flow-mediated endothelial mechanotransduction,” Physiol. Rev.75(3), 519–560 (1995).
[PubMed]

P. F. Davies, A. Remuzzi, E. J. Gordon, C. F. Dewey, and M. A. Gimbrone., “Turbulent fluid shear stress induces vascular endothelial cell turnover in vitro,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.83(7), 2114–2117 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Day, S.

P. Hahn, J. Migacz, R. O’Donnell, S. Day, A. Lee, P. Lin, R. Vann, A. Kuo, S. Fekrat, P. Mruthyunjaya, E. A. Postel, J. A. Izatt, and C. A. Toth, “Preclinical evaluation and intraoperative human retinal imaging with a high-resolution microscope-integrated spectral domain optical coherence tomography device,” Retina33(7), 1328–1337 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Boer, J. F.

de Crom, R.

C. Cheng, D. Tempel, R. van Haperen, A. van der Baan, F. Grosveld, M. J. Daemen, R. Krams, and R. de Crom, “Atherosclerotic lesion size and vulnerability are determined by patterns of fluid shear stress,” Circulation113(23), 2744–2753 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dekker, A. J.

Desjardins, A. E.

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I. K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med.12(12), 1429–1433 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dewey, C. F.

P. F. Davies, A. Remuzzi, E. J. Gordon, C. F. Dewey, and M. A. Gimbrone., “Turbulent fluid shear stress induces vascular endothelial cell turnover in vitro,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.83(7), 2114–2117 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ducros, M.

Duker, J. S.

Ehlers, J. P.

Eigenwillig, C. M.

Elzaiat, S. Y.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaiat, “Measurement of Intraocular Distances by Backscattering Spectral Interferometry,” Opt. Commun.117(1-2), 43–48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Evans, J. A.

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I. K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med.12(12), 1429–1433 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Farsiu, S.

J. P. Ehlers, Y. K. Tao, S. Farsiu, R. Maldonado, J. A. Izatt, and C. A. Toth, “Visualization of Real-Time Intraoperative Maneuvers with a Microscope-Mounted Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography System,” Retin. J. Retin. Vitr. Dis.33, 232–236 (2013).

Fekrat, S.

P. Hahn, J. Migacz, R. O’Donnell, S. Day, A. Lee, P. Lin, R. Vann, A. Kuo, S. Fekrat, P. Mruthyunjaya, E. A. Postel, J. A. Izatt, and C. A. Toth, “Preclinical evaluation and intraoperative human retinal imaging with a high-resolution microscope-integrated spectral domain optical coherence tomography device,” Retina33(7), 1328–1337 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fercher, A. F.

R. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, and A. F. Fercher, “Performance of fourier domain vs. time domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express11(8), 889–894 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaiat, “Measurement of Intraocular Distances by Backscattering Spectral Interferometry,” Opt. Commun.117(1-2), 43–48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Franke, G.

Fujimoto, J. G.

I. Grulkowski, J. J. Liu, B. Potsaid, V. Jayaraman, J. Jiang, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. E. Cable, “High-precision, high-accuracy ultralong-range swept-source optical coherence tomography using vertical cavity surface emitting laser light source,” Opt. Lett.38(5), 673–675 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Choi, B. Potsaid, V. Jayaraman, B. Baumann, I. Grulkowski, J. J. Liu, C. D. Lu, A. E. Cable, D. Huang, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Phase-sensitive swept-source optical coherence tomography imaging of the human retina with a vertical cavity surface-emitting laser light source,” Opt. Lett.38(3), 338–340 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Grulkowski, J. J. Liu, B. Potsaid, V. Jayaraman, C. D. Lu, J. Jiang, A. E. Cable, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Retinal, anterior segment and full eye imaging using ultrahigh speed swept source OCT with vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(11), 2733–2751 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Potsaid, B. Baumann, D. Huang, S. Barry, A. E. Cable, J. S. Schuman, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh speed 1050nm swept source/Fourier domain OCT retinal and anterior segment imaging at 100,000 to 400,000 axial scans per second,” Opt. Express18(19), 20029–20048 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Potsaid, I. Gorczynska, V. J. Srinivasan, Y. L. Chen, J. Jiang, A. Cable, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh speed Spectral / Fourier domain OCT ophthalmic imaging at 70,000 to 312,500 axial scans per second,” Opt. Express16(19), 15149–15169 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, R. Huber, J. Schmitt, J. Connolly, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Three-dimensional endomicroscopy using optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Photonics1(12), 709–716 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Huber, D. C. Adler, V. J. Srinivasan, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Fourier domain mode locking at 1050 nm for ultra-high-speed optical coherence tomography of the human retina at 236,000 axial scans per second,” Opt. Lett.32(14), 2049–2051 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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C. Cheng, D. Tempel, R. van Haperen, A. van der Baan, F. Grosveld, M. J. Daemen, R. Krams, and R. de Crom, “Atherosclerotic lesion size and vulnerability are determined by patterns of fluid shear stress,” Circulation113(23), 2744–2753 (2006).
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V. Jayaraman, J. Jiang, H. Li, P. J. S. Heim, G. D. Cole, B. Potsaid, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. Cable, OCT Imaging up to 760 kHz Axial Scan Rate Using Single-Mode 1310nm MEMS-Tunable VCSELs with > 100nm Tuning Range, 2011 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (2011).

Hillmann, D.

J. Probst, D. Hillmann, E. Lankenau, C. Winter, S. Oelckers, P. Koch, and G. Hüttmann, “Optical coherence tomography with online visualization of more than seven rendered volumes per second,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(2), 026014 (2010).
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W. Wieser, B. R. Biedermann, T. Klein, C. M. Eigenwillig, and R. Huber, “Multi-Megahertz OCT: High quality 3D imaging at 20 million A-scans and 4.5 GVoxels per second,” Opt. Express18(14), 14685–14704 (2010).
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B. R. Biedermann, W. Wieser, C. M. Eigenwillig, T. Klein, and R. Huber, “Dispersion, coherence and noise of Fourier domain mode locked lasers,” Opt. Express17(12), 9947–9961 (2009).
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Hüttmann, G.

J. Probst, D. Hillmann, E. Lankenau, C. Winter, S. Oelckers, P. Koch, and G. Hüttmann, “Optical coherence tomography with online visualization of more than seven rendered volumes per second,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(2), 026014 (2010).
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Itoh, M.

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J. P. Ehlers, Y. K. Tao, S. Farsiu, R. Maldonado, J. A. Izatt, and C. A. Toth, “Visualization of Real-Time Intraoperative Maneuvers with a Microscope-Mounted Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography System,” Retin. J. Retin. Vitr. Dis.33, 232–236 (2013).

P. Hahn, J. Migacz, R. O’Donnell, S. Day, A. Lee, P. Lin, R. Vann, A. Kuo, S. Fekrat, P. Mruthyunjaya, E. A. Postel, J. A. Izatt, and C. A. Toth, “Preclinical evaluation and intraoperative human retinal imaging with a high-resolution microscope-integrated spectral domain optical coherence tomography device,” Retina33(7), 1328–1337 (2013).
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H. Jeong, N. H. Cho, U. Jung, C. Lee, J.-Y. Kim, and J. Kim, “Ultra-Fast Displaying Spectral Domain Optical Doppler Tomography System Using a Graphics Processing Unit,” Sensors (Basel)12(12), 6920–6929 (2012).
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T. Just, E. Lankenau, G. Hüttmann, and H. W. Pau, “Intra-operative application of optical coherence tomography with an operating microscope,” J. Laryngol. Otol.123(9), 1027–1030 (2009).
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A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaiat, “Measurement of Intraocular Distances by Backscattering Spectral Interferometry,” Opt. Commun.117(1-2), 43–48 (1995).
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Kang, J. U.

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Kim, J.

H. Jeong, N. H. Cho, U. Jung, C. Lee, J.-Y. Kim, and J. Kim, “Ultra-Fast Displaying Spectral Domain Optical Doppler Tomography System Using a Graphics Processing Unit,” Sensors (Basel)12(12), 6920–6929 (2012).
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H. Jeong, N. H. Cho, U. Jung, C. Lee, J.-Y. Kim, and J. Kim, “Ultra-Fast Displaying Spectral Domain Optical Doppler Tomography System Using a Graphics Processing Unit,” Sensors (Basel)12(12), 6920–6929 (2012).
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T. Klein, R. André, W. Wieser, T. Pfeiffer, and R. Huber, “Joint aperture detection for speckle reduction and increased collection efficiency in ophthalmic MHz OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express4(4), 619–634 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koch, E.

Koch, P.

J. Probst, D. Hillmann, E. Lankenau, C. Winter, S. Oelckers, P. Koch, and G. Hüttmann, “Optical coherence tomography with online visualization of more than seven rendered volumes per second,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(2), 026014 (2010).
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Kowalczyk, A.

Krams, R.

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J. Probst, D. Hillmann, E. Lankenau, C. Winter, S. Oelckers, P. Koch, and G. Hüttmann, “Optical coherence tomography with online visualization of more than seven rendered volumes per second,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(2), 026014 (2010).
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Laubscher, M.

Lee, A.

P. Hahn, J. Migacz, R. O’Donnell, S. Day, A. Lee, P. Lin, R. Vann, A. Kuo, S. Fekrat, P. Mruthyunjaya, E. A. Postel, J. A. Izatt, and C. A. Toth, “Preclinical evaluation and intraoperative human retinal imaging with a high-resolution microscope-integrated spectral domain optical coherence tomography device,” Retina33(7), 1328–1337 (2013).
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H. Jeong, N. H. Cho, U. Jung, C. Lee, J.-Y. Kim, and J. Kim, “Ultra-Fast Displaying Spectral Domain Optical Doppler Tomography System Using a Graphics Processing Unit,” Sensors (Basel)12(12), 6920–6929 (2012).
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Lee, K. K. C.

Lee, W. P. A.

J. U. Kang, Y. Huang, K. Zhang, Z. Ibrahim, J. Cha, W. P. A. Lee, G. Brandacher, and P. L. Gehlbach, “Real-time three-dimensional Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography video image guided microsurgeries,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(8), 081403 (2012).
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Leitgeb, R. A.

C. Blatter, T. Klein, B. Grajciar, T. Schmoll, W. Wieser, R. Andre, R. Huber, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Ultrahigh-speed non-invasive widefield angiography,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(7), 070505 (2012).
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V. Jayaraman, J. Jiang, H. Li, P. J. S. Heim, G. D. Cole, B. Potsaid, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. Cable, OCT Imaging up to 760 kHz Axial Scan Rate Using Single-Mode 1310nm MEMS-Tunable VCSELs with > 100nm Tuning Range, 2011 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (2011).

Li, P.

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
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G. Häusler and M. W. Lindner, ““Coherence Radar” and “Spectral Radar”-New Tools for Dermatological Diagnosis,” J. Biomed. Opt.3(1), 21–31 (1998).
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Liu, J. J.

Liu, X.

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J. P. Ehlers, Y. K. Tao, S. Farsiu, R. Maldonado, J. A. Izatt, and C. A. Toth, “Visualization of Real-Time Intraoperative Maneuvers with a Microscope-Mounted Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography System,” Retin. J. Retin. Vitr. Dis.33, 232–236 (2013).

Mariampillai, A.

Markwald, R. R.

R. Wang, J. X. Yun, X. Yuan, R. Goodwin, R. R. Markwald, and B. Z. Gao, “Megahertz streak-mode Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(6), 066016 (2011).
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P. Hahn, J. Migacz, R. O’Donnell, S. Day, A. Lee, P. Lin, R. Vann, A. Kuo, S. Fekrat, P. Mruthyunjaya, E. A. Postel, J. A. Izatt, and C. A. Toth, “Preclinical evaluation and intraoperative human retinal imaging with a high-resolution microscope-integrated spectral domain optical coherence tomography device,” Retina33(7), 1328–1337 (2013).
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Mruthyunjaya, P.

P. Hahn, J. Migacz, R. O’Donnell, S. Day, A. Lee, P. Lin, R. Vann, A. Kuo, S. Fekrat, P. Mruthyunjaya, E. A. Postel, J. A. Izatt, and C. A. Toth, “Preclinical evaluation and intraoperative human retinal imaging with a high-resolution microscope-integrated spectral domain optical coherence tomography device,” Retina33(7), 1328–1337 (2013).
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Munce, N. R.

Nakamura, Y.

Nakanishi, M.

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Wong, K.

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R. Wang, J. X. Yun, X. Yuan, R. Goodwin, R. R. Markwald, and B. Z. Gao, “Megahertz streak-mode Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt.16(6), 066016 (2011).
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Zhang, K.

Biomed. Opt. Express (9)

K. Zhang and J. U. Kang, “Real-time intraoperative 4D full-range FD-OCT based on the dual graphics processing units architecture for microsurgery guidance,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(4), 764–770 (2011).
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L. An, P. Li, T. T. Shen, and R. Wang, “High speed spectral domain optical coherence tomography for retinal imaging at 500,000 A‑lines per second,” Biomed. Opt. Express2(10), 2770–2783 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Grulkowski, J. J. Liu, B. Potsaid, V. Jayaraman, C. D. Lu, J. Jiang, A. E. Cable, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Retinal, anterior segment and full eye imaging using ultrahigh speed swept source OCT with vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(11), 2733–2751 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Klein, W. Wieser, L. Reznicek, A. Neubauer, A. Kampik, and R. Huber, “Multi-MHz retinal OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express4(10), 1890–1908 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D.-H. Choi, H. Hiro-Oka, K. Shimizu, and K. Ohbayashi, “Spectral domain optical coherence tomography of multi-MHz A-scan rates at 1310 nm range and real-time 4D-display up to 41 volumes/second,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(12), 3067–3086 (2012).
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W. Wieser, T. Klein, D. C. Adler, F. Trépanier, C. M. Eigenwillig, S. Karpf, J. M. Schmitt, and R. Huber, “Extended coherence length megahertz FDML and its application for anterior segment imaging,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(10), 2647–2657 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Supplementary Material (4)

» Media 1: MOV (6977 KB)     
» Media 2: MOV (8456 KB)     
» Media 3: MOV (9592 KB)     
» Media 4: MOV (8012 KB)     

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the high speed FDML laser followed by an 8x buffer stage and a booster optical amplifier. The filter is driven at 400 kHz resulting in a 3.2 MHz scan rate after the buffer stage. SOA: semiconductor optical amplifier, FBG: fiber Bragg grating, PC: polarization controller, LDC: laser diode controller, FRM: Faraday rotation mirror, FP-TF: Fabry-Pérot tunable filter, ISO: isolator, CTRL: Driver electronics and arbitrary waveform generator, OSA: optical spectrum analyzer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of the interferometer and the data acquisition. After the photo diode, the radio frequency (RF) signal is split and subsequently fed into two digitizer cards. These two digitizers operate at 2.57 GS/s in volume interleaving mode. Sampled data is streamed into computer RAM. For real-time visualization, RAM only serves as a temporary buffer for a few volumes. Bidirectional scanning allows an 85% scan duty cycle along the fast axis resulting in a sustained average total data transfer rate of ~2.1 GBytes/s.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Scanning protocol used by the video rate 3D OCT setup. The fast axis uses a 4.29 kHz resonant scanner. Depth scans near the turning points of the sinusoidal galvo motion are not used leaving a usable frame size of 320 out of 375 depth scans. 8 frames are lost during fly back of the slow axis. The net frame rate is 8.37 kHz and the volume rate is 26.1 Hz resulting in usable volumes of size 320 x 320 x 400 voxels. The overall acquisition duty cycle is 83%.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Left: Data processing on the host computer. After the acquisition, the data is transferred into GPU RAM. The NVidia GTX690 is a dual GPU card. The first GPU performs OCT data processing while the second GPU is dedicated to 3D visualization using a ray caster. Right: Screen shots from NVidia visual profiler showing the timing sequence of OCT data processing. The 4 steps in the most zoomed-in view are resampling and apodizing (violet), FFT (cyan), magnitude compression (red) and copying into the output texture memory (yellow).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Examples from live display: Top left: Convection at wire spiral - (Media 1). Top right: Daphniae - (Media 2). Bottom left: Dynamics of filter legs, Triops - (Media 3). Bottom right: Syringe over finger - (Media 4).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Previous work on real-time 4D OCT presenting full OCT systems including light source, data acquisition and real-time display. Columns 2, 3 specify the raw line and frame rates. The raw line rate is the swept source sweep rate or camera line readout rate. The raw frame rate is the galvo scanning rate. Column 5 shows the calculated “true” net depth scan size in image voxels along the depth axis, i.e. without any zero-padding or interpolation which would artificially create voxels and with complex conjugate frequency samples removed. (‘F’ denotes full-range OCT without removal of negative frequency samples.) Columns 6, 7 are the usable frame and volume sizes in depth scans / frames. Raw values before removing back-scan/turning point parts are included in brackets. Column 8 is the raw data rate in 106 samples per second at the acquisition device. The voxel rate cannot be larger than 0.5x (1x) this value for usual (full-range) OCT, respectively. Column 9 is the effective depth scan rate after removing all those scans not displayed (e.g. during galvo turning, back-scan,…). Finally, column 11 specifies true OCT speed in million voxels/second and column 10 the efficiency which is the effective scan rate divided by the raw scan rate or in other words the fraction of non-wasted raw A-scans. * denotes numbers where due to missing information, an estimate close to the optimum value was used resulting in potentially over-estimated efficiencies close to 100%.

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